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Chap2_(Introduction to Signals

# Chap2_(Introduction to Signals

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# CONTENTS

§ Definition and Classification of Signals
§ Mathematical Model of Ideal Signals
§ Linear Convolution
§ Discrete-time Signals
§ Discrete-time Convolution
ECT 2036:
CIRCUITS & SIGNALS
ECT 2036:
CIRCUITS & SIGNALS
Chapter 2:
Introduction to Signals
1. DEFINITION & CLASSIFICATION
OF SIGNALS
1. DEFINITION & CLASSIFICATION
OF SIGNALS
§ SIGNAL: A function of one or more variables and it carries
qualitative as well as quantitative information of a physical
event.
§ Single variable function: most common is the time variable,
t (continuous-time) or n (discrete-time) -> mathematically
denoted by f(t) or f[n] respectively.
§ Classifications:
a) Continuous & Discrete-Time Signals
b) Even & Odd Signals
c) Deterministic & Stochastic Signals
d) Energy & Power Signals
CONTINUOUS & DISCRETE
CONTINUOUS & DISCRETE
Continuous-time Signal
-Signal is defined for all time instants
-Occurs naturally in any physical process
-We use a round bracket ( ) to denote the function: f( )
-Commonly used: f(t) or f(τ) for single variable
-f(t) = t, f(t) = t
2
, f(t) = sin(t), etc.
-Example: voice signal
CONTINUOUS & DISCRETE
CONTINUOUS & DISCRETE
Discrete-time Signal
-Signal is defined only at discrete values of time variable
-We use a square bracket [ ] to denote the function: f[ ]
-Commonly used: f[n] or f[k] for single variable
-f[n] = δ[n], f[n] = u[n], f[n] = 2n, etc.
-Example: sampled voice signal
Continuous-time signal f(t) Sampling at T=1
Discrete-time signal f[n]
§ Some discrete-time signals can be obtained from continuous-time
signals by sampling operation mathematical given by:
f[n] = f(nT) , n = 0, t 1, t 2, t 3, …
where T is the sampling period. :
For instance, let T = 1
Then:
n = -1; f[-1] = f(-1)
n = 0; f[0] = f(0)
n = 1; f[1] = f(1)
n = 2; f[2] = f(2)
n = 3; f[3] = f(3)
:
EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
§ EVEN signals: signals which are symmetric with respect to
the vertical axis. Mathematically described by: f(t) = f(-t)
§ ODD signals: signals which are anti-symmetric with respect
to the origin. Mathematically described by: f(t) = - f(-t)
Even (symmetric) signal
f (t ) = f (-t ) for all t
Odd (anti-symmetric) signal
f (t ) = - f (-t ) for all t
EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
• Any arbitrary signal, f(t) can be expressed as a
sum of even and odd components:
[ ]
[ ] ) ( ) (
2
1
) (
) ( ) (
2
1
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
t f t f t f
t f t f t f
where
t f t f t f
o
e
o e
− − ·
− + ·
+ ·
Example 1.1:
Even & Odd
Example 1.1:
Even & Odd
§ Find the odd and even components of continuous-
time signal,
Solution:
5 3 2
6 4 ) ( t t t t f + + ·
[ ] ( )
[ ] ( )
5 3 5 3 2 5 3 2
2 5 3 2 5 3 2
6 4 6 4 6 4
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
) (
6 4 6 4
2
1
) ( ) (
2
1
) (
t t t t t t t t t f t f t f
t t t t t t t t f t f t f
o
e
+ · + + − + + · − − ·
· − − + + + · − + ·
§ Find the odd and even components of the signal f(t).
½[(f(t)+f(-t)]
½[(f(t)-f(-t)]
Example 1.2:
Even & Odd
Example 1.2:
Even & Odd
3 3
, 2 2
( )
2 4
0,
t t
f t
elsewhere
¹
+ − ≤ ≤
¹
·
'
¹
¹
=1.5
=(3/4) t
Example 1.3:
Even & Odd
Example 1.3:
Even & Odd
§ Find the even and odd components of the following signal:
1
0 3
t
f(t)
0.5
-3 0 3
t
f
o
(t)
0.5
-3 0 3
t
f
e
(t)
1, 0 3
( )
0,
t
f t
elsewhere
< <
¹
·
'
¹
-3
EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
EVEN & ODD SIGNALS
§ Bear in mind that any arbitrary signals can be expressed
as sum of odd and even components. Look at Examples
1.1 to 1.3, the main signal f(t) itself is neither even nor odd
but when decomposed, has odd f
o
(t) and even f
e
(t) parts.
§ If the signal f(t) itself is already an even signal, then its
even part is exactly the same as itself, f(t)=f
e
(t), the odd
part being zero.
§ If the signal f(t) itself is already an odd signal, f(t)=f
o
(t), then
its odd part is exactly the same as itself, the even part
being zero.
§ Thus, a signal can be purely even, purely odd or neither
even nor odd.
Example 1.4:
Even & Odd
Example 1.4:
Even & Odd
§ a) Is sin(ωt) an odd or even signal?
Let f(t) = sin(ωt)
sin(ωt) = - sin(-ωt) for all t
f(t) = - f(-t)
∴It is an odd signal.
§ b) Is cos(ωt) an odd or even signal?
Let f(t) = cos(ωt)
cos(ωt) = cos(-ωt) for all t
f(t) = f(-t)
∴ It is an even signal.
§ c) Is sin(ωt+(π/6)) an odd or even signal?
sin(ωt+(π/6)) = sin(π/6)cos(ωt) + cos(π/6)sin(ωt)
= 0.5cos(ωt) + 0.866sin(ωt)
∴sin(ωt+(π/6)) is neither an even nor an odd signal.
ωt
sin(ωt+(π/6))
-π/6 5π/6
11π/6
0.5
1
-1
ωt
0.5cos(ωt)
0
0.5
-0.5
ωt
0.866sin(ωt)
0.866
-0.866
=
+
0
Even
Odd
Original signal is
neither even nor odd
π
π

DETERMINISTIC & STOCHASTIC
DETERMINISTIC & STOCHASTIC
§ DETERMINISTIC SIGNALS:
The signals whose characteristics are well known and completely
specified for all instants of time.
e.g.: sine wave f(t)=sin(t), linear function f(t)=mt+c
§ STOCHASTIC SIGNALS:
The signals whose characteristics are not fully known before its
occurrence (random signals).
e.g.: throwing of die, noise generated in an electronic circuit, unwanted
disturbances in the atmosphere, etc.
sin t
t
Deterministic
t
# on a die thrown
T
1
T
2
T
3
2
4
3
Value at T
4
?
Value=Random
between 1 to 6
Stochastic
T
4
T
1
T
2
T
3
T
4
All values at t are
well defined
§ Deterministic
§ Stochastic
(Random Signal)
Totally predictable
ENERGY & POWER
ENERGY & POWER
§ Energy Signal if: 0 < E < ∞ (finite positive value )
§ Power Signal if: 0 < P < ∞ (finite positive value )
Average
Power, P
Total
Energy, E
f[n] f(t) Signal
Discrete-Time Continuous-Time
2
lim ( )
T
T
T
E f t dt
→∞

·

2
lim [ ]
N
N
n N
E f n
→∞
·−
·

2
1
lim ( )
2
T
T
T
P f t dt
T
→∞

·

− ·
∞ →
·
N
N n
N
n f
N
P ] [
2
1
lim
2
Example 1.5:
Energy & Power
Example 1.5:
Energy & Power
§ A signal f(t) is defined as .
Determine whether f(t) is an energy or power signal.
E=∞ (the value is indefinite). ∴ f(t) is not an energy signal.
( ) sin( ) ; f t t t ω · −∞< <∞
2 2
lim ( ) lim sin ( )
T T
T T
T T
E f t dt t dt ω
→∞ →∞
− −
· ·
∫ ∫
1 1 sin(2 )
lim [1 cos(2 )] lim
2 2 2
T
T
T T
T
T
t
t dt t
ω
ω
ω
→∞ →∞

]
· − · −
]
]

1 2sin(2 )
lim 2
2 2
T
T
T
ω
ω
→∞
]
· − · ∞
]
]
P=1/2 (the value is definite and positive).
∴ f(t) is a power signal.
2 2
1 1
lim ( ) lim sin ( )
2 2
T T
T T
T T
P f t dt t dt
T T
ω
→∞ →∞
− −
· ·
∫ ∫
2
1
8
) 2 sin( 2
2
1
lim
2
) 2 sin( 2
2
4
1
lim
)] 2 cos( 1 [
2
1
2
1
lim
·
]
]
]

− ·
]
]
]

− ·
− ·
∞ →
∞ →

∞ →

T
T
T
T
T
dt t
T
T
T
T
T
T
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
Example 1.6: Energy & Power
Example 1.6: Energy & Power
§ Determine whether f(t) is an energy signal or a power
signal or neither.
¹
'
¹

<
·
0
0 0
) (
t for e
t for
t f
t α
Energy, E:
If α is negative, E = -1/2α àf(t) is an energy signal.
If α is positive, E = ∞ àf(t) is not an energy signal.
2 2
0
lim ( ) lim
T T
t
T T
T
E f t dt e dt
α
→∞ →∞

· ·
∫ ∫
2 2
0
1 1
lim lim 1
2 2
T
t T
T T
e e
α α
α α
→∞ →∞
]
· · −
]
Power, P:
If α is negative, P = 0 àf(t) is not a power signal.
If α is positive, P = ∞ àf(t) is not a power signal.
2 2
0
1 1
lim ( ) lim
2 2
T T
t
T T
T
P f t dt e dt
T T
α
→∞ →∞

· ·
∫ ∫
2 2
0
1 1 1
lim lim 1
2 2 4
T
t T
T T
e e
T T
α α
α α
→∞ →∞
]
]
· · −
] ]
]
t
Negative α
àEnergy signal
t
Positive α
àNeither energy signal
nor power signal
) ( ) ( t u e t f
t α
·
ENERGY & POWER
ENERGY & POWER
§ Observations:
– Bounded periodic signals are power signals (Example
1.5).
– Bounded decreasing signals are energy signals
(Example 1.6).
– Unbounded growing signals are neither energy nor
power signals (Example 1.6).
– Energy signal: E is finite and nonzero, P is zero.
– Power signal: E is infinite, P is finite and nonzero.
– Neither energy nor power signal: E and P infinite.
Bounded: the amplitude of the signals has definite
upper and lower limits. If one limit is indefinite, it is
unbounded.
2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL
OF IDEAL SIGNALS
2. MATHEMATICAL MODEL
OF IDEAL SIGNALS
§ We will discuss mathematical model of the
following signals:
a) Sinusoidal Signal
b) Exponential Signal
c) Unit Step Function
d) Unit Pulse Function
e) Unit Impulse Function
f) Approximation of signals by Impulse Functions
SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL
SINUSOIDAL SIGNAL
( )
( ) θ ω
θ π
θ
π
+ ·
+ ·

,
`

.
|
+ ·
t A
ft A
T
t
A t f
sin
2 sin
2
sin ) (
angle phase
period
amplitude signal
·
·
·
θ
T
A
where
f
1
(t)
f
2
(t)
f(t) = 5 sin (ωt)
f
1
(t) = 5 sin (ωt + π/2)
f
2
(t) = 5 sin (ωt - π/2)
EXPONENTIAL SIGNAL
EXPONENTIAL SIGNAL
Decaying Exponential Signal Growing Exponential Signal
τ /
) (
t
Ae t f

· ( )
τ /
1 ) (
t
e A t f

− ·
Arbitrary Exponential
Signal:
τ /
) ( ) (
t
final initial final
e V V V t f

− + ·
A
V
initial
=A
V
initial
=0
V
final
=0
V
final
=A
Example 2.1:
Exponential Signal
Example 2.1:
Exponential Signal
§ Draw the exponential signals described by:
i) 5exp(-t/τ) and
ii) 5[1-exp(-t/τ)]
t
5exp(-t/τ)
0
5
Approaches 0
t
5[1-exp(-t/τ)]
(i)
Decaying
(ii)
Growing
Approaches 5
0
5
t=τ
1.84
t=τ
3.16
UNIT STEP FUNCTION
UNIT STEP FUNCTION
Unit Step
Delayed Unit Step
¹
'
¹
<

·
0 0
0 1
) (
t
t
t u
1
( )
0
t T
u t T
t T

¹
− ·
'
<
¹
Example 2.2:
Unit Step
Example 2.2:
Unit Step
§ Sketch the waveform of
) 2 ( ) ( ) ( − + · t u t u t f
§ Draw the exponential signals described by:
i) 5exp(-t/τ)u(t) and
ii) 5[1-exp(-t/τ)]u(t)
§ Unit step function can be used in converting an arbitrary
function into a right-sided function.
Example 2.3: Unit Step
Example 2.3: Unit Step
t
5exp(-t/τ)u(t)
0
5
Approaches 0
t
5[1-exp(-t/τ)]u(t)
(i) (ii)
Approaches 5
0
5
Note that the functions are
now zero for t < 0.
t=τ
1.84
t=τ
3.16
UNIT PULSE FUNCTION
UNIT PULSE FUNCTION
Unit Pulse Delayed Unit Pulse
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
∆ >
∆ ≤ ≤ ∆ −
∆ − <
·

2 / 0
2 / 2 / 1
2 / 0
) (
t
t
t
t P
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
∆ + >
∆ + ≤ ≤ ∆ −
∆ − <
· −

) 2 / ( 0
) 2 / ( ) 2 / ( 1
) 2 / ( 0
) (
T t
T t T
T t
T t P
UNIT PULSE FROM UNIT STEPS
UNIT PULSE FROM UNIT STEPS
Construction of unit pulse from step signals
) 2 / ( ) 2 / ( ) ( ∆ − − ∆ + ·

t u t u t P
UNIT IMPULSE FUNCTION
UNIT IMPULSE FUNCTION
Unit Impulse
( ) 0 0
( ) 1
t t
Area t dt
δ
δ

−∞
· ≠
· ·

) (
) (
lim
0
t
t P
δ ·

→ ∆
Area = ∆×1/∆ =1
let ∆
approach 0
Property 1: Property 4:
Property 2: Property 5:
Property 3:
( ) ( ) (0) f t t dt f δ

−∞
·

) ( ) ( ) ( T f dt T t t f · −

∞ −
δ
) ( ) ( t t δ δ · −
) (
1
) ( t t δ
β
β δ ·
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( T t T f T t t f − · − δ δ
Properties of Unit Impulse Function
Unit Impulse Function: Properties 1 & 2
Unit Impulse Function: Properties 1 & 2
t t
f(t)
δ(t-T)
X
T
0
δ(t-T)=0, t≠T
=
t
f(t)δ(t-T)
f(T)
T
f(t)δ(t-T)=f(T)δ(t-T)
t t
f(t)
δ(t)
X
0
0
δ(t)=0, t≠0
=
t
f(t)δ(t)
0
f(0)
f(t)δ(t)=f(0)δ(t)
When T=0
§ Property 2
§ Property 3
Unit Impulse Function:
Properties 2 & 3
Unit Impulse Function:
Properties 2 & 3
1
( ) ( ) (0) ( ) (0) ( ) (0) f t t dt f t dt f t dt f δ δ δ
∞ ∞ ∞
−∞ −∞ −∞
· · ·
∫ ∫ ∫
14243
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
f t t T dt f T t T dt f T t T dt
f T
δ δ δ
∞ ∞ ∞
−∞ −∞ −∞
− · − · −
·
∫ ∫ ∫
14243
Property 1
Example 2.4: Unit Impulse
Example 2.4: Unit Impulse
Evaluate the following integrals:
a) b)
c) d)
cos(2 ) (2 1) t t dt π δ

−∞

sin(2 ) ( 50) t t dt π δ

−∞

( )
2 (2 ) t t dt δ

−∞
+

( )
5
3 ( 3) t t dt δ

−∞
+ +

Solution:
a)
b)
( )
( )
5
5
3 ( 3) ( ) ( 3)
( 3) 3 3 0
t t dt f t t dt
f
δ δ
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞
+ + · +
· − · − + ·
∫ ∫
sin(2 ) ( 50) ( ) ( 50)
(50) sin(2 50) 0
t t dt f t t dt
f
π δ δ
π
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞
− · −
· · × ·
∫ ∫
Property 3
Property 3
c)
d)
( ) ( )
( )
1
2 (2 ) 2 ( )
2
1
( ) ( ) (0) 0 2 1
2
t t dt t t dt
f t t dt f
δ δ
δ
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞

−∞
]
+ · +
]
]
· · · + ·
∫ ∫

Property 5
cos(2 ) (2 1) cos(2 ) [2( 1/ 2)]
1
cos(2 ) ( 1/ 2)
2
( ) ( 1/ 2)

t t dt t t dt
t t dt
f t t dt
π δ π δ
π δ
δ
∞ ∞
−∞ −∞

−∞

−∞
− · −
]
· −
]
]
· −
∫ ∫

1 1
(1/ 2) cos(2 1/ 2)
2 2
f π · · × · −
Property 2
Property 5
Property 3
APPROXIMATION OF SIGNALS BY
IMPULSE FUNCTIONS
APPROXIMATION OF SIGNALS BY
IMPULSE FUNCTIONS

−∞ ·
− ≅
k
kT t kT Tf t f ) ( ) ( ) ( δ
This equation is the impulse approximation of the signal f (t).
Valid iff the pulse width is very small à sampling frequency is
very high (higher than frequency of signal f (t))
Signal Approximation by Impulse
Signal Approximation by Impulse
-T
f(-T)P
T
(t+T)
0
f(0)P
T
(t)
T
f(T)P
T
(t-T)
2T
f(2T)P
T
(t-2T)
-2T
f(-2T)P
T
(t+2T)
+ +
+
+

( ) ( ) ( )
T
k
f t f kT P t kT

·−∞
≅ −

f(t)
-2T –T 0 T 2T
… …
Signal Approximation by Impulse
Signal Approximation by Impulse
[ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )/ ( ) ( )
T T
k k k
f t f kT P t kT f kT T P t kT T Tf kT t kT δ
∞ ∞ ∞
·−∞ ·−∞ ·−∞
≅ − · − ≅ −
∑ ∑ ∑
f(t)
-2T –T 0 T 2T
T
f(t)
T→very small
( )
( )
T
k k
P t kT
t kT
T
δ
∞ ∞
·−∞ ·−∞

≅ −
∑ ∑
Let the pulse width be very
small so the unit pulse
becomes unit impulse
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
Input-output model of a linear time invariant
continuous-time system
Transform operator
Input Output
•If input x(t)=δ(t), then output y(t)=h(t) is called the
impulse response.
y(t)=G[x(t)]=G[δ(t)]=h(t)
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
Single
Impulse
Impulse
response
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
[ ]
( ) [ ( )]
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) Linearity Property
( ) ( ) Time invariant Property
k
k
k
y t G x t
G Tx kT t kT
Tx kT G t kT
Tx kT h t kT
δ
δ

·−∞

·−∞

·−∞
·
]
≅ −
]
]
· − →
· − →

Linearity Property:
G[kx(t)]=kG[x(t)]; k=constant
Time invariant Property:
If G[δ(t)]=h(t);
then G[δ(t-τ)]=h(t-τ); τ=constant
•Let x(t) be signal approximated using impulses:
( ) ( ) ( )
k
x t Tx kT t kT δ

·−∞
≅ −

3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
3. LINEAR CONVOLUTION
( ) ( ) ( )
k
y t Tx kT h t kT

·−∞
· −

Let τ=kT, as T à0, τ à0,
Σ à∫, T àdτ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) * ( )
y t x h t d
y t x t h t
τ τ τ

−∞
· −
·

Convolution Integral
Approximation
by Impulses
Output
response
Properties of Linear Convolution
( ) * ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) * ( ) ( ) ( )
x t h t x h t d
h t x t h x t d
τ τ τ
τ τ τ

−∞

−∞
· −
· −

EVALUATION OF
CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL
EVALUATION OF
CONVOLUTION INTEGRAL
§ There are two widely known procedures for
evaluation of convolution integral:
1) Graphical Evaluation
This method is very useful when mathematical models of
the signals are not available.
2) Numerical Evaluation
Performed by approximation of both the functions by
finite-width pulse trains.
GRAPHICAL EVALUATION
GRAPHICAL EVALUATION
§ Steps involved in the graphical evaluation of two
signals ày(t) = h(t)*x(t)
1. Plot h(τ) and x(τ).
2. Obtain x(-τ).
3. Shift x(-τ) by t to get x(t-τ)= x(-(τ - t)).
4. Multiply h(τ) and x(t-τ). Area under h(τ)x(t-τ) is
equal to convolution of two signals, y(t).
5. Repeat steps 3 - 4 for various values of t = t
1
, t
2
,
t
3
, ….
6. Plot y(t), the convolution.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) * ( )
y t h x t d
h t x t
τ τ τ

−∞
· −
·

1.
2.
3.
same as flip or mirror
at the y-axis
shift forward if t is
positive, backward if
negative
multiply both signals, then
compute the area
4.
5. Repeat
6.
§ Evaluate the convolution of f
1
(t) and f
2
(t) at t = 0 and
t = 1.
Example 3.1:
Graphical Linear Convolution
Example 3.1:
Graphical Linear Convolution
At t = 0 At t = 1
1 2
1 2
( ) ( ) * ( )
( ) ( )
y t f t f t
f f t d τ τ τ

−∞
·
· −

× ×
(0) 0 y ·
Area f
1
(τ). f
2
(-τ)=0
(1) 1/ 2 y ·
Area f
1
(τ). f
2
(1-τ)=1/2
f
1
(τ)
f
2
(-τ)
f
1
(τ) f
2
(1-τ)
τ
τ
τ
τ
NUMERICAL EVALUATION
NUMERICAL EVALUATION
§ Let’s approximate both functions by finite-width
impulse trains:
§ At t = nT, T = sampling period, n = positive integer
1 2
0
0
( ) lim ( ) ( )
n
T
k
y t T f kT f t kT

·
· −

1 2
0
0
( ) lim ( ) ( )
n
T
k
y nT T f kT f nT kT

·
· −

Numerical evaluation form of convolution
§ Perform numerical convolution of the following
functions with sampling time T = 0.1 for three
consecutive sampling instants, n = 0, 1, 2.
§ At n = 0,
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2
2
1
t u t f
t u t t f
·
·
0
1 2
0
1 2
(0) 0.1 (0.1 ) ( 0.1 )
0.1{ (0) (0)} 0
k
y f k f k
f f
·
· −
· ·

Example 3.2:
Numerical Linear Convolution
Example 3.2:
Numerical Linear Convolution
1 2
0
0
1 2
0
( ) lim ( ) ( )
(0.1 ) 0.1 (0.1 ) (0.1 0.1 )
n
T
k
n
k
y nT T f kT f nT kT
y n f k f n k

·
·
· −
· −

0 1
At n = 1,
At n = 2,
{ ¦
{ ¦
1
1 2
0
1 2 1 2
(0.1) 0.1 (0.1 ) (0.1 0.1 )
0.1 (0) (0.1) (0.1) (0)
0.1 0 0.01
0.001
k
y f k f k
f f f f
·
· −
· +
· +
·

{ ¦
{ ¦
2
1 2
0
1 2 1 2 1 2
(0.2) 0.1 (0.1 ) (0.2 0.1 )
0.1 (0) (0.2) (0.1) (0.1) (0.2) (0)
0.1 0 0.01 0.04
0.005
k
y f k f k
f f f f f f
·
· −
· + +
· + +
·

0
1
0.01
1
0
1
0.01
1
0.04
1
Interpretation of Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
Graphically using Example 3.2
Interpretation of Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
Graphically using Example 3.2
§ From Example 3.2
f
1
(τ)= τ
2
u(τ)
τ
f
2
(τ)=u(τ)
τ
T=0.1
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
0.01
0.04
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
Interpretation of Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
Graphically using Example 3.2
Interpretation of Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
Graphically using Example 3.2
f
1
(τ)= τ
2
u(τ)
τ
y(0)= f
1
(τ)f
2
(-τ)
=0
f
2
(-τ)=u(-τ)
τ
f
2
(0.1-τ)= u(0.1-τ)
τ
y(0.1)=f
1
(τ)f
2
(0.1-τ)
=0.01x0.1
=0.001
1
1
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
0.01
0.04
0
0.1
X =
f
1
(τ)= τ
2
u(τ)
τ
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
0.01
0.04
X
=
Interpretation of Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
Graphically using Example 3.2
Interpretation of Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
Graphically using Example 3.2
§ The Numerical Evaluation of Convolution
performs by approximation of both the
functions by finite-width pulse trains at T=0.1.
f
1
(τ)= τ
2
u(τ)
τ
f
2
(0.2-τ)= u(0.2-τ)
τ
1
y(0.2)=f
1
(τ)f
2
(0.2-τ)
=0.01x1+0.04x1
=0.005
0 0.1 0.2 0.3
0.01
0.04
0.2
X =
4. DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
4. DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
§ Some basic sequences
– Unit step: u[n]={…0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1…}
or
The arrow indicates the origin, n = 0
1, 0
[ ]
0, 0
n
u n
n

¹
·
'
<
¹
4. DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
4. DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
– Unit sample/impulse: δ[n]={…0 1 0…}
or
The arrow indicates the origin, n = 0
1, 0
[ ]
0, 0
n
n
n
δ
·
¹
·
'

¹
4. DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
4. DISCRETE-TIME SIGNALS
§ Both discrete-time functions can also be
used without arrows to indicate the origin:
– Unit step: u[n]={…0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1…}
– Unit sample/impulse: δ[n]={…0 1 0…}
§ In such a case, the first nonzero value at the
left hand side of the sequence denotes the
position of the origin.
Manipulating Sequences
q Shifted unit step
1, 1
[ 1]
0, 1
n
u n
n

¹
− ·
'
<
¹
q Shifted unit sample/impulse
1, 1
[ 1]
0, 1
n
n
n
δ
·
¹
− ·
'

¹
1, 2
[ 2]
0, 2
n
n
n
δ
·
¹
− ·
'

¹
1, 0
[ ]
0, 0
n
u n
n

¹
·
'
<
¹
[ ] [ ] [ 1] n u n u n δ · − −
q Unit sample/impulse using unit step
1, 1
[ 1]
0, 1
n
u n
n

¹
− ·
'
<
¹
q Unit step as sum of unit sample/impulse
q Sample/impulse of arbitrary amplitude
x
0
x
1
x
2
x
-1

·
− · + − + − + − + ·
0
] [ ... ] 3 [ ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ] [
i
i n n n n n n u δ δ δ δ δ

−∞ ·

− · + − + − + + + + ·
i
i
i n x n x n x n x n x n x ] [ ... ] 2 [ ] 1 [ ] [ ] 1 [ ... ] [
2 1 0 1
δ δ δ δ δ
§ Express the following signals graphically:
(i)
(ii) x[n]={…0 5 0…}
(iii) x[n]={…0 0 5 0…}
(iv)
Example 4.1:
Discrete Sequences
Example 4.1:
Discrete Sequences
] 5 [ ] [ ] [ − − · n u n u n x
] 3 [ ] 2 [ 2 ] [ ] [ − − − + · n n n n x δ δ δ
§ Solution:
(i)
(ii) x[n]={…0 5 0…}
(iii) x[n]={…0 0 5 0…}
] 5 [ ] [ ] [ − − · n u n u n x
= -
(iv)
] 3 [ ] 2 [ 2 ] [ ] [ − − − + · n n n n x δ δ δ
=
+
+
5. DISCRETE-TIME
CONVOLUTION
5. DISCRETE-TIME
CONVOLUTION
§ For a LTI discrete-time system, the discrete-time
convolution is given mathematically by:
§ If the LTI system is causal, then:
§ By causal system, we mean that the input and output
signals of the system start from t≥0.
[ ] [ ] [ ]
k
y n x k h n k

·−∞
· −

[ ] [ ] [ ]
0
n
k
y n x k h n k
·
· −

§ Perform convolution mathematically for the following
sequences at n = 3.
§ For n = 3
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
1
2
1
3
n
f n nu n
f n u n
·
| `
·

. ,
[ ] [ ] [ ]
1 2
0
n
k
y n f k f n k
·
· −

[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
3
1 2
0
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2
3 3
0 3 1 2 2 1 3 0
1 1
0 2 3
3 3
3. 777
k
y f k f k
f f f f f f f f
·
· −
· + + +
| ` | `
· + + +

. , . ,
·

Example 5.1:
Discrete-Time Convolution
Example 5.1:
Discrete-Time Convolution
0
(1/3)
3
1 (1/3)
2
2 (1/3)
1
3 (1/3)
0
Causal signals
5. DISCRETE-TIME
CONVOLUTION
5. DISCRETE-TIME
CONVOLUTION
§ All the properties for continuous-time convolution
still hold for discrete-time convolution.
§ Graphical method can be performed on discrete-
time signals to obtain discrete-time convolution.
Same procedures as in continuous-time case.
GRAPHICAL EVALUATION
GRAPHICAL EVALUATION
§ Steps involved in the graphical evaluation of two
signals ày[n] = h[n]*x[n]
1. Plot h[k] and x[k].
2. Obtain x[-k].
3. Shift x[-k] by n to get x[n-k]= x[-(k - n)].
4. Multiply h[k] and x[n-k]. Area under h[k]x[n-k] is
equal to convolution of two signals, y[n].
5. Repeat steps 3 - 4 for various values of n = n
1
,
n
2
, n
3
, ….
6. Plot y[n], the convolution.
[ ] [ ] [ ]
[ ]* [ ]
k
y n h k x n k
h n x n

·−∞
· −
·

§ Repeat Example 5.1, now using graphical convolution.
§ At n= 3
= x
Example 5.2:
Discrete-Time Convolution
Example 5.2:
Discrete-Time Convolution
§ Find mathematically, the discrete time convolution of
the two signals below.
Example 5.3:
Discrete-Time Convolution
Example 5.3:
Discrete-Time Convolution
[0] 6; [1] 13; [2] 10;
[3] 10; [4] 11; [5] 2
6 [ ] 0
y y y
y y y
n y n
· · ·
· · − ·
≥ ⇒ ·
[ ] [ ] [ ]
0
n
k
y n f k h n k
·
· −

Causal signals
f[k]
h[k]
§ Repeat Example 5.3, now using graphical convolution
Example 5.4: Discrete-Time Convolution
Example 5.4: Discrete-Time Convolution
k
h[-k]
3
5
-2
n=0:
y[0]=2x3=6
k
h[1-k]
3
5
-2
n=1:
c[1]=2x5+1x3=13
k
h[2-k]
3
5
-2
n=2:
y[2]=2x(-2)+1x5+3x3=10
f[k] f[k] f[k]
k
h[3-k]
3
5
-2
n=3:
y[3]=1x(-2)+3x5+(-1)x3=10
k
3
5
-2
n=4:
y[4]=3x(-2)+(-1)x5=-11
h[4-k]
k
h[5-k]
3
5
-2
n=5: y[5]=(-1)x(-2)=2
f[k] f[k] f[k]
§ For the two discrete signals defined below:
(i) Sketch the two sequences.
(ii) Compute the convolution graphically.
Example 5.5:
Discrete-Time Convolution
Example 5.5:
Discrete-Time Convolution
] 6 [ ] [ ] [ − − · n u n u n x
] 5 [ ] 2 [ ] [ − − − · n u n u n h
(i)
(ii) y[n] = x[n]*h[n]
1
6 5
4
-3 -2 -1 0 3 2 1
1
6 5
4
-3 -2 -1 0 3 2 1
0 11
3
10 9
8
1 2 3 4 7 6 5
] 6 [ ] [ ] [ − − · n u n u n x
] 5 [ ] 2 [ ] [ − − − · n u n u n h
1
2
CONVOLUTION TABLE
CONVOLUTION TABLE
Index 0 + 0 = 0
Start of convolution
sequence, y[0]
y[0]
y[1]
y[2]
y[3]
y[4]
Σ
Σ
Σ
Σ
Σ
CONVOLUTION TABLE
CONVOLUTION TABLE
§ Note that the top entry and left entry does
§ The rule is that, we start the entries using
the first nonzero value of h[n] or f[n].
then y[1+0] = y[1] is the first nonzero value
of the convolution. If h[1] and f[1], then it is
y[1+1] = y[2].
§ Repeat Example 5.1 using convolution table.
Index 0 + 1 = 1
Start of convolution
sequence, y[1]
For n = 3, compute y[3]
y[3]
Σ(3, 2/3, 1/9) = 34/9 = 3.777
Example 5.6:
Convolution Table
Example 5.6:
Convolution Table
§ Repeat Example 5.3 using convolution table.
y[0]=6 y[3]=-3+15+(-2)=10
y[1]=3+10=13 y[4]=-5+(-6)=-11
y[2]=9+5+(-4)=10 y[5]=2
ΣIndex(0,0) = 0
Start of
convolution
sequence, y[0]
Example 5.7:
Convolution Table
Example 5.7:
Convolution Table
f[3]h[2]=2 f[3]h[1]=-5 f[3]h[0]=-3 f[3]=-1
f[2]h[2]=-6 f[2]h[1]=15 f[2]h[0]=9 f[2]=3
f[1]h[2]=-2 f[1]h[1]=5 f[1]h[0]=3 f[1]=1
f[0]h[2]=-4 f[0]h[1]=10 f[0]h[0]=6 f[0]=2
h[2]=-2 h[1]=5 h[0]=3
Summary
Summary
§ At the end of this chapter, you should understand:
– Concept of signals and its common classifications
• Able to define, draw, compare, compute and give examples
– Mathematical model of ideal signals (continuous) and discrete-time
signals
• Able to formulate signal functions as well as graphically drawn the
signals, perform signal operations mathematically and graphically, able
to differentiate continuous- and discrete-time signals
– Linear convolution (continuous) and discrete-time convolution
• Able to perform convolution operations mathematically and graphically,
able to differentiate continuous- and discrete-time convolutions
§ Next Chapter: Application of Fourier Series

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