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Periodicity (Suggested answer)

1 (a) X3+ (g) → X4+ (g) + e

(b)(i)
4th Ionisation energy

A B C D E F G H I J
Successive elements

(ii) E = Aluminum.

The difference between 4th electron remove shows that E3+ valence
configuration is ns2 np6, while F3+ is (n+1)s1.

Therefore, the valence electron configuration of E is (n+1)s2 (n+1)p1.

(Cannot use Aluminum as the starting point.)

(iii) B = Neon, J = Argon. (Need to identify)

(c) (i) ƒ G: removing electron from s subshell, H: removing electron from a


p subshell (from same valence shell.)

ƒ The s-subshell is closer to the nucleus than the p-subshell.


Electron in the s-subshell, experience greater nuclear attraction
than electron in the p-subshell.

ƒ Hence, more energy is needed to remove the electron. thus higher


4th IE.

Kwok YL / Periodicity 1
(iii) ƒ B removing electron from a lower principal quantum shell, while C
removing electron from a higher principal quantum shell.

ƒ The lower principal quantum shell is closer to the nucleus.


Electrons in it experiences greater nuclear attraction.

ƒ More energy is required to remove the electron, hence higher 1st


IE.

(d) ƒ Structure: D – Giant Metallic Lattice structure. F – Giant Covalent


Structure, H and J – Simple discrete molecule.

ƒ Bonds that breaks during melting: D – electrostatic attraction between


cation and sea of delocalized electrons. F – Covalent bonds, H and J –
van der Waals interaction.

ƒ Breaking of inter-atomic bonding requires more energy than van der


Waals interaction, hence D and F have higher mp than H and J.

ƒ D vs F – more dm3 of bonds are broken in F than in D and hence results


in F to have a higher mp.

ƒ H vs J – H exists as S8, larger electron cloud and hence more


polarisable. Stronger id-id.

ƒ Conductivity – D is a metal contains sea of delocalized electron. F –


semi-conductor, some electrons that can be delocalized to conduct
electricity. H and J do not have charge carriers.

(e) (i) Al2Cl6 (aluminum chloride is not accepted, neither is AlCl3)

(iii) Al2Cl6 (g) → 2AlCl3 (g)

As V is a constant, P α n.

(f) Trend : F, H and G.

Si (s) → Si (g); ⅛S8 (s) → S (g); ¼P4 (s) → P (g)

Si - Giant covalent structure, extensive network of covalent bond.

S8 – one mole of S8 breaks 8 moles of S – S bond.

P4 – one mole of P4 breaks 6 moles of P – P bond.

More bonds are broken in atomization of Si, than P than S (based of


atomization equation.)

Kwok YL / Periodicity 2