NIST Special Publication 1038

The International
System of Units (SI) –
Conversion Factors
for General Use
Kenneth Butcher
Linda Crown
Elizabeth J. Gentry
Weights and Measures Division
Technology Services

NIST Special Publication 1038

The International System of
Units (SI) Conversion Factors for
General Use
Editors:

Kenneth S. Butcher
Linda D. Crown
Elizabeth J. Gentry
Weights and Measures Division
Carol Hockert, Chief
Weights and Measures Division
Technology Services
National Institute of Standards and Technology
May 2006

U.S. Department of Commerce
Carlo M. Gutierrez, Secretary
Technology Administration
Robert Cresanti, Under Secretary
of Commerce for Technology
National Institute of
Standards and Technology
William Jeffrey, Director

gov/owm or www. National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publications 1038 Natl. materials. Stand.gov/metric .Certain commercial entities. or materials may be identified in this document in order to describe an experimental procedure or concept adequately. Technol. nor is it intended to imply that the entities. equipment.nist. 1038. Spec. 24 pages (May 2006) Available through NIST Weights and Measures Division STOP 2600 Gaithersburg. Inst. MD 20899-2600 Phone: (301) 975-4004 — Fax: (301) 926-0647 Internet: www. or equipment are necessarily the best available for the purpose.nist. Pub. Such identification is not intended to imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

.................3 4.....................................4 4.................................................2 Table 2.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Rounding ..........v 1 SCOPE.........................................................................................1......4 4..................................................2 Deprecated Names or Symbols.......................................................................................................................................1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS..2 Inch-Pound Units ............................................................6 iii ...........................................................................................................3 Miscellaneous Non-SI Units Not to be Used .................................................................................................... ........2 4....................2 4............................................... CGS Units Not to be Used......................................................................................... Non-SI Units Not to be Used....................................................................1 Preferred SI (metric) Units ..............4 4..................................................................................5 4................................................5 4.......1 3.....5 Table 5.......................................................................................................................................................................1.....2 Accepted Units .......................................................3........ SI Prefixes...4 Conversion.............................. The SI Base Units...............................................................................................................................................3 Unacceptable Metric Units ........................ Deprecated Names and Symbols...........TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD.....................................2 SI Derived Units .......................................................... ...............................................................................................................................................1..4 Editorial Style ................................................................4 Table 3......1 4 3....................................................2 Table 1......................................................................4 4.......................................................................................................................................................1.............................1 Centimeter-Gram-Second (CGS) Units ............3 4................................................2 4.......................1 2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS....................................................................... ..........................................................3................4 Table 4.....................................................................................3 SI Prefixes..................3..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 3 DEFINITIONS ..............................2 4.....4..............................................................................................................................1 SI Units ........1 SI Base Units ..........................................................................................................

.........................................1.................................16 ALPHABETICAL INDEX...............................................................4........................................................................................1...............................7 5 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS............7 4..................6 4................3 Temperature Rounding ....................................1....7 6 DOCUMENT SOURCES.........................4.....2 Rounding Practices Used for Packaged Goods in the Commercial Marketplace...................17 iv .....................................................................................................4...............................................4..............................................................1 Rounding Procedure for Technical Documents or Specifications ..................................................15 7 BIBLIOGRAPHY .........................

recommended for use in trade and commerce and other general uses by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Maryland 20899-2600 E-mail: TheSI@nist.html Telephone: 301-975-3690 FAX: 301-926-0647 v . Please submit comments or suggestions to the Editor at: Elizabeth J.gov/cuu/Units/index.gov Visit our Website at: http://www.gov/metric For information on scientific units go to: http://physics.nist. Stop 2600 Gaithersburg. or metric system.FOREWORD This publication lists the units of the International System of Units (SI). Gentry National Institute of Standards and Technology Weights and Measures Division 100 Bureau Drive.nist.

vi .

but is not limited to.gov/Pubs/SP811/cover. Page 40334. For example. For example.54 centimeters (exactly). in order to convert inches to centimeters multiply the value to be converted by 2. reprinted in NIST SP 814 Throughout this document the terms customary and inch-pound units will be used interchangeably. and the gallon is defined as the volume corresponding to 3. the term inch-pound unit includes the degree Fahrenheit. such as the gallon. grants and other business-related activities. in educational information. and as guidance in publications to increase understanding of the metric system. contracts.R. In this document.S. Government and industry use metric units for 1 procurements. Some inch-pound units. the drafting of laws.htm). regulations. gallon of 128 fluid ounces (231 cubic inches). 1 2 Vol. the inch is defined as the length corresponding to 2. 63 F.html). procurements. Inc. When the term gallon is used. statistical tables. purchase orders. databases.nist. in other words. §205 – 267).1 SCOPE In 1988 Congress designated the International System of Units (SI). this publication also explains the relationship between metric units and inch-pound units. the inch-pound (customary) units are based on the SI units and multiplication or division is used to convert units from one system to another. for educational information.S. since the inch was defined as the length corresponding to 2. as interpreted or modified for use in the United States by the Secretary of Commerce through the National Institute of Standards and Technology may be used in trade and commerce. and the preparation of public information. reports and brochures. and maps. 2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS This publication is based on National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) SP 330 – International System of Units (SI) (2001)(http://physics. grants and other business-related activities. developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.nist. 1998. In addition to serving as an authoritative document for the conversion of customary2 (inch-pound) units to metric. An extensive set of conversion factors between the two systems of units is listed in Section 5. and the IEEE/ASTM SI 10TM American National Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System (2002).2 Inch-Pound Units Units based upon the inch. This publication provides guidance on the use of the International System of Units (SI) to ensure uniformity with the weights and measures usage in the commercial measurement system and in other applications. No. 144. product specifications.gov/Pubs/SP330/contents. law beginning in 1893. The practical guidance in this publication may be used for.54 centimeters. correspondence.gov/ts/htdocs/200/202/pub814. NIST SP 811 – Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI)(1995)(http://physics. and gallon were historically derived from the English system and subsequently were re-defined as multiples of SI Units in U. 1 .54. pound.C.785412 liters. the metric system. and for guidance in publications. have the same name as units previously used in other countries but differ in magnitude. 3.S.1 SI Units Units belonging to the International System of Units (SI).html).nist. and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International and other selected publications noted in Section 6 3 DEFINITIONS 3. NIST 814 – Interpretation of the SI for the United States and Metric Conversion Policy for Federal Agencies (1998) (http://ts. July 28. it means a U. as the preferred system of measurement for use in trade and commerce (15 U..

indicating the power(s) of 10 by which a unit may be multiplied (for example.1 SI Base Units The SI is constructed from seven base units. industry and commerce. such as the hectare (ha) for an area of land or the liter (L or l) for volume. when measuring short lengths such as 1/1000th of a meter. 4. Quantity Unit Name Symbol length meter m mass kilogram kg time second s electric current ampere A thermodynamic temperature kelvin K amount of substance mole mol luminous intensity candela cd 3 Table 1.2 SI Derived Units Derived units are formed for convenience of notation and are mainly used by various branches of science. Instead of creating a new unit. the SI unit for velocity is the meter per second (m/s or m • s-1). 2 . a prefix is added. plus others (with symbols of their own) such as pressure (pascal) or electric resistance (ohm).1 Preferred SI (metric) Units The SI units preferred for use are the units (together with their multiples and submultiples). positive or negative powers of 10) of the SI unit. For convenience. 4. This is how “weight” is used in most United States laws and regulations.e. For example. For example.3 SI Prefixes The units often have prefixes. See the note in section 5. and use of exponents. These prefixes are helpful when referring to very small or very large quantities. however.4 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 4. The SI Base Units.2. milli denotes 1/1000 th. They are attached to an SI unit name or symbol to form what are properly called "multiples" and "submultiples" (i. we simply write millimeter. the prefix kilo in kilometer indicates that the unit kilometer is 1000 times larger than the meter). Some derived SI units have special names and symbols.. and that for angular velocity is the radian per second (rad/s or rad • s-1). division.1. the term “weight” is usually used as a synonym for mass. industry and trade can be expressed in terms of these units or other combinations. other units can be derived from these. which are adequate to describe most of the measurements used in science. 4.1. The symbols for derived units are obtained by means of the mathematical signs for multiplication.1 for further explanation.1. and in many technical fields. They are obtained by combining base units and other derived units algebraically. 3 In commercial and everyday use. Almost all physical measurements of science.

g. “the kilometer measures length” not “the km measures length. 3 . SI Prefixes. There is one exception: in "degree Celsius" the term "degree" is lower case but "Celsius" is always capitalized. symbols stand for both the singular and plural of the unit and should not have an "s" added when more than one.”) 4 A space is not required between the numeric value and SI symbols which appear in the net quantity of content declarations of packaged goods available in the commercial marketplace.4 SI symbols should not be used in a sentence to indicate the units they represent unless the symbol has a number preceding it (e.4 Editorial Style The names of all SI units begin with a lower case letter except. and those for less than a million are written in lower case.001 = 10 -6 0.000 000 001 = 10 pico p 0. When the unit symbol is used..The common metric prefixes are: Multiplication Factor Prefix Name 12 Prefix Symbol tera T 1 000 000 000 = 109 giga G 1 000 000 = 106 mega M kilo k 100 = 10 hecto h 1 10 = 10 deka da 0.1. Pa for Pascal. e. When the unit name is written in full. the prefix symbol is used: MHz. Others. the prefix is written in full: megahertz. not Mhertz.1 = 10-1 deci d centi c milli m micro µ 1 000 000 000 000 = 10 3 1 000 = 10 2 -2 0. W for Watt. prefixes that are multiples or submultiples of 1000 are generally preferred. SI symbols are unique—they are not abbreviations and should not be followed by a period (except at the end of a sentence). Prefixes produce units that are of an appropriate size for the application. e.nist.gov/metric on the Internet. Table 2. or kilometer for the measurement of distances on maps. 4. While all combinations are technically correct. deka. etc. Likewise. from 10 to 10 are acceptable for use of the SI. millimeter for measurement of the dimensions of small screws.01 = 10 -3 0.g. Only one prefix should be used in forming a multiple of an SI unit.. Examples that show reasonable choices of multiples and submultiples for many practical applications are given in Section 5. many are not used in practice.g. The prefixes deci. not megaHz. Prefix symbols for multiples of a million or greater are capitalized. and hecto are rarely used.g... of course. SI units are always written in an upright typeface with a space between the numeric value and the symbol. µV. at the beginning of a sentence or when other grammar rules dictate capitalizing nouns. For information on the labeling requirements for packaged goods sold in the commercial marketplace see the Uniform Packaging and Labeling Regulation in National Institute of Standards and Technology Handbook 130 “Uniform Laws and Regulations in the Field of Legal Metrology…” at http//:www.). not mmV.000 001 = 10 -9 nano n 0.000 000 000 001 = 10-12 -24 24 This table shows the common prefixes. SI symbols are always written in lower case except for the liter and those units derived from the name of a person (e. See NIST SP 330.

5 See NIST Special Publication 814. oersted. if the value is used in nutrition candela centiliter milliliter or liter fermi femtometer gamma nanotesla micron micrometer millimicron nanometer mho siemens γ (gamma) microgram calorie cubic millimeter or microliter λ (lambda) Table 4.2 Accepted Units For practical reasons a number of non-metric units are accepted for use. CGS Units Not to be Used. 40334.R. Deprecated Names and Symbols. 205(a)). 1998)5. esu. lambert used in photometry emu. dyne.3. and a few units for special applications.C.3.3 Unacceptable Metric Units Many older metric practices are no longer acceptable. units of plane angle (degree. "Metric System of Measurement. gilbert. Section 5 includes accepted units and shows their areas of application. Executive Order 12770. These include units of time (minute. abampere. if the value is used in physics kilojoule (kJ). The units listed in the subsections 4.1 Centimeter-Gram-Second (CGS) Units Units with special names peculiar to the various CGS metric systems shall not be used. phot. 4. used in navigation. stokes used in fluid dynamics stilb. Particular care shall be taken to avoid introducing non-SI practices into the United States in areas where such practices are not now established. 4 . 4.3. statvolt. etc. hour.4. used in electricity and magnetism franklin. Conversion factors are provided for some of these units to assist the users of this document in converting those values to SI units.). maxwell. July 28. and the Federal Register Notice. Table 3.1 and 4. Interpretation of the International System of Units for the United States" (63 F. These units may be used in full compliance with the provisions of the Metric Conversion Law (15 U. etc.3. Among these units are the following that have been commonly used: CGS Units that Shall Not be Used Typical Applications erg. and jargon that shall not be used include: Deprecated Term or Symbol Correct Unit kilo candle or candlepower kilogram joule (J). abvolt. gauss. biot.2 Deprecated Names or Symbols Other units from older versions of the metric system. 4. etc. such as the nautical mile.S. 1998 edition.2 shall not be used.). some terms not recommended for continued use. gal used in mechanics poise.

If the inch-pound value is expressed by a combination of units such as feet and inches. or pounds and ounces.325 kPa) technical atmosphere (98. Conversion factors in Section 5 are shown from inch-pound units to SI units. 00 257. The following sections are intended as a guide through this multi-step process.004 92 has 3 significant digits.1 feet to meters multiple by 0. It should be presented without a space between the coefficient and the quantity symbol. 5 . selection of the correct number of significant digits7. 6 7 The acceleration due to gravity is a variable quantity rather than a unit. labeled To. gives SI units or other preferred units.806 65 ms-2 is used. multiply by the factor given in Section 5.0665 kPa) torr (133.3 Miscellaneous Non-SI Units Not to be Used Additional units that are not accepted for use include the following: ångström gn as a unit of acceleration (gn= 9.. centimeter.7g.322 Pa) Table 5. however. The first column.0. it should first be converted to the smaller unit. and with no plural indications made by adding an “s. even if the standard value gn = 9.3. lists inch-pound and other units commonly used to express the quantities. to convert 10. labeled To Convert From.5 ounces For conversion from inch-pound units to SI units.1 feet x 0.3048: 10.7 has 4 significant digits. Thus 30. For example. Rounding should be the last step of the conversion process and should be performed only once. especially if other mathematical operations or conversions will follow. Zeros with significant digits on each side are also significant. Trailing zeros located to the right of the decimal point are to be considered significant. and 0.4. generally to seven significant digits. and the third column.” The value used in each document should be specified. Examples: 12 feet 5 inches = 149 inches 1 pound 3-1/2 ounces = 19.g.07848 m At this point it is good practice to keep all of the digits.3048 = 3. One or more leading zeroes are not treated as significant.806 65 ms-2)6 grade or gon [1 grade = ( π /200) rad] kilogram-force langley (1 langley = 1 cal/cm2) metric carat (use carat. labeled Multiply By.40 each have three significant digits but 340 must be taken as having only two significant digits. The number of significant digits is the number of digits used to express a number.4. which is 200 mg) metric horsepower millimeter of mercury millimeter.4 Conversion Conversion is a multi-step process that involves multiplication or division by a numerical factor. Non-SI Units Not to be Used. e. the second column. It may be used in multiples to express accelerations. and rounding. 4. or meter of water standard atmosphere (101. gives the conversion factor by which the numerical value in To Convert From units must be multiplied to obtain the numerical value in To units. with the quantity symbol in slanted or italic type. and 3. 34. such as 2.

The first step of the rounding process is to establish the number of significant digits to be retained.609347 = 97.1 Rounding Before attempting to round a converted number. Similarly.36549 km The first significant digit of the metric value (9) is greater than the first significant digit of the inch-pound value (6). 4. (ii) If the first significant digit of the converted value is smaller than the first significant digit of the original value.05 meters must be used until studies show that 3 meters of clearance is adequate.4.1. simple rules of rounding in 4.4. in a law or regulation).2169 km The first significant digit of the metric value (1) is smaller than the first significant digit of the inch-pound value (6). the purpose of rounding involves a commercially available package. round the converted value to the same number of significant digits as there are in the original value. If the converted values are being used to develop a technical document or a specification. or commodity. but if a safety code requires 10 feet of clearance from electrical lines.4 km. When the purpose of the rounding is to provide equivalent units for use in general use documents or reports.5 miles to kilometers. Therefore the number of significant digits to be retained in the converted value should be one more than that for the original value (3). and the result is 18 km. round the converted number to maintain the precision of the measurement using the guidance provided in 4. however. the rounding must be done in a direction where the metric value does not violate the original limit by increasing or decreasing it inappropriately. Where an inch-pound unit represents a maximum or minimum limit (e.609347 = 106. Example: In converting 66 miles to kilometers. For example. product.4. it is important to establish the purpose of rounding and the application that it will be used in.609347 = 17. the most appropriate procedure may be to round the converted value down for the reasons described in 4.4. and the result is 97.1 Rounding Procedure for Technical Documents or Specifications The number of significant digits retained must be such that accuracy is neither sacrificed nor exaggerated.2 are recommended.1. first multiply the inch-pound value by the conversion factor: 60. first multiply the inch-pound value by the conversion factor: 66 miles x 1. In order to maintain the accuracy of the converted number.5 miles x 1.70281 km The first significant digit of the metric value (1) is equal to the first significant digit of the inch-pound value (1). and the result is 106 km.4. a converted value of 3.4.2. Examples: In converting 60.1. Therefore the number of significant digits to be retained in the converted value is the same as that for the original value (3).g. If. Therefore the number of significant digits to be retained in the converted value is the same as that for the original value (2).1.. in converting 11 miles to kilometers: 11 miles x 1. round to one more significant digit.1. for most applications 10 feet rounds to 3 meters. the following procedure8 may be used: (i) If the first significant digit of the converted value is greater than or equal to the first significant digit of the original value. 8 Note that this procedure is the same whether converting from inch-pound to SI or from SI to inch-pound units. 6 . Additional guidance on rounding is available in Annex B of IEEE/ASTM Standard SI 10TM (2002) and NIST Special Publication 811 (1995).

they determine which of the declarations represent the largest net quantity and verify the accuracy of that value.g.5 degree Celsius. multiply by (1. while a distance may be given in inch-pound units as 27 feet 5 inches.4 m.326 000 3. refer to NIST Handbook 130 – Uniform Laws and Regulations in the area of legal metrology … at http://www.5 kg. For example. The preferred units for various quantities are grouped in subsections as follows: Space and Time. For example.” It is not practical to list all quantities. Light. are not used in metric practice.3048 = 2. Heat.3048 For a more detailed discussion. in converting 8 feet to meters: 8 feet x 0. either an SI unit with appropriate prefix or a non-SI unit that is accepted for use with SI. Such supplemental lists should be consistent with this document and users should provide their equivalents in SI units unless the quantity being measured cannot be measured in combinations of base or derived SI units (e. 5 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS AND CONVERSION FACTORS This section gives detailed requirements for the selection of units. As with other quantities.055 056)/(0. the number of significant digits to retain will depend upon the implied accuracy of the original temperature. Thus. and rounding to the nearest Celsius would reduce the precision of the original measurement.1.2 Rounding Practices Used for Packaged Goods in the Commercial Marketplace Manufacturers of packaged goods sold in the commercial marketplace are required under either federal or state laws to accurately declare the net quantity of contents of their packages. The tables are presented as follows: To Convert From Foot 9 To meter (m) Multiply By 0. not 70-1/2 kg. Rockwell hardness and Richter scale values). The subsections list conversion factors to the appropriately sized metric unit. to convert from Btu per pound to kilojoules per kilogram. metric practice shows a length as 3.Similarly. This is because the magnitude of a degree Celsius (ºC) is approximately twice the size of a degree Fahrenheit.1. These quantity declarations are based on the accuracy of packaging machinery and take into account unavoidable deviations in the packaging process. Mixed units. and the result is 2.3 Temperature Rounding Temperature is usually expressed in degrees Fahrenheit as whole numbers and should be converted to the nearest 0. which are commonly used with inch-pound units. Therefore the number of significant digits to be retained in the converted value should be one more than that for the original value (2). Government agencies and industry may develop supplemental lists of accepted units applicable to their special fields..4. 45 cm.54. but others not listed can be readily derived using the conversion factors given.45 m rather than 3 m. Other “Derived Quantities. Mechanics. Note on Mixed Units and Fractions. and Radiology. 4. 4. Binary fractions (such as 1/2 or 3/8) are not used with metric units.438400 m The first significant digit of the metric value (2) is smaller than the first significant digit of the inch-pound value (8).4. Both federal and state regulations allow manufacturers or packagers to round converted values down to avoid overstating the net quantity of contents declared on package labels.nist.9 When officials verify the accuracy of multiple quantity declarations. multiply by 2.gov/owm on the Internet 7 . to convert from inches per second to centimeters per second. Electricity and Magnetism. a person's weight is given as 70.453 592 37) or 2.

914 4 1.1. i. survey] inch (in) inch (in) microinch (µin) mil (0.S. survey foot or the foot of 0. In 1959 a refinement was made to bring the foot into agreement with the definition used in other countries. Use of the degree and its decimal fractions is permissible. which is the only unit commonly used to express solid angle. Use of the minute and second is discouraged except for specialized fields such as cartography No change in inch-pound usage is required for solid angle units.001 inch) mil (0.1 1. labeled To Convert from. The five-digit multipliers given in this standard for acre and acre-foot are correct for either the U. the second column.304 8 0. The nautical mile is an accepted unit for use in navigation.304 8 meters exactly.351 46 4. and volumes are based on the foot of 0.S.S.304 8 meters.S. is most frequently used in scientific or technical work and in forming derived units.025 4 25.828 804 0. in the Multiply By column.852 0.3 Length Fathom foot (ft) foot 12 [U. gives SI units or other preferred units. survey foot. In 1893 the U. 8 .1 Quantities of Space and Time 5.1. lists inch-pound and other units commonly used to express the quantities. labeled Multiply By.S. 0.54 25.217 5 No change in inch-pound usage is required for plane angle units. Conversion factors. The conversion factors are: Section To Convert From 5.4 0. would remain with the old standard. which is named the U.e. is an SI unit. The steradian. The radian. labeled To.4 0. areas.The first column. and the third column.609 344 1.1.304 800 6 2. that are exact conversion values are noted in bold type.3048 meters. which is the SI unit. To convert values expressed in SI unit to the other unit divide the SI unit by the value in the Multiply By column.1 Plane angle10 Radian 5.001 inch) yard (yd) mile. The new length is shorter by about two parts in a million.29578 11 angstrom 10 To nanometer (nm) meter (m) meter (m) meter (m) centimeter (cm) millimeter (mm) micrometer (µm) millimeter (mm) micrometer (µm) meter (m) kilometer (km) kilometer (km) millimeter (mm) millimeter (mm) 0.025 4 0. At the same time it was decided that any data in feet derived from and published as a result of geodetic surveys within the U.. foot was legally defined as 1200/3937 meters. Other lengths. gives the conversion factors (generally to seven significant digits) by which the numerical value in To Convert From units must be multiplied to obtain the numerical value in SI units. international (5280 ft) (mi) nautical mile13 point (printer’s) pica 11 12 13 Multiply By degree arc 57.2 Solid angle 5.

is accepted for use with SI. degree to which the container is heaped.473 176 5 Based on U. (i) The liter.Section 5. The hectare.000 506 708 6.873 0. measured in accordance with established procedures. Department of Agriculture for statistical purposes: Crop Weight per bushel (kg) barley 21. oil cubic yard cubic foot cubic foot board foot register ton17 bushel18 gallon quart (liquid) pint (liquid) 15 16 17 18 4 046.451 6 645. wheat 27.316 85 0. The register ton is a unit of volume used to express the capacity of a ship. shelled 25. etc.035 239 07 3.8 corn.987 3 0.158 987 3 158.831 685 0. size.404 687 3 0.S.946 352 9 0. S. gallons) (42 U.785 412 0. Agricultural products that are sold by the bushel in the United States are often sold by weight in other countries. soybeans.1. (ii) A variety of barrel sizes have been used for other commodities.S. is accepted for use with SI.028 316 85 28.001 m3.836 127 36 2.589 988 Volume acre-foot 14 Multiply By Area acre14 5.1.4 oats 14.16 0. equal to 0. The following conversion factors are used by the U.002 359 737 2. gallons) cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3) liter (L) cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3) liter (L) cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3) cubic meter (m3) liter (L) liter (L) liter (L) 1 233. or condition of the commodity. survey foot.S. equal to 10 000 m2. a 20 000 ton freighter has a capacity of approximately 57 000 m3. oil16 barrel.4 To Convert From square meter (m2) hectare15 (ha) square millimeter (mm2) square centimeter (cm2) square millimeter (mm2) square meter (m2) square meter (m2) square kilometer (km2) acre circular mil square inch square inch square foot square yard square mile barrel.764 555 0.5 To (42 U. For example.092 903 04 0. tightness of pack.2 9 . There can be a considerable variation in the weight per unit volume due to differences in variety.5 potatoes.489 0.

g. week.2. and 5 mL.025 4 0. In many fields of science and technology the term "weight" is defined as the force of gravity acting on an object.1 19 16.016 047 In the United States.7 Velocity foot per second mile per hour knot21 (nautical mile per hour) 5. No change in inch-pound U.000 471 9474 0.S.047 1.742 58 0. 10 .028 316 85 0.304 8 Quantities of Mechanics 5. are accepted units. it is expressed in newtons in SI. usage is required for time units.8 foot per second squared standard acceleration of gravity (gn) cubic foot per minute cubic foot per minute cubic yard per minute gallon per minute gallon per day ton (long) 21 22 23 24 1. Fuel consumption (e.471 947 4 12. etc. 20 mile/gallon fuel efficiency is equal to 20(0.42514)=8. but the minute and hour.609 344 1.2 29.. is an accepted unit for use in navigation.425 143 7 Mass (weight23) ton (long)24 (2240 lb) 20 0. Thus. In general usage. The second is the SI unit of time. and 1/6 fluid ounces.304 8 9.6 Time20 5. the cup.063 090 2 3. respectively. and teaspoon are defined as 8.76 L/ 100 km. Where the term is so used. as the product of the mass of the object and the local acceleration of gravity.10 meter per second (m /s) kilometer per hour (km/h) kilometer per hour (km/h) Multiply By Acceleration inch per second squared 5. or more conveniently 11. year. There is ambiguity in the use of the term "weight" to mean either force or mass.9 To milliliter (mL) cubic centimeter (cm3) kilogram (kg) metric ton (t) 1 016.. which is equivalent to a fuel consumption of 1/8.387 064 Fuel efficiency mile per gallon22 5. or nautical mile per hour. equal to 1000 kg.1. For practical usage the metric equivalents are 250 mL.785 412 kilometer per liter (km/L) 0.503=0.1. liter/kilometer) is the reciprocal of fuel efficiency. 1/2.Section To Convert From fluid ounce19 cubic inch 5.806 65 cubic meter per second (m3 /s) cubic meter per second (m3 /s) liter per second (L/s) liter per second (L/s) liter per second (L/s) liter per day (L/d) 0. the term "weight" nearly always means mass and this is the meaning given the term in U.573 53 Flow rate cubic foot per second 5.1.852 meter per second squared (m·s-2) meter per second squared (m·s-2) meter per second squared (m·s-2) 0.503 km/L. The metric ton (referred to as "tonne" in many countries). i. is accepted for use with SI. as well as the day. Where weight is so defined. 15 mL. The knot.S. laws and regulations.1.. weight is expressed in kilograms in SI.e. tablespoon.1.1176 L/km.

2.7 14.448 222 0.103 48 Force pound-force 5.6 0.2. 553 1.2.826 4 7.907 184 74 Concentration (mass) pound per gallon 5.8 0.5 907.138 255 0 newton meter (N · m) newton meter (N · m) 1. its multiple. stress standard atmosphere25 25 28. torque pound-force foot 5. and submultiples are preferred for all applications. which is equal to the newton per square meter. 11 .593 9 Momentum pound foot per second 5.138 255 kilogram per cubic meter (kg /m3) metric ton per cubic meter (t /m3) kilogram per cubic meter (kg /m3) 1 186.489 152 kilogram meter per second (kg · m /s) 0.184 74 Density ton (2 000 lb ([short]) per cubic yard 5. This unit.9 31.138 255 0 kilogram square meter (kg · m2) 0.2.2.325 The SI unit for pressure and stress is the pascal.355 818 0.018 46 gram per liter (g /L) gram per liter (g /L) 119.4 Multiply By Moment of mass pound foot 5.042 140 11 newton (N) newton (N) 4.453 592 37 Moment of inertia pound square foot 5.2.Section To Convert From ton (short) (2000 lb) ton (short) slug pound (avoirdupois) ounce (troy) ounce (avoirdupois) grain 5.2.186 553 16.112 984 8 Pressure.349 52 Moment of force.2.3 To kilogram (kg) metric ton (t) kilogram (kg) kilogram (kg) gram (g) gram (g) milligram (mg) kilopascal (kPa) 101.798 91 kilogram meter (kg · m) 0.2 pound per cubic foot ounce (avoirdupois) per gallon poundal pound-force inch 64.

S.894 757 0. which is equal to the newton meter or the watt second. The SI unit of energy. as the unit of fluid pressure in pipes and containers.249 082 0.) horsepower hour foot pound-force 27 28 29 30 31 0.322 4 millipascal second (mPa · s) 1 square millimeter per second (mm2 /s) 1 Energy.386 38 2. The British Thermal Unit (Btu) used in this standard is the International Table Btu (BtuIT) adopted by the Fifth International Conference on Properties of Steam. 1956. The calorie listed here is the thermochemical calorie.055 056 105.. The appropriate SI multiples.184 4. The kilowatthour is accepted as a unit of electrical energy only. The calorie used in nutrition is the same as the thermochemical kilocalorie or kcal. should be used instead. One food calorie equals about 4.186 J.480 4 2. is recommended for all applications.g.2. which in turn depends upon the temperature.10 calorie29 (as used in physics) calorie30 (as used in nutrition) Btu31 therm (U.11 To kilopascal (kPa) kilopascal (kPa) kilopascal (kPa) megapascal (MPa) kilopascal (kPa) kilopascal (kPa) kilopascal (kPa) kilopascal (kPa) kilopascal kPa) pascal (Pa) megajoule (MJ) joule (J) kilojoule (kJ) kilojoule (kJ) megajoule (MJ) megajoule (MJ) joule (J) 3. heat kilowatthour28 26 100 Viscosity (kinematic) centistokes 5.355 818 The bar and its submultiples are accepted for limited use in meteorology only.894 757 6. The conversion factors given here are conventional values adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Other values of the calorie have been used. kilopascal or megapascal.Section To Convert From bar26 millibar pound-force per square inch (psi) kilopound-force per square inch pound-force per square foot inch of mercury26 (32 °F) foot of water26 (39.. the joule. 12 .684 520 1.047 880 26 3.988 98 0. It is not accepted for use in the U.S. The actual pressure corresponding to the height of a vertical column of fluid depends upon the local acceleration of gravity and the density of the fluid.184 1. London.133 322 4 133.12 Multiply By Viscosity (dynamic) centipoise 5. e. work.1 6. e.6 4.2 °F) inch of water26 (39. All use of the calorie is deprecated.2.2.2 °F) millimeter of mercury27 (32 °F) torr (Torr) 5. for other applications.g.

699 9 746 1. See 5.273.3.3.2.8. and heat flow rate—is the watt. In inch-pound units temperature is expressed in degrees Fahrenheit. The SI unit for all forms of power—mechanical. See 5.3 5.8 watt per meter kelvin [W / (m · K)] 0.055 056 0. electrical.7 Btu per degree Fahrenheit 5.516 853 1.3.2 Linear expansion coefficient reciprocal degree Fahrenheit 3.3. Heat flow rate is a form of power.3. The formula for converting degree Rankine to thermodynamic temperature is: TK = TR /1.13 To Convert From Btu per second31 Btu per hour31 horsepower (550 foot pounds-force per second) horsepower. Heat is a form of energy.3. refrigeration (12 000 Btu/h) 5.3.355 818 Heat 5.15 K.7.6 33 kilowatt (kW) kilowatt (kW) watt (W) watt (W) watt (W) watt (W) Quantities of Heat reciprocal degree Fahrenheit 32 Multiply By Power ton.4 Heat flow rate35 5. The inch-pound unit for thermodynamic temperature is the degree Rankine. electric foot pound-force per second 5.144 227 9 watt per square meter kelvin [W / (m2 · K)] 5. The formula for converting a temperature interval ∆t in degrees Fahrenheit into SI is: 34 35 △tK = △tC = △tF /1.Section 5.5 Thermal conductivity Btu inch per hour square foot degree Fahrenheit Coefficient of heat transfer Btu per hour square foot degree Fahrenheit Heat capacity 5.8 1.9 reciprocal kelvin (K-1) reciprocal degree Celsius (°C-1) 34 5. as convenient.186 8 kilojoule per kelvin (kJ/K) 1.293 071 1 745.899 101 kilojoule per kilogram kelvin [kJ/(kg · K)] 4.3. The Celsius temperature is defined by the equation: tC = TK .2.3.899 101 Entropy Btu per degree Rankine 5. 13 .8.8 Specific heat capacity Btu per pound degree Fahrenheit 5.12. The formula for converting temperature is: tC = (tF .1 Temperature33 5. The SI unit for temperature is the degree Celsius (°C) or the kelvin (K).8 The SI unit for thermodynamic temperature TK is the kelvin (K).3 To 32 Specific entropy NOTE: Power is the rate of energy transfer.3. A temperature interval may be expressed in SI either in kelvin or in degrees Celsius.3.678 263 kilojoule per kelvin (kJ/K) 1.32) /1.10 1.

763 91 10 000 lux (lx) 10. radiance. lumen (lm).5 5.4.5. lumen second (lm · s).4.11 To kilojoule per kilogram kelvin [kJ/(kg · K)] kilojoule per kilogram (kJ/kg) Quantities of Electricity and Magnetism36 5.4.763 91 Quantities of Radiology The common electrical units ampere (A). farad (F).1 10 millitesla (mT) 0.Section To Convert From Btu per pound degree Rankine 5.5.1 coulomb (C) 3 600 nanoohm meter (nΩ · m) 1.6 36 37 0.2 4. henry (H).5 79.2 2.426 259 Luminous exitance lumen per square foot 5. and tesla (T) are SI units that are already in use in the United States.4.3. weber (Wb).4 Multiply By Illuminance footcandle lux (lx) lux (lx) 10.1 candela per square inch footlambert phot 5. luminous flux. candela (cd). No change is required for the following quantities: radiant intensity.1 candela per square meter (cd/m2) candela per square meter (cd /m2) candela per square meter (cd /m2) 3 183. watt per square meter (W/m2).4. watt per steradian square meter (W/[sr · m2]). 14 .186 8 Specific internal energy Btu per pound 5.5.5. coulomb (C). The various Centimeter-Gram-Second (CGS) units shall no longer be used. and quantity of light.4.3 Conductivity siemens per meter (S/m) Quantities of Light and Related Electromagnetic Radiation37 mho per centimeter 5.4 ampere per meter (A/m) Magnetic flux maxwell 5.6 nanoweber (nWb) Electric charge ampere hour 5.099 1 550.3 100 Wavelength ångström 5. ohm (Ω). volt (V). irradiance.577 47 Magnetic flux density gauss 5. watt per steradian (W/sr).4 nanometer (nm) Luminance lambert (L) 5.003 3. siemens (S).662 426 Resistivity ohm circular mil per foot 5.326 Magnetic field strength oersted 5. luminous intensity.

6.01 10 Exposure (x and gamma rays) roentgen 6 0. Mail Stop 2600.1 To Convert From To Multiply By megabecquerel (MBq) 37 000 Rad gray (Gy) 0. Weights and Measures Division.gov.000 258 DOCUMENT SOURCES Copies of SI 10TM are available from: American Society for Testing Materials International (ASTM).4 10 0.org NIST publications and Federal Standard 376B are available on the Internet at: http://www.6.astm. Laws and Metric Group.01 Rad centigray (cGy) 1 Activity (of a radionuclide) Curie 5.Section 5. or e-mail: TheSI@nist.3 Absorbed dose Dose equivalent sievert (Sv) millisievert (mSv) millisievert (mSv) microsievert (µSv) Rem Rem Millirem Millirem 5. Phone: 610-832-9585. National Institute of Standards and Technology. West Conshohocken. Gentry. NIST SP 811 or NIST SP 814 or other assistance please contact: Elizabeth J.6. 15 . Maryland 20899-2600.nist.gov/metric For print copies of NIST SP 330.01 coulomb per kilogram (C/kg) 0. Fax: 610-832-9555. Phone: 301-975-3690.2 5. FAX: 301-926-0647.6. PA 19428-2959. or at http://www. Gaithersburg. 100 Barr Harbor Drive.

1991). 5. Metric Conversion Policy for Federal Agencies. (63 F. July 29. American National Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System.1991 (56 FR 35801. Interpretation of the International System of Units for the United States. Interpretation of the SI and Metric Conversion Policy for Federal Agencies. ASTM. (2001) National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 330. 16 . 1998 edition. IEEE/ASTM SI 10TM (2002).R. 1991). July 28. (56 F. 4. Executive Order 12770 of July 25. The International System of Units (SI).R. This document replaces ASTM E380 and ANSI/IEEE Standard 268-1992. 2. which includes: Metric System of Measurement. (1995) NIST Special Publication 811. January 2. NIST Special Publication 814. Federal Standard 376B “Preferred Metric Units for General Use by the Federal Government” (January 27. IEEE/ASTM-SI-10 Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System. 1998). 40334. 160. 1993). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units. The Modernized Metric System. IEEE.7 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 3. and Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs. 6.

.................8 ångström ........12 candela....................................................................4........................14 candela per square meter .................8 atmosphere.13 Btu per pound ......................10 cubic inch.................................10 gauss .......................................................................9............................................................... 14 dose equivalent ........................10..................................................................11 gray..............12 barrel................................ 9 acre-foot...........................................2............................................................................ 11................................15 ampere ....... 9........ 14 candela per square inch......... 12 acre ........................ solid..........................14 Btu per second ......................................................................................... 6.............................................................. 10 foot.....................................................15 B E bar.................................................................4............................................................. 11 D day ............9 Btu ...............................................10 cubic foot per second.........................4.......5 Celsius temperature ................. 13 fluid ounce .............. 11 G gallon ....................... 12 coulomb .........................10 degree Celsius... 8.............. 7........................................................ 8................................................................................................................10 gallon per minute ....................................................................................................................3......... 14 density ........12 centistokes ...............................15 acceleration........................................ 14 Btu inch per hour square foot degree Fahrenheit.....14 energy ........................7..........9.....................14 angle......10 foot pound-force per second ..............2.......................................................................13 Btu per degree Rankine ................ 9 areas........................................................................................................1....................... 14 angular velocity ........................................................... 12......................................7......................... 14 conversion factors.......................... 7.........................8 flow rate. plane................... 14 concentration (mass).......................... 12.............................................14 circular mil.................... 12.................... 5.......................... 7.................................................................12 charge....8.. 8 angle. 14 grade .......................13 exposure (x and gamma rays) ................................... 7..........................15 current............................................................................................................14 ampere per meter ......................................................................................... 10 cubic meter .............................. 10........................................ 10...................................................................14 footlambert ...............................13...........................................11 gram...... 11 gallon per day ...................12.................................................................... 14 electromagnetic radiation.................................................... 9.......................................................................................14 electric current .....................14 fathom.....................................15 F farad................10........ 13 fuel consumption ..........................................5...........11 conductivity ........................................... 4..............................................................................13 Btu per hour square foot degree Fahrenheit.......... 10....... 11 gram per liter .................................................................14. 10......................................................................................................................... electric.......................2 A absorbed dose ....................4............13 Btu per degree Fahrenheit..............13 Btu per pound degree Rankine .................1.........10 cup ..............................8.......................................................14 carat ............................... 7..........................10 cubic foot ............ 4.....................................................10 cubic yard .. 14 Btu per pound degree Fahrenheit............................10 curie ................. 13 centimeter ............... 9.....15 cubic centimeter...................................................2 area ........1.....2 electricity and magnetism ......................................................................................................................5...........................................1........... 11..........3................................ 13......9.......... 10.................10 C calorie ......... 13...............5........................13...................... 12 acceleration of gravity .......................................... 11 cubic meter per second ......................................... oil.......................9 electric charge............................................. 11 cubic yard per minute ...................12 foot per second .ALPHABETICAL INDEX cubic foot per minute............................................................... 10............ 10................................13 Btu per hour........ 9 activity (of a radionuclide)................... 10.....................9 board foot................................1............................. 14 entropy....... 13 degree Rankine .1..... 12......... 7............... 5................................... 13 degree Fahrenheit .......................................13 bushel........... 14 ampere hour .......... 9...................................10 foot per second squared .................................. 4............... 13......................................................................................8..............................................................2.......... 8.5..................................................... 13.........11.. 14 foot of water .....................................14 force........................9............................................................15 17 ... 14 centipoise..........................................10 fuel efficiency....5 grain...............13 footcandle ......................................... 15 coulomb per kilogram.........................

.............2 luminous exitance ................... 12...15 millisievert.......................................11 maxwell ........................................14 J joule ............................................ 9....... 8 light.................... 10........................................ 8.................................. 6.... 12 millimeter of mercury.....10....14 H heat ...11 momentum..... 2.............5......................................................................................................14 magnetic flux ...... 7...................................................................4.13 kilowatthour.....................................................................................13 heat flow rate .........11 kilogram square meter ................................................................ 11 meter per second squared ..........11 kilogram meter per second.......................14 inch ...........................................liter per second ....................4...............14 minute . 1.......................4........................................12 inch of water . moment of.............................. 10..............................................................................14 luminous intensity..... 8.............................................................................11 moment of inertia............ 5..................10 lumen ................ 14 kilometer...4 microsievert ........................................................................ 5........ 8..................................7.. 5.............................. 4............................. 11 metric ton per cubic meter ..... 11...............10 metric ton.....................15 millitesla ............5 length ............2 irradiance ......................11 kilojoule............................ 12 kilopound-force per square inch ............... 4...............11.... 3...............................................................................................11 mho............................................. 14 kilogram..................10 kilometer per liter ..................... 9.....................................................10 kilopascal........................12 inch per second squared.....................11 kilogram per cubic meter ......................... 12........................ 9..................................................................................................................... 13 horsepower hour . 13................... 2................................... 14 M magnetic field strength ............. 9................................................................................................. nautical ............................ 10 kilometer per hour .................. 14 langley .............13 hour......................................8 microliter ..7........................................................... 12.................... moment of.................... 8..................2..............12 horsepower........................... 12. 8 micron..........................7.............. 13............... 10 millibar ........................... 10....................... 14 lux...........12 knot.........................10 N nanometer ...............................................................................14 microinch.................................................2....................................4...............................12 millirem ......................1.................4............................................. 13 heat capacity . 13.......................................................................10 megabecquerel................... 8....................................................................1........................................ 13..... 11 mass......... 14 kilojoule per kelvin..................................... 10......7........................................................................................2........................................................................... 11....2 moment of force ...............................12 megapascal ................................................................13 liter..... 8..................................................12 K kelvin ...................................................... 13........................ 14 mile ...... 14 kilojoule per kilogram kelvin.. 12 millipascal second........... 5.11 milliliter ........ 14 linear expansion coefficient........2...14 lumen per square foot ......................................................................................... 9.................................. 10.................................................................. electric............................................. 12..............14 luminance ........... 12....12 meter .......... 9 henry............................................................. 10 mole ........ 14 inertia......... 8....................................4 micrometer................... 2....... 14 18 ............... 7...12 kilowatt................ 13.... 11.........................................14 mass . 13.............................................................................. 15 kilogram meter......................................................... 8............ 3.............................14 luminous ......................................2....................5......11 moment of mass.......................................................................... 14 mho per centimeter .. 14...............................8.................11 intensity .......2................................ 13...................................................................................14 magnetic flux density.............................................................................................................................................13..........10 mile per hour....14 horsepower .............................. 14 meter per second....15 megajoule .......................... 10....................2............. 5................ 10......................... 10..... 7......................................4........11 I illuminance .................4...............1.................................10 inch-pound...........10 mile................................................4....................................................................................................................................... 9...........13 kilojoule per kilogram ............................. 11 liter per day......................................................10 millimeter ........................12 milligram ..14 luminous flux............................................. 10 mile per gallon.............................................. 2......................... 14 inch of mercury............................................................. 9.......13 hectare .............................................................................................................................................. 7.....14 mechanics ..... 3....15 mil.. 6...............13 heat transfer ..10 L lambert...........................................................................................................................................................

.....................................................................................14 quantities of space ............. 11.................... 7 nanoohm meter ...............................................8 tablespoon................................... 3................. electromagnetic...................................13 quantities of light................14 röentgen .....................14 19 .............................................. 2....... fluid ..................14 therm.....................................9.......................................................................................................... 14 radionuclide......13 thermodynamic temperature ..............1.......................................................................... 6.................................................................9................2 radiance............................................................... 12 Q T quantities of electricity ............................ 11........ 12......9 rem....2.............................1...............................................................8..................................................................................................................................................................8........11 supplemental lists .......................................................................... 12................13 R rad.............................. 13........................................................... 2...............................12 power ......................... 7.........10 standard atmosphere ..... 9 P pascal ............. 8 point...................14 square centimeter...........................................................................................................7.................. 12 square millimeter per second ......................................15 resistivity .............4.......................... 10..............11........ 13...............................9 square millimeter .......14 nanoweber.4.....2................................. 8 slug .............................................................................11 pound-force inch.................... 14 siemens per meter .......2................................................................1............................ 14 stokes ........... 8..........5................ 8.................7............ 7..........11 pound per gallon ..............................................11 ton............. 5............5.................................................................................................................. 14 square kilometer ................................... 1.........................8 space and time ........ 14 pound (avoirdupois).....................................2.................................................. 8.........................2..11 pound-force.. 8............. 13 time ................................. 10................... 14 pica ...... troy .......................................................................................... 8 radian per second ........................ 11...........................9........................... 6............... 12.............................................................. 12 newton meter ........................................11 pound square foot .....................................11 solid angle..................................................................................................................11 ounce...... 14 SI units.............14 radiant intensity ........................................11 ounce...................................................... 15 radian ... 13 temperature interval....................5..........2...... 12.................................13 reciprocal degree Fahrenheit...............................10 ton (short) .........................................................15 rounding.. refrigeration ......11 pound foot....................10 teaspoon................................................. 10.... 11......................................................................................4 pound ...14 quantities of mechanics .......................... 14 square inch.......15 reciprocal degree Celsius.................................................................................. 10 newton ..... 10 ounce........8...............11 pound foot per second...................... 11 ounce per gallon ............10.....................11 pound per cubic foot ..13 register ton ............................. 11................................... 4................................................................12 pound-force per square inch .............11 S second........ 13 pressure...................................11 poundal ..................8 quantities of time ....................13 reciprocal kelvin ........................................ activity of .................................. 6................ 14 siemens .....10 quantities of radiology ......4 stress .......................9....................................................................................................................10 temperature ................13 specific heat capacity.....................................................................................4...............................................................12 square yard................................... 10..................................................................................... 12 phot......... 14 square mile...... avoirdupois................................................................................7 survey foot ..................................radiology............... 13.................. 11 steradian....................... 7..................................................................... 12................................................14 radiation....................... 12 O oersted ..8 plane angle.....11 pound-force per square foot.......................................2............................. 8 specific entropy ..2........................................... 13 ton (long) ..... 7.............................14 nautical mile ........... 3... 5......13 specific internal energy......14 sievert ........ 11.......................................................14 ounce ...........................2.. 5...............................................................4................................ 11..... 10 ton.......................................11 ton (short) per cubic yard........ 14 ohm..............................11.......9.... 13.....................9 square meter........................................................................................................................................................................ 13 pound-force foot ..............................................................................................15 significant digits ........................................................... 5.................................. 11........................................ 14 ohm circular mil per foot ................................................ 12.................................14 quantities of heat....9 standard acceleration of gravity.................................... 13..12 thermal conductivity ..9 square foot ...............................13 tesla...8 poise....... 4............................................ 7..

..........................................12 volt.............12 viscosity (kinematic)......14 wavelength.. 9 Y yard..........................................................................watt per square meter......................... 11 year .. 2........................................................................................... 10 viscosity (dynamic).......................................... 8.........................................................................14 watt per steradian square meter ....................................................................3............12 torque.................11 torr .................................................................................................................... 10 work.............................13.....................................13 watt per steradian.1......................13 20 .............. 13 watt per meter kelvin ...................................10 W watt ........................................................8..... 12 V velocity ...................................................... 9...............7................................................................................5...............................14 volume ..............14 weber ................................................................................. 10..............14 weight .............................. 14 watt per square meter kelvin..........2........................

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