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Code-Switching and Code-Mixing of Maduranese, Javanese, and Indonesia language in Merjosari Traditional Market

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

BY: MARIA ULFA NIM 115110100111028

STUDY PROGRAM OF ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA 2013

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of background of the study, problems of the study, objective of the study, and definition of key terms.

1.1 Background of the Study Language is a media communication to deliver a message to interlocutor. As we know, Indonesia is a rich country which has much kind of languages. Languages in Indonesia consist of Javanese, Maduranese, Batakese, Sundanese, Balinese, Indonesia languages, and so on. Every single person in Indonesia usually uses language more than one in conversation or in some occasion. They prefer to switch and mix the language from one language to other languages. The combination of some languages in speaking, in sociolinguistic study, is known as code-mixing or code-switching. Hudson (1996:299) asserts that code-mixing occurs when the speaker mixes the different languages in the same utterances, and code-switching happens when a single use different varieties at different time. People choose or employ a particular code on a particular occasion for communication, in order to interlocutors can understand easily and the message can be delivered well. In view of code-mixing and code-switching phenomena, researcher tries to analyze code-switching and code-mixing that happen in Merjosari traditional market. In this traditional market, people use several languages as their commercial communication. They switch and mix three languages to communicate to each others. They are Madurese, Javanese, and Indonesia language. Hence, the writer takes the object in the traditional market in this study entitled Code-Switching and Code-Mixing of Maduranese, Javanese, and Indonesia language in Merjosari Traditional Market. This research has contribution to find out reasons of employing several languages among sellers and buyers in relation to commercial communication.

Then, it also gives explanation when code-switching and code-mixing are used by people in Merjosari Traditional Market. Last, this study is to figure out how important employ code-switching and code-mixing in developing language.

1.2 Problems of the Study According to the background of the study, the researcher formulates the problems of the study as follow: 1. What are the types of code-switching and code-mixing used in Merjosari Traditional Market by sellers and buyers? 2. What are factors or reasons that influence the use of code-switching and code-mixing in Merjosari Traditional Market by sellers and buyers?

1.3 Objective of the Study Based on the problems statement above, this study is intended to: 1. To find out types of code-switching and code-mixing used in Merjosari Traditional Market by sellers and buyers. 2. To figure out factors or reasons that influence the use of code-switching and code-mixing in Merjosari Traditional Market by sellers and buyers.

1.4 Definition of Key Term This research is useful for the following parties: 1. Sociolinguistic : concerned with investigating the relationships between language and

society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how language function in

communication. (Wardhaugh, 2006:13). 2. Code : a variety of language like dialect, language, style, standard language, pidgin, and creole are inclined to arouse emotions that used to refer to any kind of system

that two or more people (Wardhaugh, 2006:88). 3. Code-switching : a particular code whenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to another or to mix codes even within sometimes very short

utterances and thereby create a new code in a process (Wardhaugh, 2006:101). 4. Code-mixing : strategy of communication used by speaker of a certain language who transfer element or rules from other language to their own language (Hammer & Blanc, 1997:266) 5. Madurese language : a language of the Madurese people of Madura Island and eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken on the neighbouring small Kangean Islands and Sapudi Islands, as well as from migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the Tapal Kuda

("horseshoe") area of neighbouring Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands, and even some on Kalimantan. http://
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madurese_language

6. Javanese language

: a language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. http://en.

wikipedia.org/wiki/Javanese _language 7. Indonesia language : the official language and lingua franca of Indonesia. 8. Merjosari Traditional Market : a traditional market that located in Merjosari.

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, the theories, which are relevant with the study, are reviewed. It consists of theoretical framework and previous studies.

2.1 Theoretical Framework This theoretical framework consists of the theories sociolinguistic, code, code-switching, code-mixing, and factor that affect code-switching and codemixing.

2.1.1 Sociolinguistic Sociolinguistic is concerned with investigating the relationships between language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and of how language functions in communication. (Wardhaugh, 2006:13). Sociolinguistics is also called micro-sociolinguistic that has a meaning the study of language in relation to society. According Coulmas (1997, p. 2) says that micro-sociolinguistics investigates how social structure influences the way social attributes such as class, sex and age. Thus, in sociolinguistics we study about language and society in order to find out as much as we can about what kind of thing language is.

2.1.2 Bilingualism and Multilingualism Bilingualism is the state of having two languages (Yule, 2006:238). In addition, bilingualism is a member of minority group grows up in one linguistic community, primarily speaking one language, but learns another language, in order to take part in the larger, dominant, linguistic community (Yule, 1996:231). He understands that in many countries, regional variation is not simply a matter of two dialects of a single language, but a matter of two quite distinct and different languages.

In other hand, multilingualism is a person who has the ability to speak three and more language. Multilingual is the one whom expert in using more than two varieties of languages ( Meilisa, 2013:9). Bilingualism and multilingualism

2.1.3 Code Code is a variety of language like dialect, language, style, standard language, pidgin, and creole are inclined to arouse emotions that used to refer to any kind of system that two or more people (Wardhaugh, 2006:88). So, code is not only in certain language, but also in certain dialect, accent, style, and so on, But in this research, writer wants to more focus on employing several languages as code-switching and code-mixing theories.

2.1.4 Code-switching Code-switching is a particular code whenever they choose to speak, and they may also decide to switch from one code to another or to mix codes even within sometimes very short utterances and thereby create a new code in a process (Wardhaugh, 2006:101). In addition, he asserts
There are two kinds of code-switching. First, situational code-switching that occur when the language used changed according to the situations in which the conversant find themselves. Second, metaphorical code-switching occur when some topics may be discussed in either code, but the choice of code adds a distinct flavor to what is said about the topic

2.1.5 Code-mixing Code-mixing is a strategy of communication used by speaker of a certain language who transfers element or rules from other language to their own language (Hammer & Blanc, 1997:266). Code mixing happens when in one sentence or utterance changes from one code to another code. Thus, alteration of languages in one sentence or utterance is called code-mixing.

2.2 Previous Studies There is a previous studies by Megawati (2012) entitled Code Witching Used in Novel Janda-Janda Kosmopilitan By Andrei Aksana. In this study she analyzed code switching and analyzed it with the type of code by Wardaugh

(2004). She also examined the factor of code switching based on Holmes (1996). Megawati found that Rossa and Nunung, the main character used two types of methaporical code switching with 12 utterances (60%) and situational code switching (SCS) with 8 utterances (40%). The metaphorical code switching occurs more than the situational code switching because the main character on this novel expresses many emotive statements, for example; elucidate, panic, earnestness, jealously, and cheering someone. In addition, main character Nunung also uses code switching when she switches the topic. Code switching is also used when Rossa and Nunung show their solidarity and show their status to others. Megawati found 3 languages as codes, they are English, Indonesia language, and Javanese.

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODS

There are four aspects that discussed in this chapter of research methods. They are (1) Research Design, (2) Data Sources, (3) Data Collection, and (4) Data Analysis.

3.1 Research Design In conducting the study, the researcher uses a descriptive qualitative approach. The researcher analyzed the data deductively and find out in what kinds of code-switching and code-mixing that used in Merjosari Traditional Market by sellers and buyers and what aims using several language, such as: Maduranese, Javanese, and Indonesia language.

3.2 Data Sources The data is taken from Merjosari Traditional Market that located in Merjosari, Malang. Data of this study containing code-switching and codemixing. The writer took statements of sellers and buyers who used code-switching and code-mixing. There are several language that used in Merjosari Traditional Market, like Maduranese, Javanese, and Indonesia language. The writer focused on code-switching and code-mixing of those languages which are used in Merjosari traditional market.

3.3 Data Collection The writer uses the steps in collecting the data, and they are presented as follows: 1. Visiting and observing the employing of several language in Merjosari traditional market. 2. Identifying all statements using code-switching and code-mixing with interview and questioner. 3. Selecting code-switching and code-mixing from sellers and buyers.

4. Analyzing the code-switching and code-mixing that used.

3.4 Data Analysis There are three steps to analyze the data: 1. Analyzing code switching and code switchig with the type of code by Wardaugh (2004). 2. Examining the factor of code switching based on Holmes (1996).