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Suction Specific Speed (Part One) | Pumps & Systems Magazine

Page 1 of 3

Suction Specific Speed (Part One)
Written by: Terry Henshaw, P.E.
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The Eighth in a Series

Normalizing NPSH

Our attempts to normalize or classify water turbine hydraulic performance culminated in 1915 with the development of the specific speed concept, which was later applied to centrifugal pumps (2). Because NPSH is not included in specific speed, however, attempts continued to understand and normalize this elusive characteristic. In 1922 (1), the Thoma-Moody parameter, Sigma, was introduced and defined as: Sigma = σ = NPSH/H (13-1)

where H is the total head of the first stage impeller. Sigma was widely accepted and used for a number of years, but it had a significant shortcoming, since the NPSHR of a pump is relatively independent of the head produced by the pump.

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In 1937, three engineers at Worthington-Karassik, Wislicenus and Watson-were assigned the task of developing a better concept than Sigma. Initially working independently, they joined forces. While discussing their problem over Saturday morning coffee in Karassik's kitchen, they developed the concept of Suction Specific Speed (3).

Definition of Suction Specific Speed

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Suction specific speed , like specific speed, is not a speed at all. It is an index number, or "yardstick." It is based on the NPSHR of a centrifugal pump, normally the 3 percent head drop NPSHR and normally at its best efficiency point (BEP). The equation for suction specific speed is the same as specific speed, except that NPSHR is substituted for head, as follows:

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S= Where (in U.S. units):

(13-2)

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S = Suction Specific Speed N = RPM of Pump Q = Pump Capacity*†, GPM NPSHR = NPSH required by pump†, feet *If the impeller is double suction, Q in the above equation is one-half the BEP capacity of the pump. This is a major difference from calculating specific speed, in which we use total pump capacity, whether the impeller is single suction or double suction. †Normally calculated at the BEP The symbol Nss is often used in place of S for suction specific speed. The value of S for most pumps is typically between 7,000 and 15,000. The higher values are more common in higher speed, higher capacity units. (See next month's article for additional discussion of the effect of speed and capacity on S.)

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Problem No. 1: Suction Specific Speed
N = 3,550 rpm Qbep = 450 gpm NPSHRbep = 14 ft

Calculate the suction specific speed for the pump represented by the performance curve in Figure A (Figure 2 from the May column).

S=

=

=10,400 (RPM-GPM-FT)10,400 (RPM-GPM-FT)

(Our answer is different than the 9,000 stated on the curve.)

http://www.pump-zone.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-one 9/3/2013

As pump capacity is further reduced. To reduce NPSHR. but at some reduced capacity. near the pump. The capacity. the better the pump. the large eye creates eddies and recirculation at reduced flow rates. industry recognized that centrifugal compressors would "surge" if operated below a certain capacity. Pumps with lower values of S have larger windows. the push from users and competitors required pump manufacturers to continually strive for lower values of NPSHR. of the impeller vane. of the suction pipe. As shown in Figure 2. flow through the eye is proper at the BEP. Larger impeller eyes and higher speeds (i. or the "Big Eye Syndrome" (Monster or Myth?) For decades. recirculation starts in the large eye. All pump components would experience maximum life at that capacity.d. but must be viewed with the assistance of a small mirror. the intensity of the circulation increases. but none quantified the phenomenon until Hallam (5) reported in 1982 the results of a 5 year study of 480 centrifugal pumps in Amoco's Texas http://www. When the vortices are strong enough to cause cavitation. Typical published performance curve. this part of the vane cannot be seen by looking directly into the eye. Seldom does a pump run at its BEP. The large eye required to obtain low NPSHR leads to the problem of (higher energy) "eye recirculation" or "suction recirculation" (4). sometimes resulting in a reversal of flow at the i. Study by Hallam Numerous technical papers and articles reported problems caused by suction recirculation. Establishing a "Stable" Window of Operation Every centrifugal pump would like to run at its BEP-always. suction specific speed indicates the size of that window. Although resulting in reduced NPHR at the BEP." (NPSHR in centrifugal pumps is normally reduced by increasing the diameter of the impeller eye. Single-line NPSH curve. the vapor bubbles collapse on the driving side.Suction Specific Speed (Part One) | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 2 of 3 ABB Completes Acquisition of PowerOne APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location Sulzer Pumps to Supply Pumps to Two FPSO Vessels in Brazil Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase MORE MOST POPULAR ARTICLES » Subscribe (for FREE) to Pumps & Systems Magazine Renew/Change Your Subscription to Pumps & Systems Magazine Subscribe (for FREE) to Upstream Pumping Solutions Subscribe to our E-Newsletters Figure A. at which this recirculation starts. If strong enough. Figure 2.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-one 9/3/2013 . this vortex causes cavitation. or pressure side. which establishes minimum values for NPSHR. Figure 1. If the vane twists as it enters the eye from the larger diameter.. pump users have established maximum values for S. Suction Recirculation. as shown in Figure 1. To a large extent. the impeller eye diameter is increased. but only more recently have we recognized that centrifugal pumps have a comparable characteristic. near the eye.) That philosophy has now changed. We now know that any centrifugal pump will experience recirculation in the impeller eye if the capacity is below a certain value. noise and pulsations. higher peripheral velocity of the eye-U 1 ) produce higher energy recirculation.e.pump-zone. increases as the eye diameter is increased. The philosophy was that "The lower the NPSHR. Importance of Suction Specific Speed Establishing a Maximum Value for S For a number of years. but component life will be significantly extended if it operates within its "stable" window of capacities. Due to problems that have been attributed to oversized impeller eyes.

The average power requirement was about 150 hp and the maximum was 1..pump-zone. Purchase.Suction Specific Speed (Part One) | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 3 of 3 City refinery. Figure 3 shows the results of the study.000 hp. Best Community ★ 0 Share ⤤ ⚙ Molding & Resin Improve Wear Resistance Powerful Mine Dewatering Pump Specification. Follow us as we explore manufacturing facilities around the world MORE SLIDESHOWS » Find the right equipment for any situation Information and research from our partners on a variety of industry topics On-demand lectures from industry experts © Copyright Cahaba Media Group 2013. Most of these pumps were in hydrocarbon services. Installation & Application Branch-Line Pumping and Other Options Calculating the Performance of Multistage Pumps Operating in Parallel Discussion of important industry issues Info to keep your pumps running smoothly Top 20 Trade Shows for Pump Users Pumps & Systems readers provided their Top 20 favorite pump industry trade shows. The average numbers of failures/year/pump were plotted for each group. The remainder pumped water.. Privacy Policy http://www.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-one 9/3/2013 . The pumps were divided in groups according to their suction specific speed. A failure was defined as any problem with the pump that required service in the refinery repair shop. The graph shows an Tags: Centrifugal Pumps NPSH September 2009 Issue 1 net positive suction head 2 next › last » 0 comments Leave a message. All Rights Reserved.

000.E. Suction Specific Speed for a High Speed Multistage Waterflood Pump Upcoming East African Refineries to Bolster Regional Relationships Aug 20. Regardless of the reason for the problem-whether it is suction recirculation. Germany Aug 20. 2013 Harrington Industrial Plastics Opens New Location in Houston Aug 20. 2013 Calnetix Technologies Had New Electromagnetic Actuator Patent Aug 20.000 (RPM-GPM-FT) S= = Would you suspect that this pump could be a problem? Yes. Pump Ed 101 Pump Repair HI Pump FAQs Figure 3. Failure frequency vs.Suction Specific Speed (Part One): Page 2 of 2 | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 1 of 3 Suction Specific Speed (Part One): Page 2 of 2 Written by: Terry Henshaw. API 674 manufacturers' subcommittee and ASME Performance Test Code Committee PTC 7. 2. Henshaw served in various positions in the Hydraulic Institute. 2013 Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase Aug 20.2. P. He authored a book on reciprocating pumps... September 2009 Terry Henshaw is a retired consulting engineer who designs pumps and related high pressure equipment and conducts pump seminars. For 30 years. Like 0 0 0 increase in failure frequency of almost 100 percent above an S of about 11. several magazine articles and http://www. 2013 A four-stage pump is operating on an offshore platform in waterflooding (secondary recovery) service. Most of the symptoms attributed to recirculation can be attributed to other centrifugal pump phenomena. first stage impeller. 9/3/2013 . The first stage impeller would periodically experience cavitation-erosion on the pressure side of the vanes. The high S attributed to some centrifugal pumps has also been found to have been obtained by improper methods of NPSH testing. The vendor performance curve for the waterflood pump Pumps & Systems . Problem No. throwing the rotor out of balance and causing excessive vibration. and it was. The pump is equipped with a double suction.L. Ross (6) claims that the problem of suction recirculation has been distorted-that it simply boils down to inadequate NPSHA. [5]) The logic contained in some of the papers on suction recirculation is not totally rigorous. 2013 = 12. Hallam.2. Calculate the suction specific speed: APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location Aug 20. ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen.000.pump-zone. ANSI Subcommittee B73. 2013 MORE PUMP INDUSTRY NEWS » Figure 4. Figure 4 is a redrawn copy of the performance curve provided by the pump manufacturer. he was employed by Ingersoll Rand and Union Pump. improper methods of testing or just inadequate NPSHA-Hallam's paper clearly shows that a pump with a suction specific speed greater than 11. This finding caused a number of companies to prohibit the purchase of a pump with a suction specific speed in excess of 11.000 should be selected with caution.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-on. suction specific speed (J.

1948 Karassik. He has been awarded six patents. Hydrocarbon Processing. "NPSH Characteristics of Centrifugal Pumps. John Wiley & Sons. Follow us as we explore manufacturing facilities around the world MORE SLIDESHOWS » Find the right equipment for any situation Information and research from our partners on a variety of industry topics On-demand lectures from industry experts http://www. Robert R. W. P.. Hallam. is a life fellow of the ASME and holds engineering degrees from Rice University and the University of Houston.. "Centrifugal Pumps: Which Suction Specific Speeds are Acceptable?".. Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps. J. J. Henshaw is a registered professional engineer in Texas and Michigan. Power. & Godin. Long Beach. Igor J. CA. 9/3/2013 .com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-on.Suction Specific Speed (Part One): Page 2 of 2 | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 2 of 3 the two pump sections in Marks' Handbook (11th Edition).O. He can be reached by e-mail at pumprof@att. United Centrifugal Pumps.. Ross.. April 1982.. "Theoretical Prediction of NPSHR for Cavitation Free Operation of Centrifugal Pumps". Best Community ★ 1 Share ⤤ ⚙ Molding & Resin Improve Wear Resistance Powerful Mine Dewatering Pump Specification. Inc. Tags: Centrifugal Pumps NPSH September 2009 Issue net positive suction head 2 « first ‹ previous 1 Subscribe (for FREE) to Pumps & Systems Magazine Renew/Change Your Subscription to Pumps & Systems Magazine Subscribe (for FREE) to Upstream Pumping Solutions Subscribe to our E-Newsletters 0 comments Leave a message. World Pumps Magazine. "Solids Handling Pumps-Part 2". Purchase. 1983 Stapanoff. 1981.. about 1982. Shepherd..pump-zone. L. Installation & Application Branch-Line Pumping and Other Options Calculating the Performance of Multistage Pumps Operating in Parallel Discussion of important industry issues Info to keep your pumps running smoothly Top 20 Trade Shows for Pump Users Pumps & Systems readers provided their Top 20 favorite pump industry trade shows." paper presented at the Pump Workshop of the Pacific Energy Association. "Face Up to Feedpump Cavitation". May 1977.. References ABB Completes Acquisition of PowerOne APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location Sulzer Pumps to Supply Pumps to Two FPSO Vessels in Brazil Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase MORE MOST POPULAR ARTICLES » Graber. Jan. R. L.. A.net.

pump-zone.Suction Specific Speed (Part One): Page 2 of 2 | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 3 of 3 © Copyright Cahaba Media Group 2013.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-on. Privacy Policy http://www. All Rights Reserved. 9/3/2013 ...

com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-two 9/3/2013 . 2 ).pump-zone. Qeye = 1.76)(2450) = 1. 2013 ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen.860 gpm http://www.76. Germany Aug 20. Like 0 0 0 Graph of Minimum Continuous Flows In 1982. 2013 APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location Aug 20. It allows a lower flow rate for pumps handling hydrocarbons than for those pumping water.250 gpm S = 12.000 Pumpage is water. 1.000. 2013 Harrington Industrial Plastics Opens New Location in Houston Aug 20. From Dubner's graph. Pump Ed 101 Pump Repair HI Pump FAQs Upcoming East African Refineries to Bolster Regional Relationships Aug 20.Suction Specific Speed (Part Two) | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 1 of 4 Suction Specific Speed (Part Two) Written by: Terry Henshaw. This graph may be used to establish operating guidelines for existing pumps. 2013 MORE PUMP INDUSTRY NEWS » Figure 1. and prohibits operation of any pump larger than 100 gpm (BEP) from operating continuously at less than 20 percent of BEP. P. Richard Dubner of Chevron developed a graph for use in establishing minimum continuous flow rates for centrifugal pumps (see Figure 1 ). and in the selection process for new pumps to eliminate offerings that have a minimum flow above that anticipated for the intended service. determine the recommended minimum continuous capacity for the pump in Problem No.E. Qmincont = (0. 2013 Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase Aug 20. and it requires larger pumps to operate closer to the BEP than smaller pumps. Minimum Continuous Capacity Using Dubner's graph ( Figure 1 ). Problem No. 2013 Calnetix Technologies Had New Electromagnetic Actuator Patent Aug 20. we read a factor of 0. Dubner's (Chevron) Chart for Minimum Capacity Note that Figure 1 cautions against S values greater than 11.

a pump will have a higher S when it runs at a higher speed (because the NPSHR is based on the 3 percent head drop). Lobanoff and Ross (1) provided the graph shown in Figure 2 . 3. To establish the effect of speed on S. "Stable" Flow Range vs. Sulzer Pumps to Supply Pumps to Two FPSO Vessels in Brazil Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase Graham Corporation Announces $7 Million in Orders Harrington Industrial Plastics Opens New Location in Houston MORE MOST POPULAR ARTICLES » Subscribe (for FREE) to Pumps & Systems Magazine Renew/Change Your Subscription to Pumps & Systems Magazine Subscribe (for FREE) to Upstream Pumping Solutions Figure 2. Do not buy a pump to operate continuously at a capacity within the "unacceptable" area (roughly any capacity less than 50 percent of Q bep ). To operate in the "excellent" hydraulic range.Suction Specific Speed (Part Two) | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 2 of 4 "Stable" Window of Operation In 1985. It provides not only a minimum capacity.5 exponent relationship between NPSHR values (Understanding NPSH. Centrifugal Pump Stable Window of Operation Based on Suction Specific Speed (Courtesy Dick Allen) The penalty values are arbitrary.pump-zone. but also a maximum capacity for "stable" pump operation. Dick Allen developed the graph in 1990 to assist in evaluating pump bids. August 2009). Because of the 1. It provides a method for evaluating the size of the stable window by penalizing pumps that have smaller stable windows (higher suction specific speeds). 2. and may be revised to suit the experience and philosophy of a given company. 4. suction specific speed does change.5 into a ratio of S equations. based on the judgment of the graph's author. Effect of Speed on Suction Specific Speed Although specific speed does not change as a pump's speed is changed. Increased Reliability Reliability of existing pumps can be increased by maintaining flow rates within the guidelines established by Figures 1 and 2 . The onset of instability was determined by measuring pump vibration. Key points made by this graph: 1. Subscribe to our E-Newsletters Figure 3. substitution of NPSH 2 = NPSH 1 (N 2 /N1 )1. It represents test results of a 4 in (discharge) pump with eight different impellers. Do not buy a pump to operate continuously at a capacity higher than Q bep . Suction Specific Speed for a 4 in Pump Figure 3 is an adaptation of the Lobanoff-Ross graph. capacity must be higher than the "penalty" range (roughly 75 percent of Q bep ).com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-two 9/3/2013 . Do not buy a pump rated at a capacity higher than about 115 percent of Q bep . Reliability of future pumps can be increased by using these graphs to establish a maximum suction specific speed acceptable for the intended service. The minimum flow values obtained from this graph compare favorably with Dubner's water values ( Figure 1 ). S= yields the following relationship: S2 = S 1 Where: (13-3) http://www.

The following is therefore offered for consideration. and if we assume that these exponents apply while holding the Tags: Centrifugal Pumps NPSH October 2009 Issue 1 net positive suction head 2 next › last » 0 comments Leave a message.550 rpm. all running at 1.pump-zone. Best Community ★ 0 Share ⤤ ⚙ Molding & Resin Improve Wear Resistance Powerful Mine Dewatering Pump Specification. To normalize all suction specific speeds to 3. the following equation.550 rpm..125. varies as speed to the 3/8 th power.18 . Because NPSHR is measured at 3. S = 8. He drew a single line though the approximate center of these points and measured the slope at about 0.125 would also fit the points satisfactorily.25 . S "should" vary as S=AN 0. and the speed exponent 0. are tested and rated at 3. rpm Example: Test speed = 1.15. indicating S=KQ 0. based on the 3 percent head drop criterion for the same pump..com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-two 9/3/2013 .25. Purchase.Suction Specific Speed (Part Two) | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 3 of 4 S 2 = Suction specific speed at second speed S 1 = Suction specific speed at first (base) speed N 2 = RPM of pump at second speed N 1 = RPM of pump at first (base) speed Suction specific speed. this author measures a slope of about 0. acknowledging that a slope of 0. Effect of Capacity and Speed on Suction Specific Speed Yedidiah (2) also stated that as a function of speed.) Although a correction for a speed difference would seem to have value. If we let the capacity exponent be 0. but stated that this exponent would be 0.550 rpm S = Suction specific speed established by testing (NPSHR for a 3 percent head drop) N = Test speed. at least in the United States.125 "under ideal conditions.770 rpm." Evaluating the same set of points. Installation & Application Branch-Line Pumping and Other Options Calculating the Performance of Multistage Pumps Operating in Parallel http://www.18. The scatter of points showed about a 2:1 variation in S for all capacities from 30 gpm to 4.550 rpm. (Doubling the speed increases S by 30 percent. normalized to 3. S is calculated for that speed. can be used: S3550 = S Where: (13-4) S 3550 = Suction specific speed.000 gpm.500 S3550 = 8500 = 11. from Equation 13-3. the author is unaware of any speed adjustment now made in suction specific speed evaluations.750 rpm.000 Effect of Capacity on Suction Specific Speed Yedidiah (2) plotted (on log-log paper) values of S versus Q for several hundred pumps made by 10 companies. Most process pumps.

All Rights Reserved.Suction Specific Speed (Part Two) | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 4 of 4 Discussion of important industry issues Info to keep your pumps running smoothly Top 20 Trade Shows for Pump Users Pumps & Systems readers provided their Top 20 favorite pump industry trade shows.pump-zone.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-two 9/3/2013 . Privacy Policy http://www. Follow us as we explore manufacturing facilities around the world MORE SLIDESHOWS » Find the right equipment for any situation Information and research from our partners on a variety of industry topics On-demand lectures from industry experts © Copyright Cahaba Media Group 2013.

2013 APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location Aug 20.. Equation 13-5 can be massaged to provide normalization of speed and capacity for different pumps. 2013 Where: S 2 = Suction specific speed of second pump S 1 = Suction specific speed of reference pump Q 2 = BEP capacity (per eye) of second pump Q 1 = BEP capacity (per eye) of reference pump N 2 = RPM of second pump N 1 = RPM of reference pump Note that if both pumps are the same pump. "Factor Pump Size into NPSH Comparisons. Lobanoff.pump-zone. Equation 13-6 becomes: Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase Aug 20.25 Styp = 550 Q 0. P. ANSI Subcommittee B73. we can substitute from the Affinity Laws: Q2 /Q1 = N 2 /N1 Equation 13-6 reduces to Equation 13-3. If we choose to "normalize" S to 3. Houston. GPM N = RPM of pump *If the impeller is double-suction.25 S2 =S1 (Q2 /Q1 )0.000 gpm and 3." Power. 2013 MORE PUMP INDUSTRY NEWS » Sn = S Where: (13-7) S n = Suction specific speed. Henshaw served in various positions in the Hydraulic Institute. API 674 manufacturers' subcommittee and ASME Performance Test Code Committee PTC 7.S. Centrifugal Pumps: Design & Application. Yedidiah. & Ross. 2.125 (N (13-6) 2 /N 1) Upcoming East African Refineries to Bolster Regional Relationships Aug 20. A more useful purpose may be to further "normalize" suction specific speed. Val S. say. units): S typ = Suction specific speed of a "typical" pump Q = Pump capacity* at BEP. Like 0 0 0 other variable constant. 9/3/2013 . Germany Aug 20. resulting in Equation 13-6: 0. Gulf Publishing. 1985.000 gpm (per eye). He authored a book on reciprocating pumps. Texas. Equations 13-3 and 13-4 provide for normalizing S for a particular pump to a common speed. 1.125 N Solving for C for the best fit with the second Yedidiah graph (and it fits reasonably well) results in . normalized to 1.E. For 30 years.550 rpm S = Suction specific speed established by testing (NPSHR for a 3 percent head drop) Q = BEP capacity of pump (per eye)..375 exponent.550 rpm. several magazine articles http://www.Suction Specific Speed (Part Two): Page 2 of 2 | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 1 of 2 Suction Specific Speed (Part Two): Page 2 of 2 Written by: Terry Henshaw..com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-tw. S. RPM References 1. June 1973. such as 3. realizing that published performance data may show a value 40 percent above or below the "typical" value. we can write the following equation: 0.550 rpm and to.25 S = C Q 0. Robert R. he was employed by Ingersoll Rand and Union Pump. Pump Ed 101 Pump Repair HI Pump FAQs This equation can be used to calculate S for a "typical" pump.2. Q in the above equation is one-half the BEP capacity of the pump. Author Bio: Terry Henshaw is a retired consulting engineer who designs pumps and related high pressure equipment and conducts pump seminars. GPM N = Test speed.. 2013 Calnetix Technologies Had New Electromagnetic Actuator Patent Aug 20. confirming the 0. 2013 Harrington Industrial Plastics Opens New Location in Houston Aug 20.125 N (13-5) Where (in U.2. 2013 ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen.

9/3/2013 .. Privacy Policy http://www.pump-zone. Germany « first ‹ previous 1 0 comments Leave a message. Installation & Application Branch-Line Pumping and Other Options Calculating the Performance of Multistage Pumps Operating in Parallel Discussion of important industry issues Info to keep your pumps running smoothly Top 20 Trade Shows for Pump Users Pumps & Systems readers provided their Top 20 favorite pump industry trade shows. is a life fellow of the ASME and holds engineering degrees from Rice University and the University of Houston. Best Community ★ 1 Tencarva Machinery Company Acquires Assets of Pump Technology & Solutions Inc..com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-tw. All Rights Reserved.net. Tags: Centrifugal Pumps NPSH October 2009 Issue net positive suction head 2 Busch Vacuum Pumps and Systems Celebrates 50 Years AMETEK Acquires Controls Southeast ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen.. Henshaw is a registered professional engineer in Texas and Michigan.Suction Specific Speed (Part Two): Page 2 of 2 | Pumps & Systems Magazine Page 2 of 2 and the two pump sections in Marks' Handbook (11th Edition). Follow us as we explore manufacturing facilities around the world MORE SLIDESHOWS » Find the right equipment for any situation Information and research from our partners on a variety of industry topics On-demand lectures from industry experts © Copyright Cahaba Media Group 2013. MORE MOST POPULAR ARTICLES » Share ⤤ ⚙ Subscribe (for FREE) to Pumps & Systems Magazine Renew/Change Your Subscription to Pumps & Systems Magazine Subscribe (for FREE) to Upstream Pumping Solutions Subscribe to our E-Newsletters Molding & Resin Improve Wear Resistance Powerful Mine Dewatering Pump Specification. Purchase.. He has been awarded six patents. He can be reached by e-mail at pumprof@att.

and settled on 40.000 hours (five years) as a reasonable life of an impeller. net positive suction head. NPSH Written by: Terry Henshaw. 9/3/2013 . Page 1 of 4 Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate NPSHA. 2013 Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase Aug 20. P. 0 0 Tenth in a Series A number of technical papers (1. so the S 40K values above 220 ft/sec must be recognized as extrapolated. 2013 APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location NPSHR 40K = (13-9) Aug 20. β 1 = 17˚ 5.. Stainless steel impeller 3. Germany Aug 20. Cool water 2.E. stainless steel impeller pumping cool water can be condensed to the following equation: Pump Ed 101 Pump Repair HI Pump FAQs NPSHR 40K = 1... S is lower. 8) have shown that the maximum damage rate to centrifugal pumps.000 hours with a properly designed.) 4. Therefore. 4. it will also push the NPSHA toward.. as follows: Upcoming East African Refineries to Bolster Regional Relationships Aug 20. or into. Impeller vanes properly twisted and tapered. but can be even higher (1). shockless entry of the pumpage into the impeller vanes. shockless-entry capacity http://www.2 (13-8) This equation applies only to the capacity (flow rate). 2013 Converting to suction specific speed results in: Calnetix Technologies Had New Electromagnetic Actuator Patent Aug 20. His NPSH recommendations for obtaining 40. at least in water services. the range where maximum erosion rate occurs to the impeller.* That capacity is normally about 20 percent higher than the best efficiency capacity. in terms of U 1 and β 1 . although providing additional NPSHA will increase pump head and efficiency. (For plain vanes.000 hour curve are: 1. 7. for Dh = 0 and β 1 = 17˚(which is the angle for which S 40K is maximum). 2013 MORE PUMP INDUSTRY NEWS » S40K = 8150 (13-10) Equation 13-10 is plotted in Figure 1 . 2013 Harrington Industrial Plastics Opens New Location in Houston Aug 20. which results in non-prerotating. No-prerotation. 2013 ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen. Conditions that apply to the 40. Equation 13-8 can be rewritten.pump-zone. typically occurs when the NPSHA is in the range of two to three times the NPSHR 3 .Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate . Vlaming (3) concluded that it was not reasonable to eliminate all cavitation in an impeller.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-thr. Vlaming stated that his experience did not exceed a U 1 of 220 ft/sec.

at the point where the vane joins the front shroud.Dh 2) Ae BEP C m1 ft/sec 0. which showed that the NPSHR 40K is higher at all capacities other than shockless. measured in a plane tangent to Degrees the shroud surface. No hub.5 from the figure by (1-(D h /D 1) ) Busch Vacuum Pumps and Systems Celebrates 50 Years AMETEK Acquires Controls Southeast ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen. Acceleration of gravity Rotative speed of impeller The NPSH available to the pump coincident with a 3 percent pump head loss (π/4)( D12. Any S value selected from the top curve could result in a problematic pump.375 (13-12) Subscribe (for FREE) to Pumps & Systems Magazine Renew/Change Your Subscription to Pumps & Systems Magazine Subscribe (for FREE) to Upstream Pumping Solutions Subscribe to our E-Newsletters Equation 13-12 is also plotted in Figure 1 ..2 ft. in the plane defined by the outer points of the leading edges of the impeller vanes. so the two curves are not directly comparable. The net flow area just upstream of Square the impeller vanes. The meridional component of the velocity of the liquid just upstream of the impeller vanes. Inches Best efficiency point. varies with U 1 as follows: S 3 = C U 1 0. However. Eye area. the approximate suction specific speed. MORE MOST POPULAR ARTICLES » This author's work (9). the figure does provide a general comparison.375 (13-11) Gongwer's work (10) allowed this author to determine that S 3 reaches its peak value when β 1 = 10˚. Germany Tencarva Machinery Company Acquires Assets of Pump Technology & Solutions Inc. at the point where the vane joins the front shroud (Typically equal to the diameter of the impeller eye) Diameter of impeller hub. * Vlaming provided a set of curves for estimating NPSHR 40K for capacities above and below the non-prerotating shockless capacity. and the 40. Equation 13-11 becomes: S 3 = 2520 U 1 0. The capacity (flow rate) at which pump efficiency is a maximum.. If the eye is partially blocked by a hub.sec 2 rev/min (rpm) Feet Feet g N NPSH3 NPSH40k http://www. based on the 3 percent head drop. shaft or fastener. Diameter of the circle prescribed by the inlet edge of the impeller vane.. shaft or fastener blocking part of the eye.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-thr.. calculated at Q bep .pump-zone. supported by Yedidiah (5). demonstrated that.000 hour curve is based on Q np and β 1 = 17˚. With β 1 = 10˚.321 Q/A e D 1 Inches D h Inches 32.Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate . and it emphasizes the diversion of S values as U 1 increases. Page 2 of 4 6. Note that the 3 percent head drop curve is based on Q bep and β 1 = 10˚. Figure 1 Nomenclature SYMBOL DEFINITION UNITS EQUATION β1 The angle of the inlet edge of the impeller vane. multiply S 2 0. 9/3/2013 . shaft or fastener.

Stepanoff.000 hour life.. shockless entry) Qnp GPM 3. 9/3/2013 . relative to the impeller. pumping cool water...75 e U 1 D1 N/229 W 1 Velocity of liquid. Page 3 of 4 As defined by Vlaming (3).. the NPSH required by a pump.000 hours The meridional velocity through the impeller eye required to obtain a right triangle with U 1 and W 1 Capacity (flow rate) through each impeller eye P1 ft/sec U1 tan β 1 Qe Qbep GPM Capacity (flow rate) of the pump when pump GPM efficiency is at its peak Capacity (flow rate) through each impeller eye. J. at the point where the vane joins the front shroud RPMGPMFEET ft/sec NQ 0. just ft/sec upstream of the impeller vanes 1. to obtain an impeller life of 40...5 /NPSH40K0. Installation & Application Branch-Line Pumping and Other Options Calculating the Performance of Multistage Pumps Operating in Parallel Discussion of important industry issues http://www. as defined by Vlaming Peripheral velocity of the inlet edge of the impeller vane. with a stainless steel impeller.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-thr. November 2009 Issue 1 References Tags: Centrifugal Pumps NPSH net positive suction head 2 next › last » 0 comments Leave a message. when C m1 = P 1 (no prerotation. for β 1 = 10 0 FEET Suction specific speed required to obtain 40.75 NPSH e 3 S3/10 S40K NQ 0. A.pump-zone.5 0.. Purchase.Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate . Best Community ★ 0 Share ⤤ ⚙ Molding & Resin Improve Wear Resistance Powerful Mine Dewatering Pump Specification.12 P 1 Ae S3 Suction specific speed with RPMcavitation sufficient to cause a 3 percent loss GPMof pump head FEET Approximate suction specific speed with RPMcavitation sufficient to cause a 3 percent loss GPMof pump head.

.Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate .. All Rights Reserved.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-thr. Page 4 of 4 Info to keep your pumps running smoothly Follow us as we explore manufacturing facilities around the world Find the right equipment for any situation Top 20 Trade Shows for Pump Users Pumps & Systems readers provided their Top 20 favorite pump industry trade shows.pump-zone. Privacy Policy http://www.. 9/3/2013 .. Information and research from our partners on a variety of industry topics MORE SLIDESHOWS » On-demand lectures from industry experts © Copyright Cahaba Media Group 2013.

. East Kilbride. "Nett Positive Suction Head Requirements for Avoidance of Unacceptable Cavitation Erosion in Centrifugal Pumps. Terry L.. TN.2. He can be reached by e-mail at pumprof@att. 2013 MORE PUMP INDUSTRY NEWS » Share ⤤ ⚙ http://www." National Engineering Laboratory. 5.. 1974. "Analysis of Cavitation Provides Advanced NPSH Estimates for Centrifugal Pumps. Sept.pump-zone. Nashville.M. he was employed by Ingersoll Rand and Union Pump. 1948.M. He has been awarded six patents. P.. SemiAnnual Meeting. For 30 years.. Yedidiah. Page 1 of 2 Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate NPSHA. "Factor Pump Size into NPSH Comparisons. Henshaw is a registered professional engineer in Texas and Michigan. He authored a book on reciprocating pumps. Henshaw served in various positions in the Hydraulic Institute. WI. F." United Centrifugal Pumps.. 2013 Calnetix Technologies Had New Electromagnetic Actuator Patent Aug 20. King. Deeprose.J. Gongwer. 2013 « first ‹ previous 1 0 comments Leave a message. Calvin A. Robert R.... Ross. and Pearsall." ASME Hydraulic Div. D. 1984 4. Oct. Inc. 2.. 7. Budapest. net positive suction head. November 19.. 4th Conference of Fluid Machinery. B. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Vlaming.. 2013 APSCO Pumping Services Opens East Coast Location Aug 20.J.W. "Cavitation Noise. N. C163174. Glasgow. June 1973. API 674 manufacturers' subcommittee and ASME Performance Test Code Committee PTC 7. Milwaukee. Henshaw. is a life fellow of the ASME and holds engineering degrees from Rice University and the University of Houston.." Oil & Gas Journal.. Grist. and McNulty.A. P. J. 1999. 9. PumpUsers EXPO 99. 2013 Nidec Announces Notice Regarding the Status of Own Share Repurchase Aug 20. Hydrocarbon Processing... Author Bio: Terry Henshaw is a retired consulting engineer who designs pumps and related high pressure equipment and conducts pump seminars. 0 0 Centrifugal and Axial Flow Pumps.2. 9/3/2013 . "Cavitation Noise in Pumps. 1972. W.com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-thr.Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate . 1974. ANSI Subcommittee B73. Germany Aug 20.. 2004. several magazine articles and the two pump sections in Marks' Handbook (11th Edition). Pump Ed 101 Pump Repair HI Pump FAQs Upcoming East African Refineries to Bolster Regional Relationships Aug 20. McNulty. Tags: Centrifugal Pumps November 2009 Issue NPSH net positive suction head 2 Harrington Industrial Plastics Opens New Location in Houston Aug 20. June 1940. John Wiley & Sons. NPSH: Page 2 of 2 Written by: Terry Henshaw." Power. Terry. Deeprose. W. 2013 10." Paper No. Edward. "NPSHA-How Much is Enough?". Advanced NPSH Workshop. 3. Henshaw. I. S. "Theoretical Prediction of NPSHR for Cavitation Free Operation of Centrifugal Pumps. about 1982. 8. Department of Industry. "A Theory of Cavitating Flow in Centrifugal-Pump Impellers. 6.." Proc. Best Community ★ 0 ExOne Announces European Facility Expansion in Gersthofen. Flow Noise and Erosion.Sc.net.E.

Suction Specific Speed (Part Three): Using Suction Specific Speed to Establish Adequate . Follow us as we explore manufacturing facilities around the world MORE SLIDESHOWS » Find the right equipment for any situation Information and research from our partners on a variety of industry topics On-demand lectures from industry experts © Copyright Cahaba Media Group 2013.. All Rights Reserved.. Purchase. 9/3/2013 .pump-zone. Page 2 of 2 Molding & Resin Improve Wear Resistance Powerful Mine Dewatering Pump Specification. Installation & Application Branch-Line Pumping and Other Options Calculating the Performance of Multistage Pumps Operating in Parallel Yokogawa Wins Major Contract for Large UK Onshore Gas Storage Facility Hydraulic Institute Opens Registration for 2013 Fall Meeting Busch Vacuum Pumps and Systems Celebrates 50 Years AMETEK Acquires Controls Southeast MORE MOST POPULAR ARTICLES » Subscribe (for FREE) to Pumps & Systems Magazine Renew/Change Your Subscription to Pumps & Systems Magazine Subscribe (for FREE) to Upstream Pumping Solutions Subscribe to our E-Newsletters Discussion of important industry issues Info to keep your pumps running smoothly Top 20 Trade Shows for Pump Users Pumps & Systems readers provided their Top 20 favorite pump industry trade shows...com/topics/pumps/centrifugal-pumps/suction-specific-speed-part-thr. Privacy Policy http://www.

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