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On the Operation of Daemons - Pseduo Psellos.pdf

On the Operation of Daemons - Pseduo Psellos.pdf

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On the operation of daemons - pseduo psellos
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(Pseudo-) PSELLOS, MICHAEL On the Operation of Daemons Trans ated !

" Mar#us Co isson (Pseudo-)Pse os, Mi#hae , and Mar#us Co isson$ Psellus' Dialogue on the Operation of Daemons$ S"dne"% Pu! ished !" &$ Te'', and printed !" D$L$ (e #h, )*+,$ OCLC: ,*,-.*.,, +//+/001 A t tit e% (2r$) Περι ενεργειασ δαιµονων διαλογος;  Περι ενεργειασ δαιµονων διαλογος3 Τιµοθεος η περι δαιµονων (Lat$) De operatione daemonum; dialogus de energia seu operatione daemonum Trans#ri!ed and #orre#ted !" &oseph H$ Peterson% esoteri#ar#hi4es$#om, /55.$ 6or a dis#ussion of pseudo-Pse os, see 2reenfie d, 7i#hard P$ H$ Traditions of Belief in Late Byzantine Demonology$ Amsterdam% Ado f M$ Ha88ert, )0**$ He 'i4es the fo o9in' sour#es% P$ 2autier, :Le de Daemoni!us du Pseudo-Pse os;, 7e4ue des <tudes !"=antines (7E>) ,* ()0*5), pp$ )5--)0+$ (2autier su''ests a possi! e ate thirteenth or ear " fourteenth #entur" date$) &$ >ide=$ Michel Psellus Epitre sur la Chrysop e! Catalogue des manuscrits alchimi"ues grecs! 4o $ ?I, pp$ 0.-),)$ >russe s% )0/*$ (2reenfie d mista8en " reads 4o $ I?) (Su!stantia " the same as 2autier@s teAt, !ut not in the same order$)








The Translator is willing to devote a few hours daily to private tuition.—His course of instruction would include, besides the Classics, a general English Education. Communications addressed to MA C!" C#$$%""#&, may be left at either Mr. Tegg's, (oo)seller, Mr. *elch, +rinter, opposite the +ost,office, or Mr. "ands, +rint,seller, -eorge, street. "ubscribers are informed, that owing to the wor) being enlarged by additional matter in the %ntroduction and &otes, the price will be Two "hillings.


Sydney, February, ./01. "ir, 2our )indness to a stranger at this e3tremity of the globe, and your well,)nown encouragement of general literature, induce me to dedicate this Translation of +sellus' 4ialogue on 45mons, as a small, but sincere to)en of grateful ac)nowledgment, hoping you will e3tend that indulgence which first literary attempts seem to call for. % have the honor to be, "ir, 2our obliged and obedient humble "ervant, THE T A&"$AT# . 4r. Charles &icholson.

tury. self. the Author of this little treatise on the operation of 45mons. and deeply versed in all the various )inds of erudition that were )nown in his age. : The $ittle -olden (oo). and particularly the system of Aristotle. Mosheim. lib. being now e3ceedingly scarce. and scholar.<=<. 4.. and was distinguished by the learned (arthius with the honorable title. about . daughter of the emperor Ale3is 7Ale3iados. pays the following tribute to his worth9—:(ut the greatest ornament of the epublic of $etters in the eleventh century was Michael +sellus. son of Constantine 4ucas. otherwise . on which man)ind have generally shown themselves very in?uisitive. This great man recommended warmly to his countrymen the study of philosophy. as appears from the eulogium passed on him by Anna Comnena. a man illustrious in every respect.INTRODUCTORY PREFACE M%CH6$ +"E$$!". with great credit to him. v. who flourished in the eleventh cen. and filled the office of Tudor to the young +rince Michiel. %t is interesting as a literary curiosity. as well as by its sub>ect. and Commentaries on the (oo) of +salms and "olomon's "ong.8 (eside other wor)s. was an eminent philologist. the ecclesiastical historian. %t is further interesting from its detailing most minutely the e3traordinary secret proceedings of the Euchit5. which he embellished and illustrated in several learned and ingenious productions. The wor) 7now for the first time published in an English dress8 was written A. philosopher.. he wrote an e3position of Aristotle's +hilosophy.

which by ecclesiastical usage have obtained a harsh signification. though well ac?uainted with d5mons. in 9hi#h men 9ere punished a##ordin' to their respe#ti4e demerits.- called Massalians 7which. in# uded the idea of a future state of punishment. and the administration of its punishments.. 7. had nothin' ana o'ous 9ith the he of re4e ation$ Deither Charon. The propriety of apprising the mere English reader of the distinction between a d5mon and the devil suggests itself here. and addicted to their worship@ and nothing can be more clearly evinced from "cripture than the fact that there is but one devil.st Tim. though invariably observed in "cripture. it must be admitted. in the Pa'anCs estimate) 9ere admitted immediate " on their de#ease. whereas the d5mons are numerous@ the distinction between them. and Tradu#er$ The o#a arran'ement. than !e#ause there 9as mu#h natura fitness in the term to #on4e" the idea intended$ ) .. has not been carried out in either our authoriAed Proper " spea8in'. thus !ears the s i'htest resem! an#e to that apostate !ein' 9ho is 4arious " desi'nated Ad4ersar". it may be considered a fair specimen of the manner in which heathen philosophy was blended with Christian theology in the author's day. and of the plausible reasonings with which the most absurd theories were supported @ and it goes far to show that certain terms. for the most part. thou'h it tau'ht a future state of punishment. iv. and minor offenders after the" had under'one a pur'atoria pro#ess$ It is true the Latin Christians adopted the tern Inferni to eApress he 3 "et that 9as rather !e#ause it 9as more #on4enient to adopt a term in 'enera use. !esides. is a disideratum8. and it seems to determine the true meaning of the e3pression :doctrines of d5mons. *e may further remar) respecting the wor). The +agan world. nor 7hadamanthus. had not ac?uired such harsh signification so early as the period for which +sellus' dialogue is laid. and had. too. in its 9idest si'nifi#ation. nor P ato. atta#hed a re'ion #a ed the E "sian P ains. )new nothing whatever of the devil. Tempter. . essentia " distin'uished it from the he of the Christian s"stem$ The Pa'an he 9as udi#rous " di4ided into #ompartments. %t relates also an instance of d5moniacal possession which cannot be accounted for on the supposition that such possessions were imaginary.8. and 9hi#h. the Pa'an m"tho o'". or the Pa'an he . nor Ha#us. to 9hen#e heroes (first-rate #hara#ters.

on the contrary. this acute critic observes 74iss. occurs fre?uently in the -ospels. it would. the -erman of $uther. or d5mon. or the -eneva Brench. d5mon. that already spo)en of@ and in English. is as constantly indefinite as the term δαιβολος. vi. enemy. This word. real or supposed@ but the word διαβολος. Campbell has so lucidly written on this sub>ect@ after remar)ing that there is scarcely any perceptible difference between δαιµων and δαιµονιον. is made to e3press some Hebrew term signifying idol. the use of the term δαιµονιον.1 translation. or πνευµα αχαθαρτον. *e cannot do better than cite what 4r. . be impossible for us with any certainty to affirm@ but as it is evident that the two words διαβολος and . p. *hat the precise idea of the d5mons to whom possessions were ascribed then was. but that is only when the ordinary rules of composition re?uire that the article be used of a term that is strictly indefinite. he is styled το δαιµονιον. devil. however. %t has been rigidly preserved. Burther. is definite9 not but that it is sometimes attended by the article. namely. as well as -ree). διαβολος and δαιµονιον. ancient and modern.. Thus when a possession is first named. all the $atin translations. this is the usage in regard to all indefinites. +agan deity. C /89—:∆αιµονιον. d5mon. or what some render satyr. by the "yriac version. tsar. and 4iodatti's %talian version. occur often in the "eptuagint. and always in reference to possessions. the plural δαιµονια occurs fre?uently. or ‫" @שטן‬atan. or το πνευµα αχαθαρτον@ but when in the progress of the story mention is again made of the same d5mon. applied to the same order of beings with the singular@ but what sets the difference of signification in the clearest light is that though both words. words never translated δαιµονιον. perhaps. it is called simply δαιµονιον. the d5mon. is never so applied. an unclean spirit@ never to δαιµονιον. apparition. devil. adversary. they are invariably used for translating different Hebrew words@ διαβολος is always in Hebrew ‫רע‬.

διαµονιον is never used as one. p. should be strange d5mons. yet we can hardly conceive it possible for any one who implicitly believes the infallible truth of "cripture. &othing can be more pertinent than 4r. they can by no >ust rule of interpretation be rendered by the same term@ possessions are never attributed to the being termed ο διαβολος. of strange gods. and the cup of devils@ ye cannot be parta)ers of the $ord's table and the table of devils. Barmer8. it may be ob>ected that that particular case is not duly authenticated... . Here in every instance the word rendered devils should be rendered d5mons. iv.<89—:A late learned and ingenious author 74r. .. δαιµονιον are not once confounded. indeed. ev.. at least in the apostolic age. D.. *ith respect to the instance of d5moniacal possession recorded in +sellus' wor). substitute d5mons. Acts 3vii../9 :#thers said he seemeth to be a setter forth. and the second about si3ty. and doctrine of devils. C . . &ay. though the first occurs in the &ew Testament upwards of thirty times. read d5mons. to call in ?uestion the reality of d5moniacal possessions.st Corinth. that they should not worship devils@. shouldE be d5mons. 3. CampbellEs remar)s on this sub>ect 74iss. %t may be proper to sub>oin here the most stri)ing instances of the term being mistranslated in the authoriAed version. Fames ii... and reads it with ordinary attention. although.9 :-iving heed to seducing spirits.G9 :Thou believest that there is one -od@ thou doest well@ the devils also believe and tremble@.. and which is irreconcileable with the supposition that such possessions were imaginary. and % would not that ye should have fellowship with devils@ ye cannot drin) the cup of the $ord..9 :The things which the -entiles sacrifice they sacrifice to devils.. D<9 :The rest of the men which were not )illed by these plagues. when the discriminating appellations of the devil are occa. and not to -od. . .st Tim.. . sionally mentioned. yet repented not of the wor)s of their hands. vi. . i3. nor are his authority and dominion ever ascribed to d5mons. D<.

or in. p. tinguished from that of the man possessed. this reflection.. :has written an elaborate dissertation to evince that there was no real possession in the demoniacs mentioned in the -ospel.. modes of action.. when % find mention made of the number of d5mons in particular possessions. or even the phrases δαιµονιον εχειν. yet.. from all that is said in the -ospel concerning possessions. Campbell also ob.. nature. &ay. . without admitting that the sacred historians were either deceived themselves in regard to them. vi. tures. %ust. and used of a natural disease. and occasional manifesta. *ithout consenting to all that +sellus advances on the origin.89—:Though we cannot discover with certainty. or lapsed angels.. 74iss. we can have no more doubt of the e3istence of such beings than we have of our own. it is impossible for me to deny their e3istence. % should have thought his e3planation at least not improbable@ but. mentioned in -enesis. but that the style there employed was adopted merely in conformity to popular pre>udice. and accounts given how they were actually disposed of—when % find desires and passions ascribed peculiarly to them. Apol. serves. whether the d5mons were conceived to be the ghosts of wic)ed men deceased. Campbell.. M.8 the mongrel breed of certain angels 7whom they understood by the sons of God.. it is plain they were conceived . C . tended to deceive their readers. % am afraid. their action so e3pressly dis. ch. Hc. or 7as was the opinion of some early Christian writers. % shall only say. conversations held by the former in regard to the disposal of them after their e3pulsion. Concerning this doctrine. that if there had been no more to argue from sacred writ in favour of the common opinion than the name δαιµονιζοµενος. and similitudes ta)en from the conduct which they usually observe. vi. 4r. if they were faithful historians. tion of d5mons. believing implicitly the sacred "crip. D8 and of the daughters of men. . in passing. will stri)e still deeper. εκβαλλειν.* observes 4r.

the more especially as we find not the remotest allusion to their origin as a distinct class. going to and fro in the earth. and as both they and the apostate angels are represented as destined to future torment. :4epart ye cursed into everlasting fire. Calmet seems to be of opinion that the d5mons are identical with the apostate angels9 we cannot but believe that such as were connected with d5moniacal possession were the same with the apostate angels. tempting to sin. so his emissaries. %f it be said that such a supposition is irreconcilable with the power and beneficence of the 4ivine (eing. The descriptive titles given them always denote some ill ?uality or other@ most fre?uently they are called πνευµατα αχαθαρτα. wal)ing up and down in it. DG. on our $ordEs approach. The possessed with d5mons at -adara cry out. :Art thou come to torment us before the time. prepared for the devil and his angels9. 7Matt. viii.. unclean spirits@ sometimes πνευµατα πονηρα. and blasting physical as well as moral good. roam through every part of it. though their punishment be for a while suspended. deafness. from which passages it would appear that neither "atan nor the d5mons are yet enduring the e3treme punishment prepared for them@ indeed. They are e3hibited as the causes of the most direful calamities to the unhappy person whom they possess—dumbness. IArt thou come hither.0 to be malignant spirits. the apostate angels. will those who ma)e such ob>ection venture to deny the e3istence of moral and physical evilJ and if that be reconcilable with the power and beneficence of the "upreme. as the devil wal)eth about li)e a roaring lion see)ing whom he may devour.. the scriptural opinion appears to be that. to torment us before the timeJ' Matt. why may not the doctrine . βαστανασαι ηµας. viii. palsy. the d5mons.. and the li)e. malign spirits@ they are represented as conscious that they are doomed to misery and torments. delivering the future >udgment. DG8 —whilst our $ord says. inflicting diseases. madness.

)5 >ust laid downJ *ill it be said that such a supposition is irreconcilable with the immutability and permanency of the 4ivine lawsJ *ill those who ma)e such ob>ection assert. Homer applies the epithet d5mons. without our perceiving it. in its primary sense of an acute intelligence. %t may be proper to e3amine here the Heathen notion of the word d5mon. to the dii majorum gentium 7%liad. %ts etymology conveys the idea either of an acute intelligence or of an appointed agent@ but as these may e3ist separately. 4iad. by which means 7mutatis mutandis8 we will be better able to understand its scriptural application. . K0th line.. even the most insignificant. Ον Χανθον καλεουσι θεοι. are controlled by d5monic agencyJ *e only see a few of the lin)s—we cannot see all the lin)s of the chain that lead to anyone result. DDD8@ but whether he regarded the dii majorum gentium as an inferior order of beings. or merely applied this term as suitable. but men "camander@.K. or combined in the same being. vers.. Lanthus being the . Cantab. and occasionally gave glimpses of his opinion on this point. though he dared not openly to avow his sentiments. that the superficial )nowledge they may have ac?uired of natureEs laws warrants them in saying that they understand the 4ivine lawsJ —who can tell all the causes that lead to any one. The scholiast seems to favour the view last mentioned 7Hom. or heroes advanced to this eminence. where. to beings of the very first order. :which the -ods call Lanthus. is somewhat doubtful. spea)ing of a river in the Troade. he says. ανδρες δε Σκαµανδρον. *e cannot but be persuaded that Homer considered all the gods and goddesses of human origin. it is obvious mere etymology cannot guide us to a safe conclusion in our en?uiry. #ne very stri)ing instance of this furtive way of insinuating his private opinions we have in the DDnd boo) of the %liad. in distinct beings. eventJ —and who can tell but that the laws of nature. subordinate to a superior intelligence. DDD8. v. in more than one instance.

45mons..8 "ocrates' sentiments on this sub>ect. Consider. or of the nymphs who had charge of him in his childhood. as also those of +lato and his immediate disciples. +roceed. Hermog. A. of &eptune and +luto. 4es 4ieu3.)) name by which the ancients designated the river. most mighty. and heroes. whom he drove out of heaven. %t may be ob>ected. and avers that they are the protectors of mankind. we are rather inclined to thin) that Homer considered all gods 7the dii majorum gentium not e3cepted8 as d5mons of human original. all the world )nows. Soc. and who is styled by the poets :the father of gods and men.8 #n the whole. seconde partie. the greatest and best of being?. 7Nide "choliast on HomerEs %liad. DDD. and men. Hesiod follows ne3t in order of time@ he seems decidedly of opinion that all gods were d5mons. most gracious. optimus. if they had been then arrived at the age of manhoodJ How well his actions >ustify the $atin epithets. if % say ought worthy of your attention as to what might have been the sense of the word d5mon. his brothers. 4e $a Motte's reply to Madame 4acier is here very apposite—:*hatM could Homer seriously believe Fupiter to be the creator of gods and menJ Could he thin) him the father of his own father "aturn. then. % donEt remember it. *hat shall we consider ne3tJ Hermogenes. or of Funo. to whom almighty power and supreme dominion are attributed. who lived under Saturn. Are you aware that Hesiod says certain are d5monsJ Hermog. φυλαχας των θνµτων ανθρωτων. &or that he says the first generation of men were . Soc. may be gathered from the following e3tract from +latoEs Cratylus9—:Soc. his sister and his wife. and originally human@ he intimates that the d5mons are the men of the golden age. and with what propriety they are so named. 74e la Criti?ue. so often given him. to be sure. Hermogenes. or of the giants who made war upon him. he almost says that ancients and gods are convertible terms. maximus. $et it be d5mons. Soc. and would have dethroned him. :can Fupiter himself be included under this idea— Fupiter.

that he designated them %ntelligences because wise and intelligent. E3cellent. it would be impossible to convey the agreeable play on the word which afterwards occurs. % thin) he calls a gene. are in the habit of saying. 2ou say the truth. and dignity. then. he belonged to the golden ageJ Herm. Herm. Avertors of evils. and that the same. Soc. therefore. The wise. p. he specially intimates respecting %ntelligences. whether living or dead. *ho are e3cellent but the wiseJ Herm. and will throughout. that be obtains a glorious lot. gives the following as his doctrine of d5mons9 —:According to a divine nature and >ustice. then. intelligences. then. and in our ancient speech the word occurs. ration the golden OgenerationP. if anyone of the present age were e3cellent. designating him thus owing to his wisdomJ %n the same manner % aver that the intelligent man is every good man. but according to right reason. δαιµονες. *ell. Soc. and becomes an intelligence. 1Q.8. a good man dies. Soc. when. >ecture it is for analogous reasons he says we are an iron generation. too. not by any political institution. 2ou thin).. is intellectual.)/ goldenJ Herm.. none else. *ere we to render it d5mons. *hat. at all events. the souls of virtuous men are advanced to the ran) of d5mons@ if they are properly purified. How many. who flourished in the second century. Accordingly not only Hesiod. Soc. and is correctly called all intelligence. +rotectors of mortal men. (e ha4e rendered this 9ord. he spea)s thus respecting it9 — I*hen destiny concealed this generation They were called pure subterranean %ntelligencesD O4aimonesF. that %sis and #siris were for their virtue changed into gods. he would say. %t is but the natural inference. not as though produced from gold. calls them appropriately thus. prayJ Soc.' Herm. but many other poets also.—+lutarch. This. they are e3alted into gods. % )now that. but because e3cellent and glorious@ and % con. / . The same author says in another place 7de %sis et #siris.

Brom these data we conclude that the word d5mon. the" #on#ei4ed &esus to !e a ma e inte i'en#e. as were Hercules and (acchus afterwards. and 7esurre#tion3 Anastasin. as signifying in its abstract sense an intelligence. they were :a kind of superstitious atheists.8 The heathen did not pretend to be ac?uainted with all the e3isting d5mons or intelligences. ta)es advantage of this circumstance to introduce Fesus to their notice as a d5mon1 or intelligence they were It seems pro!a! e that the ine of #ondu#t pursued !" the Apost e on this o##asion 9as su''ested !" the remar8 of the Athenians themse 4es. . and ma8in' them 'ods and 'oddesses as suited the 'ender of the name$ Dor #an this #ondu#t of the Apost e !e termed 9ith an" propriet" :a pious fraud. sionally applied from the earliest times to deities of the very first order. sect. and secure to every d5mon or intelligence a due share of honor. Hist. ho ackno ledged no being that corresponds ith our idea of a deity. iv. . receiving the united honors both of gods and d5mons. &esus and 7esurre#tion. a##ordin' to their #ustom deif"in' a!stra#t Jua ities.$ KTis true that thou'h the term dImon in its primar" use si'nifies inte i'en#e. of el. %n the language of one who cannot be suspected of any partiality to Christianity.R 7&at. a fema e inte i'en#e. in +aulEs day. that they actually had. :he seems to #e a setter forth of strange intelligences. was occa. +aul accordingly. :To an un)nown -od. "o sensible were the -ree)s of their ignorance on this head. ho9e4er. but afterwards came to be appropriated to deified men@ and that the heathen 7philosophers e3cepted8 believed in no being identical with or bearing the slightest resemblance to our -od.)... They thought by this contrivance to obviate any bad results that might accrue from their ignorance. an altar at Athens with the inscription. (usua " rendered dImons)3 !e#ause he prea#hed to them τον Ιµσουν και την Ανσατασιν. !ut mere " so mu#h as suited his immediate purpose of eAtri#atin' himse f from the po9er of their fanati#a phi osophers$ His prin#ipa o!Le#t seems to ha4e !een to sho9 that on their o9n prin#ip es.. his auditors 9ou d !e 4er" apt to ta8e the term in its more eAtended sense$ The Apost e. #ou d not Lust " !e he d responsi! e for the a##eptation in 9hi#h the" #hoose to ta8e his 9ords3 "et it must !e admitted that the Apost e did not in this instan#e state the 9ho e truth. with ingenious artifice.

% perceive that in every thing you somewhat surpass in the orship of d5mons 7κατα παντα ως δεισιδαιµονεστερους08@ for as % passed by. whom therefore you ignorantly orship. but simply of an intelligence. D<. :do % mean to assert that an idol is intrinsically anythingJ by no means@ the veriest tyro in the school of Christ )nows that an idol is nothing.G. and must ha4e #onsidered the Apost eCs an'ua'e hi'h " #omp imentar"$ . and not to -od. %t can hardly be ?uestioned but that the heathen. nations@ and in so doing. He thus apologiAes on MarEs Hill. :to an unkno n God!.st Cor. beings which. Him declare % unto you9. and 9hi#h admitted a mu tip i#it" of 'ods. . 9as not the 9ho e truth3 it ans9ered. e4en &esus$ (ith a simi ar ta#t the Apost e res#ued himse f from the ma i#e of the &e9s. ping beings who had no e3istence but in their own imagi..89—:2e men of Athens.8 :*hat say %. yet might they with propriety be called worshippers or d5mons. D. and insistin' that the do#trine or a future resurre#tion 9as the 'reat matter of dispute3 !ut this. 2e cannot drin) the cup of the $ord. were really worship. and % would not that you should have fellowship with d5mons. as in the former instan#e. 9hen arrai'ned !efore the hi'h priest. and re'arded 9ithout Lea ous" the 'ods of other nations. and the cup of d5monsM. 7Acts 3vii. though they could not be said to worship any particular d"mon. when worshipping deified men as d5mons. were confessedly inferior to the "upreme. whether real or imaginary. ho9e4er. %n this apology the word d5mon does not convey the idea of either an impure or malignant being. or that which is offered in sacrifice to idols anythingJ but % say that the things which the -entiles sacrifice they sacrifice to d5mons. the" #ou d not in Lusti#e or #onsisten#" punish him for prea#hin' a 2od the" had ne4er heard of !efore. % found an altar with this inscription. thenJ that the idol is anything. for eyes have they. !" a4o9in' himse f a Pharisee. 9ithout its 4enom$ + The Athenians ' oried in the fa#t that the" 9ere δεισιδαιµονεστερους than the other states of 2ree#e. the Apost e@s purpose !" #reatin' a di4ision in his fa4our$ Sure " this 9as the 9isdom of the serpent.)+ unconsciously worshipping. and beheld your devotions. 3. As if the Apostle had said. %n this seems to lie the force of the ApostleEs remar) 7.

)- see not. the name d5mons 7intelligences8 is promiscuously applied. we perceive. that the -entiles sacrifice to d5mons is no more than to say that they sacrifice to beings which. &ow it is to the )ind e3pressed in the definition now given that the pagan deities are represented as corresponding. in the least degree. we cannot forbear observing that... beings intermediate between -od and man. men of a philosophic turn of mind fortified . %f it can be une?uivocally shown from the *ord of -od that d5mons e3ist.R 7Campb. from their own account of them.8 %t may be as)ed. and ra. then we flatter ourselves such ends may be in some measure effected by the publication of +sellusE wor)@ but if there were no other reason for its publication than a desire to commu.@ but while % grant this. viA. on any portion of the *ord of -od. tional theism does not contradict. . 4iss. Hc. but superior to the latter@ :for to all who come under this description. therefore.=. and to rescue a term or a passage from a perverted use. the utility of it to Him that permits it. To say. good or bad. and not individually to particular d"mons. the belief of the fact belongs to us. of what practical utility is a wor) of this nature—of what practical importance can it be whether we believe or disbelieve the e3istence of d5monsJ *e humbly conceive it is not optional with us to treat any portion of divine truth as unimportant. of which the idols are symbolical representations. At the same time.. whether real or imaginary. C . but idols may be considered with propriety to represent the class. actually e3isting. nicate the arguments with which... +ossibly the particular d5mon intended by the idol might have no e3istence. vi. p. The reality of such intermediate order of beings revelation everywhere supposes. because we cannot see its practical bearing upon the conduct. % still maintain that the things which the -entiles sacrifice they sacrifice to d5mons. real or imaginary. if it be a wor) of utility to throw light. inferior to the former. to be below the "upreme. in those comparatively early times.

. or consign their writings to oblivion@ is no mar) of either liberality or wisdom in the present age. we conceive none could >ustly condemn such a laudable motive.)1 themselves in the belief of d5moniacal possessions 7as well in the Apostolic age as in their own time8. "urely a supercilious contempt for the Ana)im of ancient literature. which would censure them unheard.

though it be enough to give one a headache if he but attempt to - In ho " orders$ . were you away so longJ TH AC%A&. it is long. since you visited (yAantiumJ TH AC%A&. if you are disposed to oblige an intimate ac?uaintance. % understand that there are amongst us individuals as godless as they are absurd. % have not yet been able to learn any thing about them@ wherefore % beg of you to tell me most e3plicitly whatever you )now. and engaged in what business. friend Timothy. their laws. ON THE OPERATION OF DÆMONS. and why.—%s it long. #ersus $anes and the %uchit" &a. or more9 % have been abroad.—*hy. % will even add. their customs. Thracian.—2es.—(ut where.—The ?uestions you put would ta)e too long to answer >ust now@ % must devise Alcinius' narrative 7 b8 if % am obliged to particulariAe every thing % was present at. Timothy@ two years perhaps. as many call them. T%M#TH2. (ET*EE& T%M#TH2 A&4 TH AC%A&. while constrained to associate with impious characters—those Euchit5. TH AC%A&. their proceedings.—Even have it so. and every thing % endured. a friend. and that in the midst of the sacred ?uire= 7to spea) in comedian style@8 but as to their dogmas. or.M%CH6$ +"E$$!"' 4%A$#-!E. their discourses.' T%M#TH2. Enthusiasts—have you not heard of them at allJ T%M#TH2.

)* describe the outlandish doctrines and doings of d5monry@ and though you cannot possibly derive any advantage from such description—for. that de i'hts in ordure$ . cian@ surely it is not unserviceable for physicians to be ac?uainted with drugs of a deadly nature. emp o"in'. but with those who do them. but % shall be greatly benefited. TH AC%A&. if it be true what "imonides 7c8 says. to Here there is o!4ious " a p a" on the 9ord Manes. or an error of some trans#ri!er. si'nif"in' 2od of Hea4en. 7c8 that the statement of facts is their delineation. #on4erted it into >ee =e!u!. in the ori'ina MS$. with senseless impiety. some of the particulars. p a"in' on the 9ord >ee =e!u . 9hi#h si'nifies o4e "3 9e #annot !ut thin8 this either a t"po'raphi#a error. the author of evil. but most unpleasant ones9 but if my narrative advert to certain unseemly proceedings.K there were two origins of all things9 he. my friend@ you shall hear 7as the poet says8 truths certainly. according to the accursed Manes. 9hi#h si'nifies a##ursed% this 4ie9 is #ountenan#ed !" the Latin trans ators.—Agreed. 2od of the Dun'hi . and that the 9ord. *e have our choice. not to be angry with me who relate them. will not be unprofitable.—&ay. or to be on our guard of it if it have anything pernicious. that so none may be endangered by their use9 besides. as the s"non"me. The 2ree8 reads επηρατω. This e3ecrable doctrine had its rise with ManesQ the Maniac. therefore. in common >ustice. he !ein' supposed the 'od of a f ". % re?uire of you. 9hi#h 9e ha4e endea4oured to preser4e in some measure in the trans ation3 the 2ree8 reads παρα Μανεντος του µανεντος% this des#ription of punnin' is 4er" an#ient$ The &e9s. and the statement of unprofitable facts ?uite the opposite—what possible benefit could you derive from my delineating their seductive statementsJ T%M#TH2. opposed a god. 9as επαρατω. Thra. and that therefore the statement of unprofitable facts must be profitable. from him their Othe Euchit5'sP multitudinous origins have flowed down as from a fStid fountain@ for. either to carry off from your dis?uisition what is profitable. intesta!i is$ 1 . at all events.

but are on their guard of him. begotten. that though they are at variance. maintaining. as.)0 -od. These rotten. to the bounteous uler of the CSlestials. as of one who has it in his power to do them in>ury@ while the third party. who are further sun) in impiety. even "atan. as well other anathemas. the Birst. the Creator of +lants and Animals. (ut others serve the younger son as being the governor of the superior region. yet that both are e?ually deserving of being worshipped. which e3tends immediately over the earth@ and yet they do not absolutely disdain the elder son. because they are spring from one parent. 7who administers >udiciously the government of the world8 and aver. (ut the d5moniacal Euchit5 have adopted yet a third origin@ according to them. whom they pronounce envious. withdraw altogether from the worship of the celestial son. that it is his being puffed up with envy occasions earth?ua)es and hail and famine. two sons. an unnatural persecutor of his brother. ernment of things in the world—a theory which differs in nothing from the -ree) mythology. the Creator of every good—a ruler of the wic)edness of the Terrestials. thus far are unanimous in their sentiments@ but from this point are divided in their >udgments into three parties9 some yield worship to both sons. with their father. to the younger son the atmospheric region. according to which the universe is portioned out into three parts. as in particular that horrible oneM T T T T . on which account they imprecate on him. and the rest of the compound beings. and enshrine in their hearts the earthly alone.mundane region solely. +referring to ma)e suit to him who is the 4estroyer and Murderer. and to the elder the gov. minded men. dignifying him with the most august names. Estranged from the Bather. and will yet be reconciled. ma)e the senior and the >unior origin@ to the father they have assigned the supra. gracious -odM how many insults do they offer to the Celestial. having laid this rotten foundation.

following up the peculiar foible of each. Timothy.prince of falsehood. they resemble the blind. when it attempted to roar li)e a lion. and averring that he will be e?ual to the Highest@ for this very reason he has been consigned to outer dar)ness9 and when he appears to them. :the -lory as of the (nly)begotten of the Bather. for he is a iar. e3claims. so far as re'ards his "in' propensities3 he 9as a iar from the !e'innin'$ :(hen he spea8eth a ie he spea8eth his o9n. he will turn out no better than the ass in lionEs s)in which.begotten son of -od and creator of all terrene things./ who disposes of everything in the world. :A this po9er 9i I 'i4e thee and the ' or" of them. its braying betrayed. he announces himself the first. and his (the iar@s) father$. or his ies !e uttered pure " 9ith a 4ie9 to de#ei4e. it will soon be in their power to convict him of being a liar. However. is the true #hara#ter of Satan.—(y what train of reasoning have they brought themselves to believe and pronounce "atan a son of -od. for if they insist on his ma)ing good his honied promises. and overwhelmed with ridicule his pompous pretensions. but the #racles of 4ivine Truth everywhere spea) but of one son. but from the +rince of $ies. This..—*hence. and he that reclined on our $ordEs bosom 7as is recorded in the Holy -ospel8. vaunting that he will place his throne above the clouds. cheats the fools. concerning the divine λογος.glorious fiction. and the deaf. >ut 9hether there !e an admiAture of 4anit" 9ith menda#it". At present. and by this means. it must !e admitted. since they cannot perceive. and the insane. seems to parta8e of a !oastfu #hara#ter$ * . and to 9homsoe4er I 9i I 'i4e it. instead of believing everything he says. who deceives the understandings of his witless vo. for that is de i4ered unto me. who ought to have considered him an empty braggart and the arch. however. when not merely the +rophetic *ritings. and suffering themselves to be led about li)e o3en by the nose. taries by such vain. whence has such a tremendous error assailed themJ TH AC%A&./5 T%M#TH2. is not so easi " determined3 "et #ertain " his menda#ious address to the Messiah..

:9hi#h stands in the 9isdom of man and not in the po9er of 2od$. Those 9ho #an assi'n no !etter reason for their Christianit" than that it 9as transmitted from their fathers. by reasoning.apostates. and notoriety. % do not )now that they derive any. and a duty to be practised. or 9hen it is more #ondu#i4e to their tempora interest to renoun#e it3 or e se the" are ia! e to !e dra9n into an" fan#ifu theor". :"corched though they be with the fire. :the o3 and the ass )now their master and their masterEs crib. however. they even disregard the laws of nature@ to commit their debaucheries Here 9e see ho9 itt e dependen#e #an !e p a#ed on that faith 9hi#h is founded on human authorit". 7as the +roverb says8 they yet follow and precipitate themselves into that fire which has long been provided for him and his co. gracious HeavensM how many shameful things. and possessions. there would not be that one arrangement and oneness 7ενωσις8 which binds all things together. and a doctrine to be preached. As the +rophet says. that there is but one Creator. present to the initiated phantasms and flashing appearances.—As to profit.—(ut what profit do they derive from ab>uring the 4ivine religion received from their fathers. and have elected to the place of -od the most ab>ect of all creatures. T%M#TH2.. 9i !e#ome Pa'ans. or Infide s.detesters of -od call visions of -od. nay. "uch as wish to be spectators of them. 9hen the" #annot eAer#ise their re i'ion safe ". yet you )now they cannot give them to any9 they do. which these men. 9ith ta ent and e oJuen#e to enfor#e it$ Litt e dependen#e #an !e reposed in an" faith 9hi#h is not the resu t of an en i'htened. that has !ut the #harm of no4e t" to re#ommend it. nor discover. but these bid their Master farewell. but % rather thin) not@ for though the d5mons promise them gold. Mahommedans./) from the consanguinity of universal nature. rationa #on4i#tion$ Superstition itse f is 4ast " more inf uentia than nomina Christianit"$ 0 .G and rushing on certain destructionJ TH AC%A&. they madly disregard.some truth.. nor hear that very consanguinity declaring the self. how many unutterable and detestable must they witnessM Bor everything which we consider sanctioned by law. that if there were two opposite creators.

and yet this is but the preliminary proceeding with these e3ecrable wretches. that the d5mons became friendly and affable on their parta)ing of the e3cretions. of an opinion. 9ithout imp "in' either fa4our or #ensure. %n this particular % was satisfied they spo)e truth. 9hether true or fa se. ate e3cretions. though incapable of spea)ing it in other matters@ since nothing can be so eminently gratifying to hostile spirits as to see man 7who is an ob>ect of envy8.// to writing would only befit the impure pen of Archilochus. !ein' #ondemned of )5 . to a superfi#ia reader. that august and sacred animal. rendered in the authori=ed 4ersion di4ision. as were never witnessed in -reece. !ut δογµα. 9hi#h his Latin trans ator improper " renders hIresis$ To 9hat is this attri!uta! eMNare 9e to suppose that the 9ord αιρεσις 9as un8no9n to Pse us as a term of reproa#h. in its more #onfirmed and a''ra4ated form. spea8in' of the most re4o tin' do#trines. T%M#TH2. this is one of their secrets—they )now best who do it9 however. on my fre?uently ?uestioning on this point. it 9as a to'ether inappropriate to eApress the do#trine of a se#t$ Do one instan#e #an !e sho9n in S#ripture. or that ho9e4er appropriate the term mi'ht !e to eApress the 9ord se#t. the stri#test se#t of our re i'ion). !ut ne4er to a sentiment. whether moist or dry—a monstrosity which. is αιρεσις$ There is one passa'e in the De9 Testament 9hi#h.< 7to whom they tac) It is remar8a! e that in the 9ho e #ourse of this treatise Pse us. !ein' denominated heres"$ It is app ied in S#ripture indifferent " to either a 'ood or !ad se#t. no. (thus 9e read the se#t of the Sadu##es. &or is this confined to the Antistites of the dogma. mi'ht seem to # ash 9ith the 4ie9s here stated$ :A man that is a hereti#8 after the first and se#ond admonition reLe#t3 8no9in' that he 9ho is su#h is su!4erted and sinneth. not even wild beasts in a rabid state are capable of committing.—*hat for. it is near " s"non"mous 9ith ζχισµα. 9hether 'ood or !ad3 in fa#t. all % could learn was. ThracianJ TH AC%A&. !ein' the in#ipient state of that 9hi#h.—#h. ne4er on#e emp o"s the term αιρεσις. % believe. man who has been honoured with the 4ivine image. nor in the 9ritin's of the first t9o #enturies. ζχισµα. fallen to such a state of degradation9 this is putting the finishing stro)e on their folly. the se#t of the Pharisees. nor in any barbarous land@ for where or when did anyone ever hear that man. 7d8 nay. % do thin) that were he present he would be loath to commemorate orgies so detestable and vile.

omitting the more shameful proceedings. and ma" proper " !e rendered a fa#tious man$. ))) This is a mistrans ation in t9o 9a"s. and yet % am bound to repeat them.D -od preserve meM who could describe itJ % blush to repeat the shameful things % witnessed. the 2nosti or Literati... and the most numerous. that the Eu#hitI 9ere di4ided into three # assesNthe Proestatoi or Presidents. the 9ho e !od" mi'ht ha4e !een #a ed !" the 'enera name. or Litterati$ The #on# usion 9e 9ou d dra9 from the a!o4e passa'e is. have already prevailed on me@ % will therefore s)im over them lightly. Eu#hitI$ )/ This eApression the Eu#hitI deri4ed from the Christians. and the Eu#hitI or Pra"in'-men. (ut as to their mystical sacrifice. )) The 2ree8 reads Γνωστοις. !ut a parti#u ar # ass amon' the Eu#hitI3 #a ed 2nosti. s"m!o i#a sa#rifi#e$ This seems to indi#ate that Transu!stantiation formed no part of the primiti4e #reed$ ).N(Tit$ iii. ?uas sacrilegi sacris suis initiaverunt.1P Nesperi enim luminibus accensis. in s#riptura use. 9ho formed perhaps the unedu#ated and ar'est portionN the ast !ein' most 'enera " 8no9n. or at east has the disposition to #reate αιρεςεις or se#ts in the #ommunit". in domum pr5scriptam deductis. for not on " does it atta#h to the 9ord αιρετυικος. 9ho ma" !e unconscious of any fault$ and so is not eJui4a ent to our 9ord se#tar". for you. Apostles8. puellis ne himse f.. 9hi#h 9as un8no9n in primiti4e times. !ut 9e #on#ei4e Γνωστοις to !e the #orre#t readin'. from the 'enius of the an'ua'e. the name of a 9e -8no9n se#t. that the 9ord αιρετικος in this p a#e does not mean a mem!er of an αιρεςις or se#t. !ut it is at 4arian#e 9ith the 4er" 'enius and stru#ture of the an'ua'e$ On this ast point Dr$ Camp!e . o!ser4es (Diss$ 0$ p$ +$ s$ )))%NIt is p ain. Timothy. the Lat$ Comment$ su''ests Γνωστικοις. has no ne#essar" #onne#tion 9ith opinion at a 3 its immediate #onne#tion is 9ith di4ision or dissension. a modern and e## esiasti#a sense. 9ith his usua a#uteness and a##ura#". lest % should seem to be acting a tragedy. Orather than giving a plain statement of facts. one 9ho is the founder of a se#t. ?uo tempore salutarem domini celebramus passionem. i$ e$. as it is there!" that se#ts and parties are formed$ K Αιρετικος ανθρωπος must therefore mean. DOTE$N(here4er !ra#8ets are supp ied thus O P the 9ords in# uded are not the authorCs. 9hi#h a 9a"s imp ies one 9ho entertains opinions in re i'ion not on " erroneous !ut perni#ious3 9hereas 9e ha4e sho9n that the 9ord αιρεςις. the appellation. mu#h ess does it ans9er to our En' ish 9ord hereti#. but e3tends to the Euchit5 and the -nosti. and that it is not the 2nosti#s are referred to. 9ho desi'nated the LordCs Supper the m"sti#a . )5../. !ut are mere " inserted to ma8e the sense more eAp i#it$ .

li)e those who mi3 poison with mead. therefore. ne nupti5 cum sanguine cognato contrahantur. as one might from the royal signet attached to a cabinet@ in order. but others also who are not privy to their secret proceedings. on the pile. missed@ on the e3piry of nine months. secretly defiling their food. li?uid and . T%M#TH2. without any apprehension. when the unnatural progeny of an unnatural seed is about being born. seu matrem ?uilibet inciderit.—*hat end do they propose to themselves by such revolting pollutionsJ TH AC%A&. and on the third day after parturition. still breathing.0 also. mingling their ashes with the blood in the basins.—They are persuaded that by this means the divine symbols inscribed in our souls are thrust out and e3punged. (ut not satisfied with perpetrating this wic)edness themselves. ha4e !een o##asioned part " !" a suspi#ion that it 9as se#ret " defi ed !" simi ar pra#ti#es to 9hat are here des#ri!ed$ )+ . "i?uidem et hac in re d5monibus rem gratam facere arbitrantur. Having perfected this rite. by their insults to heaven—and a profitable e3change they have made of it. without Quer"Nmi'ht$ not that a4ersion 9hi#h man" of the 7oman and Corinthian #on4erts e4in#ed to parta8in' of food ser4ed up at entertainments. they ma)e a sort of horrible compound. consume them@ afterwards. and casting the infants. for so long as they continue there the d5mon tribe are afraid and )eep aloof. they lay a snare for others@ the polluted viands tempting the pious. to enable the d5mons to reside in their souls they. cum puellis libidinose volutantur in ?uamcum?ue tandem. seu sororem./+ lucem e3ecrandi ?uod designant. they are dis. who. they meet again at the same place. tearing the wretched infants from their mothers. flagitii testem habeant.solid. or eAposed for sa e !" heathens. si leges divinas transgressi fuerint. and scarifying their tender flesh with )nives. seu propriam filiam. with which. chase away the divine symbols. not only they themselves parta)e of these viands. they catch in basins the dripping blood. in ?uibas cautum est.

gently stro)ing my head and fetching a heavy sigh.. And whatever things have been represented by the -ree)s in their tragedies. and Cinyras his daughters. 9hose artfu po i#" it 9as to shut up the s#hoo s of the Christians.= % as)ed him. or anything e3cellentJ The time is at hand when men will live worse than wild beasts. and evil precursors in the shape of monstrous doctrines and unlawful practices. leges of the good as their ac?uisition of a liberal education. a'ainst 9hom this dia o'ue is e4e ed. parta)e of the strange food. that not only individuals from the illiterate and unpolished class. they li)e so many Tantali serving up their children for the enter. tainment. for )now. for now Antichrist is at hand. my child. as "aturn and Thyestes and Tantalus devouring their offspring. no better than the orgies of (acchus. started up at the # ose of the fourth #entur"$ )1 It is some9hat remar8a! e that heres" (9e use the 9ord in its present a##eptation) has a 9a"s ori'inated 9ith the earned$ (e dou!t if there #an !e addu#ed a sin' e instan#e of an i iterate heresiar#h. when % recall to mind Here there seems a pointed a usion to the Emperor &u ian. but many also of the learned. if % am to >udge from the result. ThracianM this is what my grandfather by the fatherEs side predicted@ for once being distressed. These things. all these fearful enormities will brea) in upon our state@ but see my son. in 9hi#h the" tau'ht phi osoph" and the i!era arts$ It ma" indeed !e o!Le#ted that &u ian i4ed in the fourth #entur"... :My son. 9hereas Pse us f ourished in the e e4enth #entur"$ (e are not. must usher in his advent. will there ever be a restorationJ he being then an old man8 and very sagacious in farseeing coming events. ho9e4er. he spa)e prophetically@ but %.Q will be drawn away into the same practices. do you imagine that they will ever again restore literature. and be on your guard. T%M#TH2.—-ood Heavens. 9hi#h 9ou d seem to sho9 that its rise is not o9in' so mu#h to the i'noran#e of the mu titude as to a darin' spirit of inno4ation and depra4ed am!ition in men of earnin'$ )- . because some subverted as well the other privi. under an" ne#essit" for supposin' that Pse us@ Diato'ue is aid for his o9n da"$ The Eu#hitI. )now for certain. even at the doors./- being aware of it. replied. Udipus debauching his mother.

()st Cor$ A4$. are held for this purpose. who beheld invisible things 7or at least not clear to ordinary eyes8 maintains it. they are not incor.—%t is afflicting to thin). to bring about a manifestation. Thracian. being incorporeal. !ut one 9hi#h sha !e fitted for the hi'hest possi! e spiritua ser4i#es and happiness. if one only addict himself heartily to magical practices. though destitute of laws and in a savage state. no. am surprised at what you tell me. . and the parts about $ybia and "yrtes. if as the Apost e sa"s. ha4e appeared in 4isi! e form. % should li)e to )now whether they are manifestly seen by the d5moniacal wretches./1 his words. my friend. yet % venture to say no one has ever heard of such impiety being practised by them. but even the pure angels have bodies. be seen with the visual organsJ TH AC%A&.) a !od" 9hi#h sha neither !e frai . for this they all strive. T%M#TH2. and rites. nor by any other nation near (ritain. (ut a perple3ity of long standing respecting d5mons distresses me@ among other things. ++. and are conversant with corporeal beings. which are as fresh in my memory now as when he uttered them. TH AC%A&. that such horrible practices should ta)e up their abode in our ?uarter of the world. *e hear many too relating how the d5mons appeared to them in a bodily form@ and the divine (asilius. nor su!Le#t to the 9ants that oppress the present !od". T%M#TH2. that not merely the d5mons. might and main@ their assemblage and sacrifice. or in a form suited to the spe#ifi# o##asion of appearan#e. it is diffi#u t perhaps to determine3 "et. many as are the absurd nations described by historians in the far &orth. must !e admitted !" e4er" !e ie4er in 7e4e ation3 !ut 9hether the" appeared in their proper nature. Messen'ers of 2od to men. and every horrible practice of theirs.—&ot a doubt of it.—How then can they. nor 'ross.K being a That CR estia !ein's. TH AC%A&.—And well you may be surprised@ for. :there is a spiritua as 9e as a natura !od".. which one may learn even from the holy fathers of our religion. there is nothin' irrationa in the supposition that ). nor by the Celts. my good friend. poreal@ the d5mon tribe have a body.—(ut.

:He ma8eth his an'e s spirits. #ertain it is. it 9i !e utter " destitute of for#e and meanin'.) renders. not as a prison house. T%M#TH2.G 7as the divine +aul says8 they must needs have some body.—%t is the practice both with Christian and profane authors. matter has nothin' #ontaminatin' in itNnothin' 9hi#h mora " unfits it for union 9ith a pure spirit3 it is mere " o9in' to its !ein' asso#iated 9ith fa en man. not only we Christians. in order to their moving. the f amin' fire his ser4ants$. (e #annot !ut #onsider the passa'e #orre#t " rendered in the authorised 4ersion. that in most passages of "cripture they are spo)en of as incorporeal. :He ma8eth the 9inds his messen'ers. even the most ancient. Oor 9indsP. .—How comes it then. :He ma)eth his angels spirits.. !ut as a suita! e mansion. :are the" not a ministerin' spirits sent forth to minister to those 9ho sha !e heirs of sa 4ation$. p ain " is. 'oes far to esta! ish this atter point$ )* This passa'e. 9here the Apost e #ontrasts the superior po9er and authorit" of the Son 9ith that of an'e s$ )0 The passa'e referred to. and his messengers a flame of fire. in the ) st #hap$ Epist$ He!re9s. aVrial.th 4erse. becoming stationary and apparent@ for these effects could not be accomplished otherwise than through the medium of a body. the body which angels have by natural constitution. but even many profane authors thin) fit to call incorporeal. and pure spirits@ and in proof of this he adduces the testimony of 4avid. 9hen the sou 9i o##up" the !od"././ And it must needs be even so. Dr$ Cha mers in one of his 9or8s3 (9e !e ie4e his Astronomi#a Dis#ourses. TH AC%A&. saying. un ess 9e ta8e the passa'e in this 9a". for when the ministering spirits are despatched to their respective employments. T%M#TH2. his ministers a f ame of fire3. sort of thin. is it the same with that which d5mons haveJ an'e s ma" ha4e su#h a !od"$ A!stra#ted " #onsidered.. to spea) of the grosser description of bodies as corporeal@ but those which are very thin.—(ut tell me. eluding both the sight and touch. most celebrated of the prophets. that it seems to possess a de'radin' propert"$ The fa#t that the !e ie4erCs happiness 9i not !e #onsummated ti the union of the sou and !od" at the resurre#tion..

being more impalpable than the sunEs rays. :the Cretans are a 9a"s iars. which affirm. the bodies of d5mons. % am not uttering lying raphsodies. saddened in aspect. so as to render its stro)e endurable. a punishment they would be incapable of if incorporeal. passing through transparent bodies. however it is an obscure and dar)some sort of thing. e4i !easts. 7as the proverb says &e'8. for the angelic. which. for there is something material in it@ but nothing can interpose opposition to an angel. by these novel accessions of )nowledge@ for to me.—% am becoming ?uite a sage. as ages advance. divested of its )indred light@ but the angelic nature is immaterial. s o9 !e ies$. that the d5mons shall be punished with fire. whether it was once of this sort % cannot say. (e assured of this. is op.8 now. that in ma)ing these statements. li)e the Cretans9 and +hSniceans. pressive and intolerable to the visual organs9 but as to the d5monic. emitting a sort of e3traneous rays. "ince a being that is destitute of a body cannot suffer in the body. therefore they must needs The Cretans and PhRni#ians 9ere remar8a! e for their "in' propensities. if. our good sense increases. that some d5mons are corporeal and palpable.—E4er" one has heard of the Puni# fides$ /5 . not being homogeneous with any thing@ on the other hand. 9ith appro!ation of its truth.) #ites the Poet Epimenides des#ription of them. so mu#h so that their !ad faith !e#ame pro4er!ia $ The Apost e Pau in the Epist e to Titus. so long as we are men./* TH AC%A&. as the saying is@ Itis well. Thracian. TH AC%A&. though constituted indistinct by their tenuity@ are yet in some measure material and palpable.—There is no novelty in our being ignorant or many things. indeed. this is a novel fact.—*hat follyM there must be a vast difference. however. because they present opposition to nothing. but so it would seem@ 7for Esaias disparagingly calls $ucifer :him that had fallen. the opa?ue ob>ects on this earth reflect. Timothy.D< but am persuaded of their truth from the "aviourEs words. and therefore is capable of penetrating and passing through all solids. T%M#TH2. (#h$ i$ )/.

so that the air is full of them. superflui autem seu e3crementi nescio ?uid emittunt hoc mihi asserenti credito. in the +. but only such descriptions of d5mons as are allied to matter. but as sponges and testaceous fishes do. wards void a spermatic substance. such as the $ucifugus. vasave spermatica et vitalia vasa ?uidem eis. however. % as)ed againJ There are many. as for instance a spirit resident in lungs and nerves. both This is te#hni#a phrase$ See note on the 9ord ridi#u ous tri#8s.. by drawing nourishment from the e3traneous moisture lying around them. replied. with the mouth. and assiduously applying himself. :&ot a doubt of it. (ut. and they after. who really was an initiated inspector of d5monic phantasms9 these magical practices he afterwards abandoned as worthless and deceptive. Much. some derive it by inhalation. and A?ueous. said he. for my own part. At incredible est. in?uam e3crementi ?uic?uam d5monibus inesse. constituted capable of suffering. and having made his recantation. Wuemadmodum et sperma nonnulli eorum emittunt et vermes ?uosdam spermate procreant. they must derive it as we doJ Marcus Ofor that was his nameP. but not as we do. And are there many descriptions of d5mons. but they do not all resemble each other in this particular. if d5mons were capable of animal passion. Marcus. % have suppressed which % heard from some who adventured themselves to intuition@D. in?uit me. hu>usmodi nulla insunt. attached himself to the true doctrine.th pa'e$ /) . and "ubterranean. and some from moisture. % have never seen a being of that nature—Heaven grant that % may never behold the fearful loo)s of d5monsM (ut % conversed with a mon) in Mesopotamia. if they derive nourishment. said he. on my as)ing. said %./0 undergo punishment by means of bodies. and of every possible variety of figure and conformation. which we profess. underwent a course of instruction at my hands@ he accordingly told me many and e3traordinary things about d5mons@ and once.

yet.solicitude to retain their names. adding their names. T%M#TH2. or by the degree of their attachment to bodies—be that as it may. for that beings of the divine and celestial order were represented by the e?uila. wards he observed. there were in all si3 species of d5mons. sation. nor can % now recollect it.5 that above and that around us. he laid that the se3ade Oof d5monsP were corporeal and mundane. and so saying he counted off many species of d5mons. % have allowed such insipid matter to escape my memory. as being consistent with itself. said %. that the . as being in some measure liable to error in their choice. teral triangle. and in what particular they resemble.—He said. and the lowest subterranean depths. yet % cannot refuse. their forms. *hat possible benefit could % derive from an over.—This in particular % wish to bow.. that this first number Othe se3adeP was represented by the scalene triangle. to recall to mind matters % have dislodged from thence. when you command. enu. how many orders of d5mons are thereJ TH AC%A&.—% was not very solicitous. and their haunts. yet capable of reformation on repentance. and whatever you are curious about. would you particulariAe eachJ %t would be troublesome. % retain a little out of a great deal. and agreeably to it the mundane system was constituted@ after. their. said he. if it would not be troublesome. to retain either the substance or arrangement of that conver. haunts.—*hatEs to hinder you then Thracian. % )now not whether subdividing the entire genus by their habitM. whilst human beings were represented by the isoscelles triangle. the earth and the sea are full of them. T%M#TH2. Then. and in what differ from each otherJ therefore. because in that number all corporeal circumstances are comprised. merating them to usJ TH AC%A&. my good sir. and with difficulty inclinable to evil. #n the other hand. if you en?uire of me you shall )now it.

the fifth the "ubterranean. 9hi#h 9as !ounded !" t9o eJua and one uneJua side. that the A?ueous and "ubterranean are worse than the merely bad. and is called by the proper name AVrial@ the third is the Earthly. but that the $ucifugus are eminently malicious and mischievous. hen#e the #e estia !ein's 9ere re'arded as represented !" it$ The Isos#e es trian' e. and not at all approaching to e3cellence. and the Lepre#ha9n of the Irish$ // . by phantasies and illusions. and enemies of man. e4er" one of 9hi#h 9as uneJua to the other. ire in the ha!it of assi'nin' a mora meanin' to 2eometri#a pro! ems. and they say. the fourth the A?ueous and Marine. this is certain.) d5monic tribe were represented by the scaleneDD triangle. if they can only insinuate themselves into the lungs of those they meet. said he. The A?ueous suffocate in the water all that approach them@ the "ubterranean and $ucifugus. he counted off si3 species of d5mons. rendering them epileptic and insane@ the Here Ethi#s and Mathemati#s are #urious " ! ended.D1 spea)ing in his barbarous vernacular tongue. *hether he were really of this opinion or not. 9hi#h 9as !ounded !" three eJua sides. 9as #onsidered not Juite so perfe#t in its #onformation. All these species of d5mons are haters of -od. theorems. !ut at a e4ents. more parti#u ar " to the mere En' ish reader —the eJui atera trian' e. 9hi#h 9as !ounded !" three sides. 9as thou'ht apt " to shado9 forth the per4erseness and 9a"9ardness or the dImoni# tri!e$ /. seiAe and cho)e them. and 9as therefore supposed to represent human !ein's. as a profane thing with us would be e3pelled from a temple. Quer". 9e !e ie4e. it she9s that those 9ho em!ra#ed su#h fan#ifu opinions 9ere not the i iterate 4u 'ar$ It ma" !e ne#essar" to eAp ain this #on#eit. as being at variance with itself. but destroy them with the same alacrity as we would the most savage wild beast. for these. and first he mentioned $eliurium. for the entire genus has been e3pelled from the regions ad>acent to the moon. This order of d5mons haunts the air above us. which can scarcely be considered sentient beings. but the second occupies the air contiguous to us. fe9 of our modern mathemati#ians. a name which signifies %gneous. and the last the $ucifugus. 9as #onsidered the em! em of eA#e en#e. not merely impair menEs intellects.. 9hi e the S#a ene trian' e. or fi'ures3 most pro!a! " this notion 9as deri4ed from the P"tha'oreans. is this the Lemures of the Latins.

he need barely murmur. (ut it is impossible.. !readth. approaching by virtue of their spiritual nature. :it 9as impossi! e to te from 9hat Juarter an atta#8 mi'ht !e made upon us$. and leading us about wherever they please. he 9as pu ed under !" one of the AJueous or Marine dImons3 9as one from not 8eepin' the hands or the head industrious " emp o"ed. to !e haunted 9ith the fi th" 4a'ran#ies of a prurient ima'ination. as if we were so many slavesJ &ot by lording it over us. but any word we pleased would reach its destination by a noiseless path@ a faculty which they say is possessed by disembodied spirits. for when we are in an imaginative spirit. but if he be near. for they bold communication with each other in a noiseless manner. without our perceiving it. !" inha in' #ho8e-damp. this 9as the 9or8 of an ASria dImon. he must spea) in a high )ey. but they insinuate a sort of murmur. or what doing. Ho9 9ret#hed must ha4e !een the #ondition of those ens a4ed to su#h a de'radin' superstition$ (e mi'ht Hora#e as8 (9ho pro!a! " spo8e from a persona eAperien#e of this horri! e s a4er"%N /+ . do they accomplish thisJ is it by lording it over us. and whisper into the ear of his auditor./ AVrial and Earthly. said %. (ut how. that when one is spea)ing to another at a distance. as you will perceive. said %. and if one could approach the very essence of the soul.. if you only reflect. with art and cunning stealthily approach and deceive menEs minds. depth. they could utter words without soundJ %t is not impossible. his death 9as o##asioned !" one of the Lu#ifu'us or Su!terranean dImons3 9as one 9hi e !athin' to !e sudden " sei=ed 9ith #ramp. and sin8 to rise no more. that serves with them the place of words. and ife !e#ame sudden " eAtin#t. not that they actually emit distinct sounds. but by leading us into reminiscences. there would be no occasion for any sound whatever. in the same way the d5mons hold communication with us. says Marcus. impelling them to unlawful and unnatural lusts. in a its en'th. so that it is impossible to discover from what ?uarter an attac) may be made upon us.D0 2ou This is indeed :the do#trine of dImons. said he. as Thra#ian sa"s. 9hisperin' impure desires into his sou 3 so that. and fu ness$ (ere one en'a'ed sin8in' a 9e . they whisper descriptions of sensual delights and pleasures.

and whatever forms they please. if you only consider what happens in the atmosphere@ when the sun shines..—(ut what can be their ob>ect in entering irrational animalsJ for this happened to the swine. they e3cite to insane and unnatural amours. obtruding representations of sensual delights. nor from any hostile intention. T%M#TH2. or bird@ in the same way these d5mons terrifically destroy everyone they fall in with. but from a vehement desire for Somnia terrores ma'i#os. The other description of d5mons have not a particle of wit. being hostile to men. donning +lutoEs helmit.operating@ for in this way. and occasion us in conse?uence a vast deal of trouble. rousing the baser passions by titillations. and especially when they find warm perspirations co. with craft and the most refined subtlety. or by casting them over precipices. assuming appearances and colors.! . he combines colors and forms. in>uring them in body and mind. for 7as they report8 the Charonean spirit destroys every thing that comes in its way. whether boast man. and subverting their natural habits@ sometimes they destroy not merely men. suggesting designs. that they pounced upon some beasts.—Marcus said that it was not from any motive of hatred. they create a commotion in men's minds. in the fire. yet are they dangerous and very terrible. sa'as Do#turnos emures. portentaJue Thessa ia ridesM Epist! %%!$ #oo& '$ (! ')*$ '+. too. mira#u a. in>uring after the manner of the Charonean spirit. transport them into our animal spirit. but even irrational animals. 7as we may observe in mirrors8@ thus also the d5mons. in the water. they in>ure them@ but what is the sense of their entering irrational animalsJ TH AC%A&. at -argasa 7as the "acred *ritings attest8.. both wa)ing and sleeping@ sometimes. reviving the recollection of pleasures. % am not surprised if. and are incapable of cunning. and transmits them to ob>ects capable of receiving them. need have no doubt on this point.

4o $ i$. Edin$. and spea)s through him. (Potter@s AntiJ$. and di#tated 9hat the" shou d ans9er to those 9ho inJuired of them. stops his utterance. and obstructing their motions. the pores in which the animal spirit resides being clogged. and not so mu#h as mo(ing their tongues or their lips. . as being most congenial of all@ and when infused into them they occasion no small uproar. the" a the 9hi e remainin' spee#h ess. 9hi#h od'ed 9ithin them. and anyone it can Potter. )*. sha not a nation see8 unto their 2odM 9h" do their 2odM 9h" do the" inJuire #on#ernin' the i4in' from the deadM. and plunge into baths and pits@ on the other hand. has a passa'e 9hi#h thro9s #onsidera! e i'ht on the a!o4e%. :If the" sa" unto "ou. which are cold to the last degree. or pronoun#ed the ans9er themse 4es. but especially to that of man. and in>uring their faculties. he agitates and distorts the person possessed. *hen a subterranean d5mon assails one. which is the cause of their agitating menEs persons. but gladly attach themselves to the moisture of animals. the heat that proceeds from fire they avoid. and that spea8 out of the earth.:One sort of theoman#ers 9ere possessed 9ith prophe#"in' dImons. i!e! possessed 9ith dImons3 and !e#ause the spirits either od'ed or spo8e 9ithin their !odies. as being congenial to their nature.+ animal heat@ for. ma&ing use of the mem#ers of the dImonia#3 these 9ere #a ed δαιµονιληπτοι. and almost leaves the sufferer dead@ for this last species is more allied to earth than the others./$) /- . they are e3cessively cold@ being contracted and pained in conse?uence. the" 9ere a so named εγγαστρεµυθοι (9hi#h name 9as a so attri!uted to the dImons)$ It is in a usion to su#h possessed persons Isaias sa"s. using the tongue of the suffererD= as if it were his own member@ but if a lucifugus d5mon clandestinely possess a person. because consuming and scorching. and is therefore e3cessively cold and dry. see8 unto those 9hose spee#h is in their !e ". they naturally long for a moist and vivifying heat to revel in. as the Septua'int ha4e it. as they inhabit the most profound depths. those that utter 4ain 9ords. it occasions a rela3ation of his whole system. des#ri!in' the three different 8inds of theoman#ers. that spea8 from the stoma#h. and the spirit confined and displaced by the bul) of their bodies. and destitute of moisture.-/. or spo8e out of the !e ies or !reasts of the possessed persons. edit. and spring into irrational animals..

or unguents. though occasionally be prophesies something.—Most undoubtedly. 9as not a re i'ious. delirium. 6rom this 9e earn that the app i#ation of un'uents to the si#8..DK it is ?uite correct to say that there are the effects of disordered humours@ but enthusiasms. *ith what propriety O% as)P can these effects be called the disordered movements of matterJ T%M#TH2. with which when one is seiAed he is incapable of ma)ing any use of his >udgment... and possessions. :physicians would persuade us to be of another way of thin)ing. his imagination.DQ :(ut. Timothy@ for how could % do otherwise. for which reason it is designated with great propriety dumb and deaf@ nor can a sufferer be dispossessed but by divine power. procurable by prayer and fasting. when % recollect what the holy -ospels relate Our Lord sa"s. and spea)s what the person seiAed is unconscious of uttering. their whole attention being devoted to the body. !ut a pure " medi#a app i#ation$ /1 . said %. :This 8ind 'oeth not forth !ut !" pra"er and fastin'$. referred to !" the Apost e &ames. ThracianM do you yourself assent to what Marcus saysJ TH AC%A&. or evacuations. but are occasioned by an e3cess or deficiency of humours. because it is irrational and totally devoid of intellect. in referen#e to the eApu sion of dImons. it blunts and obscures all the suffererEs natural power@ but.- secretly possess. and accordingly they endeavour to cure them by medicine or dietetical regimen. To this de# aration a usion is here e4ident " made$ /. for they assert that such affections are not produced by d5mons. and mildness. Marcus replied—:%t is not at all surprising if physicians ma)e such an assertion. his tongue. or by a disordered state of the animal spirits. it has no more dread of reproof than the most intractable wild beast. $ethargies. it is ?uite another thing moves and e3cites them. Marcus. being governed by irrational whim. his senses. for they understand nothing but what is perceived by the senses. "yncopes.. but not by incantations or purifications. which they can remove by vomits. cases of hypochondriasm.—How now.

predicted not a few concerning myself. yet. though % had never gone as far from the city as to the neighbouring villages. for he said that he had come to the )nowledge of d5moniacal practices through a certain vagabond African. as the d5mon who possessed him wished@ but on +assion wee) and the esurrection day. who.. though he did not wish to divulge the secret. not though be himself should greatly desire it. when % did apprehend him. amongst other things. he shall not do it—not though he ma)e many and vigorous efforts to accomplish it. Brom that time up to the present moment he could predict. and many who used to pass to and fro told me the facts. At length. Having collected the multitude of the initiated around him. and. their doings at Elason@ for a man in that place was in the habit of delivering oracles after the manner of the priests of +hSbus. and anointing his eyes with a certain unguent. and how many wonderful things are related of them by the Bathers@ and moreover saw with my own eyes. and heard with my own ears.. so much venerated by Christians. but only respecting such things. and at such times. he said—:% apprise the present company of the fact that an individual will be sent against us. causing him to parta)e of a certain herb. is the d5mon who possessed him . labouring under a laconic necessity. by whom the mysteries of our worship will be persecuted. and what befell the man of Corinth at +aulEs command. my aspect. from among which he perceived a sort of raven fly towards him. bringing him by night to a mountain. and down his throat into his stomach. too. confessed the truth. He described. enabled him to see a host of d5mons. % as)ed him how he came to be gifted with the prophetic artJ He. "uch predictions he uttered. and the mysteries of our service abolished@ myself and many others shall be apprehended by that person@ but.1 concerning persons possessed with d5mons. spitting into his mouth. deportment. and occupation. though he be very an3ious to carry me off a prisoner to (yAantium.

he sha o4erturn a 'reat empire$. The e4ent pro4ed his o9n o4erthro9$ The same am!i'uit" attends the famous rep " of the same ora# e to P"rrhus% N :Aio te Ha#ida.. to 8no9 9hether he shou d mar#h a'ainst C"rus. disposed to suggest anything. /0 This is a passa'e on 9hi#h 9e #onfess ourse 4es utter " una! e to thro9 an" i'ht3 9e s#ar#e " dare to ha=ard a #onLe#ture$ It stri8es us. :for this one blow shall receive many@ and you. for the d5mons are fearfully incensed against you for subverting their service.. said he. suffer great calamities in your person. and. as if uttering oracles from the 4elphic Tripod@ for they all happened. 2ratian. as the a9s of the Emperors Theodosius. :shall. 7omanos 4in#ere possum. !" the 9a". :I do pronoun#e that 7ome P"rrhus sha o4er#ome$. ho9e4er. (hi#h ma" !e interpreted to mean. that a 4er" su##essfu imposture mi'ht !e p a"ed off !" means of Ho ian harps$ Perhaps it is to somethin' of that nature a usion is made$ (e ma" o!ser4e. and ?a erian a'ainst su#h as #onsu ted them # ear " e4in#e$ It 9ou d .D/ These things the polluted wretch predicted.. when one of my followers struc) him on the chee).. unless some power superior to that of d5mons e3tricate you. These things he told me.. and will involve you in harassing dangers. and % have been almost undone by the numerous dangers which beset me@ from which my "aviour alone wonderfully rescued me@ but who that has seen the oracle in which d5mons play upon wind instruments.DG will This is Lust the ora#u ar st" e$ There 9as a 9a"s some pro4iso atta#hed to ora#u ar responses. turning to me. :un ess some po9er superior to the dImons eAtri#ate "ou$. or some am!i'uit" in them. said he. he re#ei4ed for ans9erN /* :CrRsus Ha "m penetrans. such as you cannot by any possibility escape. it is a 'reat mista8e to suppose that ora# es #eased uni4ersa " on the #omin' of Christ (as 9hat is here mentioned pro4es)$ Thou'h dai " de# inin'. either that 7ome shou d o4er#ome P"rrhus. the" #ontinued on' after. 9hi#h 9as #a #u ated to sa4e the ora# eCs #redit$ Thus 9hen CrRsus app ied to Apo oCs ora# e at De phos. ma'nam per4ertet opum 4im$. or that P"rrhus shou d o4er#ome 7ome$ It is in mu#h the same prudentia spirit our hero of E ason here adds. :If CrRsus #ross the ri4er Ha "s. :you.

* say that madness in all its forms are but the vitiated movements of matterJ T%M#TH2. and raved e3travagantly. muttered a sort of barbarous tongue. as it is ?uite apropos to the present topic. Prudentius. and e4entua " died out$ Their #essation is attested !" Stra!o. tearing her bedgown. Lu#an. in her confinement. in a low murmuring tone@ nor could the bystanders comprehend what she said. who was on the whole of a good disposition. that physicians are of this way of thin)ing.—% am not at all surprised. as handsome as it is Lust. with his s)in wrin)led and sun. but e3ceedingly perverse@ she was. La#tantius.. but were in a state of perple3ity. &u4ena .1< fetched a very old bald. % had an elder brother married to a woman. and.5 This. is parti#u ar " 'a ant$ . and upbraided her much in his own tongue@ 7% mention that. and who has. which. for how many cannot at all understand this sort of thingJ Bor my part. and others$ Lu#ian sa"s that the ora# es 9ere #hief " afraid of the su!t eties of the Epi#ureans. and others$ P utar#h a##ounts for it !" sa"in' that the !enefits of the 2ods are not eterna . and particularly clever in meeting e3igencies8. rated him with great !e more proper to sa" that 9here4er the po9er of Christ 9as !rou'ht to !ear upon them the" #eased. and the Christians$ . is incapable of telling a falsehood. "he. not )nowing what to do in so desperate a case. was very ill. or that the 'enii 9ho presided o4er ora# es are su!Le#t to death3 9hi st Athanasius te s the Pa'ans the" ha4e !een 9itnesses themse 4es that the si'n of the #ross puts the dImons to f i'ht.headed man.burnt to a very dar) hue. besides. until % saw what was absolutely portentous and monstrous in its character. afflicted with a variety of diseases. "ome women. affected to be angry with the invalid. leaning on the bed. An old man li)e me. Thracian. and. however 7for the se3 is very ?uic) in discovering e3pedients. The woman replied to him in the same tongue@ first she was very bold. and. assumed the monastic habit. who. 9hi#h is #onfirmed !" Arno!ius. is a #omp iment to the seA. standing with his sword drawn beside the bed. #omin' from a mon8. and dissipates en#hantments. it must !e admitted. as themse 4es. si en#es ora# es. because he was an Armenian8. too. % was first of their opinion. Minutius 6e iA. % shall relate.

but because she spo)e in the Armenian tongue. *e were amaAed. dis#o4er thin's se#ret and un8no9n3 shou d he ift up himse f in the air 9ithout 4isi! e assistan#e. as if in a passion. if a supposed #ase. !een possessions in 9hi#h a those #ir#umstan#es #on#urred3 there ha4e. (Ca metCs Di#t$ art$ DImon$) To mu#h the same purpose is the fo o9in'. #on#ur in the same possession. and. for that with her was an ordinary occurrence. that su''ests o!Le#tions a'ainst this do#trine$.1. that the 2ospe s #annot 9e !e re'arded in an" other i'ht than as pie#es of imposture. the do#trine of dImonia#a possession$ It 9as 'enera " !e ie4ed throu'hout the an#ient heathen 9or d3 it 9as eJua " 9e 8no9n to the &e9s. !een rea ones. 'ood and !ad. and eJua " respe#ted !" them3 it is mentioned in the De9 Testament in su#h an'ua'e.. ta 8 of su! ime matters he ne4er studied. therefore. though she had never up to that hour so much as seen an Armenian. #an there !e an" room to suspe#t that it is not rea M There ha4e. is perfe#t " #onsistent 9ith. a that human reason #an #onLe#ture.0 spirit@ but when the foreigner was more liberal with his e3orcisms. threatened to stri)e her. #on#ernin' the eAisten#e of 4arious orders of spiritua !ein's. from the En#"# opIdia >ritanni#a%-:A that 7e4e ation ma8es 8no9n. or other natura moti4e3 if a these #ir#umstan#es. fell fast asleep. and. and understood nothing but her connubial and domestic duties. )*/. #n her recovery % as)ed what she had undergone. spea)ing in a timid tone. upon this the poor creature crouched and shoo) all over. of me an#ho " ! ood. of tri#8s and #ontri4an#e3 !ut if a person sudden " shou d spea8 and understand an'ua'es he ne4er earned. 9as simi ar to other rea #ases that mi'ht ha4e !een addu#ed3 e se Pse us 9ou d not ha4e introdu#ed it in his Dia o'ue$ ?er" pertinent to our present purpose is the fo o9in' from Ca metCs Di#tionar"%N:Some efforts that seem to !e supernatura ma" !e effe#ts of heated ima'ination.) . (En#"$ >rit$. !ut dou!t ess this. and e4en fa4oura! e to. and &esus Christ must !e #onsidered a$ a man 9ho dishonest " too8 ad4anta'e of the 9ea8ness and i'noran#e of his #ontemporaries. if this do#trine !e nothin' !ut a 4u 'ar error$ It tea#hes nothin' in#onsistent 9ith the 'enera #ondu#t of Pro4iden#e3 it is not the caution of philosophy$ #ut the pride of reason. and a this 9ithout an" indu#ement from interest. passion.$) . p$ -*$ edit$ Edin. then. and su#h narrati4es are re ated #on#ernin' it. !ut espe#ia " those 9hi#h the 2ospe de# are as su#h$. and if she could recall to mind anything that had occurred@ she said she saw Ho9 is a fa#t of the nature here re#orded to !e a##ounted for !ut on prIternatura prin#ip esM (e do not mean to #ontend for the truth of the parti#u ar fa#t here re#orded. or the 'reater part of them. not because she was transported with frenAy. a#t and spea8 in a manner 4er" different from his natura temper and #ondition.

but that their animal passions were the same with those of the creatures with which they were united@ for that the simple d5monic bodies. % in attempting to e3plain what % ought rather to pass over in silence. for we may well ?uestion whether the distinction of se3 prevails amongst the d5mons as amongst the creatures of earth@ and. some in the Chaldee. Timothy. suffer from a swordJ These doubts perple3 me e3ceedingly@ upon these points % re?uire persuasion. reconsidering the matter which gave occasion to Marcus' discourses. as you are thoroughly ac?uainted with the sentiments of the ancients. formed. and others in the +ersic or "yriac@ and also why it should crouch at the. charmer's threats. how could it employ the Armenian tongueJ for we can hardly conceive that some d5mons spea) in the -ree). ledge. but % am afraid we may seem a pair of triflers. as to how the d5mon which harassed this woman could seem feminine. to render reasons for the matters in ?uestion. and from that time had no recollec. one ought to oblige his friend. but sometimes also where there is something of difficulty. % will even attempt to loose this bond of am.+5 a sort of dar)some spectre. springing upon her@ that in her terror she had fallen on the bed. according to OXingP Antigonus. which can neither be struc) nor slain.—% should wish. He said that no species of d5mon was naturally either male or female. biguity Oyou complain ofP. and have ac?uired a great deal of historical )now. "he spo)e thus on her recovery. Ever since that event a sort of bond of ambiguity )eeps me perple3ed. and especially as % )now that things of this )ind are made matters of misrepresentation by many@ but since. which % thin) you the most competent person to afford. TH AC%A&. which are very ductile and fle3ible. you in searching for what no one has yet discovered. tion of what has occurred. resembling a woman. with the hair dishevelled. not merely in what is very easily per. in the ne3t place. and fear a na)ed sword@ for how can a d5mon. are .

in which you no sooner infuse a color. owing to the imaginative energy inherent in it. owing to the softness and pliability of their nature. The same thing we see e3emplified in lubricous animals in the bowels of the earth. and afterwards blush. it is susceptible of all )inds of hues. whose persons are transformed according to their pleasure into whatever appearance they please. %n these things Marcus. or delineate a form. owing to the soul e3tending such affections to the body. we may well suppose it is >ust the same way with the d5mons. *e may perceive that the d5mons are liable to similar affections. which are not merely altered in respect of siAe. diversified appearances are presented@ thus also it is with the d5mons. but resembles what occurs in the atmosphere. times is metamorphosed as a woman. and. or water. the ne3t stretched out into a greater length. or some other animal. sometimes appears as a man. as is the atmosphere@ such is the body of d5mons. and which e3tends to it the appearance of colours@ for. at another of bears. at another of serpents. as when we are panic. according as the mind is variously affected. said . for they from within can send out to their bodies the semblance of colours@ for which reason each. and are one moment contracted into a less bul). than straitway it dissolves and is dispelled. for its appearance is not substantial. and figure. and ta)es the impression of ob>ects. but. as % con>ecture. when metamorphosed into that appearance which is agreeable.struc). it retains neither constantly. because it is aerial. thus also it is with the bodies of d5mons@ but when the clouds are disturbed by e3ternal blasts. for in them color.+) accommodative to the nature of every form@ for as one may observe the clouds e3hibiting the appearance one while of men. e3tending over the surface of his body the appearance of color. changing those forms. some. and all appearance whatever is evanescent. but also in respect of appearance@ and that in a variety of ways@ the body of d5mons li)ewise is accommodative in both particulars9 not only is it peculiarly yielding. we first are pale.

but e3ercising the imagination for the single purpose of aliment. T%M#TH2. li)e the other d5mons.+/ what was probable@ and from this time forward let not the ?uestion harass you. as amongst mortal compound animals. power and inclination that in this particular there is a great diversity amongst them.P their companions at pasture. now as amongst them. in the same manner also the species of d5mons are greatly diversified@ for amongst them. but is always seen in this form. whether male or female. he said that all d5mons have not the same. one which e3tends to almost all sensible ob>ects. it presented the appearance of a woman. and around. or their owners@ and gnats. not being . some as the Empyreal and AVrial are possessed of a very discursive imagination. which e3ercise the imaginative faculty Oas for instance. that d5mons of the female form only are seen by women in confinementJ TH AC%A&. with flies and worms. man. have this faculty e3ceedingly restricted. or whither they ought to go. not because it was really and habitually feminine@ but because. which e3tends but to some things. being endowed with intellectual and rational powers is gifted with a more discursive imagination.—Bor this too. not )nowing any of them the hole they leave. for they are incapable of numerous spectral appearances. and now another.—(ut how comes it Thracian. for these. whether the distinction of se3 e3ists in d5mons on account of the genital member appearing in them. are not constant nor habitual@ therefore consider that the d5mon which so much harassed the woman in confinement seemed li)e a woman. and on this earth. where they proceed. that it does not assume now one form. their stall. probable reason. Horses. for % have heard from many. with a more confined sort of imagination. and animals of that sort. Marcus assigned a not im. one that e3tends to every imaginable ob>ect@ very different from them are the "ubterranean and $ucifugi@ they do not assume a variety of forms. o3en. for some are irrational. both in heaven.

the" ma" ha4e an intuiti4e per#eption$ of a an'ua'es. !ut a sin' e an'ua'e.P but as in the case of the angels11 of the nations. whether Ofor instance. and delighting in impure moistures. and ho d inter#ourse 9ith ea#h other.. occupying an intermediate position with respect to those already described. 9as ta8en !" !oth Manoah and his 9ife for a prophet on ". and %a 9a"s for the purpose of a si'n. (e$ . different angels being appointed Spo8en i8e a mon8$ This is spea8in' 4er" parti#u ar " on a su!Le#t respe#tin' 9hi#h 9e 8no9 itt e or nothin'.. changing its form. :se#ret thin's !e on' unto 2od. 9e #annot do !etter than #ite 9hat Ca met sa"s on this su!Le#t%N:The dis#o4er" of an'e s has usua " !een after the" had de i4ered their messa'e. he too8 ea4e :9onderfu ". but in whatever forms they delight. who usually hold intercourse without oneJ Oas % already observed. at ast put the ho o9 of his thi'h out or Loint.+. or "yriac. in a manner. rendered him dum!Na to8en !e"ond the po9er of mere man. if the d5mon that harassed the woman in confinement appeared feminine. (ut you should not be at all perple3ed. ma" !e #omprised 9ithin a fe9 9ordsNthat the" are innumera! eNat the" are 2od@s eAe#uti4eNthat the" are 4ast " superior to us in mi'ht and inte i'en#e--and are emp o"ed doin' 'ood offi#es to the pious$ (ith respe#t to the manner and #ir#umstan#es of their appearan#e. it will be manifest. for being a lascivious d5mon. that an'e i# !ein's understand ea#h. of 9hi#h 9e #annot form the most remote #on#eption. O% may as). or other barbarous tongue@ indeed. in #onfirmation of the faith of@ the part" 9hom the" had addressed3 it is e4ident that the an'e 9ho appeared to Manoah. it is id e to spe#u ate on su#h a su!Le#t$ Most that #an !e safe " affirmed respe#tin' them.1D but with respect to the d5mon spea)ing in the Armenian tongue@ that was a point Marcus did not clear up. from the following considerations9—%t is impossible to ascertain the peculiar tongue of each particular d5mon. ti after he had de i4ered his messa'e.. it naturally assumed that which is best adapted for a life of pleasure./ . possessed of pliability and versatility of person@ the A?ueous and Terrene.P such a d5mon spea) in the Hebrew. . however. or -ree). !ut the thin's that are re4ea ed. are incapable of changing their forms. T#$ (e are not under an" ne#essit" for supposin'.P what absolute need have they of a voice. a to8en that he 9as no mere man$ The an'e that spo8e to Ua#harias. to #on4in#e them of his eAtraordinar" nature3 thus the an'e that 9rest ed 9ith &a#o!. in these they constantly continue.

. the" 'a4e as it 9ere. Sometimes an'e s did not re4ea themse 4es fu ". they use each the tongue of their respective nation's@ we may reasonably conclude. and he to remove them observed. that it is the same way with the d5mons. T%M#TH2. thou'h po9erfu intimations of their presen#e$ (hen an'e s 9ere #ommissioned to appear to #ertain persons on ". whilst among the 6gyptians they were induced to approach by means of 6gyptian incantations. o!s#ure and 4er" indistin#t. the" ma" often assume the human appearan#e for ou'ht 9e tan te 3 !ut if the" assume it #omp ete ". who has been perple3ed on these points@ before % heard your doubts on them % e3pressed mine to Marcus. and cowardly in the e3treme. AAii.) to produ#e% and so of others$. #ountenan#e the idea that su#h an o##urren#e is not impossi! e e4en no9$ . but others with the Chaldees were evo)ed in Chaldee. others 9ho 9ere in #ompan" 9ith those persons had re4e ations. Danie . (as must !e supposed. 0. if they happen to go elsewhere. the various species of d5mons are bold. that they fear threats and a swordJ what are they to be supposed capable of suffering from such.. as Dan$ A$. a so that seen !" the 'uards at the sepu #hre. see A#ts iA. and as nothin' for!ids. in the same manner too. but especially such as 'r$ an imposter spea8in' fa se " in the name of 2od. on the o##asion of our LordCs 7esurre#tion. different angels must associate with each other.—(e it so Thracian@ but what suffering are they capable of. Matt$ AA4iii$ An'e s !ein' in4isi! " en'a'ed in the #are and ser4i#e of man8ind. )+. and )eep aloofJ TH AC%A&. and AA4i. Pau @s 4ision 9as 4er" simi ar in its effe#ts. for there!" some ha4e entertained an'e s una9ares. . 9hi#h indi#ated an eAtraordinar" o##urren#e3 a thou'h the appearan#e 9as not to them. :>e not for'etfu to entertain stran'ers. "et the" seemed to ha4e fe t the effe#ts of it.) ho9 #an 9e 'enera " !e the 9iser.—2ou are not the only person Timothy. that they crouch with fear. a one sa9 the 4ision3 the men that 9ere 9ith me sa9 not the 4ision3 #ut a great "ua&ing fell upon them$ so that they fled to hide themsel(es $. for which reason some of them with the -ree)s delivered oracles in Heroics. 9e #an ha4e no diffi#u t" in admittin' that the" ha4e had orders on parti#u ar o##asions to ma8e themse 4es 8no9n as #R estia inte i'en#es. . does not the Aposto i# eAhortation.N:I.++ over different nations. prefer to use their tongue Othe ArmeniansP as if it were the vulgar tongue. the d5mons amongst the Armenians.

the designation of the angels appointed to this office. and thrown into great perturbation@ so that from being deranged. could belong to the dar)ened d5mons. the sa#red rites of 9hi#h some fe9 eA#epted$ (to 9hi#h none !ut the priests 9ere #ons#ious. The AVrial indeed possessing the largest share of intelligence. calls to his aid the terrible name of the 4ivine Λογος. AntiJ$. are afraid. and the angels who are usually despatched against them. T%M#TH2. can distinguish the person rebu)ing.) Bpon #omp "in' 9ith #ertain rites.P and their being conveyed away to such places. however fiery meteors. and calls over them. tion. resulted from the service of the AVrial d5monsJ TH AC%A&.—He did not say.+ . if one rebu)e them. my good friend. (in 9hi#h state he 9as #a ed µυστης)3 on the sa#rifi#e of a so9 to Ceres. descend from them on their worshippers. Othe angels. which the madmen have the hardihood to call visions of -od. 451. i!e!.) 9ere fran8 " re4ea ed to him3 9hen#e he 9as #a ed εφορος or εποπτης. they cannot discern who it is that threatens. from this Mon8 Mar#us !ein' desi'nated in a pre4ious part of the 9or8 τελεστης εποπτης. Inspe#tor. (Po $. and relying on the 4ivine power. such as are usually called falling stars. the 4er" te#hni#a phrase app ied to one initiated in the 'reater m"steries--a "ear ha4in' e apsed after one had !een initiated in the minor m"steries. did he say. he 9as admitted to the 'reater m"steries. Those that are allied to matter.+- are allied to matter.—(ut what advantage. when one threatens them with these. though they have no truth. un?uestionably fearing a dismissal to abysses and subterranean places. nor stability about them. unless such a holy character as addicts himself to the worship of -od. an initiated inspe#tor.10 such things as@ are effected by There seems here an imitation of 9hat too8 p a#e on the initiation of an indi4idua . that any good resulted from those proceedings@ indeed the things themselves proclaim in a barefaced manner that they are made up of vanity. 7for what of a luminous character. nor certainty. stran'e and ama=in' o!Le#ts presented . imposture. at the E eusinian M"steries3 9e are the more #onfirmed in this opinion.8 and though they are but ridiculous tric)s of theirs. 4o $ Ι. and no one harassed by them can be liberated. and a groundless imagina.

(ut how. him said. and radiant fire. said l. shining forth li)e a +haros. i!e$ intuition$ . without the intervention of themse 4es3 sometimes the p a#es the" 9ere in seemed to sha8e around them3 sometimes appeared !ri'ht and resp endent 9ith i'ht. you should be ignorant of the fact. Marcus having spo)e thus shed a flood of tears. but by virtue of its union with spirit. by whom both your body and soul are emancipated from perdition. for a compound body is not capable of being pained by virtue of itself. because deprived of the spirit@ also a d5mon being altogether spirit. for when dissected or dead. said he. and not solid nor compound. can that be. as they are spirit. so as to be pained by a powerful blow afflicted on the person. that they could be struc). sees and hears. sometimes terri! e apparitions astounded the trem! in' spe#tators3 their !ein' present at su#h si'hts. had not you e3tricated me Ofrom my perilous situationP by the path of truth.—Tell me this. and is capable of the sense of touch. whether the bodies of d5mons are of such a nature. yet up to the present moment. it is incapable of suffering. for % long to )now it. that it is not the bone or nerve of any is endowed with the faculty of sensation.+1 optical illusions. or suffer any other affection. for the faculty of sensation belongs to compound bodiesJ % am amaAed. sometimes thunder and i'htnin'. you can chuse a fitter time for weeping. placed to dispel the dar)ness of the sea. sitive constitution in every part of it. 9as #a ed αυτοψια. as to be capable of being struc)J TH AC%A&. but the spirit inherent in them. and then a'ain #o4ered 9ith ! a#8ness and horror. and % consoling. % was )ept fascinated. therefore.—Marcus said. and of a sen. and return than)s to -od. T%M#TH2. whether the nerve be pained or refreshed. or by means called miraculousJ but really by imposing on the spectators@ these things % wretched man discovered long since. now it is seasonable to magnify your salvation. and was meditating to abandon this religion. and my perdition had been inevitable. the pain proceeds from the immission of spirit into spirit. sometimes fri'htfu 4oi#es and !e o9in's.

—(ut did he tell you this ThracianJ did he tell you whether the d5mons were gifted with fore)nowledgeJ TH AC%A&. but now Itis time to return home. they are with difficulty. leaving your discourse unfinished. T%M#TH2. organs of sense. the nature of that fore)nowledge.—4onEt be uneasy. that in the "yracusan style. with this difference. % will ma)e good whatever is wanting. T%M#TH2. the air around is haAy.through. straightway unites. the first opportunity you and % meet again. or never made whole. or alluring them to another by their attachments.—% would describe it. we will be wet through. my best friend. for please -od. T%M#TH2. %n these particulars. Marcus' e3planation respecting the d5mons. and charged with rain. in my >udgment.+.—CanEt you describe to me. yet is it pained in the very moment of separation@ this is the reason why it fears and dreads the points of iron instruments—and e3orcists. consider what you do. seemed probable. for which reason it most generally fails.—Briend. when they do not wish the d5mons to approach a specific place. and if we sit here in the open air. for as you see. if time permitted me. it is pained after the manner of solid bodies. well aware of their aversion. and. but merely con>ectural. and provide certain other things. which is inherent in themJ TH AC%A&. however. when some solid body displaces them@ but though the spirit unites swifter than speech. set darts and swords erect. nor e3perimental fore)nowledge.P . that whereas when they are divided. so that they scarcely ever utter a particle of truth.—2es.and. O$iterally beyond the decimes of the "yracusans. but not a causal or intelligent. either diverting them from that spot by their antipathies. li)e the particles of air or water. TH AC%A&. this when divided.

7the former being the -ree). losopher.denial. and embellished with Fewish fables and fictions@ he therefore supplied their place by a gospel which. +aul to be the production of that divine Apostle. (y virtue of this his pretended character. :was vigorous and sublime. which % differs in nothing from what is related of them in this wor). or Manich5us. e3cept that it supplies many matters which are here omitted. and. however. was a sort of general epithet for persons distinguished for gravity of manner.. prohibiting to the higher order of his followers 7the Elect. and +uritan in still more modern times@ so that many truly pious characters. by announcing himself the promised +araclete. &a' $anes and the %uchit". in common with those who held most revolting sentiments. he asserted. were loaded with the opprobrious epithet Euchit5. as he called them8 not merely sensual indulgences.men. and who. but the most innocent gratifications@ he surmounted every difficulty. Mosheim gives a long statement of his peculiar doctrines.. name8. the latter the Hebrew. :His genius. by birth a +ersian. he pronounced the #ld Testament the wor) of the +rince of 4ar)ness. and the four -ospels. and he was presumptuous enough to attempt to blend the Magian philosophy with the Christian faith. he said.—#n the overthrow of the credit and authority of the -nostic sect in the third century. He was instructed in all those arts esteemed in +ersia and the neighbouring nations. the more especially as be prescribed the most rigorous self. says Mosheim. from very different motives.NOTES. yet he loo)ed upon them as considerably corrupted and falsified in a variety of passages. Manes. and was thoroughly versed in astronomical science. and was applied in the east with much the same latitude of signification as (eghard and $ollard were afterwards employed in the west. started up originally a Magian phi. were corrupted and interpolated by designing and artful men. and which he distinguished by the title of Erteng. or Massalian.—Euchit5. who was to instruct and guide them into all truth. opposed the e3isting orders of things. . He re>ected the Acts of the Apostles. though he ac)nowledged the Epistles that are attributed to "t. who dared to oppose the mummery and superstition of the dar) ages. signifying praying. was dictated to him by -od himself. but redundant and ungoverned. %t may astonish us how be could gain over partiAans from the Christian body to his fantastic system.

—!lysses. whom it was impossible to e3pell by any other means than by constant prayer and singing of hymns. Archilochus was dismissed.he statement of facts is their delineation. the narrative of a fact is its shadow. self at his e3pense by giving a fictitious narrative of his adventures amongst the $otophagi. !pon this Archilochus lampooned $ycambes in %ambic verse. Printer. such a narrative as was delivered for Alcinous' amusement by !lysses. )ing of the +hSacians. and Cyclops. nous' narrative..+0 Manich5ans were also called by this designation.—The following is an e3pression not only of "imonides. Hence any lying narrative. viA. &e' The following is an e3pression of "olon9 γηρασχω δ' αει πολλα διδασχοµενος. opposite the Post-offi#e$ . de epub. $estrigons. and was accepted as a suitor@ but a richer candidate for the lady's hand presenting himself. %t was not till toward the close of the fourth century that the Euchit5 made their appearance as a distinct religious body. Horace. the tenets of the oriental philosophy.—Archilochus was paying his addresses to the daughter of one $ycambes. D$ L$ (e #h. presuming on the monarch's ignorance.. λογος εργου σκιη. in his Ars +oetica 7v. their name being derived from their habit of continual prayer@ they were founded by certain mon)s of Mesopotamia@ their doctrine.. To this leading tenet they added other enormous opinions. lib.he impure pen of *rchilochus. feasting with Alcinous.e. and that with such effect that in a fit of ve3ation he committed suicide. came to be called Alci. i. amused him. says9— :Archilocum proprio rabies armavit %ambo. &b' *lcinous+ narrative. in allusion to this circumstance. according to Mosheim. evidently derived from the source whence the Manich5ans derived their errors. &c' .. :% become old by constantly learning much. and seems to be the proverb alluded to. KG8. was as follows9—:They imagined that the mind of every man was inhabited by an evil d"mon. &d' . The phrase passed into a proverb. filled with marvellous adventures. 3. and is thus used by +lato. but 4emocritus.

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