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Republic of the Philippines Cavite State University Don Severino De las Alas Campus Indang, Cavite


In Partial Fulfillment of ITEC 55: Systems Analysis and Design (SAD)


Submitted to: Kate Cristel C. Mojica Instructor

Submitted by: Abisado Reginald S. Guacena, Ivy Mae M. Guerrero, Neil Jeffrey E. Rosario, Ivyree A. San Gabriel, Rochelle P.

Date submitted: October 2013

Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1 Background of the Study-------------------------------------------------------- 1 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) of Existing System----------------------------- 3 Statement of the Problem ------------------------------------------------------ 4 Theoretical Framework --------------------------------------------------------- 5 Objectives of the Study---------------------------------------------------------- 6 Scope and Limitations----------------------------------------------------------- 7 Significance of the Study-------------------------------------------------------- 7

II. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES------------------------------------------------ 8

III. DISCUSSION OF PROPOSED / COMPUTERIZED SYSTEM------------ 14 Use Case Diagram--------------------------------------------------------------- 14 Data Flow Diagram (DFD) of Proposed / Computerized System----- 15 Database Design------------------------------------------------------------------ 16 Tables ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 Data Dictionary----------------------------------------------------------- 17 Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) ------------------------------------------ 19 Reports------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 20


Summary---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 Recommendation----------------------------------------------------------------- 22 Bibliography------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23

INTRODUCTION Background of the Study According to the Department of Education, the educational system of the Philippines was patterned both from the educational systems of Spain and the United States. However, after the liberation of the Philippines in 1946, the system radically changed. The Department of Education administers the entire educational system, especially the curriculum, along with the utilization of given funds for school services, equipment, recruitment of teachers (for public schools only). The former educational system of the Philippines was composed of 6 years of elementary education starting at the age of 6 and 4 years of high school education starting at the age of 12. With this system, compulsory education is not enforced. However, the date June 4, 2012 signaled the start of the implementation of a new educational system, which is the K-12 educational system, which includes the new curricula for all schools. With this system, education will be now compulsory. All public and private schools in the Philippines must start classes from the mandated by the Department of the Education, and must end after each school

completes the mandated 200-day school calendar of DepEd (usually around the third week March to the second week of April). Computation of grades in school became easy for modern teacher but for traditional one they found difficult but now no burden in recording, transmitting, giving the equivalent and the final grades for teachers who are computer literate, where time, effort and energy is minimized.

This is the point of this study, to device a program in order to ease the computation of grades and ranking the students basing their subjects performances. This is now the scenario and dilemma of Francisco Osorio National High School. Now, with the technology which is to be developed, it will enable them to do more with less effort. The program will not continuously find way to improve and expedite the calculation of grades. The use of computer nowadays is necessary to replace the manual system that affects efficiency and effectiveness, accuracy and reliability. Hence, the researchers would like to develop a K-12 computer-based grading system.

Statement of the Problem

MAN POWER Teachers Calculator


Prone to error computation Manual Inputting



MATERIALS Class Record

METHOD Manual input

Time Consuming in computation of grades


Increasing no. of students PEOPLE


Not secure

MATERIALS Class Record Data Storage


Theoretical Framework









Objectives of the Study Generally, this study aims to have an automated system of grade computation of the Francisco Osorio National High School. This aims to lessen the time and effort in computing grades. Specifically, the system want the users to manipulate data easily, find/copy other data easier and faster, fast tracking in the checking of the grading sheets, lesser time in monitoring the preparation of grading sheets.

Scopes and Limitations The computerized grading system provides faculty staffs/teachers a faster and more accurate way of grade computation. This system is an enhanced way provided for the teachers of Francisco Osorio National High School for an easier way and ease of access of student grade computation and assessment. Significance of the Study The beneficiaries this system will be: School itself will become known because of the automated form of their grading system. Teachers. They will use the computer based grading system for the fast and accurate computation of grades. Class Advisers. It will become easy for them now to print the grades and distribute it to the students.

Principal. They will double check the computed grades by the subject teachers in fast and accurate way. Students. They will also benefit from the study and we can assure them a fast and accurate computation of their grades.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Here are some related literatures of Computer-Based Grading System which may help in the development of this system. It is composed of discussions of facts and principles to which the present study is related. Grading System Based on Ignacio, F. (2011), grading System is designed to provide incentive reward for achievement and assist in identifying problems of the student. Grading System is the most commonly used in computing and analyzing the performance, talent and skills of students? It is the important record to keep even for the longest time for the referral and credentials of the student to enter their next level of attaining their goals. It is the tract record that recognizes of one student, this maybe use for analyzing of your attitude and values. Based on our research the school of Romblon State University Cajidiocan Campus is using a manual computation of grades of each student, which is the traditional use when technology is not yet developed. Manual computation is very prompt to risk for any circumstances. It is time consuming in terms of recording grades, omputation using of calculator. If some records are lost, they never retrieve it in case of unexpected calamity. Accuracy and security is not been so defined. Manual Grading System Based on Per Christensson in the manual grading system, some problems are being site. One of the common problems was not accurate computing of grades and slow compilation of grades. Applying automation to Grading systems

wherein it will make a task more easy and accurate. The system named Development of k-12 grading system is effective on inputting and storing da ta. And the excellence and efficiency of this system is assured. Effective grading and reporting systems promote interaction and involvement among all the beneficiaries (students, parents, teachers, and administrators) in the educational process. Automated Grading System In literature very little research papers are found on computer vision based automated grading and sorting systems. However, there have been efforts to develop both: the internal (Wulfsohn et al., 1993, Lee et al., 2008 and Schmilovitch et al., 1999) and the external (Fadel et al., 2006) quality factor based techniques for this purpose. In what to follows we describe our research study quality factor based on grading and sorting system. According to Kalpito nowadays, in a highly technological society, human productivity is made more efficient through the development of electronic gadgets. Now, with the advent of such modernization in education, one way to globalize the process of research is to realize that technology is advancing at an incredibly fast phase. Computers are not confined to being used for entertainment but its role in education is also vast. Grading is one of the most important activities a faculty member does. Many problems in teaching arise because of grading issues.

Programming Language In this study (Development of k-12 grading system) a programming language are used to implement it. On the working program, Visual Basic is used. Visual Basic is a programming language and development environment created by Microsoft. It is an extension of the BASIC programming language that combines BASIC functions and commands with visual controls. Visual Basic provides a graphical user interface GUI that allows the developer to drag and drop objects into the program as well as manually write program code. Research based on Per Christensson. Database According to IT Business Edge, databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number. An alternative concept in database design is known as Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they are not designed for numerical analysis. To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.

In addition, Merriam Webster Dictionary defines database as a collection of pieces of information that is organized and used on a computer collection of pieces of information that is organized and used on a computer and Collection of data or information organized for rapid search and retrieval, especially by a computer. Databases are structured to facilitate storage, retrieval, modification, and deletion of data in conjunction with various data processing operations. A database consists of a file or set of files that can be broken down into records, each of which consists of one or more fields. Fields are the basic units of data storage. Users retrieve database information primarily through queries. Using keywords and sorting commands, users can rapidly search, rearrange, group, and select the field in many records to retrieve or create reports on particular aggregates of data according to the rules of the database management system being used. Database Management System IT Business Edge describes database management system as a collection of programs that enables you to store, modify, and extract information from a database. There are many different types of DBMSs, ranging from small systems that run on personal computers to huge systems that run on mainframes. Related Studies came up also on the idea of this study. This site makes it easy for teachers to enter grades with our multiple Grade Book Views. Their grade book allows teachers to enter grades, flag missing

assignments, track student comments and enter sub-skill grades for each course. It auto-calculates grades on the fly and integrates with the Report Card module, providing teachers the ability to print report cards in a matter of seconds. With its intuitive look and feel of a paper grade book, is the easiest grading software to use. Synthesis Compared to other related projects about grading system, our system is offline and not interactive. Other systems are online and can be accessed by the end-users including students for viewing purposes. Our system only has limited features and it can only accept and process data, but cannot be accessed by students.


Log in

Print Records

Create new record

Edit sections/ grading sheet properties

Load new Grading sheet

Load existing grading sheet

Load existing grading sheet

Edit Account

Add student

Calculate Grades

Data Flow Diagram (DFD) of Proposed/Computerized System

Teachers data base


User info


User info

1.2 1.1.0
Create new acc.

2.0 Teachers main menu

Load Existing record

New acc. info

Create new grading sheet Edit acct. settings

Teachers acc. info 3.0

View grading sheet

New student info 1.1.2

Add students

3.3 Raw scores

Print grades

3.1 New student info

Edit grading sheet

Calculate grades


Find grades
Data base



Database Design Tables

Figure 6. User Info Table

Figure 7. Sections Table

Figure 8. [Section Name] Table

Figure 9. [section Name] Components

Data Dictionary

Table 1 No. 1 2 3 Data Element FirstName LastName EssentialKey Length 35 35 35 Type C C C Description User's First Name User's Last Name Database's Password

Table 2 No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Data Element SectionID SectionName SectionYear Subject StartSched EndSched Length 7 35 35 35 10 10 Type C C C C C C Description Section ID Name of Section Year of Section Subject being taught Time classes would start Time classes would end

Table 3 No. 1 2 Data Element StudentID FirstName Length 3 35 Type C C Description Student's unique ID Student's first name

3 4 5 6

MiddleName LastName Gender Knowledge

35 35 20 5


Student's middle name Student's last name Student's Gender Knowledge Component Process Skills


Component Understanding

8 9 10

Understanding Performance FinalGrade

5 5 5


Component Product Component Final Grade of student Equivalent student





Table 4 No. 1 Data Element Tests Length 255 Type C Description Name/Title of Test Indicates whether type of test is Exam or Output Perfect Score for Knowledge Component

2 3

Type RKnowledge

255 255


4 5

RProcessSkills RUnderstanding

255 255


Perfect Score for Process/ Skills perfect score for understanding

component 6 RPerformance 255 C Perfect score for performance component

Entity Relationship Diagram


Summary Francisco Osorio National High School is the beneficiary of this study. Based on the interview, they use manual grading system, reason for the difficulty of compiling and manipulating the grades of the students in the K-12 curriculum. The system aims to lessen the time and effort in computing grades and give an accurate output and faster manipulating of data. The developers conduct testing and debugging to determine if the system will show flaws and its limitation and capabilities. It was tested based on the appearance, functionality, user-friendliness and features of the application. They used Variation diagram for the development of the study. This proposed automated k-12 grading system will be surely useful. The gathered information from the feedbacks of the respondents will be used in enhancement of the system.

Conclusion The researchers concluded that the Computerized K-12 Grading System for Francisco Osorio National High School was developed according to the system requirements gathered initially. The researchers concluded that the Computerized Grading System should be implemented because it provides more accurate records, efficient report and fast accessing of data in terms of emergencies. Recommendation Based from all the observations, data gathering and analysis of the present grading system of the Francisco Osorio National High School, the researchers found out that most of the grading computations are done manually and consumes a large amount of time. We therefore recommended the school to implement a Computerized Grading System for them to be able to keep accurate and efficient data records, lessen the workloads of the faculty staffs and teachers on grade computations, and thus can save a lot of time.

References Free Gradebook | School Management Software. Gradelink School Administration System. Surfside Software. Grade Book Wizard. My Student Progress. Per Christensson.