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# Chapter 6 Experimental Methods for Engineers, 6th edition, J.P.

Holman, 1994

PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

OVERVIEW

Introduction
What is Pressure? Why measure Pressure? How to measure Pressure?

Measuring Devices
High Pressure Sensors Calibrating Elastic Deformation Sensors Low Pressure Sensors Ultra Low Pressure Sensors

WHAT IS PRESSURE?
Pressure is a normal force exerted by a fluid over a surface area Absolute, Gage, Vacuum Pressure Static & Dynamic Pressure Pa, Bar, atm, Psi

PGag Pat
m e

Pvac Pabs Pabs

Pabs = 0 Absolute, gage, vacuum pressures

WHY MEASURE PRESSURE?
Pressure negates the properties of a fluid: State, flow, forces Quality and Safety of Operation: Tire, compressors, etc Pressure measurements is used in various general, industry and research applications

INDUSTRY APPLICATION Drilling Technology utilise pressure sensors for real time downhole data transfer Weather forecasting Medicine Aviation Pressure Chart Pressure Vessels Many other application Sphygmomanometer you are guarantee to see working as an engineer Fluid Manometer HOW TO MEASURE PRESSURE? Pabs = ρgh + Patm PDI: Differential Pressure Indicator PI: Pressure Indicator q= 1 2 ρv 2 General Instrument Symbol Hydrostatic Level Type Symbol σ E= ε P = ρRT P&ID Pressure Sensor Symbol .

HIGH PRESSURE SENSORS & CALIBRATION Roger Marley INTRODUCTION Types of medium pressure sensors Manometer & Barometer Microphone Types of high pressure sensors Bourdon-tube Gauge Schrader Gauge Calibration of pressure sensors .

MANOMETERS The manometer consists of a tube filled with liquid of known density A pressure difference across the tube causes the liquid to shift position The change in position can be measured to give the pressure Best suited to static pressure measurement Difficult to use for small pressure changes. unsuitable for very large pressures PA = ρgh1 PB = ρgh2 Very simple manometer MANOMETER TOPOLOGIES PA – PB = ρmangh P1 – P2 = ρgz2 (If D >> d) PA = ρmangh2 P1 – P2 = ρgx sinθ .

the reference gas expands/contracts Static pressure gauge Dodgy barometer How it works MICROPHONE The most common pressure sensor in daily use Designed for use at around 1 atm. pressure Only measures fluctuations – measures dynamic not static pressure Has several different constructions of varying complexity Condenser Microphone construction .BAROMETER One common application of the manometer is the barometer The barometer measures atmospheric pressure This barometer uses a reference gas separated from the atmosphere by a liquid If the atmospheric pressure changes.

moving the pointer via mechanical links Measures static pressure Diagram Commercial bourdontube gauge SCHRADER GAUGE Uses a piston connected to a spring Simple & sturdy construction Not particularly accurate Common use is in simple tyre pressure gauges Performs better than bourdon-tube under dynamic loads Tyre pressure gauge Construction F = PA kx=F x = (A/k)P Pressurised gauge .BOURDON-TUBE GAUGE Invented by Eugene Bourdon in 1849 Can be used to measure pressures up to 100.000 psi Uses an elastic tube as its primary element The tube straightens out with increasing pressure.

Piston 7 .Filling Connection ELASTIC DEFORMATION SENSORS Haidyn McLeod .Hand pump 2 .Calibration Weight 5 .000 psi) 1 .Testing Pump 3 .Weight Support 6 .Cylinder 8 .CALIBRATION The most common way to calibrate pressure sensors is with a dead-weight tester Has accuracy in the 0.005% to 0.1% range Allows pressure tests up to 10kBar (~145.Pressure Gauge to be calibrated 4 .

. Limits the expansion of the unit and prolongs the bellows life.BELLOWS GAUGE Uses the elastic deformation of a convoluted unit which expands and contracts with changes in pressure. Doesn't work well with dynamic pressures due to mass and large displacements. Resulting deflection is the force acting on the bellows and the opposing spring force. SPRING LOADED BELLOWS GAUGE A spring opposes the bellows. Either electrical or mechanical output.

Can be measured using mechanical. . The deformation of the diaphragm is dependent on the difference in pressure between the two faces. Follows a linear variation with Δp when the deflection is less than 1/3 the diaphragm thickness. Good Dynamic sensor. piezoresistive and capacitive means.DIAPHRAGM GAUGES Uses the elastic deformation of a flexible membrane that separates two different pressures. electrical. differential. vacuum or absolute. DIAPHRAGM GAUGES Can be used to measure gauge.

5% .DIAPHRAGM GAUGES The natural frequency of a circular diaphragm is ELECTRICAL PRESSURE SENSOR Consists of foil strain gauges. Accuracies of ± 0. Typically contains 4 gauges in a Wheatstone bridge formation.

High sensitivity . Can perform signal conditioning and compensate for temperature. Pressure sensitivity: S = ∆R/ (∆p*R) (mV/V-bar) Advantages: . MEMS DIAPHRAGM SENSOR Current MEMS pressure sensors can contain onchip compensation and amplification.PIEZORESISTIVE PRESSURE SENSOR Piezoresistive consist of a silicon diaphragm with a semiconductor strain gauge bonded to the diaphragm. .Good linearity at constant temperature.

The capacitance of the sensor is related to pressure. CAPACITIVE PRESSURE SENSORS Basic concept: C = ɛ A/x Sensitivity: ΔC/Δx = -ɛ A/x Advantages more sensitive than piezoresistive less temperature dependant great dynamic pressure sensor Disadvantages requires special electronics diaphragm mechanical properties .CAPACITIVE PRESSURE SENSORS The variable gap created by a moving diaphragm can be used as a capacitance sensor.

com/displacement/lvdt/lvdtprinciples. Is better suited for mechanical sensing devices as amplification may not be required.rdpe.htm . LVDT-DIAPHRAGM The motion of a diaphragm sensed by a Linear Variable Differential Transformer or (LVDT).CORRUGATED DIAPHRAGM SENSOR Creates a larger linear response over a larger range of deflections. http://www.

The total resistance of the wire is about 100Ω and is usually employed in a Wheatstone bridge.BRIDGMAN GAUGE BRIDGMAN GAUGE The wire is typically Manganin (84% Cu. . Where b = 2. Resistance can respond to variations in pressure in the megahertz range. 4%Ni). 12%Mn.5 x 10¯¹¹ Pa¯¹ Resistance is less affected by temperature change.

8-6.10 .LOW PRESSURE SENSORS Adam Millen LOW PRESSURE MEASUREMENT Absolute Pressure below 133 Pa Textbook 6.

.THE MCLEOD GAUGE Lower the reservoir to take a sample of the vacuum.

3 Pa Electronic vacuum gauges are now more common. . but the McLeod Gauge is often used to calibrate them.0013 to 13.Vc = ay pc = p (VB/Vc) pc – p = y p = ay2/ (VB – ay) p = yVc / (VB – ay) p = ay2 / VB Sensitive to condensed vapors Measures pressures for 0.

PIRANI GAUGE Measures thermal conductivity of a gas .

0.1 to 100 Pa ULTRA LOW SENSORS James McBride .

1 mPa (10−6 Torr). so much lower pressures are needed for long experiments. . Measure the composition of thin films and solids. Example Vacuum Chamber USES FOR ULTRA LOW PRESSURE Uses for UHV generally revolve around research: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Analyse the composition. Minimal Surface area Outgassing. Construction materials absorb other chemicals. Issues include: High Speed Pumps. Measure adsorption binding energy.ULTRA LOW PRESSURE (ULP) Also known as Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) Pressures below 100 nPa (10~9 torr) Extreme conditions so require extensive measures to ensure accuracy. At 0. it only takes 1 second to cover a surface with a contaminant. Seals – Need special metal seals to prevent trace leakage. Used to study surfaces for material sciences. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) Thermal desorption spectroscopy (TPD) Angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) Analyse the density and distribution of electrons. by reducing the number of molecules reaching the sample over a given time period. chemical and electrical state within a material. No one single pump is capable of operating from standard pressure to UHV so need several. Extremely Clean. Particle accelerators Atomic Physics Experiments involving ‘cold atoms’ UHV is necessary for these applications to reduce surface contamination.

. Cold Cathode and Spinning Rotor General Range of 0. Mustn’t contaminate environment Only concerned with gases.3x10-6Pa. Detect Ionisation of gas.13 Pa – 1. Can measure as low as . IONISATION GAGE Three Types – Hot Cathode. Indirect Pressure Measurement – measure some property of the vacuum rather than the vacuum itself. ULP SENSORS Ionisation Gage Knudsen Gage Alphatron Others Types of ULP Sensors ULP Requires specialised sensors: High Precision & accuracy.13 nPa.

Non-Absolute pressure measurement requires calibration. Knudsen or deadweight. Must also be used in conjunction with a mass spectrometer to calculate chemical composition. The electrons and negative ions are then attracted to the positively charged grid to produce the grid current. hence are non-absolute. Use either McLeod. cold cathode generates electrons by a large potential difference p= 1 ip S ig p – Pressure ig – Grid Current ip – Plate Current S – ‘Sensitivity’ (Chemical Dependant) IONISATION GAGE CALIBRATION Most ultra-low pressure gages measure pressure indirectly. Hot cathode generates electrons by heat. The positive ions are attracted to the plate and produce the plate current. These collide with gas atoms and ionise them. Ionisation gage measurements are dependant on the chemical properties of the gas in the vacuum. Eg. .IONISATION GAGE Works by emitting electrons from the cathode.

KNUDSEN GAGE Consists of two vanes with heated panels that rotate freely in a pressure chamber. . suspended by a filament from a fixed point with a mirror attached. Works by heating panels slightly so that Tg –T is small. Doesn’t require expensive auxiliary sensors like the ionisation gage. i. Doesn’t require calibration Unlike McLeod Gauge doesn’t introduce foreign contaminants such as Mercury and oil and is therefore better for high precision environment.e. This difference in velocity results in a net momentum imparted to the vanes. The force can calculated by measuring the angular displacement of the mirror. Gas atoms striking the panels are energised and leave at a greater velocity than they arrived. Force is related to pressure by: Tg p = 4F T − Tg KNUDSEN GAGE Range between 1Pa and 10-6Pa Key Advantages – Can be configured to be absolute. Filaments can’t burn out and suspension is not delicate – so more versatile. Disadvantages – Cannot measure pressure as accurately as Ionisation.

Other Type: Langmuir Gage – measures pressure in terms of damping on high frequency vibration of quartz fibres SUMMARY What is Pressure and Why Measure it? How to Measure Pressure? Measuring Devices High Pressure Sensors Calibrating Low Pressure Sensors Elastic Deformation Sensors Ultra Low Pressure Sensors . No filament. so can measure pressures up to 1 atm as well.ALPHATRON & OTHERS Alphatron (Shown Below) is a special radioactive Ionisation Gage. Emits radiation and determines the resulting ionisation of gas.

SUMMARY What is Pressure and Why Measure it? How to Measure Pressure? Measuring Devices High Pressure Sensors Calibrating Low Pressure Sensors Elastic Deformation Sensors Ultra Low Pressure Sensors QUESTIONS? .