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A report by Keystone Progress and The Center for Media and Democracy
THE COMMONWEALTH FOUNDATION AND THE ALLEGHENY INSTITUTE
Think tanks or corporate lobbyist propaganda mills?
This report was produced by Keystone Progress and the Center for Media and Democracy. Keystone Progress is Pennsylvania’s largest progressive advocacy organization with over 350,000 subscribers. Keystone Progress embraces a pragmatic and flexible approach to advancing equal opportunity for all, the protection of individual freedoms, and democratic, transparent and people-oriented (rather than corporate) government. We support every worker’s right to organize and earn a living wage, every individual’s right to control their reproductive health options, every child’s right to public educati on, and every human being’s right to breathe clean air, drink clean water, and access adequate health care, food and shelter. firstname.lastname@example.org 610-990-6300 www.KeystoneProgress.org The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD), publisher of ALECexposed.org, PRWatch.org, and SourceWatch.org, contributed to this report. Located in Madison, Wisconsin, CMD is a national, non-profit watchdog organization, founded in 1993. CMD investigates and exposes the undue influence of corporations and front groups on public policy, including PR campaigns, lobbying, and electioneering. CMD's original reporting helps educate the public and aid grassroots action about policies affecting people’s lives — their rights and the health of our democracy.
Table of Contents
Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives and the Allegheny Institute for Public Policy
Commonwealth Institute History .............................................................................................................. 5 Lobbying and Other Controversial Activity ............................................................................................. 5 A Cog in the Right-Wing Advocacy Machine ......................................................................................... 7 Funded by Right-Wing Donors ................................................................................................................. 9 ALEC and the Commonwealth Foundation .......................................................................................... 12
Allegheny Institute History ...................................................................................................................... 16 Lobbying and Other Controversial Activity ........................................................................................... 16 A Cog in the National Right-Wing Advocacy Machine ....................................................................... 19 ALEC and the Allegheny Institute .......................................................................................................... 20 Conclusion: ALEC & PA’s SPN Think Tanks: A Coordinated Right-Wing Agenda in Pennsylvania ............................................................................................................................................. 22
This report focuses on two conservative organizations in Pennsylvania that fashion themselves as think tanks. The Harrisburg, Pennsylvania-based Commonwealth Foundationi was founded in 1988. According to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette,ii the think tank was founded by conservatives who wanted to “bring the Reagan revolution to the state level,” and for years, the organization produced relatively straightforward research -- until 1997, when Sean Duffy assumed leadership. A former press secretary for the state Department of Education and GOP Attorney General Mike Fisher, Duffy revamped the organization so that its focuses not only on research, but also on advancing conservative policy objectives. Founded in 1995 by conservative billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife,iii the Allegheny Institute for Public Policy purports to “defend the interests of taxpayers, citizens, and businesses against an increasingly burdensome and intrusive government.” The organization claims its efforts are guided by the principles of free enterprise, property rights, civil society and individual freedom.iv Both the Commonwealth Foundation and the Allegheny Institute are members of the far-right State Policy Network (SPN).v SPN is a web of conservative state-based think tanks across the United States. In addition to its state think tank affiliates, many other national right-wing organizations are associate members of SPN,vi including the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), the Cato Institute, the Franklin Center, the Heritage Foundation, the Heartland Institute, and the National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation. A closer look at the organizations reveals: While nominally nonpartisan, nonprofit organizations established to do research, both organizations appear to be taking their cues from right wing funders, the Republican Party and the agenda established by the American Legislative Exchange Council. Both organizations rely heavily on right-wing billionaires for the bulk of their funding. Both organizations are registered with the IRS as 501(c)(3) non-profit charitable organizations, but both advocate openly for legislative changes, acting more like 501(c)(4) advocacy groups. Despite their legislative advocacy, neither organization has registered as a lobbying organization with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and no staff, board members or other agents have filed any lobbying expense reports with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.vii
Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives History
The Harrisburg, Pennsylvania-based Commonwealth Foundation (CF)viii bills itself as a free-market “think tank.” It was founded in 1988. According to the Pittsburgh PostGazette,ix the think tank was founded by conservatives who wanted to “bring the Reagan revolution to the state level.” The organization produced relatively straightforward research until 1997 when Sean Duffy assumed leadership. A former press secretary for the state Department of Education and Attorney General Mike Fisher, Duffy revamped the organization so that its focuses not only on research, but on advancing conservative policy objectives as well. The Commonwealth Foundation is recognized by the IRS as a 501(c)(3) non-profit charitable organization, but research included in this report shows a pattern of attempting to influence legislation. Attempting to influence legislation is considered lobbying by both the Internal Revenue Service and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Non-profit charitable organizations are extremely limited in how much lobbying they are allowed to do under the IRS code.x
Lobbying and Other Controversial Activity
The Commonwealth Foundation appears to have virtually abandoned any pretense of being a think tank, and instead touts its effectiveness as a lobbying organization. CF says that it is building a “permanent alternative political infrastructure.”xi In a March, 2013 letter to its members, it bragged that it “helped beat back $3 billion in proposed tax increases.”xii The same letter celebrates the group’s victory in passing the Educational Improvement Tax Credit increase, a school choice scheme.xiii The Commonwealth Foundation routinely treads a fine line bordering on outright endorsing legislation. Its website routinely features multiple action items, asking people to write to legislators and the governor about pending legislation.xiv Additionally, Commonwealth may have overstepped its boundaries in terms of lobbying activity. While a nonprofit may engage in some lobbying behavior for the purpose of promoting information, lobbying activity cannot make up a “substantial” part of its overall activities or the organization risks losing its tax-exempt status. One behavior considered as lobbying activity is urging members of the public to contact their legislators for the purpose of opposing, supporting, or introducing legislation.xv
For example, the sheer volume of materials from the Commonwealth Foundation opposing a four-county Regional Asset District tax,xvi supporting liquor privatization, promoting the gutting of prevailing wage laws, and opposing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) demonstrate that it may have engaged in a significant amount of lobbying activity.xvii Commonwealth President Matthew Brouillette has said that the organization lobbies “indirectly” through research, and advocates for broad issues, rather than for specific policy. Brouillette stated that he cannot recall a time when Commonwealth has pushed for a “yes” or “no” vote on specific legislation.xviii But as Lloyd Hitoshi Mayer, a nationally known expert on tax law and a law professor at the University of Notre Dame, has noted, federal election law (which requires strictly “yes” or “no” communications) and federal tax law are different: The federal tax laws defining lobbying are much broader…and reach essentially any communication that mentions specific legislation and reflects a view on that legislation, whether expressly or less directly,” he told the Idaho Spokesman-Review in September, 2013.xix As the chart below shows, CF regularly reflects views on specific legislation in Pennsylvania. The Commonwealth Foundation has not reported any lobbying with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.xx Commonwealth staff members Priya M. Abrahamxxi and Nathan Benefieldxxii registered as lobbyists for the group from 2007 to 2008, but their registration was terminated and they did not file any expense reports.xxiii The Foundation regularly asks people to take action on specific legislation,xxiv but has not reported any expenses in relation to this activity to the statexxv although it did report over $87,000 in total lobbying expenditures to the Internal Revenue Service from 2008 to 2011, including $55,655 in “grassroots lobbying.”xxvi It is possible, given a review of some of the group’s recent public advocacy outlined below, that the IRS would define additional Commonwealth activities as lobbying, and require and require additional expenditures to be reported. The Commonwealth Foundation’s significant recent public advocacy is outlined in the table below. This is only a representational sample of CF’s lobbying activity. Much of this work is specific to legislation. An attempt to influence legislation is considered lobbying activity.
Issue Taxpayer Protection Act Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) Year Description In an April 2012, “Budget Facts” report Commonwealth advocated for the creation of a Taxpayer Protection Act, which would link allowable government spending increases to the rate of inflation plus population growth, prioritize core government functions, create a rainy day fund, and use 75% of all excess state tax revenues to decrease Personal Income Tax rates. xxvii On March 28, Matthew Brouillette posted an op-ed on the Commonwealth website opposing Obamacare, and demanding that it be revoked.xxviii In August, 2013, Elizabeth Stelle published an op-ed blasting the ACA in the Philadelphia Inquirer.xxix
Issue HB 1329 (Prevailing Wage Reform) Clean Energy
Description In February, Commonwealth advocated for gutting the state’s prevailing wage laws, called HB 1329 a “modest reform bill” and prompted readers to “take action” to support reform.xxx Commonwealth is a notorious climate change denier and launched a very public battle with PennFuture, a clean energy group on a variety of issues.xxxi Commonwealth heavily opposes renewable energy subsidies, while remaining silent on subsidies to the oil, coal, and gas industries. Commonwealth Foundation runs a TV Ad attacking unions and promoting the legislation to privatize the PA Wine and Spirit Shoppes, the state-owned liquor stores system.xxxii The ad is unattributed, but asks views to go to http://boozefacts.com/, a Commonwealth Foundation website. That site urges people to take action to support the privatization scheme.xxxiii
Privatization of PA Wine and Spirit Shoppes
A Cog in the Right-Wing Advocacy Machine
The Commonwealth Foundation is far from being the independent think tank that it claims to be.xxxiv It is, in fact, part of a network of conservative organizations working to advocate for far right policy positions. The State Policy Network (SPN) is a web of conservative state-based think tanks across the United States, founded in 1992 by Thomas Roe (of the Roe Foundation and South Carolina Policy Council). In addition to its state think tank affiliates, many other national right-wing organizations are associate members of SPNxxxv, including the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), the Cato Institute, the Franklin Center, the Heritage Foundation, the Heartland Institute, and the National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation. SPN has played a major role in supporting ALEC, serving as a “chairman” level sponsor of the 2013 and 2011 ALEC Annual Conferences and acting as a voting member of several task forces.xxxvi Since its founding, SPN has been funded by conservative organizations including the Koch-funded Donors Trust/Donors Capital Fund, the Bradley Foundation, the Roe Foundation, and the Kochs’ Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation,xxxvii The Center for Media and Democracy CMD) recently revealed that SPN has been funded by such corporations as Reynold American, Altria (formerly Philip Morris), Microsoft, AT&T, Verizon, GlaxoSmithKline, Kraft Foods, Comcast, Time Warner, Facebook, the for-profit education company K12 Inc., and the cigarette company NJOY. xxxviii CF is also a member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). According to CMD, “ALEC is not a lobby; it is not a front group. It is much more po werful than that. Through ALEC, behind closed doors, corporations hand state legislators the changes to the law they desire that directly benefit their bottom line. Along with legislators, corporations have membership in ALEC. Corporations sit on all nine ALEC task forces and vote with legislators to approve “model” bills. They have their own corporate governing board which meets jointly with the legislative board. (ALEC says that corporations do not vote on the board.) Corporations fund almost all of ALEC's
operations. Participating legislators, overwhelmingly conservative Republicans, then bring those proposals home and introduce them in statehouses across the land as their own brilliant ideas and important public policy innovations—without disclosing that corporations crafted and voted on the bills.”xxxix Internal ALEC meeting documents reveal that the Commonwealth Foundation is a member of the following ALEC task forces: Energy, Environment, & Agriculture; Health & Human Services; and Tax & Fiscal Policy xl The Commonwealth Foundation is also tied to the following conservative organizations.
Conservative Group/Figure (ALECaffiliated in bold)
Allegheny Institute for Public Policy American Enterprise Institute Americans for Prosperity American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) Atlantic Legal Foundation (Koch-funded) Heritage Foundation Koch Brothers Mackinac Center for Public Policy
Commonwealth Foundation Connection
Board Chairman Michael W. Gleba is a trustee at the Allegheny Institute.xli Director Emeritus Dr. Allan H. Meltzer is a visiting scholar at AEI.xlii Commonwealth Board Chairman Michael W. Gleba is a treasurer at the AEI.xliii In December 2012, the Commonwealth Foundation joined the Koch-funded Americans for Prosperity-Pennsylvania in a rally to urge Gov. Snyder to reject a state health care exchange through the Affordable Care Act. xliv Internal ALEC meeting documents reveal that the Commonwealth Foundation is a member of the following ALEC task forces: Energy, Environment, & Agriculture; Health & Human Services; Tax & Fiscal Policy xlv President Matthew Brouillette is on the Atlantic Legal Foundation Advisory Committee.xlvi Charles F. Mitchell previously interned at the Heritage Foundationxlvii. Charles F. Mitchell, Commonwealth’s vice president and COO is a graduate of the Koch Associate Program.xlviii The Commonwealth Foundation participates in the Charles G. Koch Summer Fellowship Program, through which it can receive funding for summer interns.xlix Director Emeritus Patrick J. Toomey is a director at the Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation. l Senior Fellow Richard C. Dreyfuss is an adjunct scholar with the Mackinac Centerli. President Matthew J. Brouillette previously served as the director of education policy at the Mackinac Center for Public Policy.lii Director Emeritus Frederick W. Anton and Board Member T. William Boxx are on the Governing Council of PBC. liii
Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation
Pennsylvania Business Council
Conservative Group/Figure (ALECaffiliated in bold)
Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association REACH Foundation (school – choice advocacy)
Commonwealth Foundation Connection
A 2000 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article asserts that the conservative PMA has significant influence on Commonwealth policy and provided office space for Commonwealth’s Lincoln Institute.liv PMA’s CEO and President Frederick W. Anton sits on Commonwealth’s Board.lv President Matthew J. Brouillette is a board member.lvi Director Emeritus Dr. Allan H. Meltzer is a director at the Sarah Scaife Foundationlvii. Commonwealth Board Chairman Michael W. Gleba is the president of the Sarah Scaife Foundation.lviii Board Member Glen T. Meakem is a Tea Party activist.lix Board Member Frederick W. Anton is personal friends with Governor Tom Corbett, and former Governor Tom Ridge. He has been called the GOP “linchpin.”lx Former Republican Lieutenant Governor William W. Scranton III is a director emeritus at Commonwealth lxi. Senior Fellow Jeff Coleman is a former member of the U.S. House of Representatives.lxii Board Member Frederick W. Anton was appointed chairman of the Federal Judicial Nominating Commission of Pennsylvania by U.S. Senators Arlen Specter and Rick Santorum.lxiii Sen. Patrick J. Toomey is a director emeritus at Commonwealth.lxiv
Sarah Scaife Foundation Tea Party
State GOP figures
GOP members of Congress
Funded by Right-Wing Donors
The largest single known donor to Commonwealth is the Scaife Family Foundation, led by Richard Mellon Scaife. He is probably best known as the publisher and owner of the Tribune-Review Publishing Co. Inc. In addition to these relationships, he is the chair of the Carthage Foundation, vice-chair of the Heritage Foundation, an overseer at the Hoover Institution and a minority owner of Newsmax Media. Scaife is also the chair of the Sarah Scaife Foundation, a major funder of right wing causes. Scaife has a long history of far right activism. In 1964 he was a supporter of Barry Goldwater’s presidential campaign, and he has also been a major donor to American Spectator, Club for Growth Action and Restore Our Future. lxv A significant portion of the Commonwealth Foundation’s funding came from anonymous wealthy donors to DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund.lxvi The two Donors
organizations are a spin-off of Philanthropy Roundtable that functions as large "donoradvised funds," cloaking the identity of donors to right-wing causes across the country.lxvii As a rule, Donors Trust refers clients to Donors Capital Fund if they expect to open donor advised funds of over $1,000,000. Mother Jones called the Donors organizations "the dark-money ATM of the conservative movement" in a February 2013 article.lxviii The funds create separate accounts for individual donors. Even though the donor gives the money to Donors, he or she may still control the fund by telling the organization which non-profits to fund. The identity of the original donors remains hidden because the funds are then distributed in the name of one of the Donors organizations. Known contributors to the Donors include the Koch brothers.lxix Between 2008 and 2011, grants from Donors Trust and Donors Capital Fund to the Commonwealth Foundation totaled $1,196,500 - or 23 percent of Commonwealth's total revenue for those four years. The total for the years 2005-2011 is a staggering $1,497,300.lxx Of this funding, at least $195,000 was itemized for Commonwealth's "news bureau" or "journalism project," which was likely the PA Independent.lxxi The Pennsylvania Independent is a project started by CF to drive news stories toward a conservative viewpoint.lxxii Commonwealth also received $25,000 from Donors in 2011 to participate in an ALEC meeting, $160,000 for a direct mail project, and $387,000 from those cloaked donors for transparency projects. While receiving those funds from the Koch-backed Donors groups, as well as over $90,000 directly from the Kochslxxiii, the Commonwealth Foundation has released several reports and pushed for policies that would directly benefit the Koch brothers’ corporate, political, and personal interests, including denying climate change, opposing the use clean energies, and advocating for lower taxes on corporations. DonorsTrust and Donors Capital Fund Contributions 2008-2011
Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund DonorsTrust DonorsTrust DonorsTrust Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2010 2010 $35,000.00 $25,000.00 $50,000.00 $25,000.00 $40,000.00 $40,000.00 $500.00 $25,000.00 $40,000.00 $15,000.00 for news bureau match for direct mail program for direct mail efforts for participation at ALEC meeting for general operations for general operations for general operations for a matching grant for direct mail efforts for direct mail efforts 10
Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund DonorsTrust DonorsTrust Donors Capital Fund Donors Capital Fund
2010 2010 2010 2010 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2008 2008
$125,000.00 $25,000.00 $110,000.00 $30,000.00 $30,000.00 $100,000.00 $60,000.00 $10,000.00 $130,000.00 $10,000.00 $34,000.00 $40,000.00 $97,000.00 $100,000.00
for the organization's transparency project for the organization's transparency project for capacity building for the organization's communications initiative for direct mail activities for journalism project for news bureau project for transparency project for transparency project for health care project in support of John Lott's projects in support of John Lott's projects for transparency project for TABOR [“Taxpayer Bill of Rights”]
Total From Donors (20082011)
2008 CF Total Revenue
2009 CF Total Revenue
2010 CF Total Revenue
2011 CF Total Revenue
% from Donors (20082011) 23%
Commonwealth $1,196,500 $890,778 $1,032,887 $1,369,386 $1,951,556 Foundation
Other identified funders include:
Donor Allegheny Foundation Castle Rock Foundation Charles G. Koch Charitable Foundation Claws Foundations Donors Capital Fund DonorsTrust Jaquelin Hume Foundation JM Foundation Philip M. McKenna Foundation Scaife Family Foundation State Policy Network The Carthage Foundation Amount $40,000.00 $25,000.00 $90,916.00 $65,000.00 $1,242,800.00 $254,500.00 $292,561.00 $100,000.00 $1,481,830.00 $2,692,000.00 $149,000.00 $10,000.00 Years 1991-1994 2011 2007-2011 2001-2005 2005-2011 2009-2011 2002-2011 1995-2012 1996-2011 1995-2011 2002-2011 1995 11
Donor The Lynde and Harry Bradley Foundation The Roe Foundation William H. Donner Foundation
Amount $187,000.00 $203,000.00 $98,650.00
Years 1990-2009 1998-2011 1998-2000
(American Bridge Conservative Transparency)
ALEC and the Commonwealth Foundation
The Commonwealth Foundation is an active member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), the controversial policy organization in which state legislators and corporations come together to write laws behind closed doors to favor special interests.lxxv In fact, much of Commonwealth’s legislative agenda seems to come directly from the ALEC playbook. The Commonwealth Foundation tends to focus its activities on a few libertarian/conservative issue areas that ALEC, and its ideological ally SPN, are pushing. These include Taxes & Fiscal Policy. One major emphasis of CF is limiting government spending through so-called “Taxpayer Bill of Rights.”lxxvi The Commonwealth Foundation is a strong supporter of the attempt to undermine the science behind human influences on climate change.lxxvii Its fellows regularly write about “the diversity of views within the scientific community,”lxxviii ignoring the near-unanimity in the scientific community about the reality of human-influenced climate change. This climate-change denial emphasis is a reflection of the priorities of SPN and ALEC.lxxix Commonwealth is actively involved in school privatization issues, which it labels School “Choice.” The Commonwealth Foundation’s education researchlxxx almost exclusively focuses on expanding vouchers, charter schools, and cyber schools.lxxxi Commonwealth has also supported “parent trigger” laws,lxxxii a backdoor scheme to convert public schools into charter schools. The Commonwealth Foundation is perhaps best known for its vociferous anti-union policy. In April, 2013 the Commonwealth Foundation sent out a fundraising letter asking for money to “slay” Pennsylvania’s unions.lxxxiii Commonwealth advocated for reforming the state’s prevailing wage lawslxxxiv, attacking public sector pensions,lxxxv and limiting the ability of unions to organize.lxxxvi In a recent fundraising appeal, Commonwealth refers to unions, not as opponents, but as “enemies.”lxxxvii The Commonwealth Foundation’s Involvement in ALEC Task Forces Primary ALEC task force documentslxxxviii obtained by Common Cause and the Center for Media and Democracy reveal the extent of the Commonwealth Foundation’s involvement in the ALEC task force meetings, where legislators and corporate lobbyists
vote as equals on “model” bills to change the law in each state.lxxxix Commonwealth Foundation staff are members of at least three task forces: Energy, Environment, Agriculture Task Force: The Commonwealth Foundation’s Research Associates Katrina Currie and Elizabeth Stelle were listed as private sector members of the task force in April 2011xc and August 2011.xci Health and Human Services Task Force: The Commonwealth Foundation’s Rick Dreyfuss was listed as a private sector member of the task force in August 2011.xcii Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force: The Commonwealth Foundation’s Nathan Benefield was listed as a private sector task force member in April 2011xciii and attended ALEC’s Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force meeting that month in Cincinnati, Ohio.xciv
In April 2012, the Commonwealth Foundation’s Director of Policy Analysis Nathan Benefield, a member of ALEC’s Tax and Fiscal Policy Task Force, posted an article on Commonwealth’s website defending ALEC against “attacks from leftist groups.”xcv Benefield argues that “more Pennsylvania legislators could benefit from joining ALEC and talking to legislators from other states about their experiences enacting school choice, privatizing government-run liquor stores, or reforming government unions.”
The following table demonstrates how, on key issues, the Commonwealth Foundation has promoted ALEC’s agenda:
In addition to publishing numerous reportsxcvi calling for reducing pension benefits, the Commonwealth Foundation launched a petitionxcvii to pressure Gov. Corbett and legislators to convert Pennsylvania’s public pension system into a definedcontribution system. The Commonwealth Foundation is major opponent of the prevailing wage in Pennsylvania, releasing reports in 2011c and 2012.ci
ALEC’s “Defined Contribution Pension Reform Actxcviii is a move towards eliminating defined benefit plans for public employees, which protect retirees. A bill similar to this ALEC “model”—SB2—was introduced in PA in 2013.xcix ALEC’s “Prevailing Wage Repeal Act” would repeal prevailing wage laws in the state.cii
Attacking public pensions
Repealing the prevailing wage
The Commonwealth Foundation has released numerous reportsciii over the last year opposing Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, and has also opposed the Affordable Care Act in reportsciv and projects dating back to 2009.cv Commonwealth Foundation is a member of ALEC’s HHS Task Force.
ALEC’s “State Legislators Guide to Repealing Obamacare” would repeal the Affordable Care Act, and recommends legislators reject Medicaid expansioncvi. ALEC’s “Freedom of Choice in Health Care Act” would prohibit the legislature from requiring individuals to purchase health insurance pursuant to federal health reform.cvii A bill introduced in Pennsylvania in 2011, HB 42, is similar to the ALEC “model.” ALEC’s privatization agendacx includes “model bills” that would privatize foster care and adoption servicescxi, child support servicescxii, Social Securitycxiii, Medicarecxiv, prisonscxv, public educationcxvi, and public water and sewage services,cxvii ALEC’s “Parent Choice Scholarship Program Act-Universal Eligibility” cxxicreates a voucher program to use taxpayer funds that would be spent on public schools to subsidize private forprofit, religious, or other primary and secondary schools. This program has no income limit for subsidies and therefore all students would be eligible. ALEC’s “Charter Schools Act”cxxii would allow the state to grant charters to create and operate schools outside of traditional public schools, while also exempting these charter schools from state laws that apply to public schools. ALEC’s “Family Education Tax Credit Program”cxxiii creates a tax credit for paying private primary or secondary school tuition and fees. It would also create a tax credit for corporations and individuals that give money to be used as “scholarships” to pay tuition and fees at private schools. This also reduces tax revenue for public services.
Opposing health care reform and Medicaid expansion
Privatization of government services and liquor stores
In 2013, the Commonwealth Foundation launched a petitioncviii to pressure the state Senate to pass legislation to privatize the sale of liquor. Commonwealth also launched a website – Booze Facts – to support liquor privatization.cix The Commonwealth Foundation’s education researchcxviii almost exclusively focuses on expanding vouchers, charter schools, and cyber schools.cxix Commonwealth has also supported “parent trigger” laws.cxx
Privatizing Public Education
The Commonwealth Foundation has published many anti-worker reports under its “Unions & Labor Policy”cxxiv studies, and supports so-called “right to work”cxxv and “paycheck protection” –better named “paycheck deception” – measures.cxxvi
ALEC’s “Right to Work Act”cxxvii is an attack on working families across the state as this bill takes away workers’ ability to negotiate fair contracts. Pennsylvania’s HB 50, a 2013 bill, is similar to ALEC’s “Right to Work Act.” ALEC’s “Employee Rights Reform Act”cxxviii limits revenue streams for public employee unions and imposes new reporting burdens on union activities. ALEC’s “Paycheck Protection Act” cxxix is an attack on workers and attempts to make it difficult for unions to raise funds.
Attacks on unions and workers
Allegheny Institute for Public Policy
The Allegheny Institute for Public Policy is a state-oriented “think tank” that purports to “defend the interests of taxpayers, citizens, and businesses against an increasingly burdensome and intrusive government.” The organization cla ims its efforts are guided by the principles of free enterprise, property rights, civil society and individual freedom.cxxx It is recognized as a 501(c)(3) organization located in Pittsburgh.cxxxi The Institute is frequently reported as closely tied to right-wing activist billionaire Richard Mellon Scaife.cxxxii It was founded by Scaife in 1995cxxxiii and continues to be dominated by him. Scaife serves as the chair of the Institute and provides nearly 90% of its annual budget.cxxxiv
Lobbying and Other Controversial Activity
Like its sister organization, the Commonwealth Foundation, the Allegheny Institute frequently crosses the line from “think tank” to active advocate for specific policy and legislative positions. In at least one instance it has gotten involved in partisan politics, appearing to make an illegal campaign contribution, according to campaign finance records.cxxxv Even its research, its stated mission, has come under attack. Lobbying Whether the issue is mass transit funding,cxxxvi or education, cxxxvii the Allegheny Institute’s Policy Briefs reflect its vehemently anti-union agenda. This agenda often consists of more than just research. Allegheny has produced policy briefings that make specific recommendations.cxxxviii While these recommendations do not mention specific legislation, they often match model legislation proposed by ALEC. (See charts below) Among the examples of the Allegheny Institute’s advocacy: Each year, the Allegheny Institute releases its legislative agendacxxxix. AIlegheny states that one of the purposes of its legislative agenda is to make “specific recommendations for needed legislative action.”cxl “Advocat[ing] the adoption or rejection of legislation” – i.e. legislative action – is a lobbying activity under the IRS Code.cxli One of the issues consistently pushed by AI is outlawing the right of teachers to strike. A search for the term “teacher strike” on the Allegheny website re sults in links to fifty articles. cxlii These blog postings, policy briefings and research documents advocate against teachers’ right to strike.cxliii cxliv
The Allegheny Institute has a history of opposing workers’ rights and unions, specifically the right to collectively bargain and to strike. The Allegheny Institute has said workers have too much power through their unions, and has called for limiting public unions’ role in bargaining for workers.cxlv The Allegheny Institute has written reports attacking workers’ pensions in Pennsylvania almost every year,cxlvi along with frequently blogging about pension reform.cxlvii These postings include specific recommendations to the General Assembly. The Allegheny Institute took a major role in debating whether new stadiums in Pittsburgh should be publically or privately financed. In 1998 it released a study and pitched a plan to Allegheny County for completely private financing of a football and baseball stadium, but both the Pirates (MLB) and Steelers (NFL) quickly dismissed the institute’s research claiming that nobody “takes these people seriously.”
This is just the tip of the iceberg in Allegheny’s advocacy. There are hundreds more briefings covering dozens of issues on its website.cxlviii Despite this activity, no members of the Allegheny Institute’s current staff or board are registered lobbyists in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.cxlix There are also no lobbyists—either outside attorneys or agents—registered to represent the Allegheny Institute in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Nor is the Allegheny Institute itself listed as a lobbyist, despite regular testimony before the General Assembly and local municipal governments.cl Allegheny staff frequently testify at public hearings, advocating for legislative changes that fit the organization’s low-tax, small government agenda.cli Its Policy Briefs regularly move beyond analysis to advocating for legislative changes.clii
Influence of Richard Mellon Scaife Richard Mellon Scaife is the chairman and major funder of the Allegheny Institute. He is probably best known as the publisher and owner of the Tribune-Review Publishing Co. Inc. In addition to these relationships, he is the chair of the Carthage Foundation and vice-chair of the Heritage Foundation. He is an overseer at the Hoover Institution and is a minority owner of Newsmax Media. Scaife is also the chair of the Sarah Scaife Foundation, a major funder of right wing causes.cliii Scaife has a long history of far right activism. In 1964 supported Barry Goldwater’s presidential campaign.cliv He has also been a major donor to American Spectator,clv Club for Growth Action and Restore Our Future (Mitt Romney’s super PAC.clvi
Scaife has been accused of using his newspaper, the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, to promote conservative principles through the Allegheny Institute’s comments and research.clvii The Tribune-Review has failed to state its conflict of interests when quoting an Allegheny Institute official or using research from the Institute.clviii In August, 2013, at least five articles cited the Allegheny Institute, including a “puff piece,” promoting Institute president Jake Haulk.clix None of them mentioned the connections between the Tribune-Review and the Institute.clx In August 2012, the progressive Pennsylvania blog “Two Political Junkies” accused the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review of not reporting a story due to its connections to the Scaife familyclxi. At an election night party in August 2012 for Rep. Randy Vulakovich’s special election, Allegheny County GOP chair Jim Roddey made a joke involving calling an Obama supporter “mentally retarded.” Roddey’s comments were reported by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and drew criticism from several national and state based media outlets, and Roddey was forced to issue an apology.clxii Roddey is on the Allegheny Institute’s board of trustees. Scaife’s influence is undoubtedly related to his financial support of Allegheny. Nearly 90% of the Allegheny Institute’s known funding has come from Scaife Foundations (Allegheny Foundation, Carthage Foundation, Sarah Scaife Foundation, and Scaife Family Foundation).clxiii
Donor Allegheny Foundation Jaquelin Hume Foundation Philip M. McKenna Foundation Scaife Family Foundation Sarah Scaife Foundation The Carthage Foundation The Roe Foundation Amount $1,315,000.00 $26,900.00 Year 1995-2011 2001
$309,800.00 $2,417,500.00 $285,000 $1,998,500.00 $46,500.00
1996-2011 1995-1999 1996-2011 1995-2011 1998-2009
(Media Matters; American Bridge Conservative Transparency)clxiv
Flawed Research In a 2004 press conference, Pittsburgh City Controller Tom Flaherty accused the Allegheny Institute of deliberately using flawed samples in its report on per capita spending in order to advocate for lower public spending levels.clxv Flaherty pointed out that AI selected a small sample of cities, excluding cities of similar size, geography and demographics to Pittsburgh. In the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Jake Haulk, president of
the Allegheny Institute admitted to excluding other northern, industrial cities in their sample.clxvi
A Cog in the National Right-Wing Advocacy Machine
The Allegheny Institute has many of the same policy priorities that Commonwealth Foundation has. It seems to be drawing from the same national right-wing sources, especially the State Policy Network and the American Legislative Exchange Council. The Allegheny Institute is an associate memberclxvii of the State Policy Network (SPN).clxviii SPN is a web group of conservative state-based think tanks across the United States, founded in 1992 by Thomas Roe (of the Roe Foundation and South Carolina Policy Council). In addition to its state think tank affiliates, many other national right-wing organizations are associate members of SPN, including the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), the Cato Institute, the Franklin Center, the Heritage Foundation, the Heartland Institute, and the National Right to Work Legal Defense Foundation.clxix SPN has played a major role in supporting ALEC, serving as a “chairman” level sponsor of the 2011 ALEC Annual Conference.clxx Since its founding, SPN has been funded by conservative organizations including the Koch-funded Donors Trust/Donors Capital Fund, the Bradley Foundation, the Roe Foundation, and the Kochs’ Claude R. Lambe Charitable Foundation.clxxi The Center for Media and Democracy (CMD) recently revealed that SPN has been funded by such corporations as Reynolds American, Altria (formerly Philip Morris), Microsoft, AT&T, Verizon, GlaxoSmithKline, Kraft Foods, Comcast, Time Warner, Facebook, the for-profit online education company K12 Inc., and the e-cigarette company NJOY.clxxii Allegheny lists the following groups as resources, most of which are affiliates or associate members of SPN: American Enterprise Institute, Atlas Foundation, Buckeye Institute, Cato Institute, Commonwealth Foundation, Freedom Foundation (formerly Evergreen Freedom Foundation), Heartland Institute, Heritage Foundation, John Locke Foundation, Mackinac Center for Public Policy, Pennsylvanians for Right to Work, Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association, Reason Foundation, and the James Madison Institute for Public Policy. .clxxiii Allegheny leaders have significant ties to other conservative groups. AI President Jake Haulk is also on the Board of Directors of the Pennsylvania Manufacturers Association. Eric Montarti, analyst for the Institute, has written for Reason Privatization Watch, a publication of the libertarian Reason Foundation.”clxxiv
ALEC and the Allegheny Institute
The Allegheny Institute has several connections to the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), the controversial policy organization.clxxv The Allegheny Institute seems to be taking ALEC’s lead in developing its issue portfolio.
Issue Allegheny Institute Under the “Mandated Wages” section of its websiteclxxvi, Allegheny Institute calls for the state of Pennsylvania to make prevailing wages optional, therefore repealing the state’s law guaranteeing a prevailing wage. ALEC ALEC’s “Prevailing Wage Repeal Act” would repeal prevailing wage laws in the state.clxxvii ALEC’s “Resolution in Opposition to any Increase in the Starting (Minimum) Wage”clxxxi opposes efforts to raise the minimum wage. Other ALEC models to repeal or oppose the minimum wage include the “Starting (Minimum) Wage Repeal Act”clxxxii and the “Resolution Opposing Increases in Minimum Wage Linked to the CPI”clxxxiii ALEC’s “Living Wage Mandate Preemption Act”clxxxiv allows states to prevent its cities and counties from setting minimum wages that exceed those required under state or federal law. ALEC’s public school privatization models include the “Parent Choice Scholarship Program Act-Universal Eligibility,”clxxxviii the “Family Education Tax Credit Program,” clxxxix the “Charter Schools Act,”cxc the “Resolution Supporting Private Scholarship Tax Credits,”cxci and the “Parent Trigger Act”cxcii ALEC’s “Public Employees’ Portable Retirement Option (PRO) Act”cxciv and “Defined Contribution Pension Reform 20
Opposing the Prevailing Wage
Opposing the Minimum Wage & Living Wage Standards
The Allegheny Institute has opposed raising in the minimum wage in several reports over the years, including in “Raising the Minimum Wage: Good Politics, Bad Economic Policy for Philadelphia”clxxviii and “Minimum Wage: Economics 101 Revisited.”clxxix The Allegheny Institute has also opposed the living wage standard in a 2000 report: “Why the Living Wage Is Wrong for Allegheny County.clxxx”
Privatizing Public Education
The Allegheny Institute has supported privatizing Pennsylvania’s public schools through vouchers and charter schools in several reports over the years, including in “School District Based Vouchers,”clxxxv “Universal Tuition Tax Credits,”clxxxvi and “Charter Schools: An Irresistible Force?”clxxxvii
Deforming Public Pensions
Allegheny calls for moving new hires into a defined contribution or hybrid style plan.cxciii
Allegheny strongly supports fracking and retrieving Marcellus shale gas in Pennsylvaniacxcvi, despite its serious environmental and health safety risks.cxcvii
The Allegheny Institute has a history of opposing workers’ rights and unions in the state, specifically the right to collectively bargain and to strike. In its 2010 legislative agendacci, the Allegheny Institute called on the Pushing an Antistate legislature to limit collective Worker Agenda bargaining rights and teachers’ right to strike. The Allegheny Institute has also said that workers have too much power through their unions, and has called for limiting public unions’ role in bargaining for workers.ccii
Act"cxcv is a move towards eliminating defined benefit pension plans for public employees, which protects retirees. ALEC’s “Disclosure of Composition of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids”cxcviii model was the subject of an investigation of The New York Timescxcix, which found the bill was written and sponsored by Exxon Mobilcc and included loopholes for energy companies to hide the dangerous fluids in drinking water as a result of fracking. ALEC’s anti-worker agenda includes: The “Right to Work Act”cciii is an attack on working families across the state as this bill takes away workers’ ability to negotiate fair contracts. The “Employee Rights Reform Act”cciv: limits revenue streams for public employee unions and imposes new reporting burdens on union activities. The “Paycheck Protection Act”ccv is an attack on workers and attempts to make it difficult for unions to raise funds.
Conclusion: ALEC & PA’s SPN Think Tanks: A Coordinated RightWing Agenda in Pennsylvania
Although the Allegheny Institute and the Commonwealth Foundation claim to be Pennsylvania-focused, much of their agenda seems to be directed by the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC). Both organizations also claim to be independent. However, the overlap of issues is so significant, it is hard to understand how this could be coincidence, especially in light of the documented integration of personnel and funding. This chart shows the overlap of all three organizations’ issue agenda.
Issue Attacking Unions & Public Workers Allegheny Institute The Allegheny Institute expressed that Pennsylvania should enact similar anti-worker reformsccvi as Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker’s controversial Act 10 in a 2012 report, and have been extremely critical of organized workers’ rights.ccvii Commonwealth Foundation The Commonwealth Foundation has published many antiworker reports under its “Unions & Labor Policy”ccviii studies, and supports socalled “right to work”ccix and “paycheck protection”ccx-- better named “paycheck deception”-measures. ALEC ALEC’s “Right to Work Act”ccxi is an attack on working families across the state as this bill takes away workers’ ability to negotiate fair contracts. ALEC’s “Employee Rights Reform Act”ccxii limits revenue streams for public employee unions and imposes new reporting burdens on union activities. ALEC’s “Paycheck Protection Act”ccxiii is an attack on workers and attempts to make it difficult for unions to raise funds. Deforming Public Pensions The Allegheny Institute recommends heightening the retirement age, requiring longer years of services, and/or changing In addition to publishing numerous reportsccxv calling for pension reforms, the Commonwealth Foundation launched ALEC’s “Public Employees’ Portable Retirement Option (PRO) Act”ccxvii is a move towards eliminating defined 22
Pennsylvania’s pension system into a definedcontribution plan in its “Government Pensions”ccxiv research.
a petitionccxvi to pressure Gov. Corbett and legislators to convert Pennsylvania’s public pension system into a defined-contribution system. The Commonwealth Foundation is major opponent of the prevailing wage in Pennsylvania, releasing reports in 2011ccxix and 2012.ccxx The Commonwealth Foundation has released numerous reportsccxxiii over the last year opposing Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, and has also opposed the Affordable Care Act in reportsccxxiv and projects dating back to 2009.ccxxv
benefit pension plans for public employees, which protects retirees.
Opposing the Prevailing Wage
The Allegheny Institute recommended repealing the national and state level prevailing wage in a January 2011 report.ccxviii
ALEC’s “Prevailing Wage Repeal Act” ccxxi would repeal prevailing wage laws in the state.
Opposing Healthcare Reform & Medicaid Expansion
In 2010, the Allegheny Institute criticized the Allegheny County Chief Executive for speaking out against the state of Pennsylvania joining the lawsuit against the Affordable Care Act.ccxxii
ALEC’s “Guide to Repeal Obamacare”ccxxvi would repeal the Affordable Care Act, and recommends legislators reject Medicaid expansion. ALEC’s “Freedom of Choice in Health Care Act”ccxxvii would prohibit the legislature from requiring individuals to purchase health insurance pursuant to federal health reform.
Privatization of Government Services & Liquor Stores
The Allegheny Institute has issued several reports calling for the privatization of the state’s liquor stores, including in 2010ccxxviii, 2011ccxxix, and 2013.ccxxx
In 2013, the Commonwealth Foundation launched a petitionccxxxi to pressure the state Senate to pass liquor privatization legislation. Commonwealth also launched a website – Booze Facts – to support liquor privatization.ccxxxii
ALEC’s privatization agendaccxxxiii includes “model bills” that would privatize foster care and adoption servicesccxxxiv, child support servicesccxxxv, Social Securityccxxxvi, Medicareccxxxvii, prisonsccxxxviii, public educationccxxxix, and public water and sewage servicesccxl,
Privatizing Public Education
The Allegheny Institute has called for vouchers in Pittsburgh Public Schools in 2010ccxli and 2011 reportsccxlii
The Commonwealth Foundation’s education researchccxliii almost exclusively focuses on expanding vouchers, charter schools, and cyber schools.ccxliv Commonwealth has also supported “parent trigger” laws.ccxlv
ALEC’s “Parent Choice Scholarship Program Act-Universal Eligibility”ccxlvi creates a voucher program to use taxpayer funds that would be spent on public schools to subsidize private forprofit, religious, or other primary and secondary schools. This program has no income limit for subsidies and therefore all students would be eligible. ALEC’s “Charter Schools Act”ccxlvii would allow the state to grant charters to create and operate schools outside of traditional public schools, while also exempting these charter schools from state laws that apply to public schools. ALEC’s “Parent Trigger Act”ccxlviii would allow a small group of parents to close public school for current and future students, and turn the school into a charter school or require the state to use taxpayer dollars for vouchers to subsidize private tuition.
The Allegheny Institute has recommended taking away teachers’ right to strikeccxlix and has been consistently critical of teachers’ right to organizeccl and teacher unions.
The Commonwealth Foundation has recommended taking away teachers’ right to strikeccli, has been critical of organized Pennsylvania teachers in various reports.cclii
ALEC’s “Great Teachers and Leaders Act”ccliii changes tenure rules for teachers and allows tenure to be revoked based on limited measures of success without regard to underlying conditions in the schools or environment. ALEC’s “Alternative Certification Act”ccliv attempts to allow students to be taught by people who have no training in how to teach children and the different ways kids learn at various ages and based on different learning styles. This paves the way for forprofit schools to pay “teachers” less than educators who are actually trained in teaching.
Limiting Government Spending through socalled “Taxpayer Bill of Rights”
The Allegheny Institute supported the idea of a taxpayer bill of rights (TABOR) for Pittsburgh and Pennsylvania as a whole in a 2011 report.cclv
The Commonwealth Foundation has constituently argued that Colorado’s TABOR law is a “success”cclvi and supports so-called “Truth in Spending” laws.cclvii
ALEC’s “Federal TABOR Resolution” cclviii calls to limit government spending and would require a “supermajority vote of both houses of Congress” to override the spending limit.
ALEC’s “Truth In Spending”cclix bill would 26
require each state agency to include with its spending request a summary of all money spent or passed through the agency in the preceding year.
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/scaifegraf050299.htm http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/about-us/mission-statement.html Allegheny Institute, “About Us,” Accessed May 29, 2012 v http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=State_Policy_Network vi http://www.spn.org/directory/organizations.asp vii https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us/Public/wfSearch.aspx viii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/about/ ix http://old.post-gazette.com/regionstate/20001210commonwealth3.asp x http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Lobbying xi http://www.scribd.com/doc/137587049/Commonwealth-Foundation-Project-Goliath xii http://www.scribd.com/doc/137587049/Commonwealth-Foundation-Project-Goliath xiii http://www.scribd.com/doc/137587049/Commonwealth-Foundation-Project-Goliath xiv http://capwiz.com/commonwealthfoundation/issues/alert/?alertid=62590276 xv http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Lobbying xvi http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/detail/r-a-d-is-bad-for xvii Search of Commonwealth Foundation website www.commonwealthfoundation.org for terms “Regional Asset District,” and “Affordable Care Act” xviii http://www.pennlive.com/midstate/index.ssf/2010/07/commonwealth_foundation_allege.html xix http://m.spokesman.com/stories/2013/sep/15/idaho-freedom-foundations-charitable-status/ xx https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us/Public/wfSearch.aspx xxi Priya Abraham registered with PA Lobbying Services but never filed any reports. https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us xxii https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us xxiii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/about/page/staff-2 xxiv http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org xxv https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us/Public/wfSearch.aspx xxvi https://bulk.resource.org/irs.gov/eo/2012_10_EO/23-2473845_990_201112.pdf xxvii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/docLib/20120410_POLICYPOINTSSpendingLimits.pdf xxviii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/research/detail/change-we-cant-afford xxix http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/detail/burdens-of-obamacare-commentary xxx http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/policyblog/detail/time-for-prevailing-wage-reform-support-hb-1329 xxxi http://www.jongeeting.net/?p=3954 xxxii http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cVIre41PMjo&feature=c4-overview&list=UUc-3SjSsEDRlj3VkrnL_mg
http://capwiz.com/commonwealthfoundation/issues/alert/?alertid=62535211&PROCESS=Take+Action http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/about/page/guarantee-of-quality-scholarship xxxv http://www.spn.org/directory/organizations.asp xxxvi http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=State_Policy_Network xxxvii http://bridgeproject.com/?organization&id=275641 xxxviii Center for Media and Democracy: EXPOSED: The State Policy Network: The Powerful Right-Wing Network That Is Trying to Hijack Our State Politics and Government, October 2013 xxxix http://www.alecexposed.org/wiki/What_is_ALEC%3F xl http://senatorhughes.com/senator-hughes-admonishes-commonwealth-foundation-for-disparaging-remarks xli http://www.muckety.com/Michael-W-Gleba/147282.muckety
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http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/topic/education http://www.cyberschoolssave.org/ lxxxii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/detail/pa-must-pull-parent-trigger-to-save-education lxxxiii http://www.thenation.com/blog/173999/pennsylvania-think-tank-plans-slay-unions-wisconsin# lxxxiv http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/research/detail/pennsylvanias-prevailing-wage-law lxxxv http://capwiz.com/commonwealthfoundation/issues/alert/?alertid=62590276 lxxxvi http://www.thenation.com/blog/173999/pennsylvania-think-tank-plans-slay-unions-wisconsin# lxxxvii http://www.scribd.com/doc/137587049/Commonwealth-Foundation-Project-Goliath lxxxviii http://www.commoncause.org/site/pp.asp?c=dkLNK1MQIwG&b=8072485 lxxxix http://www.alecexposed.org/wiki/What_is_ALEC%3F xc http://www.commoncause.org/atf/cf/%7BFB3C17E2-CDD1-4DF6-92BE-BD4429893665%7D/eea_35day_mailingstfs11%20Ohio.pdf xci http://www.commoncause.org/atf/cf/%7BFB3C17E2-CDD1-4DF6-92BE-BD4429893665%7D/1-35day_mailing_eea_final%20new%20orleans.pdf xcii http://www.commoncause.org/atf/cf/%7BFB3C17E2-CDD1-4DF6-92BE-BD4429893665%7D/1-35day_mailing_eea_final%20new%20orleans.pdf xciii http://www.commoncause.org/atf/cf/%7BFB3C17E2-CDD1-4DF6-92BE-BD4429893665%7D/eea_35day_mailingstfs11%20Ohio.pdf xciv http://www.commoncause.org/atf/cf/%7BFB3C17E2-CDD1-4DF6-92BE-BD4429893665%7D/tax_35day_mailing_am11%20new%20orleans.pdf xcv http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/policyblog/detail/the-lefts-latest-witch-hunt xcvi http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/research/cf/fl/8/public-employee-pensions-and-benefits xcvii http://capwiz.com/commonwealthfoundation/issues/alert/?alertid=62590276 xcviii http://www.alec.org/model-legislation/defined-contribution-pension-reform-act-2/ xcix http://www.prwatch.org/news/2013/07/12184/just-how-low-can-your-salary-go-117-alec-bills-2013-fuel-racebottom-wages-and-wo c http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/research/detail/prevailing-wage-in-pennsylvania ci http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/research/detail/pennsylvanias-prevailing-wage-law cii http://www.alecexposed.org/w/images/6/60/1E8-Prevailing_Wage_Repeal_Act_Exposed.pdf ciii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/search/default.asp?q=medicaid&restrict=&orderby=1 civ http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/policyblog/detail/hidden-costs-of-obamacare-exposed cv http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/research/detail/obamacare-is-bad-medicine-for-pennsylvania cvi http://www.alec.org/wp-content/uploads/State_Leg_Guide_to_Repealing_ObamaCare.pdf cvii http://www.alec.org/wpcontent/uploads/State_Leg_Guide_to_Repealing_ObamaCare.pdfhttp://alecexposed.org/w/images/3/3b/5U2FREEDOM_OF_CHOICE_IN_HEALTH_CARE_ACT_Exposed.pdf cviii http://capwiz.com/commonwealthfoundation/issues/alert/?alertid=62535211&PROCESS=Take+Action cix http://boozefacts.com/ cx http://alecexposed.com/wiki/ALEC_%26_Privatization cxi http://alecexposed.org/w/images/2/29/5A2-Privatization_of_Foster_Care_and_Adoption_Services_Exposed.pdf cxii http://alecexposed.org/w/images/0/0f/5A1Privatization_of_Child_Support_Enforcement_Services_Exposed.pdf cxiii http://www.alecexposed.org/w/images/d/d4/1J2Resolution_Urging_Congress_To_Modernize_the_Social_Security_System_With_Personal_Retirement_Accounts__PRAs_Exposed.pdf cxiv http://alecexposed.org/w/images/7/76/5K3Resolution_Urging_Congress_to_Create_Private_Individual_Medical_Account_Exposed.pdf cxv http://heartland.org/sites/all/modules/custom/heartland_migration/files/pdfs/6263.pdf cxvi http://alecexposed.org/w/images/a/a3/2D2-Education_Enterprise_Zone_Act_Exposed.pdf cxvii http://www.alecexposed.org/w/images/e/ea/3H3-Environmental_Services_PublicPrivate_Partnership_Act_Exposed.pdf cxviii http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/topic/education cxix http://www.cyberschoolssave.org/
http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/detail/pa-must-pull-parent-trigger-to-save-education http://alecexposed.org/w/images/2/20/2D17THE_PARENTAL_CHOICE_SCHOLARSHIP_PROGRAM_ACT_2_Exposed.pdf cxxii http://alecexposed.org/w/images/9/9a/2D1-Charter_Schools_Act_Exposed.pdf cxxiii http://alecexposed.org/w/images/7/77/2D9THE_FAMILY_EDUCATION_TAX_CREDIT_PROGRAM_ACT_Exposed.pdf cxxiv http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/issues/topic/unions--labor-policy cxxv http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/policyblog/detail/right-to-work-works cxxvi http://www.commonwealthfoundation.org/policyblog/detail/free-political-speech-and-paycheck-protection cxxvii http://alecexposed.org/w/images/c/c8/1R10-Right_to_Work_Act_Exposed.pdf cxxviii http://alecexposed.org/w/images/2/27/1R0-Employee_Rights_Reform_Act_Exposed.pdf cxxix http://alecexposed.org/w/images/b/b8/Paycheck_Protection_Act_Exposed.pdf cxxx http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22&Itemid=37 cxxxi http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=22&Itemid=37 cxxxii http://2politicaljunkies.blogspot.com/2009/12/stumbled-over-this.html cxxxiii http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/politics/special/clinton/stories/scaifegraf050299.htm cxxxiv http://bridgeproject.com/?organization&id=280460 cxxxv http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1129&dat=19990513&id=gQkwAAAAIBAJ&sjid=5G8DAAAAIBAJ&pg= 1816,1044171 cxxxvi http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_policy/uploads/Vol13No9.pdf cxxxvii http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_policy/uploads/Vol13No35.pdf cxxxviii http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_policy&Itemid=123 cxxxix http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_reports/uploads/10-05.pdf cxl http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_reports/uploads/10-05.pdf cxli http://www.irs.gov/Charities-&-Non-Profits/Lobbying cxlii http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_policy&Itemid=123 cxliii http://www.stopteacherstrikes.org/AlleghenyInstitute.pdf cxliv http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_policy/uploads/Vol13No35.pdf cxlv http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_policy/uploads/Vol13No7.pdf cxlvi http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_policy/uploads/Vol13No31.pdf cxlvii http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/accomplishments.html cxlviii http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/index.php?option=com_policy&Itemid=123 cxlix https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us/ cl https://www.palobbyingservices.state.pa.us/ cli http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_reports/uploads/Cities,%202013.pdf clii http://www.alleghenyinstitute.org/administrator/components/com_policy/uploads/Vol13No9.pdf cliii http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Richard_Mellon_Scaife cliv http://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/politics/item/2420-%E2%80%9Cfunding-father-of-theright%E2%80%9D-backs-hillary-for-president clv http://bridgeproject.com/?organization&id=274790 clvi https://www.opensecrets.org/indivs/search.php?name=Scaife%2C+Richard&state=&zip=&employ=&cand=&c20 14=Y&c2012=Y&c2010=Y&sort=N&capcode=5syy7&submit=Submit+your+Donor+Query clvii http://2politicaljunkies.blogspot.com/2012/02/trib-news-and-scaife-money.html clviii http://2politicaljunkies.blogspot.com/2011/11/thanksgiving-gift-from-trib.html clix http://triblive.com/opinion/featuredcommentary/4441859-74/haulk-influential-allegheny#axzz2eUm2Q931 clx Search of Tribune-Review website using the term “Allegheny Institute.” clxi http://2politicaljunkies.blogspot.com/2012/08/more-on-jim-roddey-gop-chair-in.html clxii http://earlyreturns.post-gazette.com/index.php/early-returns-20/53-post-gazette-staff/4636-gop-chair-roddeyobama-supporter-qretardedq clxiii http://bridgeproject.com/?organization&id=280460 clxiv http://bridgeproject.com/?organization&id=280460 clxv http://www.post-gazette.com/stories/local/neighborhoods-city/official-disputes-study-on-city-of-pittsburghspending-529479/
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ccviii ccxiv ccxv
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