Jin Xiaozhong, Lu Junfu, Liu Qing, Li Yong, Zhang Jiansheng, Xing Xing and Yue Guangxi Thermal Engineering Department, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Abstract
Local bed to wall heat transfer coefficient in the furnace of a 75t/h CFB boiler was measured with a heat flux probe and bulk density sampling probe which were developed by Tsinghua University. The test result shows the strong relation between local heat transfer coefficient with the local bulk density and the bed temperature. The result was compared with the data from literature. According to the experimental data, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the local heat transfer coefficient based on the bed temperature and bulk density. The prediction of the model is basically matching the published data.

Keywaords: CFB boiler, heat transfer, measurement, semi-empirical model PERFACE
CFB technology is one of the advanced coal combustion technology which is flexible for different fuels and is low emission in SO2 and NOX. So that CFB technology is developing rapidly in China. After the CFB improvement program in the 8th five years plan, the CFB boiler with the steam capacity of 75t/h has already been commercialized in China. Up to now, almost 400 units of CFB boilers with capacity of 75t/h or less are in commercial operation in China. These boilers offer us an opportunity to conduct the investigation on the heat transfer along the water wall in the industrial scale which is extremely important for the scaling engineering design of a CFB boiler. The heat transfer in the furnace of CFB boiler is different with that of PC boiler in nature. In the furnace of traditional PC boilers, the solid particle concentration in flue gas is very low, while the temperature of flame is relative high. So that radiation makes major contribution on the heat transfer between flue gas and furnace wall. While in CFB boiler furnace, the solid concentration is much higher, besides the temperature in the furnace is only around 8500 C. So that radiation and particle convective heat transfer are both important and the particle concentration influences both radiation and convection. People found long time ago that convection can be distinguished into gas convection and particle convection heat transfer in the furnace of CFB boiler and the contribution of gas convection on heat transfer is very low (Mickleyo and Trilloiy(1949)). Particle convection heat transfer is directly related to the particle concentration (Wu et al (1987), Pasu and Nag(1987)). This conclusion was proved by the experimental result in laboratory ( Nag and Ali (1990), Mahalingam
- 1 -

the thick down flow also weakens the influence of particle size on the particle convection heat transfer. the bed to wall heat transfer coefficient can be expressed as the function of bulk density  (Werdermann and Werther (1994)): (1) The heat transfer coefficient increases as the cross section average bulk density increases. Four test technologies were used to measure the heat transfer coefficient on water wall. as temperature increases.2 - . the radiation is enhanced. which is made by Φ51×100( pitch) .(1994). Test points were located at different height on the side water wall of the furnace. More hot test data is needed from the industrial scale CFB boilers. This data is also influenced by bed temperature and the height of the heating surface. Many researchers in China also investigated the same topic. and some progress has been achieved on the laboratory experiment and modeling(Li et al. the increased conductivity of flue gas also promote the heat transfer. that match the conclusion from the laboratory investigation. Such solid particle boundary layer with temperature lower than the center flow.and Kolar (1991). It is well known that particle size influence the solid convection heat transfer. While in the case of high solid loading. They found the down flow along the wall decreases the radiate heat transfer coefficient dramatically. bulk density is the most important factor to control the heat transfer coefficient. Yang (1996)). Clearly. no matter modeling work or the test data from laboratory scale CFB facility both are not well done and can not directly used for engineering design.(1998)). because of the length of water wall is relative longer. The geometric of the furnace is 3000mm×6000mm×20000mm. The basic parameter of the boiler. Leckner and his colleagues once made the investigation on the heat transfer coefficient between bed and water wall in a 12MW hot water CFB boiler [Andersson and Leckner(1987). Generally. The component of gas convection on convective heat transfer is less than 10-20% in the case of CFB (Ebert et al. the temperature of solids flowing down along the water wall shall be cooled down. height of furnace ( that causes different down flow) and position. This might be because the difficulty in field test or the commercial reason. the schematic of the boiler and the fuel analysis can be seen in another literature(Lu. While at present time. et al. In CFB furnace. The literature on the heat transfer in CFB based on the data from industrial scale CFB boiler is very few. So far most published literature on heat transfer in CFB furnace were based on the investigation in the laboratory. certainly weaken ( by means of radiation) of enhance ( by means of particle convection) the bed to wall heat transfer. besides. Mahalingam and Kolar (1993)). They found that the average heat transfer coefficient along the wall of the furnace is 100-160W/M2Kand the local heat transfer coefficient is 50-280W/M2K depending on the superficial velocity. Andersson and Leckner(1992)). Werdermann et al did the hot test in two commercial CFB boilers. The data of it is around 100-200W/M2K.(1993)). α= aρb W/M2K MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY OF HEAT TRANSFER IN A CFB BOILER BOILER TESTED The heat transfer measurement was conducted on a CFB boiler with the steam capacity of 75t/h (50MWth).

The heat conductivity of steal is the function of temperature which has been calibrated in the laboratory. The bed temperature is 9200 C during the test. The local heat transfer coefficient is calculated as Eq.water wall. The heat flux data can be converted into local heat transfer coefficient as we know the bed temperature and surface temperature of the probe. two probes were made and the constant heat source method were used to calibrate the probe. In order to detect the accumulate error of the probe. that can catch all particles which are going through the . λ :heat conductivity of steel cylinder  l. HEAT FLUX METER A heat flux meter was designed to measure the local heat flux on the water wall. is the schematic of the structure of the heat flux meter. The heat conduction element is a round steel bar in which there are three thermocouples located on the axis of the bar. The end of the bar is cooled by water. ∆t: temperature difference between thermocouples.3 - Bottom . the temperature difference measured by thermocouples is Fig1 Schematic of heat flux meter the indirect measure of the heat flux in the steel bar. As heat conducted into the bar. the steady state of the heat conduction shall cause a liner temperature profile along the axis of the cylinder. The calibration proved that the heat flux difference of two probes is within 15% (Xing Upper (1996)). Cover BULK DENSITY MEASUREMENT A directive sampling method was developed Slide Cover Guide to measure the local bulk density which should be known as measuring the local heat transfer coefficient. If we measure the temperature of the front surface of the cylinder. During the test the probe is inserted into the water wall with front surface is at the same position of the inner surface of the fin of the water wall. The probe is a drawer like box with Control Bar sliding cover and bottom.(2): α=q0/(t b.distance between thermocouples.t probe surface) (2) If the heat transfer in the cylinder is one dimension heat conduction. Figure 1. we can close the box by slide the cover and bottom simultaneously. Solid sampling probe inserted into furnace. probe surface t probe surface and the bed temperature tb. The bar is covered by insulation layer except the head surface. The heat flux is: q0= λ ∗ ∆t / ∆l (3) where. There are another three thermocouples at the corresponding position on the cylinder surface in order to monitor the radial heat flow which cause the error of the measurement. The structure of the probe is shown in Slide Figure 2. As the opened box Fig2.

εb: bed emissivity. Fig. A commercialized model prediction at bed temperature 8000 150 C is also shown in Fig. It is clear Modle 2 920 oC that the present data is of the box.4 Modle 1 compared with a commercial model similar with Leckner model. 5. (1987). Basu Kobro C[15] 850 oC Pasu P[ [16] 895 oC o [16] Basu P Y X [2] 880 oC 815 C 50 (1990)). The weight of the caught particles over the size of the box space is the bulk density in the space we measured ( neglecting the weight of flue gas in space): ρ=m /V (4) This measurement technology is much more directly and reliable compared with the pressure drop method. for high particle concentration. We assume the total heat transfer coefficient is composed with two parts: radiation and convection: αb =αr +αc αr =εσ(Tb +Tw2)*(Tb+Tw) ε=1/(1/εb+1/εw-1)  -3 2 4 2 α w/m 2K 2 α w/(m K) (5) (6) (7) [w/M k ]. Kobro 100 and Brereton (1986).The local heat transfer o o [16] Pasu P 730 C The Author 920 C coefficient decreases as the bulk 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 density decreases which potential is ρ kg/m3 matching with the former research. it can be seen as particle emission. a semi 3 ρ kg/m empirical model was set up which is Fig.67*10 surface emissivity. 300 the effective test data is also few.3 The experimental results compared with literature The present data is higher than the 300 other in literature which might be caused by higher bed temperature ( 9200 C) or different water wall 250 parameter.4. (1) which is shown 200 in Fig.4 - .5-0. 4. TW: wall surface temperature [K].8.. 3 -the comparison of 200 present test result and the data from 150 literature (Wu et al. σ: Boltzmann constant. 250 See Figure. The convective heat transfer coefficient is also composed of gas convection and particle convection heat transfer coefficient: . 0. Commercial Modle 800 o C In order to correlate the present 100 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 data in to data at 8000C. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Because of the limited 350 sampling points on the water wall. εω:wall where. The present result can be expressed as Eq.

J. et al. .5 - . A semi empirical model was set up and correlated by the test data. Energy res. Lim C J. Figure 6 shows the present model prediction (lines ) and the data from other literature. Chem.6 Model 1 compared with literature transfer coefficient were tested at the bed temperature 9200 C. Int. J. 33:1888-1893 Basu p. 1949. ρ kg/m3 The bulk density and the heat Fig. Trilloiy C A. The model prediction is matching with the published data from different sources. 42:1135-1147 Wu R. Int.1990. The bed temperature and bulk density are both control factors for heat transfer coefficient according to the model prediction. Eng. Heat Transfer from a Circulating Fluidized Bed to Membrane Water Wall Cooling Surface. it can predict the heat transfer data (based on the project surface of furnace) at different bed temperature. Ind. 30:2399-2409 Nag P l. Figure 5 show the comparison between new model prediction and that of commercial mode at same bed temperature. AIChE. Effect of probe Size on Heat Transfer at the Wall in Circulating Fluidized Beds. An Investigation into Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Bed. 1987. 14:965-974 .5 Model 2 compared with a commercial model Dots: experimental value 2 α w/m K 300 Curves: modle 2 results 200 CONCLUSION A heat flux probe and bulk density probe were developed for Kobro [1 5] 850 o C 100 Basu P [16] 895 o C the local heat transfer coefficient Basu P [16]815 o C W U [ 2] 880 o C Basu P [16]730 o C The author 925 o C measurement in the furnace of a 00 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 industrial scale CFB boiler. The difference is within 8%. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Fluidized beds.αc = αg + αp After the new model was correlated by present data. (8) 325 275 w/m2K α 225 175 125 10 20 Modle 2 800 oC Commercial Modle 800 oC 30 ρ kg/m3 40 50 60 Fig. Nag P K. REFERENCE [1] [2] [3] [4] Mickleyo H S. which can predict the local heat transfer coefficient on the water wall in the furnace of CFB boiler. The difference is within 12%. Heat Mass Transfer. Ali Moral M N. 1987. Chauki J.

Pergamon Press. 239-246 Mahalingam M. Hasatan M. Experimental Methods of Estimating Heat Transfer in Circulating Fluidized Bed. 1992. Weirsberg. Sci. editor: Avidion A. Xian’an. Zhang Jiansheng. 1:618-626 Yang Xiaojun. Jin Xiaozhong. editor: Basu P. 48: 2179-2188 Andersson B A.Beijing. USA. Editor: Basu P. Journal of Tinghua University science and technology. Experimental Correlation for Average Heat Transfer Coefficient at the Wall of a Circulating Fluidized Bed. 1998. Leckner B.. Toronto. J. Limts M. editor: Chen X J. Oxford. Pergamon Press. 1986:263-272 Basu p. 38(2):14-18 Xing Xing. Hot test of material balance of a 75t/h circulating fluidized bed boiler with water cooled square separator. Control Fuel Flexibility of Circulating Fluidized Beds. ASME. [Mast Degree thesis ]. Heat Transfer in Fast Fluidized Combustors. Determination of Particle and Gas Connective Heat Transfer Component in Circulating fluidized Bed.[5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] Mahalingam M. Wu Han. Heat Mass Transfer. Experimental Study on Heat Transfer in Industrial-scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor. Heat Flow Measurements in fluidized Bed boiler. New York. In: Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology. 1996 Lu Junfu. Glicksman L R. Int. Tsinghua University. et al. Pittsburgh. Eng. The study of Heat meter of circulating fluidized bed . In: Proceeding of the Third International Conference on Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer. Chem. Eng.45:3123-3136 Note: Published in the 6th International Conference of CFBC. Zhang X Y. 1994:428-435 Li G H. Brereton C. 1999: 356~361 . Huazhong University of science and technology . 1996 Kobro H.. AIChE.1993. Kolar A K. in Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology III. Sci. Chen T K. 1990. Zhou F D. 1993:390-395 Ebert J A.. Study on heat transfer of circulating fluidized bed to the membrane.1987:592-598 Andersson B A. editor: Mustonen J P. in: The forth International Conference on CFB.6 - . Horio M. Jonhsson F. New York. 35:3353-3362 Werdermann C C. Heat Transfer in Large-scale Circulating Fluidized Bed combustor of Different Sizes. Yue G X. 1991. Chem. Werther J. Leckner B. Kolar A K. in: Circulating Fluidized Bed Technology. In: Proceeding of the ninth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion. 1994. Heat Transfer Model for the Membrane Wall of a High Temperature Circulating Fluidized Bed. China.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful