By Kelly Gingras

Dixon High School

Course: American Literature
Grade Level: 11
Unit: The Crucible by Arthur Miller

Background: This unit is designed for use in a general English class that consists of learners at
all ability levels. The students will have previously studied the Puritan age, including some
history and cultural background along with the literature.

Objectives: By the end of this unit, students will be able to
1. Understand the culture of Salem society during the witch trials.
2. Analyze the motivations of the characters in the play.
3. Draw parallels between Salem society and our modern society.
4. Investigate the historical aspects of an event and report findings in a creative
5. Understand and use new words central to the context of the play.
6. Read and interpret the play.

Goals: This unit encompasses the following Illinois state learning standards:
1.A.5b Analyze the meaning of abstract concepts and the effects of particular
word and phrase choices.
1.B.5a Relate reading to prior knowledge and experience and make connections
to related information.
1.B.5d Read age-appropriate material with fluency and accuracy.
1.C.4a Use questions and predictions to guide reading.
2.A.5b Evaluate relationships between and among character, plot, setting, theme,
conflict and resolution and their influence on the effectiveness of a literary piece.
2.A.5d Evaluate the influence of historical context on form, style and point of
view for a variety of literary works.
2.B.5b Apply knowledge gained from literature as a means of understanding
contemporary and historical economic, social and political issues and
3.A.5 Produce grammatically correct documents using standard manuscript
specifications for a variety of purposes and audiences.
3.B.5 Using contemporary technology, produce documents of publication quality
for specific purposes and audiences; exhibit clarity of focus, logic of organization,
appropriate elaboration and support and overall coherence.
5.B.5a Evaluate the usefulness of information, synthesize information to support
a thesis, and present information in a logical manner in oral and written forms.
5.B.5b Credit primary and secondary sources in a form appropriate for
presentation or publication for a particular audience.

Calendar of Activities
Day #
1 Intro to Salem Witch Trials; use Knowledge Rating (Worksheet 1) and discuss.
Begin watching video, complete study guide (Worksheet 2)
2 Finish video; discuss study guide. Complete cause and effect diagram (Worksheet 3)
in small groups.
3 Introduce The Crucible using the Anticipation Guide (Worksheet 4). Read Act 1 and
complete Vocabulary Overview Guide (Worksheet 5).
4 Discuss Act 1 and vocabulary guide. To prepare for Act 2, complete the Frayer Model
(Worksheet 6). Read Act 2.
5 Discuss the various motivations that characters have demonstrated. Begin working on
the character sketch (Worksheet 7).
6 Continue character sketch
7 Continue character sketch
8 Read Act 3. Have students complete the Point of View Study Guide as they read
(Worksheet 8).
9 Students should meet in small groups with the others who had their character and
discuss their responses to the study guide, and then groups will share their
observations with the class.
10 Discuss the concept of justice and compare modern American justice to that in Salem
using the Analogies chart (Worksheet 9). Read Chapter 4, completing the double-
entry journal while reading (Worksheet 10).
11 Meet with a partner to share journals and try to answer each other’s questions,
followed by whole-class discussion to answer remaining questions. Prepare for
Socratic seminar.
12 Socratic seminar—the essential questions to start the discussion are 1) Did John
Proctor do the right thing? 2) How accurate/objective is Miller’s portrayal of the
events in Salem?
13 Assign final essay (Worksheet 11).
14 Writing workshop. Use 2-3 class days for research/drafting/conferencing and one day
for peer revisions. Final drafts will be due 2 days after peer revisions. The essay
rubric will be used to grade the essay. (Note: I did not write this rubric; it is the rubric
from the state of Illinois aligned to the standards. This is the rubric used at my school.
I just included it here for reference.)

Worksheet 1
Know|edge kot|ng
Word Hove $een
or Heord
Con $ov Con De||ne Con $pe|| Con bse |n
o $entence
Don't Know
ot A||











Worksheet 2

Ihe $o|em W|tch Ir|o|s
1. 8eIween Ihe 14
cnc 1ó
cenIu(ie:. hcw mcny pecp|e we(e execuIec in
Eu(cpe fc( wiIchc(cfI°

2. WhcI ccu:ec Ihe wiIch hunI: Ic Icke c vic|enI Iu(n°

3. WhcI cce: iI mecn Ic ¨:wim c wiIch"°

4. When cnc whe(e wc: Ihe fi(:I wiIchc(cfI I(ic| in /me(icc°

5. Whc wc: CcIIcn McIhe(°

ó. WhcI wc: cne cIhe( impc(IcnI evenI IhcI cccu((ec in 1óº2°

7. Whc wc: IiIuLc°

8. Ncme 2 :ympIcm: exhiLiIec Ly E|izcLeIh Fc((i:. /Licci| Wi||icm:. cnc Ihe
cIhe( ci(|: which |ec Ic c ciccnc:i: cf wiIchc(cfI.

º. 8e:ice: IiIuLc. whcI Iwc Sc(ch: we(e fi(:I cccu:ec cf wiIchc(cfI°

10. Hcw mcny pecp|e cic IiIuLc c|cim hcc :icnec Ihe cevi|´: Lcck°

11. Cn which :ice cf Sc|em vi||cce cic mc:I cf Ihe cccu:ec |ive°

12. Whc wc: Ihe ycunce:I cccu:ec wiIch°

13. WhcI wc: cne :u(e wcy Ic :u(vive Ihe wiIch I(ic|:° Why cic iI wc(k°

14. Why we(e ncne cf Ihe cccu:ec wiIche: Lu(nec cI Ihe :Icke°

15. WhcI wc: Ihe (e:u|I cf Ihe ci(|:´ imminenI cccu:cIicn cf Ihe wive: cn
lnc(ec:e McIhe( cnc Gcve(nc( Fhip:°

1ó. Whc wc: Ihe cn|y cccu:e( Ic cpc|ccize fc( he( ccIicn:°

17. ln whcI yec( we(e Ihe |c:I nine wiIch ccnvicIicn: (eve(:ec°

18. WhcI c(e Ih(ee Ihec(ie: c: Ic why Ihe ci(|: Lehcvec in :uch c wcy°



1º. WhcI impccI hcve Ihe wiIch I(ic|: hcc cn Ihe /me(iccn ju:Iice :y:Iem°
Worksheet 3

Couse ond E||ect

Significant Causes of the Salem Witch Trials
Cause 1
Cause 2
Cause 3
What effects have the Salem Witch Trials had?

Worksheet 4
Ant|c|pot|on Gu|de

D|rect|ons: Fecc ecch cf Ihe fc||cwinc :IcIemenI:. W(iIe ¨/" if ycu cc(ee wiIh
Ihe :IcIemenI cnc ¨D" if ycu ci:cc(ee wiIh Ihe :IcIemenI. We wi|| ci:cu:: ycu(

_____ 1. Ycu ccn c|wcy: I(u:I Ihe cuiccnce cf (e|icicu: |ecce(:.

_____ 2. Ihe ju:Iice :y:Iem in /me(icc i: fci(.

_____ 3. Fecp|e c(e cfIen mcIivcIec Ly c ce:i(e Ic cc whcI i: (ichI.

_____ 4. Fecp|e c(e cfIen wi||inc Ic fc||cw Ihe c(cwc. e:pecic||y Ic mcke
:cmecne e|:e |cck Lcc.

_____ 5. lf c mcn checI: cn hi: wife. he :hcu|c neve( Le fc(civen.

_____ ó. lf c wcmcn i: ncI c cccc wife. he( hu:Lcnc hc: Ihe (ichI Ic checI cn

_____ 7. Chi|c(en whc cc ncI (eceive encuch cIIenIicn cfIen ccu:e I(cuL|e Ic
ceI ncIicec.

_____ 8. lf ycu wc(k cI iI. ycu ccn cchieve pe(fecIicn.

_____ º. l wcu|c neve( Ie|| c |ie cLcuI c f(ienc. even if iI cc:I my |ife.

_____ 10. l wcu|c (cIhe( cie Ihcn ccnfe:: Ic c c(ime l cic ncI ccmmiI.

Worksheet 5
Vocobu|orv Overv|ew Gu|de

D|rect|ons: /: ycu (ecc Ihe IexI. |cck fc( wc(c: IhcI c(e (e|cIec Ic Ihe Icpic cnc
ccIecc(y p(cvicec. U:e ccnIexI c( Ihe cicIicnc(y Ic he|p ycu cefine Ihe:e
wc(c:. cnc Ihen w(iIe c c|ue Ic he|p ycu (ememLe( Ihe wc(c. Ih(ee wc(c: c(e
p(cvicec Ic ceI ycu :Ic(Iec: Ihen finc Ih(ee mc(e cn ycu( cwn.

Iop|c: Fu(iIcn:
Cotegorv: Fu(iIcn Vc|ue:

Word: Decc(um

Word: Ju:Iice Word: FieIy
De||n|t|on: De||n|t|on: De||n|t|on:


C|ue: C|ue:

Word: Word:

De||n|t|on: De||n|t|on:

C|ue: C|ue:

Worksheet ó
Ihe Frover Mode|

E×umininq u Concept
EssenfioI Chorocferisfics:

MonessenfioI Chorocferisfics:



A Sood
Worksheet 7
$ource |or Attr|bute Web |s Nove| bn|ts Ieocher's Gu|de

One of the first things an actor must do when preparing a role is to carefully read the text and analyze the speech and
behavior of the character in order to create a realistic portrayal of the character on stage. Likewise, as readers, we
must continually analyze the speech and behavior of the characters we meet in order to understand their motives. In
this project, you will search the text for examples the show the true nature of the characters in the play and use your
creative skills to explain your analysis of the character.

Analyze one of the characters in the play to assist the audience of the play in understanding that character. Use
specific examples from the text to support your analysis of the character’s personality, actions, and motivations in a
character sketch. This sketch will be completed in two steps: 1) an attribute web and 2) the actual sketch.

Part I: The Attribute Web
Attribute webs help you gather clues the author provides about what a character is like. Choose a character and fill
in the blanks with words and phrases that tell how the character acts and looks, as well as how the character feels
and what others say about him or her. For each piece of evidence you list, provide a page number as reference.

What Character Does How Character Looks
What Character
How Others Feel/
What They Say
1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. _________________
1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. _________________
1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. _________________
1. _________________

2. _________________

3. _________________

4. _________________

5. _________________
Part II: The Character Sketch
Now complete your sketch of the character by completing one of the following activities:
1) Choose three symbols that best represent your character. Create an illustration of the symbols. For each
symbol, also provide a quote (with page number) from the text that will help the viewer understand the
context of the symbol.
2) Write a poem or song that describes the personality of your character. Be creative and use vivid imagery so
the audience has a clear image of the character! Provide a page reference for the specific facts you used in
your poem/song.

Grading Rubric
The project will be scored according to the following criteria:

Content x 2 Creativity Care


This project demonstrates a
highly developed ability to
draw insightful conclusions
about a character based on
information from the text
and uses specific examples
to support that conclusion.

This project demonstrates a
high level of creative
thought beyond what
would be obvious or
expected. The product is

Great care is taken to
produce a product of
exceptional quality. It is
clear that the creator takes
great pride in the work.


This project demonstrates
the ability to draw
conclusions about the
character from information
in the text. Specific
examples are used to
support that conclusion.

This project demonstrates a
high level of creative

Care is taken to produce a
high quality product. The
creator takes pride in the


This project draws
appropriate conclusions
about the character but
may use general examples
rather than specific
examples from the text.

This project demonstrates
creative thought, although
the project may contain
ideas that are more

Care is taken in the
creation of the project.


This project draws
inappropriate conclusions
about the character,
although an attempt is
made to support them with
examples from the text,
specific or general.

This project makes an
attempt at creative thought,
although the result may be
difficult to decipher or
inappropriate to the
character selected.

The project may be hastily
put together, although the
final product is of
acceptable quality.


This project may draw
inappropriate conclusions
about the character. The
project uses no examples to
support the conclusions.

This project shows little or
no evidence of creative

Little care is taken to
produce a quality product.
The creator takes little or
no pride in the work.
Worksheet 8

Fo|nt o| V|ew $tudv Gu|de

D|rect|ons: Ycu wi|| Le c::icnec cne cf Ihe chc(ccIe(: in Ihi: ccI. /: ycu (ecc.
I(y Ic puI ycu(:e|f in IhcI chc(ccIe(´: :hce: cnc cn:we( Ihe:e cue:Iicn: f(cm
ycu( chc(ccIe(´: viewpcinI. 8e :u(e Ic w(iIe ycu( cn:we(: in Ihe fi(:I pe(:cn. cnc
I(y Ic w(iIe c: ycu( chc(ccIe( wcu|c :peck.

An inferview wifh _______________________________________.

As proceedinqs cIose for fhe doy of fhe SoIem courfhouse, we ore here wifh
____________________ for his/her reocfion fo fodoy's evenfs, porficuIorIy fhose invoIvinq
fhe Procfors. Lef's see whof __________________ hos fo soy.

I. Con you summorize 0iIes Corey's chorqes oqoinsf Thomos Pufnom for us7 Do you fhink
Corey's occusofions ore foir7

Z. How did Peverend Porris hondIe himseIf in courf fodoy7 Is he provinq himseIf fo be o
worfhy Ieoder of fhe church in SoIem7

3. Whof obouf Judqe Donforfh7 Is he hondIinq fhe frioIs in o foir ond ¡usf woy7

4. Were you surprised by John Procfor's reveIofions in courf fodoy7

b. Whof do you fhink obouf EIizobefh's fesfimony7

o. Con you describe fhe offIicfions of fhe qirIs7 Do fhey seem reoI7

7. Were you surprised fhof Mory Worren furned on her empIoyer os she did7

8. Whof do you fhink of fhe speech John mode os he wos foken info cusfody7 Is he riqhf7

Worksheet º
D|rect|ons: Ihink cLcuI :imi|c(iIie: cnc ciffe(ence: LeIween Ihe Fu(iIcn :y:Iem cf
ju:Iice cnc cu( cu((enI :y:Iem cf ju:Iice. Ccmpc(e Ihem in Ihe chc(I Le|cw.

$|m||or|t|es ond d|||erences between the Fur|ton svstem o| just|ce ond our
modern svstem o| just|ce

$|m||or|t|es D|||erences

Worksheet 10

Doub|e-Entrv Journo|

D|rect|ons: /: ycu (ecc /cI 4. (ecc(c key evenI:. pc::cce: cnc cucIe: wiIh Ihei(
pcce numLe( in Ihe |efI cc|umn. ln Ihe (ichI cc|umn. (ecc(c ycu( cue:Iicn: cnc
(e:pcn:e: Ic Ihe:e iIem:.

Kev events, possoges ond quotes
+ poge number
kesponses ond quest|ons

Worksheet 11

Ihe Cruc|b|e Cr|t|co| Essov

Whot to do: Chcc:e cne cf Ihe Icpic: Le|cw cnc w(iIe c c(iIicc| e::cy cLcuI Ihe
p|cy. Ecch e::cy cffe(: Ihe cppc(IuniIy Ic exp|c(e cn c:pecI cf Ihe hi:Ic(y
Lehinc Ihe I(ic|: cnc Ihe p|cy.

Ihe specs:
• U:e cI |ec:I 3 sources cf ycu( chcice Ic :uppc(I ycu( icec:. Ycu mcy
u:e ycu( IexILcck cnc Ihe vicec f(cm c|c:: LuI mu:I finc cI |ec:I cne
:cu(ce cn ycu( cwn.
• U:e MLA |ormot in porenthet|co| c|tot|ons cnc ycu( Works C|ted pcce.
• Ihe e::cy :hcu|c Le cI |ec:I three poges. Iypec cnc ccuL|e :pccec.
• 8e :u(e IhcI ycu hcve c :I(cnc thes|s IhcI p(e:enI: ycu( op|n|on cn Ihe
• Froo|reod cc(efu||yl

Ihe t|me||ne:

_______ ln-c|c:: wc(k:hcp ccy:

_______ Fee( (evi:icn ccy

_______ Finc| c(cfI cue

Ihe top|cs:

1. Chcc:e cne chc(ccIe( f(cm Ihe p|cy cnc ccmpc(e/ccnI(c:I Mi||e(´:
pc(I(cyc| wiIh Ihe hi:Ic(icc| ccccunI cf Ihi: pe(:cn. Hcw cce: Ihe fccI
mcIch up wiIh Ihe ficIicn°

2. WhcI |c:Iinc effecI: hcve Ihe Sc|em WiIch I(ic|: hcc cn Ihe /me(iccn
ju:Iice :y:Iem° Hcve Ihe chcnce: Leen pc:iIive c( neccIive°

3. Hcw effecIive i: Ihe C(uciL|e c: cn cnc|ccy Ic Ihe McCc(Ihy I(ic|:°

4. Dce: Ihe p|cy :Ii|| hcve c (e|evcnI wc(ninc fc( cu( :ccieIy Icccy°

I|||no|s Leorn|ng $tondords Essov kubr|c
• The position or
subject of the response
is stated and developed
• The response
demonstrates insight.
• A successful hook
captures the reader’s
• The logic of the
response is maintained
• The conclusion
presents strong closure,
tying the important points
together without being

• The position or subject is
supported with abundant,
original detail using multiple
strategies, such as
comparison, cause and
effect, explanation, and
• The response includes
pertinent details that are
effective, vivid, and explicit
and that are used evenly
• The response relies on
powerful words and phrases
that relate to the position of
the paper or its subject and
• Points in the response are
organized according to a
plan that is sustained
• Important points are tied
together skillfully by a variety
of cohesive ties, such as
transitional sentences,
conjunctions, pronouns, and
topically related words, to
link sentences and
• The intended message
has a logical progression of
related ideas.
• Variations in structure and
length of sentences add
interest to the response.
• The response is fully
developed for grade level.
• The focus is clearly
stated and developed.
• The response contains
an abundance of balanced,
specific, appropriate
• Word choices or phrases
demonstrate strong
purpose and understanding
of audience.
• Sentences and
paragraphs fit smoothly

• The position or
subject is clearly stated
through a thematic
introduction, specific
preview, or hook.
• The main position or
subject is stated clearly
and logically
• The conclusion
builds in an orderly way
to closure.
• The position or subject is
supported with sufficient
details throughout.
• Most major details are
developed evenly by using
multiple strategies, such as
example, comparison, and
• Words and phrases
convey the intended
message in an interesting
and natural way.
• The response has a clear
plan in which all major points
and ideas are logically
sequenced and
• There are variations in
length and structure of
sentences and in word
choice that enhances
• Cohesive ties, such as
repeated key words,
pronouns, and transitions or
link sentences are used.
• Paragraphs are logically
• The response is
developed for grade level.
• The focus is clear and
• Details are specific and
• Word choice and
phrases are appropriate for
the audience and purpose.
• Sentences and
paragraphs generally fit
smoothly together.

• The response
approaches its question
or subject through a
thematic approach or
• The introduction may
attempt a hook but is
somewhat unclear.
• The conclusion is
• Most major points are
developed by specific
details; some details may
show unevenness or
incompleteness of ideas.
• Most major points make
sense, but some details are
uneven or incomplete.
• Some words and phrases
add strength to the details
that are used, although an
occasional lapse into slang
or careless phrasing may
• Most paragraphs are
• There are variations in
length and structure of
sentences and in word
choice that enhance
• The development and the
relationship of one idea to
the next are clear.
• The response is simple,
yet clear and appropriate
for grade level.
• Essential details are
included but there is no
further elaboration.
• Word choices or phrases
are mostly those that are
expected for the audience
and purpose.

• The response
identifies a position or
subject briefly in the
introduction or
somewhere in the
• The response
contains points that
generally make sense
but may not be
completely related to
each other.
• There is little or no
sense of closure.
There is too little
information about the
position or subject.
• Some main points are
developed by specific
• Some general details lack
• Word choice is simple.
• The response is too short
to include too much detail.
• The response has an
identifiable plan.
• Inappropriate transitions
distract the reader and get in
the way of understanding.
• A minor digression
disrupts the logical
progression of ideas.
• The response is partially
developed for grade level.
• One or more of the
features is not complete, so
the response is confusing.
• The response does • A few details are • The response is • An attempt to address
not clearly identify the
position or subject.
• The response is
narrative instead of
persuasive or
• Some of the ideas
are confusing and may
not fit logically, or they
are repetitious.
• There is too little
information about the
position or subject.
included, but there may be
unnecessary repetition.
• Details are included as a
list; each detail on the list
may have some extensions.
• The response is too short
to allow a reliable judgment
of support.
somewhat organized, but the
ideas are confusing to the
• Important details to further
explain the position or
subject are omitted within
• Ideas do not follow a
logical sequence and are not
connected logically.
• An idea or ideas are
included that are not related
or relevant to the position or
the prompt is made, but the
response has no subject or
• Most of the features of
writing are absent.
• The response is not
persuasive or expository.
• The response is
• The response may be
too short to allow the
reader to make a reliable

• The response is
unclear and seems to
have no subject or
• The response
contains little writing.

• Details are extremely
weak, or are not included.
• The response is too short
to allow a reliable judgment
of support.
• Little or no effort is made
to state a position or subject.
• Little evidence of a
cohesive plan is present.
• The writing is confusing
and illogical.
• The response is too
short for a reader to judge.

• Sentence structure is correct
• Pronouns are used correctly
• Punctuation and capitalization are generally correct
• Verb tense and subject-verb agreement are correct
• The response has few minor and very few major errors
• The number of errors in the response interferes with the reader’s understanding of what is written

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