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Frequently Asked Microcontroller Interview Questions and Answers

1)What is meant by micro controller? A device which contains the microprocessor with inte rated peripherals like memory! serial ports! parallel ports! timer"counter! interrupt controller! data acquisition inter#aces like A$%! $A% is called micro controller& ')(ist the #eatures o# )*+1 micro controllers?

,in le supply -+v operation usin .M/, technolo y& 0*12 bytes pro ram memory on3chip& 1') data memory on chip& 0 re ister banks ' multiple modes! 12 bit timer"counter 45tensive 6oolean processin capabilities& 2076 e5ternal 8AM si9e& :' bi3directional I"/ lines&

:)45plain the operatin mode * o# )*+1 serial port? In this mode serial data enters and e5ists throu h 8;$! <;$ outputs the shi#t clock& )3bits are transmitted or received=)3data bits>(,6 #irst)& <he baud rate is #i5ed at 1"1' the oscillator #requency& 0)45plain the operatin mode ' o# )*+1 serial port? In this mode 11 bits are transmitted >throu h <;$) or received >throu h >8;$)= a start bit>*)! ) data bits> (,6 #irst)! a pro rammable 1th data bit and a stop bit>1)& /n transmit! the 1th data bit can be assi ned thevalue * or 1& /n receive! the1th data bit o into the 86) in special #unction re ister ,%/?! while the stop bit is i nored& <he baud rate is pro rammable to either 1":' or 1"20 the oscillator #requency&

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+)45plain the mode : o# )*+1 serial port? In this mode! 11 bits are transmitted >throu h <;$) or >received >throu h 8;$)= a start bit>*)! ) data bits>(,6 #irst)! a pro rammable 1th data bit and a stop bit>1)&It is same as mode ' e5cept the baud rate& <he baud rate in mode : is variable& 2)45plain the interrupts o# )*+1 micro controller?

45ternal interrupt * >I4*) @ .i hest priority <imer interrupt * ><F*) 45ternal interrupt 1 >I41) <imer interrupt 1 ><F1) ,erial port Interrupt 8eceive interrupt >8I) 3 lowest priority <ransmit interrupt ><I)

A).ow many bytes o# internal 8AM and 8/M supported by )*+1 micro controller? 1') bytes o# internal 8AM and 0 bytes o# 8/M& ))$e#ine machine cycle o# )*+1? )*+1 machine cycle consists o# 2 states! ,1 throu h ,A& /ne state is made up o# ' clock pulses& <hus 1' clock period constitute one machine cycle& <wo clock periods in a state is termed as phase 1 and phase '& 1) What are the special #unction o# port * o# )*+1? Bort * is used as a multiple5ed low order address"data bus durin the e5ternal memory access& When A(4 is enabled! the address on port * pins are latched and bus is ready to act asa data bus when A(4 is low& 1*)What are the alternative #unction o# port : o# )*+1? ,erial data input >B:&*)! serial data output >B:&1)! e5ternal interrupt * >B:&')! e5ternal interrupt 1 >B:&:)! e5ternal input #or timer *>B:&0)! e5ternal input #or timer 1 >B:&+)! e5ternal memory write pulse >B:&2)! e5ternal memory read >B:&A) are the alternative #unctions o# port :& 11)What are the use o# scratch pad area o# internal 8AM o# )*+1? In internal 8AM )* bytes constitutes the scratch pad area& <he scratch pad bytes can be pro rammed as a eneral purpose re isters& 1')What are the #la s supported by )*+1 controller?

%arry #la Au5iliary carry #la /ver #low #la

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Ceneral purpose user #la 8e ister bank select bit one 8e ister bank select bit 9ero Barity #la

1:)What is meant by Bower3on3 8eset in )*+1 controller? When 84,4< pin is activated! the )*+1 Dumps to address location ****.& <his is called as Bower3on38eset& 8eset pin is considered as a si5th interrupt source o# )*+1& 10)What are the si ni#icance o# ,F8s? ,F8s denotes ,pecial #unction 8e isters o#)*+1 controller& All the controller re isters such as port latches! timer re ister! peripheral control re ister! accumulator! B% and $B<8 all areavailable in ,F8 re ion& 1+)What are the di##erent roup o# instructions supported by )*+1?

$ata <rans#er Croup Arithmetic Croup (o ical Croup 6ranchin Croup 6it manipulation Croup

12)Write a pro ram to mask the *th and Ath bit usin )*+1? M/E A!Fdata A?( A!F)1 M/E $B<8!F0+** M/E; G$B<8!A (//B= ,HMB (//B 1A) (ist the addressin modes o# )*+1?

$irect addressin 8e ister addressin 8e ister indirect addressin Implicit addressin Immediate addressin Inde5 addressin 6it addressin

1))Write about %A(( statement in )*+1? <here are two %A(( instructions& <hey are

(%A((>(on call)

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A%A((>Absolute call)

11) Write about the Dump statement? <here are three #orms o# Dump& <hey are (HMB >(on Dump) @ 12 bit address AHMB>Absolute Dump) @ 11 bit address ,HMB >,hort Dump) @ relative address '*)Write a pro ram to #ind the 'Is complement usin )*+1? M/E A! 8* %B( A I?% A '1)Write a pro ram to swap two numbers usin )*+1? M/E A!F data ,WAB A '')Write a pro ram to subtract two numbers J e5chan e the di its usin )*+1? M/E A!F1F M/E 8*!F0* ,K66 A!8* ,WAB A ':)What are the di##erent types o# Address decodin <echniques? Absolute decodin "Full decodin (inear decodin "Bartial decodin '0) %omparison between #ull address decodin and Bartial address decodin ? Full address decodin 1& All hi her address lines are decoded to select the memory or I"/ device& '& More hardware is required to desi n decodin lo ic& Bartial address decodin 1& Few hi her address lines are decoded to select the memory or I"/ device& '& .ardware required to desi n decodin lo ic is less and sometimes it can be elimibated :& (ess cost #or decodin circuit& 0& It has a disadvanta e o# multiple addresses& >,hadow addresses) +& Ksed in small systems&

:& .i her cost #or decodin circuit& 0& ?o multiple addresses&

+& Ksed in lar e systems&

'+& What is the si ni#icance o# wait state enerator?

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<his is used to trans#er data between slower I"/ device and the microprocessor& In some applns! the speed o# I"/ systems is not compatible with the microprocessorIs timin s& ,o the microprocessor has to con#irm whether the peripheral is ready or not& I# 84A$L pin is hi h! the peripheral is ready otherwise )*)+ enters in to wait state& '2& What is a ?on3maskable interrupt? It is una##ected by any mask or interrupt enable& 4 = <8AB 'A& What is a $ata pointer re ister? <he data pointer re ister >$B<8) consists o# a hi h byte>$B.) and a low byte >$B() #unctions to hold 12 bit address& It may be manipulated as a 123bit data re ister or as independent )3bit re isters& It serves as a base re ister in indirect Dumps! look up table instructions and e5ternal data trans#er& ')) What are the operatin modes o# )'A1? 1& Input modes

,canned keyboard ,canned sensor matri5 ,trobed input

'&$isplay modes

(e#t entry ><ype writer mode) 8i ht entry >%alculator mode)

'1)What are the di##erent #unctional units in )'A1?


%BK inter#ace section 7eyboard section $isplay section ,can section

:*)What are the priority modes in )'+1?


Fully nested mode ,pecial #ully nested mode c& 8otatin Briority mode ,pecial Masked mode e& Bolled mode

:1)What is IM8>Interrupt mask re ister)? IM8 stores the maskin bits o# the interrupt lines to be masked& <his re ister can be pro rammed by an operation command word >/%W)&

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:')What is priority resolver? It determines the priorities o# the bits set in the Interrupt request re ister >I88)! bit correspondin to the hi hest priority interrupt input is set in the I,8 durin I?<A input& ::)What is the use o# I88? <he interrupt request re ister is used to store all the interrupt levels which are requestin the service& <he ei ht interrupt inputs sets correspondin bits o# the Interrupt 8equest 8e ister upon the service request& :0)What is Interrupt service re ister>I,8)? <he interrupt service re ister stores all the levels that are currently bein serviced&

:+) What is the di##erence between ,.($ and (.($? ,.($3 ,tore .( re ister pair in memory& <his instruction is used to store the contents o# . and ( re ister directly in to memory& (.($3 (oad .( re ister pair #rom memory& <his instruction copies the contents o# memory location iven with in the instruction in to the ( re ister and the contents o# ne5t memory location in to the . re ister& :2)What is the di##erence between ,<A; and ($A;? ,<A; rp @ ,tore the contents o# Accumulator re ister >A) in memory location whose address is speci#ied by 6% or $4 re ister pair& ($A; rp @ (oad Accumulator re ister >A) with the contents o# memory location whose address is speci#ied by6% or $4 re ister pair& :A)Write an assembly lan ua e pro ram to trans#er data #rom memory block 61 to memory block 6'? MEI %!*A.M Initiali9e counter (;I .! ''**.M Initiali9e source memory pointer (;I $! ':**.M Initiali9e destination memory pointer (oop= M/E A!MM Cet byte #rom source memory block ,<A; $M ,tore byte in the destination memory block I?; .M Increment source memory pointer I?; $M Increment destination memory pointer $%8 %M $ecrement counter H?N (oop M I# counter O * repeat .(< :))What are the types o# branchin instructions?

Hump instructions %all and 8eturn instructions 8estart instructions

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:1)Write an assembly lan ua e pro ram to add ' 6%$ numbers? (;I .!''**.M Initiali9e pointer M/E A!M M Cet the #irst number I?; .M Increment the pointer A$$ M M Add two numbers $AA M %onvert .4; to valid 6%$ ,<A ':**M store the result .(< 0*) 45plain the instruction (;I rp!data >12)? (;I rp! data>12) @ (oad 12 @bit immediate data to speci#ied re ister pair or stack pointer& <he rp is 12 @ bit re ister pairs such as 6%! $4! .( or stack pointer& 01)Write the di##erence between ($A and ,<A instruction?

($A @ (oad data in to Accumulator re ister>A) directly #rom the address speci#ied with in the instruction& ,<A @ ,tore the contents o# Accumulator re ister>A) to the address speci#ied with in the instruction&

0')What are the types o# rotate instructions?


8(% @ 8otate Accumulator (e#t 88%3 8otate Accumulator 8i ht 8A( @ 8otate Accumulator (e#t throu h %arry 8A8 3 8otate Accumulator 8i ht throu h %arry

0:)What are the operatin modes o# )'++? 6it set"8eset mode I"/ modes a)mode * = ,imple input"output b)mode 1 = Input"output with handshake c)mode ' = 6i3directional I"/ data trans#er 00)What are the priority modes in )'+1?

Fully nested mode ,pecial #ully nested mode 8otatin priority mode ,pecial mask mode Boll mode

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0+) What is the use o# ,WAB #unction in )*+1? ,WAB A = ,wap nibbles with in the Accumulator bytes& It interchan es the low and hi h order nibbles o# the Accumulator >bits *3: and bits 03A) 02)What is ,%/?? ,%/? is the serial port control re ister ! which contains not only the mode selection bits >,M* @ ,M' !84?)! but also the 1th data bit #or transmit and receive ><6) and 86)) and the serial port interrupt bits ><I and 8I)& ,M* @ ,erial port mode control bit * ,M1 @ ,erial port mode control bit 1 ,M' @ ,erial port mode control bit ' 84? @ 8eceiver enable control bit <6) @ <ransmit bit ) 86) @ 8eceive bit ) <I @ <ransmit Interrupt #la 8I @ 8eceive interrupt #la 0A).ow we calculate the 6aud rate #or serial port in mode *? 6aud 8ate P /scillator #requency"1' 0))What is the si ni#icance o# <;$ and 8;$ pins in )*+1? <;$ @ <ransmit data pin #or serial port in KA8< mode& %lock output in shi#t re ister mode& 8;$ @ 8eceive data pin #or serial port in KA8< mode& $ata I"/ pin in shi#t re ister mode& 01)Write two e5amples o# 8e ister indirect Addressin modes in )*+1? M/E A!G8* M (oad thecontents pointed by 8* in A& A$$ A!G81 M Add thecontents o# A and thecontents pointed by 81& +*)What is Accumulator 8e ister? It is an ) @ bit re ister& It holds a source operand and receives the result o# the arithmetic instructions >Addition! ,ubtraction! Multiplication and $ivision)