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We’re Not Exaggerating.

Our Boilers
are something to brag about.
We custom design and custom build boilers to perform efficiently, safely and cleanly.
Your RENTECH boiler will lower operating costs, reduce emissions, and provide faster start-up
and cool-down. You’ll find satisfied customers on six continents with specialty boilers, HRSGs,
wasteheat boilers and fired packaged watertube boilers from RENTECH. We’ve been designing
and building boilers for people who know and care since 1996.
WWW.RENTECHBOILERS.COM
RenBoi_PEdm_1306 1 5/21/13 2:02 PM
September 2013 t www.power-eng.com
GAS TURBINES
THE LATEST INNOVATIONS
POWER-GEN INTERNATIONAL
CELEBRATING 25 YEARS
INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROLS
INCREASING SCADA SYSTEM FUNCTIONALITY
the magazine of power generation
Are You Ready

for
316(b)?
1
1
7
YEARS
1309PE_C1 1 8/29/13 5:09 PM
Solvay Chemicals, Inc.
1.800.SOLVAY C (800.765.8292)
www.solvair.us
Copyright 2013, Solvay Chemicals, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The seasons change…
The time to make decisions about
compliance grows shorter!
With the advent of autumn, and summer a pleasant memory, it’s time to think again about
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1309PE_C2 2 8/29/13 5:09 PM
Power Engineering is the flagship
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Industry News:
Global updates
throughout the day
Power Engineering
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Newsletter:
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events, features and more.
Newscast:
A concise, weekly update of all
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DEPARTMENTS
2 Opinion
4 Clearing the Air
6 Gas Generation
8 View on Renewables
10 Nuclear Reactions
12 Energy Matters
67 Ad Index
68 Generating Buzz
FEATURES
14
EPA’s 316(b) Rule:
Are you Ready?
More than 670 power plants will be affected by the proposed
316(b) regulation, which targets facilities using once-through cooling
systems. Managing Editor Russell Ray tells you what you need
to know to comply with the rule.
42 Infusing SCADA Software with Real-Time
Power Management Capabilities
Although SCADA systems have revolutionized the power industry, extending the system’s
functionality will provide the system operator and engineer with a powerful new set of tools.
56 POWER-GEN 2013 Preview
Get all the details on POWER-GEN International, which is
celebrating its 25
th
anniversary. We’re expecting more than 21,000
attendees at PGI 2013 in Orlando on Nov. 12-14.
1
1
7
VOLUME No. 9, September 2013
20 Aeroderivative Gas
Turbine Fuel Flexibility
While natural gas is the principal fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines,
there are other fuels that make economic and social sense. This
article looks at some alternatives, including ethanol and syngas.
1309PE_1 1 8/29/13 5:31 PM
www.power-eng.com
2
OPINION
In the past, a spike in gas prices
would have killed plans to build a new
gas project in the U.S. The circum-
stances have changed significantly.
Today, a sharp spike in gas prices
would not stop the growth in new
gas projects because of ever increas-
ing regulation of coal-fired plants, a
proliferation of state standards for the
production of renewable power, and
a generous supply of natural gas from
shale. For baseload capacity, there re-
ally is no other option for power pro-
ducers, thanks to the EPA.
The transition to natural gas will
continue, even in the face of higher
gas prices and potential regulation of
gas producers.
According to the EIA, the U.S. has
a 100-year supply of gas reserves. I
think the nation’s true supply of gas is
well below the EIA’s lavish estimate,.
Still, the nation’s gas supplies are large
enough to justify the construction of
more gas-fired capacity.
But the natural gas market remains
volatile because of the way the com-
modity is traded. The growth of spec-
ulative hedge funds, energy traders
and automatic trades can cause a lot
of volatility. More traders, with no of-
ficial connection to the producer or
consumer, are buying gas and imme-
diately selling it at a profit.
Although the nation’s dependence
on gas is sure to grow, it is not good for
the U.S. The nation’s growing depen-
dence on natural gas is the result of
bad public policy. If you have a ques-
tion or comment, please contact me at
russellr@pennwell.com.
L
ast month, the closure of anoth-
er nuclear plant was announced
and regulators sued Duke En-
ergy over its coal-fired assets in North
Carolina.
Although the construction of new
gas-fired generation in the U.S. has
been slower than expected, the tran-
sition to natural gas is gaining more
momentum.
The capacity lost from the closures
of Vermont Yankee, San Onofre, Ke-
waunee, and Crystal River nuclear
stations will likely be replaced with
natural gas. Meanwhile, the number of
announced coal plant retirements and
coal-to-gas retrofits continue to rise in
the face of low-priced gas and increas-
ing environmental regulation.
What’s more, a lawsuit over coal
ash storage operations at 12 coal-fired
plants owned and operated by Duke
Energy may spawn similar lawsuits in
other states. North Carolina regulators
are suing the utility for groundwater
and wastewater violations at all 12 sites.
The U.S. will be adding 340 GW of
generation capacity between now and
2040, according to the U.S. Energy
Information Administration. Natural
gas will account for 63 percent of the
added generation during that period,
while coal and nuclear will account for
just 3 percent each. The share of total
generation from gas will grow from 27
percent in 2011 to 30 percent in 2040.
In addition to low gas prices, the
growth of wind and solar power is an-
other factor driving the construction
of new gas-fired capacity. The added
capacity is needed to balance the
increasing load of intermittent wind
and solar power.
Meanwhile, natural gas prices re-
main low at about $3.50 per mmBtu.
“Our coal plants are not operating
as baseload plants in many places
across the country,” said Keith Trent,
executive vice president and chief op-
erating officer of Duke Energy. “Four
years ago, we were all projecting that
gas prices were going to be $6 to $8
per mmBtu. At that level, coal looked
good and nuclear looked good. But
that’s not the case today.”
A scan of last month’s news at www.
power-eng.com reflects the growth of
gas-fired generation in the U.S. mar-
ketplace:
t Southern Power and Panda Power
announced plans to build gas-fired
plants in Texas and Maryland, re-
spectively.
t Siemens received a $400 million
order for two gas turbines for a new
combined cycle plant in Pennsylva-
nia.
t Fluor Corp. received full notice to
commence construction of a 1,358-
MW combined cycle plant in Vir-
ginia.
t Invenergy said it wants to build a
$500 million natural gas plant near
Jessup, Pa.
t NRG Energy completed its repower-
ing and modernization of the 550-
MW gas-fired El Segundo Energy
Center near Los Angeles.
t Gemma Power Systems signed an
engineering, procurement and con-
struction contract to build an 800-
MW gas-fired plant in Pennsylvania.
All Signs Point
to Natural Gas
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
1309PE_2 2 8/29/13 5:31 PM
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plant under construction in Haiyang, China
NO COMPANY
MORE
ON ADVANCED
FOCUSED
NUCLEAR PLANT
IS
TECHNOLOGY
www.westinghousenuclear.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 2
1309PE_3 3 8/29/13 5:31 PM
www.power-eng.com
4
CLEARING THE AIR
BY BOB NICOLO, DIRECTOR, AQCS, HITACHI POWER SYSTEMS AMERICA LTD
When will it be Too
Hot in the Kitchen?
T
he recent White House GHG
agenda is trickling down the
EPA corridors, and will soon be a
major challenge to the power generation
industry. Although the EPA is expected
to issue final CO
2
emission limits this
month for new units and proposed limits
for existing units mid next year, it is far
too soon to tell how this will affect our
country’s future energy landscape. Major
emissions regulations to date have result-
ed in many units of coal fired plants to
be shut down, and with these new GHG
regulations looming, we certainly expect
this trend to continue.
The originally proposed limit for new
plants was met with significant criticism
because at 1000 lb/MWh it would only
affect coal-fired power plants. This was
one many reasons that forced the EPA
to reconsider the limit, which is likely to
include considerations for various fuel
types and generation technologies.
GHG emissions generated from coal
plants are only a piece of this complex
puzzle. Effective regulations must ad-
dress all types of fuels and generation
technologies considering their respective
carbon footprints. A more sensible ap-
proach would be an economy-wide GHG
policy which would take into account ev-
ery ton of carbon emitted no matter if it
is from the power generation, the trans-
portation sector, etc. Furthermore, any
unilateral action by the U.S. would not
be sufficient to reverse the global trend
of GHG increase without the cooperation
from other leading economies.
Most people anticipate that GHG reg-
ulations will have a more profound im-
pact than any previous environmental
regulations. Clear and sensible regula-
tions based on technology rather than
ideology is the only way to avoid exces-
sive public confusion, political gridlock
and long delays, as is too often the case
with recent EPA regulations. Power plant
owners need the regulatory visibility and
certainty to make long-term investment
decisions that will affect generations of
current and future customers.
Technology developers, collaborat-
ing with government agencies like the
Department of Energy, have done a
good job in the past developing and
supplying new technologies necessary
for the power industry to comply with
new regulations, whether it is PM, SO
2
,
NOx, or mercury control, provided that
a clear regulatory pathway exists to jus-
tify the necessary investment to devel-
op the required technologies. The same
is happing now with GHG control. For
example, Hitachi has been investing
heavily in new and efficient power gen-
eration methods and the technologies
for direct capture of carbon dioxide.
Bringing in the next generation,
ultra-efficient generation technologies
on line to replace the aging generation
fleet is arguably the most cost effective
way for conserving energy resources
and for reducing all emissions includ-
ing CO
2
, not to mention the many
skilled jobs coming with it.
In this regard, Hitachi has developed
the design, material and manufactur-
ing methods necessary to supply the
700 degree C class ultra-supercritical
power plant, building on our experience
in supplying the global market with to-
day’s state-of the-art, 600 degree C class
supercritical plants. For natural gas, we
have developed the Advanced Humid Air
Turbine (AHAT) that has shown thermal
efficiency comparable to combined cycle
units and better operating flexibility and
short response time, without using a sep-
arate steam turbine.
For direct CO
2
capture, based on de-
cades of R&D, we have developed de-
signs for both oxyfuel combustion and
post-combustion capture system that
are ready for full-size demonstration in
power plants.
In collaboration with DOE, South-
ern Company / National Carbon Cap-
ture Center (NCCC), and UND Energy
and Environment Research Center
(EERC), recent pilot tests at NCCC and
EERC have verified that a large reduc-
tion in energy consumption for CO
2

capture can be realized.
To further improve design and reduce
capital cost, Hitachi is working with
SaskPower to build a large, 120-ton CO
2
/
day test facility which will begin testing
in 2014. Also with SaskPower, Hitachi is
supplying a 160-MW steam turbine for
the Boundary Dam Integrated Carbon
Capture and Storage Project.
The Boundary Dam Project is one of
the first and largest CCS demonstra-
tion projects in the world, and the new
Hitachi steam turbine is one of the first
designed specifically for optimized inte-
gration of a coal-fired power plant with a
carbon capture system.
Once again, equipment suppliers and
developers are doing their part to get the
technologies ready.
The power industry professionals
are resilient, resourceful and respon-
sible for our environment. Given real
and workable regulations and an op-
portunity to work like true engineers,
we will come up with solutions to keep
the lights on, the economy going and
the kitchen cool.

1309PE_4 4 8/29/13 5:32 PM
The power industry is challenged with evolving regulations and
the need to operate cost effectively with fuel flexibility and at
the highest efficiency. GE experts offer a complete package of
innovative solutions for your challenges and tailor-made for your
specific needs. We are your one source for chemistry, equipment,
and monitoring solutions for all types of power plants. Your bonus
- peace of mind in a grid-variable power generation environment.
Scan the QR code
with your smartphone
to learn what’s
inside GE’s complete
package for the
power industry.
www.geimagination.com/CMS/Power
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reliability and
peace of mind
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 3
1309PE_5 5 8/29/13 5:32 PM
www.power-eng.com
6
GAS GENERATION
capacity for wind will continue to in-
crease over the coming decades, grow-
ing approximately 14 GW by 2020, ac-
cording to the U.S. Energy Information
Administration’s Annual Energy Out-
look 2013 report. Solar energy genera-
tion capacity is also growing, by a faster
percentage than wind, with its total ca-
pacity at approximately 22 GW by 2020.
INTEGRATING RENEWABLES:
WIND CHASING WITH
FLEXIBLE GAS PLANTS
The increasing contribution of renew-
ables brings certain challenges. While
advances are being made, wind energy
generation remains a difficult thing to
forecast accurately. In the wind-heavy
Electric Reliability Council of Texas
market, wind energy generation can
fluctuate over 2 GW in less than four
hours on a typical day. RTO’s depend
on renewable forecasts to determine
the amount of power needed from tra-
ditional power sources such as coal, gas
and nuclear. Variations in forecasts need
to be accounted for by these traditional
plants. The need for predictable, flex-
ible, clean and efficient forms of energy
that can “wind chase” to balance unpre-
dictable variations in renewables arises.
Natural gas-fired combined cycle
power plants (CCPP) have become in-
creasingly flexible, able to react to varia-
tions in renewable generation, and are
substantially cleaner burning than tra-
ditional coal-fired plants. Many CCPP’s
have a relatively wide operating range,
safely between 70 percent to 100 per-
cent plant capacity and maintaining
low emissions. Once online, CCPP’s can
vary load faster than other traditional
fossil plants, allowing them to respond
A
s America’s energy landscape
continues shifting towards
cleaner and renewable sources,
the industry is looking for ways to com-
pliment this conversion with minimal
impact on the price and availability of
electricity. Due to the somewhat unpre-
dictable variations in wind and other re-
newables, operators must have an alter-
native generation source, a substitute.
Natural gas has proven to be a reliable,
fast ramping, flexible, safe, cost effective
and sustainable power source to fill in
the generation gaps inherent to the re-
alities of renewable energy.
ADDRESSING THE
CHANGING ENERGY MARKET
Renewable energy, once a punch
line for American environmental poli-
cies, has now become an integral part
of our power generation mix. Seeking
to increase America’s world standing as
a leader in renewable energy produc-
tion, thirty U.S. states and Washing-
ton, D.C. had established mandatory
renewable energy targets by mid-2010.
The contribution from wind energy has
significantly increased over the past ten
years, becoming the largest renewables
contributor in Regional Transmission
Organization (RTO) markets such as
ERCOT and PJM. The energy generation
minute-to-minute to the micro varia-
tions of wind energy. Furthermore, the
ability to operate at part loads provides
the benefits of grid frequency response,
the ancillary service of maintaining the
critical 60 Hz grid frequency should en-
ergy supply dip below demand.
FLEXIBILITY IN
A RENEWABLE MARKET
Recently, Alstom, a world leader in
energy solutions, has reinforced its gas
offering to the 60 Hz market with the
latest GT24 gas turbine and associated
2x1 CCPP, the KA24-2. The latest GT24
incorporates features designed to meet
the flexibility needs of a renewables
integrated energy market in a sustain-
able way. With its unique sequential
combustion, the KA24-2 can maintain
100 percent relative CCPP efficiency
down to 80 percent load, which helps
operators respond to micro variations
in wind production while maintaining
high plant profitability. The GT24 of-
fers industry leading turndown capa-
bilities with its Low Load Operation
(LLO) feature. LLO allows both GT’s to
operate at a lower load when demand
is low, maintaining close to base load
emissions. During plant turndown
both GT’s and the steam turbine are
kept completely online. With fast ramp
rates, the KA24-2 can ramp from LLO
to full plant load in just 10 minutes,
providing a spinning reserve capacity
of 500 MW.
As America moves forward in its
pursuit of cleaner energy and power
generation, natural gas fired combined
cycle power plants are critically impor-
tant to the integration of renewable en-
ergy sources.
Gas: Paving the
Way for Renewables
TIMOTHY EFFIO, REGIONAL MARKETING MANAGER, ALSTOM POWER
GT24 MXL2 implementation
at Bayside Power Station,
Canada
1309PE_6 6 8/29/13 5:32 PM
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TTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeennnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnsssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssssiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiioooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooonnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggggg!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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VIEW ON RENEWABLES
present, we’re working collaborative-
ly with ESA on the Energy Storage In-
vestment Tax Credit gaining support
in Congress.
There are 8,500 MW of cumulative
solar electric capacity installed in the
U.S. – enough to power more than
1.3 million homes.
Energy storage capacity is growing
at a similarly quick pace; it already
accounts for 24,000 MWh (mostly
pumped hydroelectricity) in nearly
every state. By 2017, grid-scale ener-
gy storage will reach an 185.4 GWh,
a $113.5 billion revenue opportunity
for an industry that currently gener-
ates sales of $50 billion a year.
The grid functions much the same
way as it did a century ago. It’s ripe
for innovation. Solar and energy
storage technologies offer vast im-
provements. Many initiatives are
underway to improve the reliability,
capacity, safety and cost of batteries/
energy storage technologies, making
them more useful in a wide variety of
applications. Energy storage, paired
with renewables, will make the grid
more robust, reliable, resilient and
secure – delivering tremendous en-
vironmental and health benefits.
The increased deployment of these
technologies, in tandem, will fur-
ther solidify solar and other renew-
able technologies as an increasingly
mainstream resource in our nation’s
energy portfolio, and help ensure an
uninterrupted supply of electricity.
Once we’ve perfected the pairing
of solar with energy storage — from
residential through utility-scale de-
ployment — the possibilities are
truly limitless.
A
s the world’s electricity de-
mand grows, it’s imperative
that we cut emissions. So-
lar electricity is meeting an increas-
ingly significant percentage of global
energy demand. Smart, consistent
long-term solar policies, such as the
investment tax credit and renewable
portfolio standards, and industry in-
novations in technology and financ-
ing, have made solar a bright spot in
our economy.
The Solar Energy Industries Asso-
ciation (SEIA) forecasts that 5.2 GW
of new solar electric capacity will
come online in 2013. As solar de-
ployment increases, SEIA is focused
on accelerating renewable energy
generation without sacrificing reli-
ability. Energy professionals, busi-
ness leaders, policymakers –and the
public– view storage as a crucial tech-
nology that complements solar. Ad-
vancing energy storage is vital to our
mission of ensuring that renewables
become an increasingly mainstream
source of our world’s power supply.
Universities, scientists and inves-
tors, among others, are engaged in
advancing storage technologies that
will revolutionize our world. An IMS
Research report forecasts that the
market for storing power generated
by solar will soar – from approxi-
mately $200 million in 2012 to $19
billion by 2017.
Catastrophic events such as Super-
storm Sandy have shown that lives
can be lost, homes and businesses
damaged and destroyed, and entire
regions crippled by natural disasters.
Pairing emissions-free solar with en-
ergy storage / back-up generation will
make our grid more resilient.
Several battery chemistries are be-
ing pursued: advanced lead acid, lith-
ium-ion, flow, etc. They’ve targeted
applications and unique benefits.
Several solar companies are al-
ready integrating energy storage in
their deployments – in utility-scale,
distributed generation and residen-
tial projects. Molten-salt batteries
used in several utility-scale concen-
trated solar power plants help pro-
vide uninterrupted electricity.
Microgrids incorporating solar
arrays are in operation at mission-
critical government and commu-
nity facilities. The U.S. military is
developing microgrids on bases,
such as at Fort Detrick, to pro-
vide critical power in the event
of outages. Backup storage is be-
ing paired with solar installed at
homes and businesses; additional
pilot projects are underway.
Several companies are develop-
ing sophisticated hybrid solar /
storage systems, including por-
table solar generators that provide
power when disaster strikes. These
include fully-integrated battery
back-up systems enabling custom-
ers to send excess energy back to
the grid for credit, while battery
storage provides backup electricity
– operating independently of the
grid during power outages.
SEIA and the Electricity Storage As-
sociation (ESA) have formed a new
partnership to accelerate grid stor-
age systems and renewables. We’re
focused on modernizing the grid,
making it more balanced, efficient,
clean, reliable and cost-effective. At
Solar Power and Energy Storage:
Pairing Technologies
Vital to Our Future
BY RHONE RESCH, PRESIDENT AND CEO, SOLAR ENERGY INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION
Author
Rhone Resch is the
president and CEO of the
Solar Energy Industries
Association (SEIA).
Resch has more than
20 years of experience
in the public and private
sector working on clean
energy development and
climate change issues.
In addition to serving
as the vice president for
the Natural Gas Supply
Association, Rhone
also served as program
manager at the EPA’s
Climate Protection
Division during the
Clinton administration.
Rhone holds an M.P.A.
in management from
Syracuse University’s
Maxwell School, a
Master of Environmental
Engineering from SUNY
Syracuse, and a B.A.
from the University of
Michigan.
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10
NUCLEAR REACTIONS
the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) as some
sort of technological savior for the nu-
clear industry. Technically, I don’t argue
that the IFR and its breeder cousins have
many positive characteristics, including
a much higher extraction of energy from
the nuclear fuel and the ability to “burn”
long-lasting nuclear waste components.
Short shrift is given, however, to
whether the economics of these fourth-
generation reactors would be competitive
with other options. Admittedly, it’s diffi-
cult to say since only a handful of breeder
reactors have been built – and only a few
remain operating. But economics need
to be part of the debate. Not just to keep
electricity prices as low as possible, but
also to educate the public about the im-
portance of comparing the levelized cost
of electricity over the life of the plant
rather than just the upfront capital costs.
Which leads me to musing #3. Presi-
dent Obama released his plan to con-
strain carbon dioxide emissions from
U.S. power plants in June. The president’s
plan directs EPA to work with the states
and industry to establish carbon pol-
lution standards for new and existing
plants; and provides loan guarantee au-
thority for advanced fossil and energy ef-
ficiency projects.
I’m not overly confident that these ac-
tions will prompt significant changes in
the generation mix, and I’m even less
confident that Congress would enact any
broader carbon legislation in the next 5
to 10 years. But any movement in this
direction is a potential plus for nuclear
power since it could tip the economics in
its direction.
So we end up at musing #4. Nuclear
power has a future…just not the future
you thought it would be.
Y
ou likely won’t be reading this
until September, but I’m writing
it in late June, so the title is ac-
curate. I’ve compiled some mid-year mus-
ings, only loosely connected, but they
all speak to where nuclear power is and
where it may be headed.
Musing #1: The decision by South-
ern California Edison in June to per-
manently shut down the San Onofre
Nuclear Generating Station due to its
steam generator problems cast a pall
over the industry. Coming on the heels
of the Kewaunee shutdown in May and
the announcement by Duke Energy
in February that it would not proceed
with efforts to repair the concrete con-
tainment structure at Crystal River, the
U.S. industry is now left with 100 re-
actors on the nuclear plant wall – and
some uncomfortable misgivings about
the future.
Because of nuclear power’s tenuous
hold on public perception and sup-
port, I believe many people feel that a
“domino effect” may be in play. In other
words, if one (or a few) nuclear plants
shut down, the rest will come down
with them. Anti-nuclear groups long
for the day when this happens; pro-nu-
clear groups fear it.
The fear and optimism are probably
both misguided. Reality simply doesn’t
conform to the domino theory. It didn’t
come to pass with respect to the expan-
sion of Communism around the world
and won’t happen with respect to nu-
clear power absent a spate of plant ac-
cidents or gross mismanagement.
Let’s face it: plants get old; markets
change; competition emerges. For some
nuclear plants, yes, that will mean re-
tirement. Not a happy thought, but
that’s the circle of life (as the Lion King
put it). The hope is that these decisions
can be made rationally, fully informed
by technical and economic realities.
Which leads me to musing #2. Ra-
tional discussion in the public sphere
about nuclear power has been chal-
lenged by Fukushima, by the fear of
radiation exposure and by the com-
mon conflation of nuclear weapons
with commercial nuclear power. Into
the fray steps Robert Stone, a long-time
documentary film-maker who released
Pandora’s Promise in June to limited the-
aters nationwide.
The movie examines nuclear power
from the perspective of five environ-
mentalists who each decided after much
investigation to support nuclear power.
One of these individuals, Mark Lynas, is
a self-avowed environmental activist who
has been heavily involved in the global
climate change debate. After significant
soul-searching and in-person witness –
including a trip to the Fukushima area –
Lynas realized that nuclear power had to
be part of the solution to climate change.
The film does a good job of address-
ing many of the misunderstandings re-
garding nuclear power, including claims
that the Chernobyl accident has killed
millions of people. As a movie made by
an environmentalist, about environmen-
talists, I believe Pandora’s Promise stands
a reasonable chance of engaging a wider
audience in discussions around energy
policy and nuclear power. I strongly rec-
ommend you go see it, and if you can’t
make it to a theater screening, CNN has
plans to show the film in late 2013.
My one quibble with the movie is the
absence of discussion around the eco-
nomics of nuclear power. Stone presents
Mid-Year Musings
BY BRIAN SCHIMMOLLER, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR
1309PE_10 10 8/29/13 5:33 PM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 6
1309PE_11 11 8/29/13 5:33 PM
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12
ENERGY MATTERS
BY ROBYNN ANDRACSEK, P.E., BURNS & MCDONNELL
Dispersion Modeling:
Hour-by-Hour
W
hen it comes to the Na-
tional Ambient Air Quality
Standards (NAAQS), dis-
persion modeling is protective but not
necessarily predictive of actual air quali-
ty. New shorter 1-hour averaging periods
compound this issue and lead to restric-
tive and intricate permit conditions that
have little to do with actual air quality.
When the 1-hour NO
2
and SO
2

NAAQS were set, it was only a matter
of time before coal plants would have
SO
2
emission limits with averaging pe-
riods to match NAAQS modeling. In
May 2013, the Homer City power plant
in Pennsylvania was given a “precedent
setting” SO
2
limit of 6,360 pounds per
hour for its three coal-fred boilers, in-
cluding during periods of startup and
shutdown. Also included was a prohibi-
tion on allowing more than one unit to
start up at the same time. This last con-
dition smacks of a dispersion modeling
work-around. Likely, during the worst
meteorological conditions the higher
startup emissions from multiple boilers
modeled as a violation of the 1-hour SO
2

NAAQS. However, it is extremely unlike-
ly that in the real world such a startup
scenario would occur under those pre-
cise meteorological conditions. Never-
theless, this example encapsulates the
disparity between modeling and reality.
At its heart, dispersion modeling is
an attempt to mathematically represent
a complex natural phenomenon. By
knowing the initial emission charac-
teristics, dispersion models statistically
predict the behavior and movement of
emission plumes and chemical air con-
centrations at selected downwind recep-
tor locations. By design, dispersion mod-
els encompass all possible operating
conditions at all possible meteorological
conditions, yielding overly conservative
results. If those results meet the NAAQS,
then it can safely be said that the NAAQS
are protected.
EPA recognized the overly restrictive
nature of dispersion modeling in its
draft SO
2
NAAQS Designations Mod-
eling Technical Assistance Document,
which is “primarily for use by air agen-
cies to assess likely areas of attainment
and nonattainment with the 1-hour SO
2

NAAQS.” Many state agencies will use
dispersion modeling to help determine
non-attainment areas, something that
was previously only done based on ac-
tual monitored air quality. In its draft
guidance, EPA is allowing not only the
use of actual emission rates (instead of
potential emission rates) but is allow-
ing the use of actual stack heights, even
when they exceed Good Engineering
Practice (GEP) stack heights.
Suffcient information exists in the
public domain for an intervener group
to produce a rough dispersion model
on any facility they wish to oppose on
the basis of a perceived NAAQS vio-
lation. This opportunity might arise
during the Title V operating permit
renewal, which is required every fve
years and requires a public comment
period. The effective halt of new coal-
fred boiler permitting might free up
environmental activists to pursue such
efforts. This is where accurate model-
ing, using the best available data, could
serve a facility owner to defend against
any frivolous claims of a violation.
As the NAAQS have been revised
downwards with shortened averag-
ing periods, an individual facility must
take on more operating restrictions to
achieve a passing dispersion model.
Take haul roads, for example. The least
restrictive operating scenario to model is
that any haul road could be used at any
time. With the lower PM2.5 NAAQS,
however, this often models as a viola-
tion. The model can then be modifed
to exclude nighttime truck deliveries. In
reality, this might be outside of normal
operations and present little inconve-
nience to the facility. At night, ambient
wind conditions are calmer, which pro-
vides less dispersion and higher ground-
level emission concentrations. Exclud-
ing nighttime hours may be suffcient to
resolve the exceedances. However, the
facility now will need to accept a permit
condition that truck deliveries may nev-
er be allowed at night, creating the need
to forever monitor and keep records to
show compliance.
A second example focuses on emer-
gency diesel equipment operation. The
new 1-hour NO
2
NAAQS means that
almost no fre pump or emergency gen-
erator models as in compliance, which is
why EPA needed to write a specifc policy
carving out an exemption to modeling
for these short-stack intermittent sourc-
es. Combustion equipment at rural mu-
nicipal power plants might rarely operate
but still may not meet conditions of EPA’s
modeling exemption. These facilities are
potentially subject to expensive control
devices or mandatory shutdowns, shift-
ing power production to larger utilities
and reducing grid reliability. Fortunately,
these small plants are not the target of
environmentalist scrutiny. Yet.
Dispersion modeling is a valuable tool
for protecting air quality when conduct-
ed by the right professionals, using the
proper data and methods.
1309PE_12 12 8/29/13 5:33 PM
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14
for cooling to install the best technol-
ogy available (BTA) to minimize the
mortality of aquatic life. Losses occur
when fish and other organisms become
trapped (impinged) against water in-
take structures or sucked (entrained)
into cooling systems and exposed to
heat, pressure and machinery. The
rule requires the best technology to
mitigate what it describes as “adverse
environmental impact” resulting from
entrainment and impingement.
COMPLIANCE OPTIONS
The measure would require some
power producers to modify cooling wa-
ter intake structures or construct new
cooling towers.
“There isn’t one technology that’s
best. The EPA has already made that
conclusion,” said Doug Dixon, a tech-
nical executive with the Electric Power
Research Institute. “The thing that
probably comes closest to controlling
impingement is modified traveling wa-
ter screens. For entrainment control,
there isn’t a best technology. It very
much depends on where the plant is lo-
cated. It’s site specific.”
EPRI has studied many methods for
controlling impingement and entrain-
ment, including the use of light, sound,
barrier nets, screens, electric fields and
closed-cycle cooling. In many cases, the
best technology depends on the ecosys-
tem around the plant, Dixon said. For
example, some species of fish are re-
pelled by light while other species of fish
are attracted to light.
“Barrier nets are probably the cheapest
method for controlling impingement.”
Dixon said. “However, barrier nets can
be fouled very easily by floating debris.
In flowing rivers or estuaries, they can
be almost impossible to maintain.”
There is a wide range of technologies
and technology combinations available
for controlling impingement. The most
promising technologies are modified
traveling screens and wedgewire screen
systems. Modified traveling screens ro-
tate continuously and are equipped with
fish buckets, a fish return system and
smooth mesh screens. “It’s smooth. It’s
not going to cause injury via the con-
tact to the fish,” Dixon said. The aver-
age cost of a modified traveling screen
is between $300,000 and $400,000,
which does not include the cost of ship-
ping and installation. A typical 700-MW
power plant is equipped with six or
seven screens. “The cost of the screen is
going to depend on the characteristics
of that screen,” Dixon said. If a modi-
fied traveling screen is used to comply
with the rule, the monthly maximum
F
or 41 years, the Environ-
mental Protection Agency
has been trying to impose
new standards for cooling
water systems at existing
power plants in the U.S.
The new standards are aimed at reduc-
ing the mortality of fish and other aquat-
ic life caused by water intake structures.
After a decades-old legal battle between
utilities and environmental groups, the
EPA is expected to release the final rule
in November.
Section 316(b) of the Clean Wa-
ter Act would affect roughly 670 U.S.
power plants. It would require plants
that draw more than 2 million gallons
a day and use 25 percent of that water
EPA’s 316(b) Rule:
Are you
Ready?
BY RUSSELL RAY, MANAGING EDITOR
The controversial 316(b) rule is
expected to be finalized in November
A cooling water intake structure at SCE&G’s Williams
Power Plant on the Back River Reservoir in South
Carolina. Photo courtesy of EPRI
Author
Nathan Henderson of Stantec and
Richard Clubb of ENERCON Services
contributed to this report.
1309PE_14 14 8/29/13 5:34 PM
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 8
1309PE_15 15 8/29/13 5:34 PM
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16
Amendments. Since then, the rule has
been suspended and rewritten several
times in a long and drawn out legal bat-
tle between utilities and environmental
groups.
In 1979, the EPA withdrew the regula-
tion, but the agency was sued in the mid
‘90s by a coalition of environmental
groups for not reenacting the regulation.
The EPA was ordered to finalize the rule
and developed it into three phases. But
portions of the rule were remanded back
to the EPA for reconsideration in 2007.
As a result, a draft rule for existing
plants was published in April 2011. A fi-
nal version was initially expected to be
released in July 2012, but the release has
been extended several times. The EPA
expects to publish the final rule in No-
vember.
ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT IN QUESTION
The rule requires that “the location,
design, construction and capacity of
cooling water intake structures shall
reflect the best technology available
for minimizing adverse environmental
impacts” resulting from the drawing of
fish and larvae into and through the
cooling systems of power plants, where
mechanical and thermal stresses and
the trapping of fish against screens can
cause high mortality rates.
But new research indicates there is
no evidence that impingement and en-
trainment of aquatic life at U.S. power
plants cause a meaningful loss of fish
and other aquatic organisms. A peer-
reviewed article authored by Lawrence
Barnthouse and published in the May
issue of Environmental Science & Policy
found there is no scientific evidence that
shows a reduction in entrainment and
impingement would lead to measurable
improvements in fish populations.
“Any impacts caused by impingement
and entrainment are small compared to
other impacts on fish populations and
communities, including overfishing,
habitat destruction, pollution, and inva-
sive species,” wrote Barnthouse, whose
research was sponsored by EPRI.
The EPA has not performed a single
study that shows entrainment and im-
pingement impact fish populations any
more than commercial fishing, accord-
ing to Barnthouse.
“Adverse impacts have been implic-
itly or explicitly defined as entrainment
and impingement per se, irrespective of
mortality of impinged fish cannot ex-
ceed 31 percent.
The draft rule, released in April 2011,
contains a list of eligible technologies, in-
cluding closed-cycle cooling. Although
the rule does not mandate closed-cycle
cooling, it does target plants using once-
through cooling systems and could lead
to more closed-cycle cooling retrofits at
existing plants in the U.S. Closed-cycle
systems use less water from rivers and
bays and harm fewer fish. If there were
a national requirement for closed-cycle
cooling, the industrywide cost to com-
ply could near $100 billion, according to
a 2010 report published by EPRI.
“It was exceptionally expensive,”
Dixon said. “The cost was well beyond
the monetized benefits that could be
obtained.”
Despite pressure from environmental
groups and the courts, the EPA decided
not to mandate closed-cycle cooling for
entrainment in the draft rule.
“The environmental groups would
very much like to see all the existing
once-through plants go to closed-cycle
cooling,” Dixon said. “That’s what the
2
nd
Circuit Court of Appeals inferred to
EPA back in 2007. They said to EPA ‘We
don’t understand why you have not se-
lected closed-cycle cooling as BTA.’”
The 316(b) rule was first enacted
in 1972 when Congress passed the
Federal Water Pollution Control Act
A cooling water intake structure at Alabama Power’s Plant
Barry on the lower Mobile River. Photo courtesy of EPRI
A modified traveling screen. Photo courtesy of HDR Inc.
1309PE_16 16 8/29/13 5:34 PM
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The company was asked by its clients
to review the feasibility of converting a
power plant using once-through cooling
to closed-cycle cooling.
Sounds simple enough, but after con-
ducting several feasibility studies it was
obvious that each specific site evaluated
had a different set of physical constraints
and design considerations that may or
may not challenge the feasibility of a
closed-loop cooling retrofit, apprecia-
bly affect the implementation cost and
result in vastly differing levels of plant
performance post retrofit.
Closed-loop cooling relies on a
source of heat rejection different from
the existing water body drawn from in
once-through cooling. In most cases,
this means a cooling tower (or series of
whether any adverse changes in popula-
tions can be demonstrated or predict-
ed,” Barnthouse wrote. “The rarity of
documentation of such impacts, after 40
years of operation of large power plants,
some of which have been conducting ex-
tensive monitoring programs for several
decades, provides substantial evidence
that impacts related to entrainment and
impingement are generally small.”
The 316(b) rule does not provide a
definition for “adverse environmental
impact.” The term has long been un-
derstood by the scientific community
to refer to adverse changes in the abun-
dance and productivity of fish and other
aquatic life.
CLOSED-CYCLE COOLING
ENERCON Services Inc. provides
engineering services related to cool-
ing tower installations and modifica-
tions to closed-loop cooling systems.
A fine mesh screen. Testing of these screens was
performed at Alden Research Laboratory in Worcester,
Mass. Photo courtesy of EPRI.
1309PE_18 18 8/29/13 5:34 PM
www.power-eng.com
19
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 11
There’s virtually no risk in making
sure that both the plant’s owners and
operators fully understand the state
of planning at their facilities and how
that subjects them to the fundamental
changes that loom.
Operations & Maintenance staff
should be involved in these discus-
sions and planning early on.
If a plant is scheduled for system up-
grades or changes in the next year or
two, those plans should be shelved for
now. Making those changes along with
those required by 316(b) may be more
sensible in cost and functionality.
cooling towers) are used to reject heat
to the atmosphere. Other closed-loop
cooling designs are available and typi-
cally involve a cooling pond or cooling
canals, possibly equipped with power
spray modules; however, the space re-
quired to produce the necessary cooling
capacity restricts where these options are
available. Similarly, cooling towers can
be either wet (relying on air and evapo-
ration for cooling) or dry (relying solely
on air cooling); however, dry cooling
towers have limited applicability for ret-
rofit use given their reduced capacity for
cooling. In either circumstance, cooling
towers reject heat to the atmosphere and
their ability to cool varies with the am-
bient weather conditions. In particular,
wet cooling towers ability to cool varies
in relation to the wet-bulb temperature,
which is a combination of dry-bulb tem-
perature and humidity.
The ability to reject the design heat
load is a basic requirement of any fa-
cility generating electricity using a
steam cycle. Steam traveling through
the turbines is converted to water in
the condenser, which in turn transfers
heat to the circulating water system.
When warm and humid weather con-
ditions impact a cooling tower’s ability
to cool the circulating water, the con-
denser’s cooling efficiency is reduced.
The loss of power due to a reduced
ability to cool the circulating water is
termed an operational power loss. In
circumstances where a power plant
was designed with a relatively small
condenser accounting for a source of
cold once-through cooling (i.e., ocean
intakes, great lakes, reservoirs, etc.),
the power plant retrofit to closed-loop
cooling would be operating at reduced
capacity or potentially shut down for
periods of time in the summer when
energy use is typically at its highest
demand. Conversely, in circumstanc-
es where a power plant was designed
with a large condenser to allow once-
through cooling from a relatively
warm water body, a power plant may
be able to install cooling towers with
little to no operational power losses.
PLANNING FOR 316(B)
Some power producers may be
reluctant to invest too much time and
money into 316(b) compliance because
of the uncertainty surrounding the
final rule. However, many industry
observers say the EPA won’t make
significant changes in the final rule.
There are some low-risk actions power
producers can take to position their
plants for the new requirements once
they are finalized.
1309PE_19 19 8/29/13 5:34 PM
www.power-eng.com
20
minor gas turbine modifications and/
or fuel cleaning.
Fossil fuels are not going to be re-
placed in bulk anytime soon. Global
commerce and power generation de-
pend on fossil fuels. Biofuels are grow-
ing through mandates in the trans-
portation sector, but they are only
price competitive when subsidized.
Synthetic gas fuels have also gained
popularity, but they are not available
in volumes that would support world’s
energy needs. Still, there are fuels of
opportunity that make economic and
in some cases, social sense. This article
explores those fuels, and the challeng-
es and solutions associated of utilizing
them for aeroderivative gas turbine
power generation.
BY JAMES DICAMPLI, P.E., GE DISTRIBUTED POWER
G
as turbine fuel costs,
even for efficient com-
bined cycle plants, can
be more than 80 per-
cent of the cost of elec-
tricity over the life of the plant. Histori-
cally a niche segment, utilities, marine
and industrial plants are increasingly
seeking options to run lower cost alter-
native fuels. New technologies and ap-
plications have been developed to meet
the growing demand for fuel flexibility.
Natural gas is the principal fuel of
the aeroderivative gas turbine. Natural
gas is a clean fuel and relatively inex-
pensive when compared to most fossil
fuel options such as diesel or kerosene.
There are many other gas and liquid
fuels that can also be burned with
ETHANOL
Ethanol derived from sugarcane in
Brazil or from other sources such as corn
in the U.S. is one of the most efficient
biofuels in terms of energy balance and
carbon emissions. Almost 80 percent
of the ethanol produced in the world
today is used as fuel, primarily by land-
based vehicles. Less than 10 percent of
the world’s ethanol production is used in
the beverage industry, and approximately
10 percent is used in industrial products
such as paints, medicines and solvents.
Ethanol production was about 22.7 bil-
lion gallons in 2010 compared to 19.5
billion gallons in 2009, a greater than 16
percent increase. Figure 1 shows how fuel
ethanol has grown over the years while
beverage and industrial use ethanol has
1309PE_20 20 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
21
The GE LM6000 Aeroderivative
Gas Turbine. Photo courtesy of GE.
remained fairly constant.
Two GE LM6000PC aeroderivative
gas turbines have been converted at a
power plant in Brazil to run on etha-
nol. Located in southern part of Minas
Gerais, approximately 180 kilometers
north of Rio de Janeiro, this 87-MW
simple-cycle power plant was converted
from a natural gas-only plant to a dual
fuel, ethanol capable plant. This en-
hances the plant’s energy security and
reliability by providing a valuable al-
ternative fuel source when natural gas
is not available. This is the world’s first
use of sugarcane-based ethanol in a gas
turbine system to produce electricity on
a full commercial scale.
The goal of the project was to assess
gas turbine performance in terms of
emissions, efficiency and component
durability when fueled with ethanol.
The demonstration consisted of 975
hours of testing (actual gas turbine op-
erating time on ethanol), including load
variation, water injection variation,
fuel transfers between natural gas and
ethanol, and startup and shutdown of
the gas turbine on ethanol. The dem-
onstration included interim borescope
inspections, and at the conclusion of
the demonstration, the gas turbine was
disassembled for a detailed component
inspection. The performance of the gas
turbine was equivalent to the same gas
turbine operating on natural gas and
the emission levels of sulfur dioxide
(SO
2
), aldehydes, carbon monoxide and
unburned hydrocarbons were very simi-
lar. Nitrous oxide (NO
x
) emissions were
reduced when compared distillate fuels,
and all the carbon emissions were from
renewable sources. Hot section compo-
nent deterioration was comparable to
distillate fuel operation for the same
run time.
To reach full designed power, about
1.6 times more ethanol flow is required
compared to diesel, given the lower vol-
umetric energy content of ethanol. The
ethanol used is hydrous, meaning that
it contains 6 perccent to 10 percent wa-
ter. The increased water content is actu-
ally beneficial, cooling the combustion
temperature and resulting in lower NO
x

emissions.
This site drew international attention
when then President of Brazil, Mr. Lula
da Silva, attended the site’s inauguration
to highlight that Brazil’s ethanol could
be used for clean power generation.
BIODIESEL
Biodiesel is derived from plants (jatro-
pha, rapeseed, palm, algae, etc.) or ani-
mal fat by products; all having a varied
amount of C14-C22 saturated and un-
saturated fatty acids. The production pro-
cess is called transesterification: the oil in
the presence of a base catalyst is reacted
with alcohol (usually methanol) to form
methyl esters, with glycerin as a by-prod-
uct. Biodiesel contains practically no sul-
fur and no aromatics (toluene, benzene,
etc.). Relevant biodiesel specifications
include ASTM D6751, and European
1309PE_21 21 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
22
Ethanol Production by Type Fig 1
80000
7000
6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000
0
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
Industrial Beverage Fuel
NO
x
emissions were found to be about 5
ppm lower for biodiesel operation than
for diesel operation, while requiring less
water injection for NO
x
abatement. Car-
bon monoxide emissions were lower as
Specification EN 14214.
Diesel made from crude oil (petro-die-
sel) is a mixture of hydrocarbons, while
biodiesel is a mixture of unsaturated fatty
acid esters. Biodiesel has a detrimental
effect on elastomers commonly found
in many of the gaskets and sealants in a
typical gas turbine package, so care must
be taken in selecting compatible compo-
nents. The heating value of biodiesel is
less than that of diesel by about 10 per-
cent; to get the same power output fuel
flow to the combustor must be increased
by that amount.
One of the better qualities of biodiesel
is its lubricity; it can be used as an addi-
tive to improve the lubricity of most fos-
sil fuels such as ultra-low sulfur diesel.
It also burns cleaner and creates about
60 percent less net carbon dioxide emis-
sions in diesel engines, inclusive of the
plant growing cycle and associated CO
2

absorption.
With the above considerations, bio-
diesel is an excellent alternative fuel for
aeroderivatives.
Marine Application: GE ma-
rine customers have periodically run
LM2500+ gas turbines on biodiesels,
some for a period of 6 to 12 months,
when it is price competitive to marine
gas oil. When fossil fuel prices receded
and biodiesel prices increased, the ships
returned to their normal use of fos-
sil fuels. The ships remain capable of
running either fuel, or blends, and can
switch pending the price of fuel.
Industrial Power Plant: A power
plant in New York conducted a biodiesel
fuel demonstration on a GE LM6000PA
gas turbine in 2007. Today, biodiesel
continues to be used as a backup fuel
for the plant. The purpose of the dem-
onstration was to evaluate effects on
load variation, emissions and operabil-
ity. The combined cycle plant produces
105 MW when its two LM6000PA’s are
running along with a 25 MW steam tur-
bine. The biodiesel used for this test met
GE and ASTM D6751 specifications and
had a LHV of 16,250 BTU/lb. No chang-
es were made to the engine or package
for this demonstration. The gas tur-
bine was started on biodiesel and shut
down on biodiesel without any issues.
Source:
Engine Fuel LHV Comments
Region BTU/lbm BTU/SCF
Natural Gas (CH4) 21530 913 For Comparison
LM2500/+
US (IL) 18148 1003
12.9 percent hydrogen,
12 percent olefin
Brazil 18974 1048
14.2 percent hydrogen,
21.5 percent olefin
LM5000
Germany 24893 594 50 percent vol. hydrogen
LM6000
US (CA) 18016 954
29.5 percent hydrogen, 12.5
percent olefin
19185 904
32.8 percent hydrogen, 16.5
percent olefin
Japan 21944 849 10 percent hydrogen
LM2500+ and +G4
China (COG) 17363 462 58.5 percent hydrogen
15385 458 54 percent hydrogen
GE aeroderivative turbine hydrogen
commercial experience
Table 1
1309PE_22 22 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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24
between volatile energy production and
consumption.
Until recently, most hydrogen experi-
ence has been in the petro-chemical in-
dustry, utilizing by-product gases such as
excess hydrogen from steam reforming.
Table 1 summarizes GE’s aeroderivative
turbines’ commercial experience with
hydrogen in gaseous fuel.
From 1986 until just recently, the
LM5000 package (33 MWe, ISO condi-
tions) in Germany operated on various
mixes of methane with up to 50 percent
hydrogen. Other packages include the
LM2500 (22MWe) in the U.S. and Brazil,
and the LM6000 (42 MWe) in the U.S.
and Japan.
For pre-mixed, dry-low emissions
(DLE) combustion systems, the hydro-
gen content is limited to 5 percent by vol-
ume. The limit is due to fast flame speeds
from high hydrogen fuels that can result
in flashback or primary zone re-ignition.
For single annular combustor (SAC, or
diffusion flames) systems, limits range
from 35 percent hydrogen by volume for
well for biodiesel. A borescope inspec-
tion of the hot section of the turbine
showed the internal parts to be cleaner
after biodiesel operation. Exhaust fil-
ters were also shown to be significantly
cleaner after biodiesel operation.
Distributed Power Plant: An east
coast university demonstrated bio-
diesel on its boilers and a GE LM1600
gas turbine. Emission components
tested were carbon monoxide (CO),
nitrous oxide (NOx), non-methane hy-
drocarbons (NMHC), total suspended
particulates (TSP) and PM10. The tur-
bine was initially started on gas and
then transferred to biodiesel, but was
eventually started and shut down on
biodiesel as well. Fuel heating was not
required for this testing, but could be
an issue at this site while operating
during winter months. Without modi-
fications, the unit was not able to reach
full power as the fuel control valve
reached its full stroke at about 13.5
MW (LM1600 can produce 14 MW). A
higher flow fuel control valve would
allow this turbine to reach base load.
SYNTHETIC GASES
The power generation technology of
tomorrow will demand fuel flexibility. As
such, biogas or hydrogen-based fuels will
increasingly be in the mix for gas turbine
simple and combined cycle power plant
operations.
Hydrogen-containing fuels can come
from various sources. Certain industrial
processes form by-products, such as coke
oven gas, which are attractive options for
gas turbine applications since they are
“free.” The gasification of coal or biomass
provides a precombustion solution for re-
ducing carbon dioxide emissions, leaving
a high hydrogen syngas fuel.
Another source of hydrogen-based fu-
els is the power-to-gas application where
excess power from renewables is used to
electrolyze water to hydrogen and oxy-
gen. This is one possibility to store abun-
dant energy, and one that will be impor-
tant for future networks where a high
amount of renewables calls for a balance
Source: GE internal
LNG Source 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Compositions, percent vol.
CO
2
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
N2 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.10 0.16 0.26 0.43 0.09
C1 96.07 97.06 97.81 92.85 92.28 92.86 90.68 89.68 89.18
C2 2.75 2.41 2.01 4.69 4.71 4.36 5.04 6.19 7.07
C3 0.77 0.36 0.07 1.93 2.16 1.96 2.99 2.31 2.50
i-C4 0.21 0.08 0.04 0.24 0.36 0.31 0.59 0.71 0.46
n-C4 0.18 0.07 0.01 0.19 0.37 0.33 0.44 0.66 0.69
i-C5 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.01
n-C5 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00
C6 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
Properties
LHV, BTU/scf 1056 1037 1028 1084 1095 1086 1114 1119 1127
WI, BTU/scf 1385 1375 1367 1396 1402 1397 1410 1410 1420
MW 16.82 16.55 16.39 17.44 17.64 17.51 18.05 18.2 18.24
SG 0.44 0.43 0.43 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.46
Compositions of LNG gases from various gases Table 2
1309PE_24 24 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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1309PE_25 25 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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26
Operational Limits on Condensate Fuel with Example Composition A Fig 2
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
F
u
e
l

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e



b

a
r
A
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Fuel Temperature – °C
Safe for Liquid Operation
Safe for
Gas Operation
56 °C
28 °C
Max Liquid Temp Bubble Pt Temp Dew Pt Temp Min Gas Temp
purge the gas fuel circuit prior to initiat-
ing the flow of fuel. The CE/ATEX also
purges any remaining fuel following the
termination of the flow.
Another consideration is the absorp-
tion of hydrogen into metals that can
cause a general loss of ductility, or hy-
drogen embrittlement. Hydrogen will
diffuse through most materials and can
collect in “dead” cavities. This creates an
explosive hazard with the potential to
shorten component life. Gas path mate-
rials and components must be selected
with appropriate specification criteria.
larger turbines (up to 100 MWe), to about
85 percent by volume for smaller turbines
in the 18 MWe to 30 MWe power range.
Engineering factors include combustor
geometry, airflow, and cooling patterns.
GE recently introduced the LM2500+
and +G4 series of aeroderivative gas
turbines for operation on coke oven
gas (COG) as fuel for power generation.
The LM2500 is an ideal fit for COG ap-
plications because it requires minimal
changes and best fits power demand
and available COG at typical coking
facilities. COG has very high hydrogen
content (up to 65 percent by volume)
and contains many by-products such
as BTX (benzene, toluene, and xylene),
naphthalenes, tar, sulfur compounds
and alkali metals. With the right fuel
treatment, conditioning and fuel deliv-
ery system, COG fuel used in a gas tur-
bine is both a cost-effective solution and
significantly reduces the environmental
impact of the steel making process. The
first two GE aeroderivative COG units
entered commercial service in the sum-
mer of 2011; they generate 60 MW in a
combined cycle configuration.
High hydrogen fuels pose ignition
risks when initiating the flow of gas and
following the termination of the flow of
gas to the gas turbine. Non-combusted
fuel can exist above the lower explosion
limit (LEL) in the gas fuel circuit, which
in the presence of oxygen creates the
potential for igniting within a confined
volume. This risk is mitigated by using
a CE/ATEX certified inert gas system to
Source:
Phase Combustor type Fuel temperature requirement
Gas Single Annular +50°F (+28.1°C) above fuel Dew Point
Gas Premixed (DLE) +50°F (+28.1°C) above fuel Dew Point
Liquid Single Annular - 100°F (-56.2°C) below fuel Bubble Point
Liquid Premixed (DLE) -100°F (-56.2°C) below fuel Bubble Point
Fuel temperature requirements
at fuel design pressure
Table 3
1309PE_26 26 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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Operational Limits on Condensate Fuel with Example Composition B Fig 3
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
F
u
e
l

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e



b

a
r
A
-100 -50 0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Fuel Temperature – °C
Safe for Liquid Operation
Safe for
Gas Operation
56 °C
28 °C
Max Liquid Temp Bubble Pt Temp Dew Pt Temp Min Gas Temp
Marine Application
Recently GE announced that two
LM2500 turbines, capable of generating
59,000 horsepower, were installed on a
325-foot passenger and vehicle ferry. The
ship carries LNG, which is re-gasified on
board to fuel the engines. Marine grade
oil is also used to start the engines and
as a backup fuel. The wave piercing cat-
amaran can travel at a speed of over 58
knots (67 miles per hour) while running
on natural gas. The ferry will operate be-
tween Buenos Aires, Argentina and Mon-
tevideo, Uruguay, shuttling up to 1,000
passengers and 150 cars between two
ports.
LNG Plant Application
For LNG plants, the reliability of gas
turbines used for power generation or as
mechanical compressor drivers remains
critically important to plant economics.
Another valuable feature is the ability to
operate on process-off gas streams. If gas
LNG FUELS
Since natural gas fuel reserves are often
located remotely from major centers of
demand, there is a global need to trans-
port it. Around one-third of the natural
gas internationally traded is transported
in a form of liquefied natural gas (LNG)
3
,
and this fraction is projected to grow.
LNG is a mixture of gases, predomi-
nantly methane, liquefied at a tempera-
ture of -262 °F (-163 °C). The feedstock
gas is first processed to remove hydrogen
sulfide (H
2
S), carbon dioxide (CO
2
) and
water vapor (H
2
O) to desirable levels by
absorption, adsorption and separation
processes. These contaminants are un-
desirable as they will freeze in the very
low temperature cooling processes. H
2
S
is also a toxic, corrosive, acid (sour) gas;
CO
2
is also acidic (sour) and corrosive in
the presence of water.
Heavier fractions are removed as well,
including propane, butane and ethane
commonly referred to as natural gas
liquids (NGLs). Aeroderivatives can be
fueled with either LNG or NGLs. Re-
gasified LNG can be used in either pre-
mixed, dry low emissions or diffusion
flame combustion systems with no tur-
bine/package modifications required.
NGLs may also be utilized, and pending
the ratios of the hydrocarbons present,
may be used in either gas or liquid form.
More on this later.
The resulting fuel derived from LNG
after regasification is extremely pure. As
such, it meets the requirements of the
standard GE Aeroderivative’s fuel speci-
fication and is suitable for combustion
in either premixed (dry low emissions)
or diffusion type combustion systems
in aeroderivative gas turbines, and no
engine/package modifications are re-
quired. Table 2 summarizes composi-
tions of processed LNG produced by
different LNG facilities.
1309PE_28 28 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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1309PE_29 29 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
30
turbines operating on “light” liquid fu-
els far more different than the standard
distillate fuel diesel #2. LM6000 engines
alone have more than 450,000 hours of
cumulative experience on naphtha.
To utilize condensates as fuels, the
package and engine fuels system
and configuration may require
some level of customizations. These
are briefly summarized in the list
below:
t Start-up on “standard” fuel such
as diesel or natural gas
t On engine equipment and hard-
ware including dual fuel nozzles,
primary manifold, pressurization
valve kits and parts.
t Gaseous purge system
t Components and piping to purge
gas fuel manifold with CDP air
when engine is operating on liq-
uid fuel
t Liquid fuel drain piping and com-
ponents
t Upgraded control system hard-
ware and software
t Condensate fuel forwarding skid
t Condensate boost pump skid
t HP water injection skid
t Low-pressure fuel filter skid
t Vent fans in area of fuel metering
valves
CONCLUSION
Aeroderivative gas turbines continue
to exhibit the excellent performance
on standard fuels such as natural gas
and petro-diesel. There is a growing
global demand to burn alternative fu-
els of opportunity that would lower
the cost of gas turbine operation and/
or improve emissions.
References:
1. Dr. Christoph Berg, F.O. Licht, “World Fuel
Ethanol – Analysis and Outlook”
2. EIA, Annual Energy Review, Oct. 2011
3.

BP Statistical Review of World Energy, Jun.
2012
streams with elevated content of nitro-
gen or CO
2
could be injected into the gas
turbine instead of being stripped from
inert in nitrogen/CO
2
rejection units, this
would increase the overall efficiency of
the plant and bring considerable operat-
ing and capital expense savings.
Over the last few years, GE Aero
has executed a series of engine
tests with fuels of medium BTU
content and fuels of varying com-
position, demonstrating that such
fuels can be successfully burned,
and that the turbine combustion
systems can manage significant
gas composition variability. The
successful demonstrations lead to
GE Aeroderivative selection for me-
chanical drive for major LNG facili-
ties, currently in the build phase.
NGL FUELS
As discussed, heavier fractions
can be removed from natural gas,
consisting primarily of ethane,
propane and butane, commonly
known as Natural Gas Liquids (NGL).
NGLs may be burned in aeroderivative
gas turbines, and pending the ratios of
the hydrocarbon components, are uti-
lized as a fuel in either a liquid or gas
phase.
The key consideration is the hydrocar-
bon dew point and bubble point tem-
perature as a function of pressure. At
given pressure, a fluid having tempera-
ture higher than its dew point remains
entirely in the gas phase. Similarly, the
bubble point is the highest temperature
at which given composition of the fluid
is entirely liquid at given pressure. Fluid
having the temperature between its dew
and bubble point at given pressure will
be a two-phase mixture.
For continuous and reliable operation,
gas turbines may operate on either gas
or liquid fuel with appropriate fuel de-
livery systems. For this reason, GE Aero
has developed a set of temperature limits
for condensates, which ensure that given
fuel remains in the same phase when
flowing through the entire fuel delivery
system. Table 3 below summarizes these
requirements.
Two examples below illustrate how
fuel composition and dew and bubble
point properties influence the possibility
to run aeroderivatives with single annu-
lar combustor systems on condensate-
type fuels in either gas or liquid phase.
Compositions are given in table 4 below.
Both Figures 2 and 3 illustrate how
dew point and bubble point tempera-
tures change differently with pressure
due to different fuel compositions. Fuel
temperature requirements from Table 3
define the operational area (pressures
and temperatures) at which given stream
may be used either as a gas or as a liquid.
Condensate B has much “broader” dis-
tribution of hydrocarbons, compared to
Condensate A. Because of that, it would
need to be super-cooled to operate it
safely as a liquid. Aeroderivatives require
high fuel pressures (specific to the given
engine model). At such pressures, con-
densate B requires more super-cooling
than A to maintain it in the liquid phase.
Naphtha-type liquid fuels have similar
compositions and physical properties as
condensates. GE Aero has multiple gas
Source:
Condensate A Condensate B
Methane 3.57 1.7
Ethane 1.93 12.42
Propane 2.43 11.08
Butanes 11.41 16.47
Propanes 16.21 10.96
Hexanes 37.98 23.08
Heptanes 17.27 10.4
Octanes 5.4 5.9
Nonans 2.7 4.19
Decans 1.1 3.8
Total 100.00 100.00
Exemplary condensate
compositions
Table 4
1309PE_30 30 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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www.power-eng.com
32
For utilities and IPPs operating older gas turbines, the superior reliability,
availability and safety resulting from the application of open control systems
equates directly to greater unit profitability. Photo courtesy of ABB.
manufacturer (OEM) controls between
2013 and 2020. Turbines of even older
origin will be ready for their second con-
trols upgrade in the same time period.
Owners and operators of many OEM-
supplied gas turbines are now facing the
decision of how best to upgrade their
turbine control systems and should real-
ize they have new options in the form of
open control systems provided by a third
party. These solutions provide the owner/
operator with the tools and data neces-
sary to become a self-maintainer who
can troubleshoot, tune, repair and make
improvements independent of the tur-
bine manufacturer. In addition, the third
party open system platform is not just
H
undreds of gas tur-
bines (GTs) first in-
stalled between 1990
and 2005 will be
ready for an update or
replacement of their original equipment
The Benefits of Gas
Turbine Control
Open Systems
BY ED DUPRE, CAMILO LOPEZ AND KEVIN KOCHIRKA, ABB INC.
1309PE_32 32 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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34
frequently create great cost and incon-
venience for the GT owner, not only in
terms of direct costs, but also in lost gen-
eration opportunities.
For equipment owner/operators, the
closed-system approach creates a recur-
ring set of roadblocks to the improve-
ment of unit reliability and availability.
They cannot quickly diagnose or respond
to problems because they lack access to
system data and critical troubleshooting
tools. Essentially, owner/operators are
prevented from taking full “ownership”
of their turbine. For example, older HMI
hardware failures contribute to poor re-
liability and availability. Because of the
black box design and OEM-customized
computer components, it is impossible to
make repairs to outdated computers and
to have upgrades implemented quickly.
The equipment typically has to be re-
turned to the OEM for service and up-
dates. While that server or client is out for
repair, the generating facility must adjust
by reallocating one of the remaining
computers or changing their work flow.
In the meantime, they have the addition-
al risk of lost control system redundancy,
which further erodes reliability.
These types of computer issues can also
create safety risks. At the facility of one
independent power producer, the client
computer in the control room failed and
had to be sent for repairs, which typically
took about four weeks. With the normal
client unavailable, an operator had to
work from the HMI at the server location
adjacent to the turbine. This put the oper-
ator within one foot of 480VAC distribu-
tion breakers and directly in front of the
13.8 kV generator circuit breaker, within
a high hazard arc-flash zone. Safety prac-
tices at this plant required the operator
to leave the arc-flash zone during certain
events (e.g., generator breaker opening or
closing). This made unit troubleshooting
quite difficult, because it forced the oper-
ator to exit the structure that housed the
limited to the gas turbine application – it
is also frequently found controlling the
rest of the plant’s processes. This allows
the user to integrate and consolidate over-
all control, protection and communica-
tion infrastructures, providing significant
benefits in the areas of plant performance
and cost effectiveness.
In this article, we will discuss:
t Limitations imposed on owners/op-
erators by “black box” (closed archi-
tecture) control systems
t Enhanced reliability, availability,
safety and profitability benefits us-
ing open control system
t “Core competency” advantages of
open system suppliers
BLACK BOX LIMITATIONS
OEM gas turbines typically come with
a proprietary “black box” control system
that makes it impossible for their owner/
operator to troubleshoot, maintain or
improve the system by themselves. There
are some good reasons for a turbine OEM
to employ this closed-system approach:
it prevents end users from altering their
products, minimizes the risk of unau-
thorized modifications and ensures con-
sistent operation of the installed base of
equipment. However, by locking their
control system design and configura-
tion inside the black box, they put their
customers at a significant disadvantage
and create a captive customer base, held
hostage to the OEM’s controls and service
offerings.
Customers who retain OEM controls
are often forced to rely solely upon the
OEM for troubleshooting, service and
parts, regardless of time, cost or quality
issues. It’s readily apparent that closed
control system benefits accrue almost
exclusively to the manufacturer and can
Gas turbine operators can benefit greatly by considering the
many advantages of relying on a third-party open control
system. Photo courtesy of ABB.
1309PE_34 34 8/29/13 5:35 PM
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1309PE_35 35 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
36
also able to monitor and tune their tur-
bine control systems, identifying poten-
tial turbine issues in advance and taking
corrective action proactively.
In the closed-system environment that
most OEM-controlled GT owners work
in, this type of fast response is simply im-
possible. They are often forced to rely on
remote telephone support from the OEM.
Repairs are delayed while the appropriate
support person is reached. Once in con-
tact with the support person, there are
additional delays as the plant represen-
tative describes the issue. Since the plant
representative doesn’t even have access
to live control data, they are frequently
dispatched to measure inputs at a device
in the plant and report back via a return
phone call. Cycling through any problem
using this old-school problem-solving
technique can obviously take a long time
and incur significant service costs and
down-time generation losses.
The open system approach also re-
duces issues related to clients and servers.
The ability to use standard components
that can be repaired or upgraded locally
and to easily update or patch software
makes it possible to quickly repair or re-
place a troublesome computer. This en-
sures that the appropriate complement of
HMIs will be available at nearly all times.
It also reduces or eliminates the need for
operators to ever have to work inside an
arc-flash zone or to remove themselves
from hazardous control system areas dur-
ing crucial operating and troubleshoot-
ing exercises.
A MORE PROFITABLE
APPROACH
For power generators, the greater reli-
ability and availability enabled by open
control system architecture equates di-
rectly to greater profitability. At peaking
power plants, operators of gas turbines
are required to bring them online as
needed and at a moment’s notice. The
equipment being investigated.
All of the above is made even more
problematic by the fact that many gas tur-
bines are located at significant distances
from the main control room, or even in
an entirely different facility, and thus are
normally unattended. Client failures or
communication failures in proprietary
control systems can then become ex-
tremely inconvenient and costly to solve.
THE FREEDOM
OF OPEN SYSTEMS
Today, many third-party providers of-
fer open access to their control systems.
For the first time, GT owners can see live
data flowing across the logic and use it to
make faster, better-informed decisions re-
garding turbine operations. They are able
to rapidly identify issues preventing tur-
bine starts and make repairs, adjustments
or workarounds to rectify the issue and
resume power generation. Operators are
Centralized unit operations can be a major improvement on the control systems pro-
vided from a gas turbine’s original equipment manufacturer. Photo courtesy of ABB.
1309PE_36 36 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
37
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 19
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unit might be required to be online in just 15 minutes
and then run for only 30 minutes. In this scenario, start-
ing reliability is of paramount concern. Independent
power producers (IPPs) typically enter into agreements
with some sort of liquidated damages for failure to meet
requested demand as well as possible bonuses for having
a high reliability/availability factor. With a solid, open
control system and the resulting improved reliability of
the plant, IPPs can confidently enter into more aggres-
sive and therefore more lucrative contracts. The higher
the reliability and availability the IPP can guarantee, the
greater the premium their power commands.
Utilities have a different profitability picture. Some
rely on IPPs as a backup and pay the peaking premiums
discussed above. Others have their own peaking genera-
tion assets. Given the chance that the utility’s peaking
GTs will not start when needed, it’s common to have
multiple turbines as backup. With the greater reliability
created by an open control system, utilities can confi-
dently reduce the redundant assets with considerable
savings or, conversely, have more peaking power reliably
available.
Furthermore, these units are often becoming more
than occasional peaking units as natural gas continues
to become more attractive versus other fuel sources. In
short, these units may now be scheduled to run far more
often and longer than originally expected, which makes
their reliability and availability that much more impor-
tant to the power generator’s profitability.
A BENEFICIAL
LONG-TERM PARTNERSHIP
Beyond the reliability improvement and resulting
profitability enhancement, owners of gas turbines can
realize many additional benefits by working with a sup-
plier that offers open control systems as their core com-
petency. The major benefits include:
t Collaboration: OEMs offering only closed systems
can be less sensitive to the specific needs of the
owner/operator and are typically unwilling to in-
novate at that level. The GT OEMs know they have
a captive market and can therefore offer only their
own standard solutions. Absent any competition,
they have no pressure to offer their solutions at a
reasonable price. On the other hand, open sys-
tem vendors realize they must actively compete to
earn their customers’ business. They understand
the need to listen to an individual customer’s spe-
cific issues and respond with targeted solutions.
These third-party suppliers appreciate the need to
1309PE_37 37 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
38
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 21
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more predictive and less routine or
reactive maintenance.
t Latest Technology: The gas turbine
OEM’s main focus is the machine
itself, not the control system. It is not
uncommon for them to rely on ex-
ternal low-cost PLC solutions for ad-
dressing their control needs. In this
situation, the ability of the turbine
OEM to dictate the functionality and
performance specification of the
control system they supply is lim-
ited. Their main interest is ensuring
that the chosen technology allows
for the locking or “black-boxing” of
their control algorithms to support
their financial strategies. The third-
party open system provider has a
greater focus on the control system
capabilities, as DCS technology is at
the core of its business. These com-
panies invest heavily in this area to
ensure they are always positioned
in the vanguard of their industry in
terms of performance, safety, func-
tionality, reliability, flexibility and
openness. The end result is a supe-
rior control system supported by one
single vendor with ownership fully
transferred to the customer.
t Customization: Owner/operators
can choose to customize the HMI
graphics in a variety of ways, either
during or after the upgrade. As one
simple example, device tags can be
changed to names that are more
meaningful to the plant staff. In
most cases, control room person-
nel manage multiple systems, each
with its own graphic standards or
conventions. With an open system,
the owner/operator can specify that
the new control system graphics
match existing systems’ graphics.
innovate at such a level and are eager
to demonstrate their ability to cure
longstanding and troublesome op-
erational issues.
t Independence: Open systems are de-
signed to allow owner/operators to
take full responsibility and owner-
ship of their asset and be self-main-
tainers of that asset. This concept is
at the core of the open system sup-
plier’s value proposition, so a full set
of troubleshooting tools come stan-
dard with the product. Plant staff
can observe high-resolution, real-
time and historical process trends,
enabling them to identify issues that
can be quickly investigated and, if
necessary, remedied independent
of OEM support and its inherent
limitations. Moreover, this data can
form the basis of an improved as-
set management program, enabling
1309PE_38 38 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
A well designed
open control
system provides
access to live GT
operational data.
- ABB
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 22
This simplifies the unit operator’s
job, reduces operator errors and en-
ables faster training and operator
response.
t Security: Third-party control provid-
ers can also ensure that NERC-CIP
requirements can be met and offer
services that help GT owners/op-
erators implement comprehensive
security programs. These issues can
be considered and addressed during
the upgrade project or process.
t Lifecycle management: GT OEMs
typically do not offer an elegant,
cost-effective mi-
gration path for
their control sys-
tems. “Rip-and-
replace” is their
usual approach
to keeping the
control system
current. Many
third-party pro-
viders follow a lifecycle approach
instead. They provide a stepwise
evolutionary path for control system
upgrades. This allows the owner/op-
erator to maintain a state-of-the-art
system over the entire turbine life-
cycle while minimizing the cost and
risk to the unit that are frequently
associated with rip-and-replace up-
grades. Owners/operators are also
not locked into buying upgrades or
add-ons from the OEM. New tech-
nology that could add a desired
capability can be readily interfaced
with an open control system archi-
tecture (e.g., optimization software,
new and improved field devices,
etc.).
t More responsive controls service:
Some GT OEMs are clearly focused
on the sale and installation of the
original equipment. Lifecycle ser-
vices are an afterthought, especially
when it comes to the control system.
As described earlier, some GT own-
ers/operators are well-acquainted
with the painfully slow and aggra-
vating telephone-tag style of remote
service. Onsite service is often pro-
vided by an OEM-authorized service
representative. For both phone and
on-site service, it is common to have
different service representatives with
each call. Lacking familiarity with
the specific facility and turbine, each
new service representative has to be
brought up to speed on the equip-
ment, adding time to each service
call and delaying critical repairs.
Open-system providers are more
service oriented and
have organized their
support resources to
better meet customer
needs. They have
technicians who are
on call and located
throughout the ser-
vice region in order to
respond more quickly
and in person when the situation
requires. Many are willing to dedi-
cate individuals to a specific plant.
Simply put, third-party control sys-
tem providers realize that they need
to support their controls customers
every day. This mindset is evident in
their control system’s evolution pro-
grams, comprehensive set of service
offerings and overall responsiveness
to customer needs.
While such supplier-sourced service
advantages are very real, turbines that
are equipped with an open system
provide another truly significant ad-
vantage. A well-designed open control
system provides access to live GT oper-
ational data and capable troubleshoot-
ing tools. Result: Many local operators
are typically able to troubleshoot and
resolve issues without external ser-
vice intervention. This significantly
reduces the time and cost of problem
resolution and provides another criti-
cal operational advantage.
1309PE_39 39 8/29/13 5:35 PM
www.power-eng.com
40
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 23
software elements (PLC or other),
user HMIs, panels, cabinets, input/
output, fuel and other valve actuators,
generator excitation system, condition
monitoring sensors and other elements
of the instrumentation and controls
for a GT unit.
NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR
GT OWNERS
Many GT owner/operators already
have, or soon will have, a pressing need
to replace OEM control systems because
of the obsolescence of the HMI clients
and servers as well as reaching end-of-life
for critical actuators and instrumenta-
tion. They face long delays as these items
are repaired and/or updated, and are at
greater operational, safety and profit risk
while these assets are unavailable. The
reduced reliability of their generation as-
sets will prevents IPPs from bidding on
more lucrative contracts and increases
their chance of paying penalties for fail-
ing to meet existing contractual require-
ments. Utilities may be forced to carry
additional equipment, overhead and op-
erating expenses for redundant assets in
order to ensure that they have sufficient
generation capacity when one or more
turbines fail to start. Even operators with
recently installed units who have not yet
experienced the pain of unreliable older
equipment are still seeking third-party,
open-architecture control systems. They
are frustrated at being held captive by the
turbine manufacturer’s controls. They are
eager to achieve a higher degree of plant
controls integration and/or consolida-
tion, have access to useful live data, re-
spond on their own to issues and take
true ownership of their turbine and its
control system.
Open control system upgrades and re-
placements have been field proven to in-
crease availability, reliability, safety and
profitability versus OEM and other black
box control solutions because the owner/
operator is provided with the tools and
data necessary to become a self-main-
tainer who troubleshoots, tunes, repairs
and improves independently from the
GT’s OEM. Regardless of the reason for
upgrading the control system, GT opera-
tors can benefit greatly by considering the
many advantages of relying on a third-
party open control system.
ELEMENTS OF A
CONTROLS RETROFIT
Open control system (OCS)
upgrades and replacements can
cover every instrument and control
aspect of a GT unit. This includes the
control and protection hardware and
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42
dynamic, the user must invest addi-
tional hours of engineering effort.
Complex scripts are developed to
show the status of devices and electri-
cal power flow. This not only increases
the cost of implementation, but also
makes the maintenance and modifi-
cation for future expansion more dif-
ficult.
Real-Time Power Management
(RTPM) software is a model-based so-
lution designed to automatically de-
termine if a component is energized\
de‐energized based on the status of
switching devices such as breakers,
switches and contacts as well as the in-
terconnectivity between components.
If information is missing or faulty,
the software estimates the parameters
even without signals actually coming
from hardware in the field. The model-
based environment makes it very easy
to add equipment (drag, drop, con-
nect). This is extremely useful during
plant expansions or revamps.
Utilizing RTPM software will reduce
development time by 30 percent over
traditional SCADA systems, providing
a more comprehensive level of intel-
ligent monitoring and will reduce the
long term cost of ownership of the
SCADA system as improvements are
made to the electrical power system in
the future.
A true real-time power management
application should provide the follow-
ing features:
1. Intelligent One-Line Diagram
2. Intelligent Monitoring
3. Online Predictive Simulation
4. Sequence of Events Playback
S
upervisory Control and
Data Acquisitions (SCA-
DA) systems have revolu-
tionized the power indus-
try since their inception,
giving owner/operators unprecedented
visibility into powering their power
infrastructure. But to date, SCADA/
Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs)
have only been able to provide static
electrical on-line diagrams and do not
contain interconnectivity informa-
tion. In order to be made functionally
Infusing SCADA
Software with
Real-Time Power
Management
Capabilities
BY TANUJ KHANDELWAL, VICE PRESIDENT, PRODUCT AND INDUSTRY STRATEGY, ETAP
ETAP Real-Time software ensures
that power issues that can com-
promise the integrity of operations
are identified long before they can
jeopardize the facility.
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44
model of the system for proper presen-
tation of actual operating status.
All this information should be acces-
sible to the system operator through
advance man-machine interfaces such
as an interactive one-line diagram that
provides logical system-wide view.
Compensation for
absent physical meters
Traditional monitoring is based on
visualizing meter information from
certain limited parts of the system.
It is not cost effective to place meters
throughout the entire system. The
real-time power management system
eliminates this need by processing
the telemetry data and determines the
missing or faulty meter values using
advanced techniques such as State and
Load Estimator (SLE). Maintenance re-
sponsibility and cost are substantially
decreased every time equipment is
added to the monitoring network as
operations can get immediate visibil-
ity of the electrical operating condi-
tions without physically metering the
equipment.
The system therefore generates
pseudo-measurements such as voltage,
losses, power flows, etc. and compen-
sates for absence of physical meters –
especially in low voltage regions. By
generating pseudo-measurements, it
is also possible to alarm the operator
regarding unobservable or unmetered
equipment that is operating
abnormally such as over-
loads.
RAW Data Checking
(RDC)
The Intelligent Monitoring
module has the capability
of determining whether the
data monitored makes sense
electrically. It utilizes the
Network Topology Processor
to determine if the measure-
ments follow the basic elec-
trical rules. Some examples
are:
t Power in and out of nodes
t Measurements on both
sides of feeders and trans-
formers
t Out of range values
Online Predictive Simula-
tion
In order to design, oper-
ate and maintain a power
system, one must first understand
its behavior. The operator must have
firsthand experience with the system
under various operating conditions to
effectively react to changes. This will
avoid the inadvertent plant outage
caused by human error and equipment
overload. The cost of an unplanned
outage can be staggering. The ability to
perform system studies and simulate
“What If” scenarios using real-time
operating data on demand is of the es-
sence.
(RTPM) offers the powerful fea-
tures in (RTPM) Power Simulator with
an interface to utilize online data for
simulation. With this feature you can
INTELLIGENT
ONE-LINE DIAGRAM
A Real-Time Power Management
system operates on an intelligent one-
line diagram that provides the follow-
ing features:
Electrical Network
Topology Processor
An electrical Network Topology Pro-
cessor (NTP) automatically
determines if a component
is energized\de-energized. It
looks at the status of switch-
ing devices such as break-
ers, switches and contacts as
well as the interconnectivity
between components.
In SCADA software, the
HMI’s that are built-in do
not contain interconnectiv-
ity information. Status of
components has to be de-
termined from signals actu-
ally coming from hardware
in the field and scripts have
to be written for making
the animation on the HMI
screens.
Ratings and settings of
every component in the
electrical network
Ratings and settings of
the electrical components
are stored in the (RTPM) database. Ac-
cessing this information is as easy as
double clicking on the component in
the one-line diagram view. This infor-
mation serves as a base for all simula-
tion capabilities of the software as well
as some automatic features such as
overload and under/over voltage con-
ditions alarming.
Intelligent Monitoring
Monitoring is the base function for
any power management software. In
addition, seamless integration with
metering devices, data acquisition
and archiving systems are essential
to monitoring software. Real-time or
snapshot data are linked to an online
1
Production Savings Per Event Using
PSMS 10 Percent Reduction
In Downtime
Estimated Production Loss $ per Outage Event = $/kW x Recorded Peak kW for
Large (50 MW) industrial users. The graph shows the increasing loss in revenue
for longer outage times.
$200,000
$167,000
$133,000
$100,000
$66,700
$33,300
0
Outage Duration (Hours)
U
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
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46
check for electrical system component
status, operator actions and telemeter
data. The Playback feature has a direct
interface to the RTPM Power Simulator
modules for operators and engineers
to study alternate solutions for the
problems at hand.
Supervisory and Advisory Controls
State-of-the-art supervisory and ad-
visory control capabilities should be
used to control and optimize in real-
time various parameters throughout
the system. Using optimization algo-
rithms, the user can program the power
management system (i.e., assist energy
consumers by automatically operat-
ing their system to minimize system
losses, reduce peak load consumption
or minimize control adjustment). For
energy managers, the power manage-
ment system can be set up to minimize
energy fuel costs and optimize system
operation.
In a recent study performed for a
simulate the following scenarios and
more:
t Start of a motor or group of mo-
tors for determining the impact in
the electrical system
t Energize/De-energize feeders
(steady state and dynamic)
t Check for Short-Circuit and Arc
Flash levels under existing opera-
tion
t Check sequence of operation of
protective devices under existing
configuration of the network
Sequence of Events Playback
The ability to recover from a system
disturbance depends on the time it
takes to establish the cause of the prob-
lem and take remedial action. This re-
quires a fast and complete review and
analysis of the sequence of events prior
to the disturbance. Power management
software should assist operation and
engineering staff to quickly identify
the cause of operating problems and
determine where energy costs can be
reduced. The software should also be
able to reconstruct exact system condi-
tions to check for operator actions and
probe for alternative actions after-the-
fact. This important tool serves as an
on-going learning process for the op-
erator.
Besides reducing losses and improv-
ing data gathering capability, such an
application should assist in increase
plant reliability and control costs. The
event playback feature is especially
useful for root cause and effect in-
vestigations, improvement of system
operations, exploration of alternative
actions and replay of “What If” scenar-
ios. Event playback capability trans-
lates into savings. These savings for a
typical 50-MW plant are illustrated in
Figure 1. For example, a conservative
estimate of 10 percent reduction in
downtime for an outage that lasts an
hour yields about $33,000 in savings.
The RTPM Playback module recon-
structs exact system conditions to
Event Playback Replays Archived Historian Data and
Investigates Cause and Effect In Order To Explore
Alternative Actions and Replay “What If” Scenarios

2
Power
Management
Console
Real-Time
Data
Real-Time
Server
Playback Historian
Intelligent Load Shedding Offers Fast Load Shedding
That Can Dynamically Manage The Stability Of a
System By Responding Faster To Disturbances

3
Real-Time Data
Simulator
Disturbances
Knowledge
Base
Load
Shedding
System
Control
Display
Alarm
Predict
1309PE_46 46 8/29/13 5:36 PM
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large industrial facility (150MVA), advanced optimi-
zation algorithms, native to the power management
system, were utilized to reduce real and reactive power
losses. Assuming a conservative power loss reduction
of only 0.1 percent at an average electrical energy cost
of USD $0.13/kWh, an energy management system
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Online Control
An advanced power management system should
provide the options for full remote control to the sys-
tem elements such as motors, generators, breakers,
load tap changers and other protection devices direct-
ly or through the existing SCADA system.
In addition, the software should provide user-defin-
able actions that can be added or superimposed on the
existing system for automating system control. This is
similar to adding PC-based processors/controllers (kV,
kW, kvar, PF, etc.) or simple breaker interlocks to any
part of the system by
means of the soft-
ware.
Intelligent Load
Shedding
A major distur-
bance in an electri-
cal power system
may result in certain
areas becoming iso-
lated and experienc-
ing low frequency
and voltage, which can result in an unstable opera-
tion. The power management system should have the
intelligence to initiate load shedding based on a us-
er-defined Load Priority Table (LPT) and a pre-con-
structed Stability Knowledge Base (SKB) in response
to electrical or mechanical disturbances in the system.
Load shedding schemes by conventional frequency re-
lays are generally a static control with fixed frequency
settings. Based on Neural Networks, a power manage-
ment system would be able to adapt to all real-time
situations and provide a true dynamic load shedding
control (Figure 3). This would allow the operator to
optimize load preservation, reduce downtime for criti-
cal loads and simulate/test the load shedding recom-
mendations.
Another significant cost component of operations is
demand charge of the energy bill. The demand charge
is 40 to 60 percent of the bill for sites without peak
The power
management
system can be
set up to minimize
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and optimize
system operation.
1309PE_47 47 8/29/13 5:36 PM
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or sequenced or penalty can be paid if
certain processes are vital.
CONCLUSION
A typical SCADA system displays col-
lected electrical power data in a non-
electrical system environment with-
out recognizing the
interdependencies of
equipment. Extend-
ing the overall SCADA
system functionality
by including an intel-
ligent power monitor-
ing application with an
appropriate electrical
system context, simula-
tion modules and playback routines will
provide the system operator and engi-
neer with a powerful new set of tools to
increase the overall system effectiveness.
Using these tools, the user can accurately
predict the behavior of the electrical sys-
tem in response to a variety of changes.
The playback of recorded message logs
into the simulator-equipped monitoring
system provides the operator with an in-
valuable means of exploring the effects
of alternative actions during historical
events. These simulation techniques will
provide a revolutionary training tool to
effectively prepare the SCADA operators
of the future.
With the growing demand to ef-
ficiently operate at a lower cost, man-
age energy usage from a variety of new
sources and train the operator of the
future, the time has come to enhance
SCADA systems with intelligent appli-
cations that provide the flexibility and
compatibility to meet today’s energy
challenges.
shaving generation. A single unman-
aged demand charge can produce a very
large hike in the power bill each month
and with “ratcheting” demand charges
(the Eskom Network Access (NAC)
charge applies to the highest recorded
demand above the notified demand
for 12 consecutive
months), the penalty
then has a bearing
for a whole year. An
intelligent combina-
tion of smart applica-
tions can provide the
current and predicted
demand for each day
thus managing peak
demands on a continuous basis. Loads
can be shed intelligently and automati-
cally, peak-shaving generators can be
started, load startup can be postponed
A single
unmanaged
demand charge
can produce a
very large hike
in the power bill
each month.
1309PE_49 49 8/29/13 5:36 PM
www.power-eng.com
50
the cost would be considerably higher
than with FRP piping.
Chemicals that run through the pipes
are high in corrosive properties. This is a
problem for steel, which is far more sus-
ceptible to corrosion than is fiberglass.
Sealing the latter, however, is another
matter. Just how challenging that project
could be became painfully clear during
the first phase, which was implemented
during the height of the winter season. Fi-
berglass piping has unique coupling and
connection issues. It is difficult to seal in
the cold and the task becomes more oner-
ous when there is moisture in the air.
Beaubien said the previous project was
challenged by suspect field joints that
failed due to environmental conditions
during the joint fusion process in the
construction phase. “The fusion process
of the FRP joints requires a controlled
D
TE Energy, the Detroit-
based generator, trans-
mitter and distributor
of energy to 2.1 million
customers in Southeast-
ern Michigan, is the state’s largest electric
utility. With a system capacity of 11,084
MW, DTE uses coal, natural gas, nuclear
fuel, hydroelectric pumped storage and
renewable resources to generate its elec-
trical output. DTE’s Monroe Power Plant,
located near Lake Erie in Monroe, Mich.,
is the largest plant of its type in the state
and fifth largest in the U.S. according to
DTE. The facility, situated on a 1,200 acre
site, is comprised of four units and has a
capacity of 3,200 MW.
The Monroe plant is in the second of
three phases of a $600 million upgrade:
the DTE Monroe Energy Scrubber Proj-
ect, which represents a clean coal com-
mitment for the nearly 40-year old facil-
ity. “We are reducing sulfur dioxide (SO
2
)
emissions by installing scrubbers in the
power plants,” said Jason Beaubien, DTE
major enterprise project start-up man-
ager.
Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD),
commonly referred to as the scrubber,
is designed to control 95 percent of SO
2

emissions, according to Beaubien. “One
Monroe FGD will control 12 percent of
the forecasted fleet SO
2
emissions,” he
said. Two scrubbers are to be brought
online in Phase II. In Phase I, which was
completed in 2009, two FGD scrubbers
went online.
The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency has placed a high priority on
greatly reducing SO
2
emissions. When
gaseous emissions combine with water,
they form a dilute aqueous solution of
Coupling for Fiberglass:
An Alternative to Curing
BY CHUCK RAYMOND, MACOMB GROUP
sulfurous acid, which can easily oxidize
in the atmosphere to become sulfuric
acid (H
2
SO
4
). The EPA has long warned
that dilute H
2
SO
4
is a major component
of acid rain. Given the agency’s intense
scrutiny on reducing such emissions
from coal-fired plants, DTE also places a
high priority on completing its initiative
on time.
THE CHALLENGE FOR
PIPING CONTRACTORS
Installation represents a major prob-
lem for contractors who are responsible
for $1.5 million worth of fiberglass pip-
ing. Project managers and contractors
generally prefer fiberglass or FRP piping
instead of steel for the FGDs. The reason
is resistance to corrosion. “FRP piping is
the preferred material based on the high
chlorides, abrasive qualities of the slurry,
and cost,” Beaubien said, adding that al-
loy piping was not considered because
Pipe coupling can be a labor intensive process, requir-
ing specialized workers in the skilled trades.
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or externally, and the coupling cannot
be disturbed for as much as two days,
perhaps even longer depending on
weather conditions.
Delays can obviously
jeopardize the project
timeline. According
to Marc Robertson,
power generation
specialist for Victau-
lic, a developer and
manufacturer of me-
chanical pipe joining systems, the pro-
cess is too time consuming.
“It’s all very labor intensive and you
might need to hire specific people in the
trades who are familiar with these spe-
cialties to complete the process,” Robert-
son said. He noted that fiberglass piping
contractors face other issues such as the
possible need for additional curing with
a heat blanket and greater protection
environment which was difficult to ob-
tain at times with the elements found
near Lake Erie in the winter months,”
the manager said. Beaubien said that
later during commissioning, DTE Energy
experienced some joint failures, particu-
larly with field joints.
“We didn’t have couplings on the
previous build, so the field joints were
wrapped with layers of fiberglass,” Beau-
bien said. It was here that the piping con-
tractor ran into trouble.
THE TROUBLE
WITH CURING
The use of the curing process for cou-
pling and sealing pipes has been left
fundamentally unchanged through the
years. Most pipe joints require resin
applied to the joint that then must be
cured. The surface resin is cured with
heat applied either through a catalyst
from the elements. “Worse yet, you may
have to completely tear it out and start
over if any leaks are detected during test-
ing,” Robertson said.
“It means that every-
thing has to be dried
out and reworked.”
One of the piping
contractors found that
to be the case dur-
ing Phase I. External
methods were insuf-
ficient, and heat blankets and even in-
dustrial blow dryers did not completely
solve or resolve the problems with adhe-
sion. Making matters worse for the con-
tractor, the adhesive, which apparently
had not been properly cured, most likely
due to the impact of Michigan’s bitter
winter on the curing process, tended
to peel away. The result: the failure of
joints reported by Beaubien resulting in
“We didn’t have
couplings on the
previous build,
so the field joints
were wrapped with
layers of fiberglass.”
1309PE_52 52 8/29/13 5:36 PM
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eliminate the need for the curing pro-
cess. What their research discovered
was that an aluminum coupling (296A)
manufactured by Victaulic could resolve
the dual time and connection issues.
“We groove pipe and create rigid joints
instead of flexible ones that would have
bowed or caused other problems to the
fiberglass,” said Victaulic’s Robertson.
expensive repairs that are bound to im-
pact the contractor’s expenditures.
FINDING AN ALTERNATIVE
The piping contractor, with assistance
from the Macomb Group, a distributor
of pipe valves and fittings, sought an
alternative coupling method that could
stand up to the elements and perhaps
“Fiberglass piping can be easily frac-
tured so we are careful not to add ad-
ditional stress to the particular groove
that we use.” The grooves for the 296A
are placed at the end of the pipe.
Time and cost savings occur with the
coupling attachment process. A gasket
is installed on the outside diameter of
the pipe, the housing is placed and fit-
ted over the gasket and the coupling is
attached. The company says installa-
tion can be conducted in severe weather
or even when the piping is submerged.
“There is no waiting period and no cur-
ing,” Robertson said, adding that the
installation process is completed in
minutes through the use of a “simple
mechanical joint.” The company states
there is no special training required to
complete the coupling installation.
DTE’s Beaubien agreed that the
coupling saved the contractor and the
utility a significant amount of time.
“During the construction phase, sig-
nificant man-hours were reduced as
the field joints could be assembled
in a few minutes versus hours with
the wrapped joint method,” Beaubien
said. “With hundreds of connections
on the spool pieces, the savings in
construction were substantial.” The
project manager also determined that
the joints did not require the special
enclosures and scaffold configurations
to maintain temperature that wrapped
joints would require. “These also re-
duced costs,” he said.
RESULTS FROM TESTING
DTE conducted pressure testing of
the piping with the couplings. Beaubien
said that DTE’s comprehensive and in-
tensive testing confirmed that the cou-
plings and the piping performance were
meeting the utility’s exacting standards.
DTE continues to monitor the couplings
and their performance. “We fully expect
them to be successful,” Beaubien said.
DTE plans to continue use of fiber-
glass piping with the coupling at anoth-
er of its locations.
1309PE_54 54 8/29/13 5:36 PM
Power Plant Parts
to go.
Fully designed as a nominal 600 MW GE steam turbine, this Unit 1 power block
is a coal-fred electric generating unit in waiting — making it or its equipment a
perfect solution for a utility that projects demand and demands effciency.
Ready for re-siting and permitting, this plant design comes with complete
documentation of the power block specifcations and calculations — and its
major equipment is 100% delivered. If you have interest in either the entire plant
design or the equipment, they are priced to move. Quickly.
For information, contact John Dills, Santee Cooper, at 843-761-8000, ext. 5772
or visit www.santeecooper.com/wpsale.
Engineered, Procured and Ready to Construct.
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to scan for design details and available equipment.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 34
1309PE_55 55 8/29/13 5:36 PM
www.power-eng.com
56
conference sessions.
To commemorate POWER-GEN’S
25th anniversary, PennWell will be rec-
ognizing the power generation industry’s
25 most influential people over the last
25 years. The industry’s most influen-
tial person will be named the week of
POWER-GEN International 2013. The 25
most influential people were nominated
and selected based on a poll of industry
professionals.
Once again, POWER-GEN will come
to Orlando with three co-located events:
NUCLEAR POWER International; the
POWER-GEN International Financial
Forum; and the Renewable Energy World
Conference & Expo. That’s four confer-
ences under one roof.
KEYNOTE SESSION
The keynote session on Nov. 12 will
feature high-ranking executives, includ-
ing James Rogers, chairman of Duke
Energy Corp., Peter Delaney, chairman,
president and CEO of OGE Corp., and
David Dunning, group executive of Fluor
Corp. The plenary session will be a rapid-
fire, content rich discussion featuring Mi-
chelle Bloodworth, vice president of Busi-
ness Development for America’s Natural
Gas Alliance, and Revis James, director of
Generation Research & Development at
the Electric Power Research Institute.
PROJECTS OF
THE YEAR AWARDS
Presented by Power Engineering, the
Annual Awards Gala begins Monday,
Nov. 11 with a cocktail reception, fol-
lowed by a three-course dinner and in-
cludes award presentations for Projects
of the Year and Papers of the Year. The
Papers of the Year recognizes the top
papers in each conference track. The
Projects of the Year Awards recognize
the world’s best power projects, honor-
ing excellence in design, construction
and operation of power generation
facilities. The award winners – nomi-
nated by the industry and selected by
the editors of Power Engineering and
RenewableEnergyWorld.com – are an-
nounced and presented with awards
recognizing their exceptional contribu-
tions to the power generation industry.
The gala is open to the award final-
ists, their guests and all POWER-GEN
International, NUCLEAR POWER In-
ternational, Renewable Energy World
Conference & Expo North America
P
OWER-GEN Internation-
al, the world’s largest an-
nual forum for the power
generation industry, made
its debut 25 years ago
in Orlando, Fla. The inaugural event,
“POWER-GEN ’88,” was small, with
less than 100 exhibiting companies and
about 600 registered attendees.
Today, more than 1,200 exhibiting
companies showcase their products and
services on the exhibit floor at POWER-
GEN, and more than 21,000 people at-
tend the three-day event. POWER-GEN
International is returning to Orlando
Nov. 12-14 for its 25
th
anniversary in what
promises to be the most exciting POW-
ER-GEN to date.
POWER-GEN International and its
co-located events offer a wealth of net-
working opportunities with leading
professionals and key decision makers.
More than 300 speakers will share their
thoughts on trends, technology and
project development in more than 70
Celebrating
25
Years
BY RUSSELL RAY, CHAIRMAN, POWER-GEN INTERNATIONAL
James Rogers
Peter Delaney David Dunning
1309PE_56 56 8/29/13 5:37 PM
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1309PE_57 57 8/29/13 5:37 PM
www.power-eng.com
58
1 is a General Electric LM6000 PA aero-
derivative simple cycle combustion tur-
bine that is primarily used for peaking.
Unit 2 is a GE Frame MS7001EA in com-
bined cycle with a Nooter Erikson triple
pressure HRSG that provides steam for a
GE Fitchburg axial exhaust straight con-
densing turbine. Unit 3 is a GE 7241FA+e
in combined cycle with a Aalborg triple
pressure reheat HRSG that provides
steam for a GE A10 reheat steam turbine.
Unit 3 was the first combined cycle in
Florida to install a SCR. Unit 4 consists of
a GE 7241FA+e in combined cycle with a
Vogt triple pressure HRSG that provides
steam for a GE A14 reheat steam turbine.
Including duct firing capability, this unit
will produce 300 megawatts.
Curtis H. Stanton Energy Center
and DSI Systems
With more than $275 million invest-
ed in state-of-the-art pollution control
equipment, the Curtis H. Stanton Energy
Center has the power to safeguard the
air,  water and quality of life in Central
Florida. It is owned and operated by the
Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC).
And, with a gross capacity of 1,833 mega-
watts, it also has the power to deliver
reliable electric service both now and
for generations to come. Unit 1 began
commercial operation in 1987 and has a
capacity of 450 MW. Unit 2 began com-
mercial operation in 1996 and also has a
capacity of 450 MW. It is the first pulver-
ized coal unit of its size in the U.S. to use
Selective catalytic Reduction to remove
nitrogen oxide.
Stanton Solar Power Project
The 6-MW Stanton Solar Power Proj-
ect, completed in December 2011, deliv-
ers clean, affordable energy to the OUC.
The ground-mounted photovoltaic sys-
tem, comprised of more than 25,000
poly crystalline panels, is located at the
OUC’s Curtis H. Stanton Energy Center.
A single axis tracking system increases
output by up to 30 percent, and the sys-
tem performed at 104 percent of estimat-
ed production during its first six months.
Stanton was the first solar farm in
Orange County, Florida and can generate
enough renewable energy to power more
than 600 homes.
Culture Fuels Inc.
Culture Fuels Inc., an algae-to-fuels
company based in Lakeland, Fla. has
developed a patent pending hybrid cul-
tivation platform FloatAlgae, a highly-
productive, low-cost photobiorector that
floats on a body of water. It significantly
increases algal biomass density, which
according to the company reduces the
capital and energy needed for harvest-
ing equipment. This improved engineer-
ing solution allows for the production
of cost-competitive end products using
natural algae strains. Visitors will be able
to see the Culture Fuels laboratory.
PV Solar Installation
It’s one of the largest rooftop solar ar-
rays in the southeast! The roof of North-
South Building of the Orange County
Convention Center is home to a 1.1 MW
photovoltaic array that was designed and
installed by Johnson Controls. Costing
more than $8 million, funding partners
included the State of Florida and the local
utility. The project went online in Febru-
ary 2010. The tour will begin at the reg-
istration area in the West building and
will walk across the pedestrian overlook
bridge to the South building. Attendees
will then take the freight elevators to the
HVAC Penthouse level, where they view
and learn about the inverters and other
components necessary to run the solar
array. Finally, they will step out onto the
roof to take in the full array and ask ques-
tions about the project.
SEE YOU IN ORLANDO!
POWER-GEN International has cov-
ered it all, providing a world stage for
the innovations, ideas and solutions
that have defined the industry for two
decades.  Since its inception in 1988,
POWER-GEN has evolved into the larg-
est power generation event in the world.
Visit www.power-gen.com for com-
plete conference exhibition and registra-
tion information.
and POWER-GEN Financial Forum at-
tendees.
CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS
At POWER-GEN, more than 40 con-
ference sessions will be held under
eight tracks: Emissions Control, On-Site
Power, Plant Performance, Gas Turbine
Technologies, Fossil Technologies, En-
vironmental Issues, Demand Response,
and Industry Trends/Competitive Power
Generation.
Here’s a sample of the some of the ses-
sions that will be offered: “Flexible Gen-
eration,” “Compliance Control Strategies
and Technologies,” “Gas Turbine Tech-
nology Developments,” “Gas Turbines:
An O&M Perspective,” “Steam Turbine-
Generator Reliability, Availability and
Efficiency,” “Multi-Pollutant Emissions
Control Technologies,” and “How De-
mand Response is Impacting Utility
Planning.”
WOMAN OF THE YEAR
The first POWER-GEN International
Woman of the Year Award will be given to
a pioneering woman from the power gen-
eration industry. Nominated and selected
by a committee of her peers, the honor of
being named the POWER-GEN Interna-
tional 2013 Woman of the Year will be
given to a leader who has advanced the
power industry in a meaningful way. The
winner of the POWER-GEN Internation-
al 2013 Woman of the Year Award will
be announced during the Projects of the
Year Awards Gala on Nov. 11 at 7 p.m.
TECHNICAL TOURS
Technical tours of five power genera-
tion facilities and technologies will be of-
fered on Monday, Nov. 11.
Cane Island
On 170 acres surrounded by nearly
1,000 acres of protected wetland, Cane
Island burns natural gas as the primary
fuel. The plant is capable of producing
710 megawatts of electricity. The Cane
Island Power Park is a mixture of modern
gas and steam turbine technology. Unit
1309PE_58 58 8/29/13 5:37 PM
© 2013 by AMETEK Inc. All rights reserved.
The new WDG-V.
Impressing even the
world’s most demanding
combustion manager.
The new AMETEK Thermox WDG-V extractive combustion analyzer offers
industry-leading safety support. First in its class to be third-party certified for
SIL-2 implementation in safety-instrumented systems, the WDG-V provides
a complete solution for combustion process control and safety.
Reliable detection of low-combustion oxygen and/or high CO in a fired heater
or boiler is critical to burner management system effectiveness. The WDG-V
analyzer monitors hot, wet flue gas to minimize excess oxygen, lower
NOx emissions, and improve operating efficiency in power generation
and petrochemical refining. It can also monitor methane levels to
assure safe burner startup and shutdown.
The all-new WDG-V. Combustion management and safety capabilities
so good, they make this guy jealous. Learn more at www.ametekpi.com.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 36
1309PE_59 59 8/29/13 5:37 PM
POWER GENERATION WEEK
NOVEMBER 12–14, 2013 | ORANGE COUNTY CONVENTION CENTER | ORLANDO, FL, USA
Covering every aspect of the power generation industry, POWER-GEN International, NUCLEAR POWER International,
Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America and POWER-GEN Financial Forum converge in 2013 to
form POWER GENERATION WEEK. Beneft from fve days packed with pre-conference workshops, technical tours,
over 70 conference sessions, panel discussions, three exhibition days and multiple networking events. Like never
before, you’ll have access to nearly every facet of the market – all under one roof.
4 Events. 5 Days. 1 Roof.
Owned & Produced by Presented by Supported by
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1309PE_60 60 8/29/13 5:37 PM
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http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#315 http://powereng.hotims.com/RS#314
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1309PE_63 63 8/29/13 5:37 PM
www.power-eng.com
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Turbine Services
Trust your Turbo
Generator Service
to the Manufacturer
with more than 100
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(612) 378-8000
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REMARKABLY
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Are Stray Electrical Currents
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 467
Books, Books…So Many Books
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Check out over 50,000 Books Related to
the Energy Industry at PennEnergy.com
1309PE_64 64 8/29/13 5:37 PM
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 454
Get a BoiIer RentaI Quote within one hour at
www.wareinc.com/equipment or caII 800-228-8861
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 457
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 455
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 452
For sale or rent
The world’s very
best portable end
prep tools and
abrasive saws
800-343-6926
www.escotool.com
-Maintains & grows customer base.
-Min. of 5yrs experience in power
systems sales or related sales.
www.pattencat.com
-Serve customers by identifying their needs;
engineering adaptations of products
& equipment.
Sales Engineer
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 450
WE ARE
BUYING!!!
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VALVES
INSTRUMENTATION
ELECTRICAL CONTROLS
PROCESS EQUIPMENT
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PLANT MACHINERY
PSA SNUBBERS, ETC.
VISIT
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email:vavlebuyer@ferncroftmanagement.com
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CONDENSER & HEAT EXCHANGER TOOLS
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 456
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 451
POWER PROFESSIONALS
Opportunities in Operations and Maintenance,
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First-line Supervision to Executive Level Positions.
Employer pays fee. Send resumes to:
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 453
1309PE_65 65 8/29/13 5:37 PM
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For Classifed
Advertising
Rates & Information
Contact
Jenna Hall
Phone: 918-832-9249
Jennah@pennwell.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 462
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FOR SALE/RENT
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 460
1309PE_66 66 8/29/13 5:37 PM
www.power-eng.com
67
INDEX
RS# COMPANY PG# SALES OFFICE RS# COMPANY PG#
1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-835-3161, Fax: 918-831-9834
e-mail: pe@pennwell.com
Sr. Vice President North
American Power Group

Richard Baker
Reprints

Foster Printing Servive
4295 Ohio Street
Michigan City, IN 46360
Phone: 866-879-9144
e-mail: pennwellreprint@fosterprinting.com
National Brand Manager

Rick Huntzicker
Palladian Professional Park
3225 Shallowford Rd., Suite 800
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone: 770-578-2688, Fax: 770-578-2690
e-mail: rickh@pennwell.com
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO,
MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Brand Sales Manager

Dan Idoine
806 Park Village Drive
Louisville, OH 44641
Phone: 330-875-6581, Fax: 330-875-4462
e-mail: dani@pennwell.com
CT, DE, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY,
OH, PA, RI, VT, Quebec, New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Ontario
Brand Sales Manager

Tina Shibley
1421 S. Sheridan Road
Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-831-9552; Fax: 918-831-9834
e-mail: tinas@pennwell.com
AK, AZ, CA, CO, HI, IA, ID, MN, MT, ND,
NE, NM, NV, OK, OR, SD UT, WA, WI, WY,
Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan,
Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory,
Manitoba
International Sales Mgr

Anthony Orfeo
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 609, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: anthonyo@pennwell.com
Africa, Asia, Central America, Europe,
Middle East, South America
European Sales

Asif Yusuf
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 631, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: asify@pennwell.com
Europe and Middle East
Classifieds/Literature Showcase


Account Executive

Paige Rogers
1421 S. Sheridan Rd.
Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-831-9441, Fax: 918-831-9834
email: paiger@pennwell.com
9 Industrial Cooling Tower Services Inc. 17
www.ictsinc.com
13 John Zink Co 25
www.johnzinkhamworthy.com
18 Magnetrol International 35
www.magnetrol.com
30 Man Diesel SE 51
www.man-bluefire.com
35 Michigan Seamless Tube 57
www.mstube.com
14 Mitsubishi Power
Systems Americas, Inc. 27
www.mpshq.com
26 New York Blower Company 45
www.nyb.com
10 Nol-Tec Systems Inc 18
www.nol-tec.com
15 Philadelphia Gear Corporation 29
37 Power Generation Week 60
www.powergenerationweek.com
28 POWER-GEN International 48
www.power-gen.com
7 Robinson Fans 13
www.robinsonfans.com
34 Santee Cooper 55
www.santeecooper.com/wpsale
8 SMA America LLC 15
www.sma-america.com
1 Solvay Chemicals Inc C2
www.solvair.us
33 The Society for
Protective Coatings 54
www.sspc.org
21 Volvo Penta of the Americas 38
www.volvopenta.com
2 Westinghouse Electric Co 3
www.westinghousenuclear.com
Advertisers and advertising agencies assume lia-
bility for all contents (including text representation
and illustrations) of advertisements printed, and
also assume responsibility for any claims arising
therefrom made against the publisher. It is the
advertiser’s or agency’s responsibility to obtain
appropriate releases on any items or individuals
pictured in the advertisement.
38 American Council on
Renewable Energy C3
www.reffwest.com
36 Ametek Process Analytical 59
www.ametekpi.com
6 Areva 11
us.areva.com/atrium
31 Babcock Power Inc. 52
www.babcockpower.com/
dsianimation
16 Basler Electric Co 31
www.basler.com/9pe11g
17 BETE Fog Nozzle, Inc. 33
www.bete.com
27 Braden Manufacturing 47
www.braden.com
32 Brand Energy and
Infrastructure Services 53
www.beis.com
19 Clearspan Fabric Structures 37
www.clearspan.com/adpwre
24 Cleaver Brooks Inc/Nebraska Boiler 41
www.cleaverbrooks.com/engineered
12 Colfax Fluid Handling 23
www.colfaxcorp.com/power-
generation
29 Dresser-Rand 49
www.guascorpower.com
22 Fibrwrap 39
www.fibrwrap.com
39 Foster Wheeler USA C4
www.fwc.com/GlobalPoweGroup
25 GE 43
www.ge-energy.com/energysavings
3 GE Water & Process Technologies 5
www.geimagination.com/cms/power
20 Graphite Metallizing Corp 37
www.graphalloy.com
23 Harco 40
www.harcolabs.com
4 HYTORC 7
www.hytorc.com
5 HYTORC 9
www.hytorc.com
11 Industrial Cooling
Tower Services Inc. 19
www.ictsinc.com
1309PE_67 67 8/29/13 5:38 PM
www.power-eng.com
68
GENERATING BUZZ
SnakeBot
It can see, and slither, and
writhe its way into tight spaces.
Is it a snake? Well, kind of.
T
he modular snake robot developed by researchers at Carn-
egie Mellon’s Robotics Institute made big news this sum-
mer when it successfully inspected the bowels of Austria’s
dormant Zwentendorf nuclear power plant.
Just two inches in diameter and 37 inches long, its body tethered
to a control and power cable out the rear end, the robot’s 16 mod-
ules with two half-joints each gives it 16 degrees of movement, af-
fording it the dexterity to reach places and get high-quality, well-lit
viewing angles that would be diffcult or impossible for a human or
even a boreoscope.
The “right-side-up” feature, in which the video feed from the
camera on its head is corrected to align with gravity, makes operat-
ing the robot more intuitive.
“With further development and testing, such a robot could give
operators a more complete understanding of a plant’s condition and
perhaps reduce a plant’s downtime by enabling faster, more eff-
cient inspections,” said Martin Fries, an engineer with EVN Group,
owner of the Zwentendorf facility.
Next, engineers hope to make the robot even more like a snake:
waterproof.
1309PE_68 68 8/29/13 5:38 PM
More Info at: www.refwest.com
Power Engineering Readers:
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Use Promo Code MED20REW
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 38
1309PE_C3 3 8/29/13 5:09 PM
Mercury and Air Toxics Standard …
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What’s Next?
With an unpredictable path forward for US air regulation,
flexible compliance strategies are taking on a new meaning.
Foster Wheeler’s circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) scrubber
technology is about as flexible as you can get:
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 39
1309PE_C4 4 8/29/13 5:09 PM
For t he i ndus t r y ’ s c ar eer - mi nded pr of e s s i onal s SUMMER 2013
A suppl ement t o PennWel l publ i c at i ons | www. PennEner g yJ OBS. c om
New Horizons:
The Growth of
Offshore Wind
Around the World
FROZEN ASSETS:
The Artic Push
in Offshore
Oil & Gas
INDUSTRY INSIGHTS
Offshore Energy:
Mitigating Risk
TRAINING INSIGHTS
Empowering our Troops:
AEP Career Initiatives
for Veterans
ENERGY 101
Wave & Tidal Power
1308pejew_C1 1 8/20/13 2:58 PM
1308pejew_C2 2 8/20/13 2:58 PM
2 EDITOR’S LETTER
Offshore Energy: Towards the Great Horizon
Dorothy Davis Ballard, PennWell
3 NEW HORIZONS
The Growth of Offshore Wind Around the World
Dorothy Davis Ballard, PennWell
5 FROZEN ASSETS
The Artic Push in Offshore Oil & Gas
Hilton Price, PennWell
6 INDUSTRY INSIGHTS
Offshore Energy: Mitigating Risk
Matthew Gordon, Viking SeaTech
8 CAREER INSIGHTS
Regulatory Experts: Career Opportunities Galore
Volker Rathman, Collarini Energy Staffng
10 TRAINING INSIGHTS
Empowering our Troops: AEP Career
Initiatives for Veterans
Dorothy Davis Ballard, PennWell and Scott
Smith, American Electric Power
12 ENERGY 101
Wave & Tidal Power
PennEnergy.com
w w w . P e n n E n e r g y J O B S . c o m
SUMMER 2013
A PENNWELL PUBLI CATI ON
Stacey Schmidt, Publisher
staceys@pennwell.com
Dorothy Davis Ballard, Content Director
dorothyd@pennwell.com
Hilton Price, Editor
hiltonp@pennwell.com
Cindy Chamberlin, Art Director
cindyc@pennwell.com
Daniel Greene, Production Manager
danielg@Pennwell.com
Tommie Grigg,
Audience Development Manager
tommieg@pennwell.com

PennWell Corporation
1421 South Sheridan Road
Tulsa, Oklahoma 74112
918 835 3161
PennWell.com
Recruitment Advertising Sales:
Courtney Noonkester
Sales Manager
918 831 9558
courtneyn@pennwell.com
Adv er t i s er s’
I ndex Chevron .............................................................................................................. C2
PennEnergy Research Services .......................................................................... C3
PennEnergy Jobs ................................................................................................ C4
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2 Summer 2013
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FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
Edi t or ’ s
Let t er
T
HE world’s oceans and vast waterways have always evoked feelings of wonder
and piqued the adventurous spirit. Teeming with life and uncharted depths,
these fuid bodies are awe inspiring in the way they are so vast and yet joining together
everything.
In the ancient world the challenge was to transverse these great expanses, to fare
into the horizon of the unknown for sustenance and wealth. Today, the world beyond
our shores holds the promise of new bounties. We turn again towards the great horizon,
abundant with the promise of resources to fuel all we have developed.
In this issue of Energy Workforce we delve into offshore energy as it is moving
ahead in great leaps and
bounds. We begin with an
overview of offshore wind
power on page 3, highlighting
the incredible global growth
of this industry as it moves
towards becoming a truly
competitive resource.
Next, we look to the
offshore oil & gas industry
and its renewed push into artic territories on page 5, followed by a timely editorial on
mitigating risk on page 6 as offshore exploration & production moves to tap these once
unreachable resources.
With a focus on career development, we hear from an industry expert on expanding
opportunities for regulatory experts on page 8 and speak with an executive of U.S.
energy major AEP about initiatives for veterans in energy on page 10.
We close this issue with another round from our Energy 101 series, this time a brief
introduction to the evolving wave and tidal power industry on page 12.
We hope you enjoy these insights and encourage you to keep us on your summer
reading list to stay ahead with the latest energy news, research, and jobs at PennEnergy.
com and PennEnergyJobs.com.
Carpe diem!
—Dorothy Davis Ballard
Towards the Great Horizon
“Today, the world beyond our shores holds
the promise of new bounties. We turn again
towards the great horizon, abundant with
resources to fuel all we have developed.”
1308pejew_2 2 8/20/13 2:57 PM
Cover STORY
EnergyWorkforce
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Summer 2013 3
The Growth of Offshore
Wind Around the World
By Dorothy Davis Ballard
A
S more countries around the
globe realize the potential of
offshore wind, new turbines
are being installed off of our coasts.
In 2012, 1,296 megawatts of new off-
shore capacity were installed — a 33
percent increase from 2011, according
to the Global Wind Energy Council
(GWEC). The world now has at least
5,415 MW of offshore wind energy gen-
erating around the globe.
Offshore wind represents about 2 per-
cent of global installed energy capacity,
but that number could, and is expect-
ed to, increase rapidly. This renewable
resource, which is able to generate far
more power than onshore wind tur-
bines, could meet Europe’s energy de-
mand seven times over, highlights the
GWEC. While in the United States, off-
shore wind has the potential to provide
four times the energy needed capaci-
ty needed.
Europe’s lead in offshore wind
Currently, more than 90 percent of the
globe’s offshore wind power is installed
off the coast of northern Europe in the
North, Baltic and Irish  seas. There is
now also a solid presence in the Eng-
lish Channel. Last year, the United
Kingdom took the lead in new wind ca-
pacity, adding 854.20 MW of offshore
wind power assets. Denmark added 46.8
MW in 2012 and Belgium 184.5 MW.
As of this article, Europe has a to-
tal of 4,336 MW generating from 1,503
offshore wind turbines at wind farms
located across 10 countries. The Euro-
pean Union has set a goal to generate
20 percent of its electricity from renew-
able sources by 2020, and offshore wind
is slated to play a major role in making
that a reality.
In early July, the offshore wind
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4 Summer 2013
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
EnergyWorkforce
industry celebrated a milestone: Dong
Energy inaugurated the world’s largest
offshore wind power facility. The proj-
ect, which includes 175 Siemens wind
turbines, is called London Array and lo-
cated 12.4 miles off the Kent and Essex
coast in the Thames estuary. It has a to-
tal capacity of 630 MW, enough to pow-
er 500,000 households.
The UK’s Department of Energy &
Climate Change recently approved an-
other major offshore wind project, which
will add to Europe’s expanding wind en-
ergy output. The 1.2 GW Triton Knoll
project will be led by RWE and located
off the Lincolnshire and Norfolk coast.
Along with supplying clean, alternative
energy, the project is expected to gener-
ate more than $5.5 billion of investment
in the region and create about 1,130 jobs.
Germany, too, has had its sights set
on the development of alternative ener-
gies like wind and solar as part of a na-
tional commitment towards the phase
out of nuclear power. The country add-
ed 80 MW of offshore wind energy to the
electric grid in 2012, and another six util-
ity scale offshore wind projects are under
construction. Petrofac, and Siemens En-
ergy also recently entered into a $53 mil-
lion contract to build two major offshore
wind projects in the North Sea off the
coast of Germany - one totaling 576 MW
and another set for 800 MW.
US makes commitment to offshore wind
North America is aiming to add some
6.5 GW of wind power this year, and the
United States is looking to be a major con-
tributor. While there are no offshore wind
farms in the U.S. at the moment, the fed-
eral government has recently completed
its frst-ever round of auctions
for offshore wind leases. Deep-
water Wind, a company based
in Rhode Island, came in with
the highest bid of $3.8 million
for two areas totaling more than
164,000 acres off the coasts of
Massachusetts and Rhode Is-
land. The auction was viewed
as a historic moment for the
U.S.’s future commitment to
clean energy.
The federal government is
expected to hold another auc-
tion in September for a possi-
ble wind project off the coast of
Virginia. Areas offshore Mary-
land, New Jersey and Massa-
chusetts have also been sited as possible
locations for future wind developments.
PensionDanmark announced in June
it will be funding $200 million in capi-
tal for the planned Cape Wind project
expected to include up to 130 Siemens
turbines of 3.6 MW each. If completed,
the project off the coast of Massachu-
setts’ Cape Cod would become one of
the world’s largest offshore wind farms.
Asia will boost wind output
According to the GWEC, Asia will con-
tinue to boost its wind energy output an-
nually, reaching 25.5 GW by 2017. When
it comes to offshore wind energy, Japan
reached 25.3 MW last year. Meanwhile,
South Korea reached 5 MW of offshore
wind generation.
China holds  the third spot for most
offshore wind capacity, with 258.4 MW
installed. China is also home to the frst
commercial offshore wind project outside
Europe. The Shanghai Donghai Bridge
project was installed in 2010 and totals
102 MW. China hopes to have 5 GW
of offshore wind by 2015 and 30 GW by
2030, according to the GWEC.
Cheaper costs will drive demand
A major challenge for expanding off-
shore wind development is the current
high costs of the technology. Deep wa-
ters far offshore, higher waves and steeper
construction costs can make these proj-
ects somewhat cost prohibitive. Howev-
er, like other renewable energy sources
being developed around the globe, off-
shore wind technology is steadily improv-
ing to boost its overall return on invest-
ment. Investment remains strong across
the broader wind power industry with
2012 marking several milestones. It ap-
pears with continued cost reductions and
the growing push towards renewable re-
sources, offshore wind is positioned to be
a key player in meeting global energy de-
mand through the next decade. ⊗
S
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u
r
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e
:

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N
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n
e
r
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y

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1308pejew_4 4 8/20/13 2:57 PM
EnergyWorkforce
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FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
|
Summer 2013 5
Frozen Assets
Despite immense challenges, the Arctic can’t
keep away exploration and drilling.
By Hilton Price
W
HEN U.S. arctic waters saw
a drillship for the frst time
in 2 decades, it seemed the
return to a bygone era of exploration
had begun. Although Shell was ready
to usher in a new age for exploration
in those icy waters, process hurdles,
equipment issues, and natural obstacles
left the company’s dream unrealized.
Immediately after, as word of techni-
cal violations added insult to injury, it
seemed potential reservoirs in U.S. arc-
tic waters would remain unexplored for
at least a little while longer.
The frigid waters of the arctic present
one of the greatest challenges for any ex-
ploration company. These natural hin-
drances, combined with ongoing legis-
lation from the countries that lay claim
to those waters, make it a massive un-
dertaking. Shell lost billions in its failed
2012 campaign, and as the season end-
ed the company announced it would not
attempt a return in 2013.
However public Shell’s struggle in
the region may be, it is only a set-back.
2014 looms, and there is still no word
whether Shell will attempt a return to
the Arctic, but it is looking likely.
Shell is planning specialized surveys
of the area, using ships deployed to ar-
eas in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas.
This kind of data collection will be in-
valuable to potential future exploration
campaigns, and could save Shell in both
cost and risk if it chooses to return.
The same success Shell is hoping for
in U.S. arctic waters is being realized by
other companies in other areas of the
tumultuous region.Offshore Norway is
proving successful for numerous compa-
nies exploring the area. In the UK, three
of the country’s “Big 6” energy compa-
nies are planning Arctic drilling. E.On,
Centrica, and RWE Npower are all ex-
pressing interest in the region.
Likewise, there is a growing interest
offshore Russia, where legislation is loos-
er than the U.S. and reservoir potential
just as high. Shell has turned its atten-
tion to this area. If the company is suc-
cessful there, it could affect U.S. arctic
drilling policy, and possibly open the re-
gion further in the future.
In the U.S., however, there is an-
other element that could swing the
pendulum the other way, and close
off the country to further arctic ex-
ploration. The U.S. shale exploration
boom is changing the global energy
landscape. The country is expected to
become a major exporter in the com-
ing decades, and successful produc-
tion of these unconventional resources
could affect the interest in traditional
exploration. It could end the return to
the U.S. arctic before it truly begins.
There is a growing call for environ-
mental stewardship, the same kind that
brought an end to U.S. arctic drilling
decades ago. That concern for our natu-
ral environments isn’t likely to fade. Any
company heading to the area must show
respect for the land, and for those who
fght for it, or risk an evaporation of sup-
port for its work in the region.
Arctic drilling is hardly over. In ar-
eas offshore Norway, it thrives as much
as ever. In U.S. arctic waters, the pro-
cess may be stalled, but across the
sea in Russia’s arctic waters, oppor-
tunities are increasing. Success there
could further push exploration inter-
est here, and possibly overcome the
fnancial and legal hurdles that stand
in the way.
Meanwhile, success with shale oil
and gas could turn U.S. interests away
from the arctic, and back on land. But
that isn’t stopping companies from re-
viewing the region, and critically an-
alyzing collected data. For an area of
the Earth where even basic exploration
means a multi-billion dollar campaign,
every move matters and every decision
is crucial. ⊗
1308pejew_5 5 8/20/13 2:57 PM
6 Summer 2013
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FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
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EnergyWorkforce
INDUSTRY Insights
Offshore Energy:
Mitigating Risk
By offering an integrated offshore support package, variant
forms of risk can be avoided, according to Viking SeaTech
Survey’s General Manager Matthew Gordon.
By Matthew Gordon
P
OST-MACONDO, there has been
an increased focus on the miti-
gation of risk. The industry has
reviewed operational practices from top
to bottom. Everyone from the
operators to offshore specialists
has been affected by the major
incident. 
As a result, there has been an
increase in the contractual tug
of war between operators and
contractors in relation to the ac-
ceptance of risk and liabilities.
This has led to lengthy nego-
tiations as legal teams look to
reach middle ground, resulting
in increased administration,
time and cost.
It could be said that offering
an integrated and streamlined service re-
duces administration, costly contract ne-
gotiation and indemnities. Expanding in-
house services could not only hold the
key to unlocking cost savings, but also
to reducing risk in a risk wary industry.
Bringing new thinking to an old problem
Offshore service businesses are reinforc-
ing their position in the marketplace
by providing a fully integrated package.
Previously, smaller companies offered
a niche service that was considered sat-
isfactory twenty years ago. But as the
large corporations’ priorities adapt in
line with supply and demand, support
companies have risen to the task.
Viking SeaTech has looked at how
a new business stream can be injected
into a maturing and heavily saturated in-
dustry, in order to meet the changing re-
quirements of their clients.
By offering more services under a sin-
gle contract, including survey services,
we can provide a convenient package that
offers all the benefts, minus the opera-
tional burden.  Our integrated approach
supports our efforts to make rig-moving
safer, faster, cheaper and eas-
ier to execute. 
Reducing the
operational burden
Contract negotiations can
be time consuming; la-
bor intensive, costly and
can often impact project
scheduling. This is multi-
plied by having several con-
tracts to set up and manage
simultaneously.
An integrated approach
works towards removing
these barriers. It is highly advantageous
to the client to have a single contract in
place for service provision. This equates
to a single point of contact, invoice and
company-specifc set of terms and condi-
tions to manage.
The benefts of such a contracting ap-
proach are realized when an issue arises.
Instead of managing multiple contactors,
it takes one call to a single organization to
1308pejew_6 6 8/20/13 2:57 PM
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Summer 2013 7
remove the issue. If a single contractor is
working towards a shared goal, the time
taken to resolve the issues is also reduced. 
The rig moving food chain
Operational effciency is improved when
operators use the integrated approach,
and also removes the need for multiple
contractors. By having numerous disci-
plines working together in-house, com-
munication is strengthened and it is en-
tirely realistic to suggest that the risk to
client operations is reduced.
From a quality assurance perspective,
Viking SeaTech Survey is involved at ev-
ery stage of the life cycle, from design
to evaluation and through working with
other disciplines. This process identifes
errors that may not be uncovered until
much later in the job, resulting in proj-
ect delays and increased cost.
Eradicating the blame culture
Contractor confict can trouble clients.
We have found that the greatest issue for
our clients is managing multiple contrac-
tors, especially when they are in confict,
as this can often lead to spending vast
amounts of time acting as arbitrator.
This is understandably irksome and
often it is the client who pays for this in
the form of lost time and additional costs.
An Integrated service approach can re-
move much of the operational burden
and the single contractor can resolve
problems on the client’s behalf. This
approach allows the client to spend their
valuable time working on other things,
while we deal with the issue at hand. This
is becoming even more important as or-
ganizations become fatter and individ-
uals within those companies have more
responsibility, meaning that time is a pre-
cious commodity.
Bespoke options
Large frms have the option of using
the offshore support specialist for their
rig moving operations expertise. It may
seem obvious, but advising clients at the
earliest point in the process is fundamen-
tal to the success of the job at hand. Step-
ping in at the initial engineering and de-
sign stages makes things easier later in
the job. Once these specifcations have
been approved by the client, a list of ma-
rine procedures can be made. This step-
by-step guide advises as to how the boats
and personnel will move the rig from
start to fnish. 
Our potential clients may have fve
or six different options from multi-
ple contractors. To make the decision
easier, we tailor the options to ft the
client exactly. By offering multiple ser-
vices, operational burden is lifted and
risk is less likely. The more links in the
operational chain, the more things that
can go wrong. We are trying to bring it
down to just two links, us and the client.
Furthermore, uniform policies and pro-
cedures lead to a safer operation. A unit-
ed quality system that clearly informs all
personnel of operational methods will
drive a safer practice.
Looking to the future
The integrated service model brings end-
less possibilities. Removing the burden
for the operator is not only advantageous
in terms of costs, time and schedule, but
it can remove the incidence of risk within
an operation. Risk comes in many forms,
but can be reduced by using a stream-
lined business with one goal, the swift,
safe, coordinated and accurate comple-
tion of a contract. 
I foresee integrated services becom-
ing more common place as the indus-
try continues to adapt. The often long
and drawn out processes attached to
drawing up contracts between opera-
tors and contractors, and subsequent
legal associations, has proved costly in
the past. Integration will become the
norm once the industry realizes this
effcient business prototype is one to
be utilized. ⊗
Risk comes in many forms, but can be reduced by using
a streamlined business with one goal, the swift, safe,
coordinated and accurate completion of a contract.
1308pejew_7 7 8/20/13 2:57 PM
CAREER Insights
8 Summer 2013
|
FOR JOB OPPORTUNITIES, VISIT www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
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EnergyWorkforce
Regulatory Experts
Career Opportunities Galore
Evolving regulatory systems in the petroleum industry
provides an emerging career path
By Volker Rathman, Collarini Energy Staffng
W
ITH the drilling moratorium
lifted, the oil and gas indus-
try is trying to fgure out how
to deal with the onslaught of new regu-
lations. The effects on the job markets
have already been felt: Thousands of
jobs in the offshore industry were tem-
porarily lost after the moratorium was
put in place in the wake of the Macondo
incident.
We say “temporarily,” since over time
many of these jobs will come back. This
is in no way belittling the effect the loss of
jobs has had on those involved and their
families. It is stating a belief that our in-
dustry is resilient and will come back –
stronger and better.
Well over 80 percent of this country’s
energy comes from hydrocarbons. No
number of alternative or renewable energy
sources will change that percentage quick-
ly. Oil and gas are here to stay; and, frank-
ly, the country needs us to produce hydro-
carbons for them, even if the importance
is not always realized by many Americans
outside of our industry.
So our take on the future job market
is positive. Regulations about to be dealt
with by the industry will have an increas-
ing effect on job creation, since many
1308pejew_8 8 8/20/13 2:57 PM
EnergyWorkforce
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Summer 2013 9
more people will be needed to under-
stand what the new rules mean and to
develop the best practices to implement
them. Regulatory experts and analysts
may apply here!
The role of the regulatory analyst has
expanded in all sectors of the oil and gas
industry as a result of proposed, new and
revised legislation.
r A regulatory analyst’s position may in-
clude such responsibilities as:
r Preparing and submitting permitting
requests for all new operations activi-
ty and any revisions to prior approvals
r Monitoring and reporting gas and oil
production and inventory for compa-
ny-operated wells
r Managing and updating regulatory in-
formation and forms
r Interfacing with local, state and feder-
al regulatory agencies
An experienced analyst will have pri-
or regulatory permitting and reporting
experience for full cycle development
planning, drilling completion, workover
operations, and feld abandonment. The
role also requires knowledge of permitting
specifc to the governing agency and geo-
graphic area.
Additionally with conventional on-
shore drilling, the process of shale ex-
traction is regulated under a number of
laws, most notably at the federal level,
the Environmental Protection Agen-
cy, The Clean Water Act, The Safe
Drinking Water Act, and The Nation-
al Environmental Policy Act. While
the federal agencies administer a gen-
eral “one-size-fts-all” set of guidelines,
the regulatory bodies at the state and
local levels may be distinctly different
due to geographic location, hydrology,
population density, wildlife, climate
and local economics.
This stew of agencies and rules cre-
ates career opportunities for experts in
each area and for generalists keeping an
eye on the big picture and the interface
among all parties.
Experts in this feld will be needed in
the permitting processes. This will create
employment opportunities particularly in
the context of:
r Greenhouse gas and air emissions
r Noise pollution
r Erosion and sediment control and
r Environmental threats to endangered
and threatened species
We do not know how the regulatory
scene will play out. We are certain, how-
ever, that regulatory compliance needs
will not decrease; this could create a boon
for those professionals seeking a switch
in their careers.
Tis fast-growing sector of the indus-
try holds promise to any regulatory pro-
fessional due to the diversity of agency
interface, geographic variety and environ-
mental concerns. As industry technolog-
ical developments and practices improve
and legislative requirements continue to
evolve, so will the unique opportunities
in these regulatory roles. ⊗
The role of the regulator y analyst has expanded
in all sectors of the oil and gas industr y as a
result of proposed, new and revised legislation.
1308pejew_9 9 8/20/13 2:57 PM
10 Summer 2013
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EnergyWorkforce
Empowering our Troops:
AEP Career Initiatives for Veterans
H
EADQUARTERED in Colum-
bus, Ohio, American Electric
Power (AEP) is one of the
largest electric utilities in the United
States, delivering electricity to more
than 5.3 million customers in 11 states.
AEP has a long history of community
engagement and has established itself
as one of the top employers for military
men and women.
As a leading utility, AEP partners
with veterans’ organizations and job pro-
grams, provides special benefts to vet-
eran employees, and supports veteran
employees and their families through
mentoring and recognition programs.
Recently, PennEnergy was invited to
learn more about AEP’s veterans’ ini-
tiatives and given the opportunity to
engage Scott Smith, AEP Senior Vice
President for Transmission Strategy and
Business Operations.
A former U.S. Army captain and com-
bat engineer, Smith serves as an execu-
tive sponsor for AEP’s Military Veteran
employee resource group. Smith collab-
orated with PennEnergy content direc-
tor, Dorothy Davis, to offer greater in-
sight into AEP’s veterans’ initiatives and
how they beneft our military heroes,
the energy industry, and the communi-
ties they serve.
PennEnergy (PE): What percentage of
AEP’s current workforce is represented
by veterans?
Scott Smith (Smith): Veterans com-
pose 10 percent of AEP’s workforce, with
1,770 military veterans working through-
out our 11-state service territory.
PE: When did AEP’s veteran outreach
initiatives begin and what prompted
them?
Smith: Though AEP has a long his-
tory of supporting military veterans, it
became even more pertinent in recent
years as we increasingly realized that the
skills military veterans could bring to the
workplace closely match the skills we are
seeking for new employees. Many vet-
erans have the job-related training we
need to operate equipment and to per-
form other technical functions, along
with the personal attributes we value,
including leadership skills, f lexibili-
ty, adaptability, dedication and team-
work. We also have recognized the
signifcance of building a skilled work-
force pipeline that will help us meet the
future needs of our ever-evolving indus-
try. With this in mind, we have placed
increasing attention on our military re-
cruiting efforts as well as on our compa-
ny pay and benefts policies that support
Reservists and National Guard members
who are called into active duty.
PE: What programs does AEP have
in place for helping to recruit and
transition veterans into civilian ener-
gy careers?
Smith: At AEP, we have taken a
number of approaches to target the vet-
eran community and transition them
to successful careers at AEP. For exam-
ple, instead of fltering through thou-
sands of resumes, which can be time
consuming, we work with veterans’ or-
ganizations and national and state jobs
programs to locate veterans who have
the skill sets that match utility jobs.
This spring, AEP hosted an open
house at the AEP Transmission train-
ing facility near Columbus, Ohio, for
an up-close and personal view of the
daily activities of linemen, station tech-
nicians, protection and control elec-
tricians and other jobs. The event,
co-sponsored with veterans groups,
TRAINING Insights
1308pejew_10 10 8/20/13 2:57 PM
EnergyWorkforce
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Summer 2013 11
provided an orientation about the types
of careers available at AEP. Several AEP
military veterans served as mentors dur-
ing the event. AEP seeks out veterans at
traditional recruiting events, too. For ex-
ample, we participate in Hire Our He-
roes, a U.S. Chamber of Commerce-
sponsored job fair.
In addition, AEP is one of a handful of
utilities that directs ex-military job appli-
cants to an online “military occupational
specialty” decoder that translates military
skills, capabilities and training into civil-
ian terms. The decoder helps veterans
recognize the meaning and value that
their military skills and training have in
the civilian workforce.
PE: What impact has AEP’s veteran
program had on the company and its
service communities?
Smith: For 10 consecutive years, AEP
has been ranked among the top “mili-
tary friendly” employers in the country
by GI Jobs Magazine. Our program has
not only increased the number of veter-
ans in our ranks, but it has helped veter-
ans transition successfully through men-
toring and company support.
I serve as an executive sponsor for
our Military Veteran employee resource
group, which was launched on Veterans’
Day in 2012. The group not only men-
tors newcomers, but it also supports em-
ployees by assisting their families while
the employees are away on active duty.
The resource group partners with veter-
ans groups and sponsors events to honor
veterans throughout AEP’s 11-state ser-
vice territory. Ultimately, we want to show
our employees and our service commu-
nities that we value the service of veter-
ans who have fought to protect our free-
doms and want to help them secure the
economic prosperity, ongoing support,
and respect they deserve.
PE: How does AEP envision the role
of veterans in evolving energy industry?
Smith: When we look at the veter-
an community, we see a skilled, disci-
plined workforce that can help our in-
dustry succeed as we begin a period of
rapid infrastructure modernization and
expansion. Nationwide, utilities will
need to replace an estimated 200,000
skilled Baby Boomers expected to retire
in the next fve years – a third of the ener-
gy workforce. At the same time, utilities
across the U.S. are expected to invest $50
billion to modernize electric transmis-
sion infrastructure through 2020. This
estimate could surpass $100 billion if
additional investments are made to en-
hance communications and cyber secu-
rity capabilities.
Through 2020, AEP alone plans to
spend billions to build around 480 new or
enhanced transmission substations and
roughly 1,800 miles of new transmission
lines. We plan to rebuild another 3,900
miles of transmission lines between 2013
and 2015. We also are focused on prepar-
ing ourselves for success in a competi-
tive transmission business environment,
which will require us to move quickly and
fnish projects on time and on budget.
As a result, targeting military veter-
ans who are transitioning to civilian ca-
reers makes sense since their capabilities
match the qualities necessary for us to
succeed in a rapidly growing, competi-
tive transmission landscape.
PE: What is ahead for AEP’s veteran
initiatives?
Smith: As we seek to recruit more
veterans into our ranks, we have looked
at how we can best support this popu-
lation of employees, particularly those
who continue to serve. AEP recently an-
nounced it will make up the difference
between an employee’s military pay and
his or her AEP base wage when the em-
ployee is off work for required training.
Additionally, we are supporting indus-
try-wide efforts to leverage the talents of
the veteran community. AEP helped es-
tablish the Troops to Energy Jobs pro-
gram, a product of the Center for En-
ergy Workforce Development. The
Center recently published a 54-page na-
tional model to help energy companies
develop a comprehensive program for
military outreach, education, recruit-
ing and retention. Through such col-
laborative efforts, we are determined to
help more veterans by providing a road-
map to civilian employment in the en-
ergy industry. In turn, we are ensuring
that we have the skilled workforce need-
ed to continue generating and deliver-
ing the reliable electricity that is essen-
tial to American homes, businesses and
national security. ⊗
“When we look at the veteran communit y,
we see a skilled, disciplined workforce...”
1308pejew_11 11 8/20/13 2:57 PM
12 Summer 2013
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EnergyWorkforce
Energy 101: Wave & Tidal Energy
PennEnergy.com
W
AVE and tidal energy is
a predictable form of re-
newable energy that uses
the power and movement of wave
and tidal fows to generate electric-
ity. With the use of underwater tidal
turbines, energy from the sea is cap-
tured to create a non-polluting form
of electricity. 
A dam approach with hydraulic
turbines is the most modern tech-
nology being used across the world
to harness  tidal power. Tidal dams
are most effective in bays with nar-
row openings. Gates and turbines are
installed at certain points along the
dam, and when an adequate differ-
ence in water elevation on the dif-
ferent sides of the barrage occurs,
the gates open, creating a “hydrostatic
head,” the Ocean Energy Council re-
ported. During this process, water fows
through the turbines to create electric-
ity. The technology used at tidal ener-
gy facilities is similar to that used at
traditional hydroelectric p ower plants.
Wave and tidal power is one of the
oldest forms of energy used by humans,
with tide mills used by the Spanish,
French and British as early as 787 A.D.
It’s estimated the world’s potential for
ocean tidal power is 64,000 megawatts
electric, the OEC reported. However,
tidal power has a low capacity, usually in
the range of 20 to 30 percent. The tech-
nology for tidal energy is also expensive,
though powerful. It is estimated that if
a barrage was placed across a high-tid-
al area of the Severn River in western
England, it could provide 10 percent of
the country’s electricity needs, accord-
ing to the OEC.
Growing popularity
Tidal and wave energy technology is ad-
vancing rapidly as  more countries are
beginning to realize the renewable en-
ergy’s benefts.
In the United States alone, there are
about 2,110 terrawatt-hours of wave en-
ergy being generated each year. Yet, ac-
cording to the Renewable Northwest
Project, this is just 25 percent of how
much the U.S. could be generating on
its coasts from tidal power.
Using special buoys, turbines or
other means, the country is captur-
ing the power in waves and tides from
the ocean  - power that can be more
predictable than wind. Because tidal
energy reacts to the gravitational pull
of the moon and sun, experts can pre-
dict their arrival centuries in advance.
Oregon and Washington experience
the strongest waves in the lower 48
states. In Washington’s Puget Sound,
the U.S. could develop wave and tidal
technology that could capture sever-
al hundred megawatts of tidal power.
The U.S. Department of Energy
also recently unveiled a foating off-
shore wind platform that uses under-
water turbines to capture tidal energy
and create electricity, Forbes report-
ed. Another wave project that includes
10 buoys is being tested off the coast of
Oregon. It is expected to generate 1.5
MW. U.S. regulators see projects like
this as a smart and valuable solution to
diversify the country’s energy mix with
greener technologies. These regulators
also see wave and tidal power as more
predictable than wind and solar.
The United Kingdom also sees tidal
power as a viable alternative to fossil fuel
power. The U.K. is seen as a world lead-
er in wave and tidal stream technologies
due to its abundance of marine energy
resource. It is estimated that tidal tech-
nologies could generate up to 300 MW
of power by 2020. However, overall po-
tential is between 25 and 30 gigawatts. ⊗
1308pejew_12 12 8/20/13 2:58 PM
Actionable data for the Power industry:
Make your next step
your BEST step.
Power Generation
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Transmission & Distribution
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www.PennEnergyResearch.com
DIRECTORIES SURVEYS FORECASTS INDUSTRY ANALYSIS
STATISTICAL TABLES CUSTOM RESEARCH
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PennEnergy JOBS is the key to attracting the
energy industry professionals you need to hire to
meet your business goals. Our process puts your
recruitment message in front of the industry’s best
talent whether it’s online, in print, or at an event.
This approach offers you the fexibility to create
custom recruitment advertising campaigns best
suited to meet your budget and objectives.
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