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Republic of Bulgaria Military Statistics (As of November the 14th, 2013): Bulgarian Military: Equipment POSSESED by the Republic of Bulgaria

Military (Note: The following is entirely based only on information that has been declassified, along with listed evidence concerning a subject on which little information has been declassified). Status Legend: In service: actively used by the main military. In reserve: planned amount of additional items. In service with the reserve forces and/or being stored as an extra supply ready for use/backup in addition to the service equipment, planned as an extra batch of equipment, in reserve service, still considered to be in a form of service. In storage: An unplanned amount of excessive items. Surplus (extra supply, over demand/beyond need), no longer actively used, decommissioned and kept in storage facilities (often the same used for reserve equipment) (Aytos Logistics Center in Burgas Province) and “graveyards” after retirement (since they are no longer needed for use). For example, if the Bulgarian army needed a greater amount of equipment, they would re-commission equipment from the large storage facilities (notably Aytos Logistics Center in Burgas Province and Montana province’s storage base) of unneeded equipment left there until further requirement, eliminating the need to maintain the equipment without purpose until the need for their service and at the same time eliminating a need to buy more equipment for service. Generally, Bulgaria would only keep in active service what is directly and immediately needed, retiring and reserving the rest of the equipment but keeping it so that it does not have to be maintained for use as it is not required, hence Bulgaria’s large retirement “graveyards” (unmaintained/accounted for storages on military land) and reserves in storage still being held on to, yet still being technically considered “retired”. An example of a surplus (and not reserve item) would be an item that has been retired because of a lack of spare parts. NOTE: Some of Bulgaria’s stored military equipment is unknown as to being reserve or surplus, so unless it is sourced as being reserve, it is automatically counted as surplus. NOTE: The military museums constitutionally count as being part of the armed forces, and therefore the equipment displayed in the museums is listed as still being owned. Bulgarian army: The Bulgarian army is one of the more well equipped and sizable armies in the Balkans, as always has been, particularly during the cold war, but has suffered greatly since the fall of communism with the huge cuts to the defense budget with the plummeting of the economy, and was butchered by NATO’s ratification treaties such as the nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons treaties, and has been tormented by conventional arms treaty limiting the equipment possessed by the Bulgarian army. All of the west’s ratifications were supported by a careless defense minister once in power within said position, the man being Anu Angelov. Anu Angelov has scrapped, sold, and retired a lot of Bulgarian army equipment, and has even pulled soldiers out of service to save money. On the 13th of March, 2013, a new defense minister was appointed by the Bulgarian Socialist Party. His name is Todor Tagarev, and in recent months in 2013 he has strived to rebuild and re-enforce the Bulgarian army to the point of its former glory, by doing such things as buying modern equipment for the Bulgarian land forces, buying modern equipment and modernizing the Bulgarian air force, and beginning a campaign to re-instate mandatory enlistment in the army in Bulgaria. In 2013, an age of modernization began for the Bulgarian army.

Land Forces: The Bulgarian land forces have suffered greatly in terms of the selling, scrapping, and retirement of equipment at the hands of former defense minister Angelov. With the retirement of Anu Angelov, Todor Tagarev was able to take his place as defense minister of Bulgaria, and already has begun re-enforcing the Bulgarian army, as shown in his purchases of modern equipment (such as the Rosomak AFV) for the land forces, his modernization and re-introduction of Bulgarian aircraft in the air force (the Su-25’s have been re-introduced into service, and the MiG 29’s have been modernized to be active for up to 40 more years), and his campaign to re-install mandatory enlistment in Bulgaria. Todor Tagarev’s initiation as defense minister on the 13th of March2013 has promised much for the Bulgarian army.

Todor Tagarev, the new Bulgarian defense minister.

Bulgarian president Rosen Plevneliev walks by Bulgarian land forces soldiers.

Bulgarian land forces marching.

Tanks: Note: Some tanks benefit from a few gallons of stealth (anti-radar equipment that absorbs waves rather than bouncing them back) purchased from the company of Bulgarian general Peshlevski for the Bulgarian army. T72M2/M1/M/A/AK/B/S: (possibly up to, around) 1040: A variety of tanks including a locally produced T72 variant known as the T72M2 are in service. It is an indigenous upgraded T-72M1 with new night vision and thermal devices, improved armour (up to 650 mm) and anti-radiation cladding, rubber side skirts, C4I and IR suppression coating. This variant was one of the later T72’s that was able to rival the T80’s of the time, and even rivals the earlier models of the American M1 Abrams tank, the T72M2 having less armour in some places yet more in others, and wielding a higher calibre main gun (against all M1 Abrams models, the M1A1 Abrams that is still in service has armour up to 700mm while the T72M2 has armour up to 680mm, while the T72M2’s main gun is 125mm while the Abrams gun is 105-120mm), meaning that even though it rivals early Abrams models to a close extent, the Abrams costs$8.58 million while the T72M2 costs $30,000, giving the T72M2 a large mass production advantage with little shortcomings in comparison to the Abrams. This is one of Bulgaria’s only locally produced tanks, there being only 2. It is an indigenous model produced by the Bulgarians based largely on the T72M1, but with great improvements that bring the tank to modern level. The fact that it is a T72M1 and was upgraded in design proved that is produced in Bulgaria, as TEREM can only modernize T72 Urals (but not listed as of doing so to upgrade them to “M2” standards, yet TEREM’s T55 & T54 upgrade (e.g: to T55 to T55AM2 model) options are listed, indicating that the T72M2 is not an upgrade), it can repair/overhaul T72 Urals and M’s, so even if they had an M1 at their disposal, they would be incapable of upgrading it, not to mention, the extra armour (from 490 to 680mm’s without a significant visual difference, lacking the appearance of “add on” armour) is deeply integrated into the bare tank, this vanilla form can only be achieved through a production line, not an add-on system. The only T72 model currently in service is the Bulgarian made M2 variant (120 of which see active service, though 160 are planned to be in service by 2015), the M/M1/A/AK/B variants are surplus, numbering in at around 400 M’s as surplus obtained by 1991 from Czechoslovak, Polish, and possibly USSR production lines along with an unknown amount of M1’s, as well as 100 “A/AK” variants, being the most recently acquired foreign produced T-72’s, being delivered in 1995, with an unknown amount of “B” variants, along with 450 locally produced T72M2’s in reserve. This vehicle is still not available for export (the T72M2), but some 70 surplus t72 tanks are up for sale in Sliven (used to be 100, 30 of which have been sold at around 30,000 USD for one second hand or even third hand tank depending on the origins of the tank, whether it be Czech, Polish, Soviet, or Bulgarian produced) to cover the costs of the Bulgarian army’s future modernization. In 2003, there was a plan by US company general dynamics to replace 500 Bulgarian T72’s with 500 M1A1 Abrams tanks, but it seems to have been cancelled as even though T-72’s have been sold since then, they have not been sold in such large quantities or numbers, along with the fact that the only Abrams tanks Bulgaria has received are ones that it hosts for the American armed forces in joint Bulgarian-US bases on Bulgarian soil. TEREM also provides upgrades for the T-72 to T-72S standards.

An explanation of the production stages of the T72M2 tank. NOTE: This is clearly the Bulgarian version as it features the antiradiation cladding specific to it and not the Slovak version, those being the only 2 countries with T72M2 designations.

A TEREM overhauled T72 (M possibly?) with reactive armour (demonstrating it being a USSR made post 1985 T72) seemingly being demonstrated in the reserve.

Bulgarian T72M2 tanks early and late production models training (note: these are M2’s as the only T72’s in the Bulgarian army that see active service are M2 models).

A Bulgarian locally produced T72M2 on parade on military day (valour day).

Bulgarian T72 surplus storage sites in a logistics center, possibly at Aytos or Montana province logistics center.

A Bulgarian surplus locally made T-72 up for sale in Sofia, Bulgaria.

A Bulgarian army T72M2.

A formerly used T-72M on display at the military museum in Sofia.

A Bulgarian T72M1 tank.

A Bulgarian T72A.

A Bulgarian army T-72 reserve.

A TEREM reinforced T-72S in Bulgarian service.

Bulgarian T-72’s in reserve along with OT-62’s.

A Bulgarian modernized T-72.

A displayed Bulgarian made T72M2 at an international arms show.

A Bulgarian T72M in a museum.

A parading Bulgarian T72M2. T-80: 4 T-80’s were bought during the late 1980’s for evaluation, currently they do not remain in service and were rejected for increased export, possibly for their higher pricing yet lack of significant improvements over the locally made improved T-72 models, though it may have something to do with the crash of the economy as well as Bulgarian-Soviet relations in 1989. T54/5/ T-55AM-2 /T-54A/BTU-55M (Bulldozer Unit for T-55AM that keeps the turret undisturbed/interrupted)/TR-580/TR-85/TR-85M1/ TM-800 (some T-55 variants have been bought from Romania for export on 2 occasions, but for one, they were not sold in the initial deal for $35 million for 90 T55’s to Uganda as only 28 were delivered, those being confirmed ex Bulgarian/Ukrainian vanilla T55 tanks, meaning that the Romanian tanks remained in inventory and were not sold. The Romanian T55’s were either TR-85 or TR-580 models, and are known not to be normal T55’s as of the original 1250 T55’s sold to Romania by the USSR, 550 have been converted to TR-580 standards, the process going on until after 2007 when Romania had 748 T55 tanks while 700 was the number when the conversion process was completed. It is known that the 48 tanks were not sold to Bulgaria as they were required in the conversion process for the TR-580 tanks, and none of Romania’s T54’s have been sold as they are all in reserve, proving that the only possible tanks to have been sold to Bulgaria are either the TR-85(possibly M1 Bison variant) or the TR-580): 1320 total T54/5’s, (around) mostly of the soviet models, some Czechoslovak AM-2 models and some Romanian models). Currently, 430 T54/5 variants in reserve status (up to 400 of which are AM-2’s modernized by TEREM), an unknown number of the reserve T54/5’s (possibly up to 160) are actively being used for training tank drivers on a more basic level in preparation for the more advanced t-72’s, and some other 795 T54/5 varied variants are in storage as surplus at Aitos Logistics Center. No sales of T55’s are recorded as of taking place after this initial number (1225) was left in 2010, most sales stopping after the late 1990’s when a good portion of Bulgaria’s original 1801+ t-54/5 tanks (At least 1 Romanian TR-85/580 tank along with a split 900 soviet production T-54’s and 900 soviet production T-55’s, 436 of which were Czechoslovak level TEREM modernized T55AM2 modernised models featuring Czechoslovak-produced "Kladivo" fire control system with a ballistic computer, a laser range finder (different from the Russian KTD-1) on top of the gun and a cross-wind sensor mast mounted on rear of turret roof, along with passive BDD appliqué armour for turret (horseshoe shape) and hull front (fitted to upper glacis plate), sideplates fitted with extensions protecting catwalk fuel tanks, the improved V-55U engine with an integral supercharger delivering 620 hp and the R-173P radio system. The BDD armour panels consist of armoured steel boxes filled with

Penpolyurethane. In addition there are cavities which can be filled with water or sand for additional protection. There is also a cluster of 8 smoke-grenade launchers on the right-hand-side of turret. T55AM2 is fitted with additional headlights on the front fenders.). The T54A’s were modernized by TEREM from T54’s. The tanks (like all surplus equipment in the BG army) are kept as assets for the Bulgarian army and are not up for sale. Some were stored in underground soviet era bunker armoires on the Bulgarian-Turkish and Bulgarian-Greek boarders in case of an attack, but the Bulgarian-Turkish bases were for the most part closed and the vehicles reclaimed, and the only vehicles still on the site of other bases are the tank driver training vehicles, the others being taken away to Aitos Logistics Center, a military storage complex. The vehicles are guaranteed by the government not to be scrapped as they have stated that if unneeded equipment shall be gotten rid of of it would bring in more money through a sale than a scrap.

A reserve upgraded t54/5 parked outside ready for use, probably tank driver training.

A Bulgarian BTU-55M engineering vehicle.

A Bulgarian storage facility for surplus equipment not accounted for as reserve (also known as a “graveyard”) in Montana province holding the retired surplus T54/5’s along with some other soviet era vehicles. Warehouses like these are for vehicles too abundant for the military to maintain/use, that being the reason that some T54/5’s are not in service even though some are in reserve and is also the reason why these actively used military vehicles in a drab state.

The parked and stored T-55 tanks from behind.

The retired tanks stored in a military facility in Montana province.

The Bulgarian T-55 surplus tanks.

The Bulgarian surplus T-55 tanks.

The Bulgarian surplus T-55 tanks.

Bulgarian T-55’s.

Bulgarian T-55’s.

Bulgarian stored surplus T-55’s.

Bulgarian T-55’s.

Bulgarian T-55’s.

Bulgarian T-55’s.

The T-55’s in Montana province, Bulgaria.

A Bulgarian T-55 used in training.

A Bulgarian T-55 in use with the Bulgarian people’s army during the cold war.

Bulgarian T-54/5 tanks in reserve at Aitos Logistics Center (on the 3rd picture to the right on the third row a T-54 turret is visible as the closest turret to the camera).

A Bulgarian T55 showcased in a museum. TEREM overhauled T55 in the Bulgarian reserve forces.

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2 Bulgarian T-55 tanks on a military base area, probably being used for training.

A displayed Bulgarian T-55.

A Bulgarian T-55 participating in the invasion of Czechoslovakia, 1968.

Bulgarian armoured vehicles (including T-55’s) in Czechoslovakia, 1968.

Bulgarian T-55’s being transported.

Photographs from Bulgaria’s latest sale of T55 tanks, where 8 out of service surplus tanks were sold to unspecified African countries and transported on November the 7th, 2013. 40M Turán I: Unknown amount stored as surplus. Panzer IV: 91 stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian Panzer IV displayed at a museum.

A Bulgarian Panzer IV in use with the people’s army.

One of the better condition running panzers in the museum of military history in Sofia.

A Bulgarian panzer graveyard. Note, the guns of the tanks are said to still be in working condition.

A Bulgarian panzer recovered on a military base in Yambol.

A Military base bound Bulgarian panzer iv.

A Bulgarian panzer iv stored at a military base. Jagdpanzer 38(t): Unknown amount stored as Surplus. Panzer IV/SU 76 Hybrid: Unknown amount stored as surplus, a Panzer IV with a SU 76 gun.

A displayed Panzer IV/SU-76 hybrid in a Bulgarian museum. SU 76: Unknown amount in storage as surplus, 1 is on display at a state owned museum. Sturmgeschütz III: Stored as surplus. SOMUA S35: Apparently 6 were used by the police and are now stored as surplus. Vickers 6-Ton: 8 used for training.

A Bulgarian tank crew with a Vickers. Hotchkiss H35: One in museum, 18 stored as surplus, state owned, operational. Jagdpanzer IV L/48: One in storage in a museum, operational, along with several others in military bases.

Bulgaria’s jagdpanzer iv, recovered and recuperated from the Bulgarian-Turkish border service.

A Bulgarian jagdpanzer on the grounds of a military base in Yambol.

A particular vehicle lacking tracks at a military base in Yambol. Panzer I: Retired, stored as surplus.

Semovente 47/32: Retired, stored as surplus. Sturmgeschütz IV: At least one operational, stored in state owned museum. Panzerkampfwagen 38(t): 10, stored as surplus. Panzer II: Unknown amount acquired during WW2, stored as surplus. Fahrpanzer: At least one on display at a state owned museum. L3/33: 24, stored as surplus. L3/35: Unknown amount, stored as surplus. T-11 (LT vz. 35)/ Panzer 35(t): 10 T-11’s and 26 LT vz/ Panzer 35(t)’s. 36 tanks retired and stored as surplus.

Bulgarian T-11’s.

Stored Panzer/Skoda tanks in Bulgaria. Panther Tank: 15, retired, stored, these came into service post WW2.

A Bulgarian army panther. Renault R35: 40, stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian tank crew with an R35 during World War 2. Iosif Stalin-2: Unknown amount in storage, photographs do exist of Bulgarian soldiers by there IS-2 (Iosif Stalin) tanks.

Bulgarian soldiers by there IS-2 tanks at some point in history. T34/62/76/85: 524 in total, 42 complete form (land tanks, not turret bunker tanks) operational tanks kept in storage in the village of Ohrid, Montana Province, considered to be in service, considered to be in “deep reserve” by the Bulgarian army, the rest being stored as surplus. Some exploited turret/pillbox tanks outside of storage are used for MANPADS and anti-tank target practice. Some of the tanks in storage are T34/62 hybrids of a T34/85 chassis with a T62 turret on top kept as pillboxes but still with a track compatibility and therefor eventual ability to move, some being mere pillboxes and others being in motion tanks. The whole tanks remained in active service even after 1996. A good few border pillboxes are still claimed by the Bulgarian army bases near the border of Bulgaria and Turkey, those areas still being militarized and having active patrol routs, are fully operational as pill boxes. Some whole tanks are still used in the reserve and are even considered to be in a form of service as of 2012 as shown on this map indicating Bulgaria in dark red/black, meaning a current user. Originally, there were 664 T-34’s in Bulgarian service, but 140 were used as stationary bunker pieces on the Bulgarian-Turkish border during the cold war.

The map showing Bulgaria as a current user of the T34 tank.

A T34/62 tank rescued from the Turkish defense front and put in outdoor storage.

A T34/85 on display in Bulgaria.

Some T34’s in a museum.

An operational T34 turret stands duty.

A T34 turret watches over Bulgarian sheep.

A T34 bunker still in working condition PT76: 250 retired, possibly as reserve, may simply be surplus.

Bulgarian PT76’s rolling out on exercise. T62: Up to 250 as reserve, some with modifications concerning an overhaul and/or modernization done by TEREM (Han Krum division). Bulgaria secretly received 250 between 1970 and 1974 (being ordered in 1969) as a secret weapon (something that the USSR initially did not plan to export at first, just like the T80) that no other Warsaw pact nation had received in order to strengthen investment in a favourable

outcome between a war between it and Turkey and Greece, with another 200 arriving just after the war in Afghanistan by the Soviet Union, but these were defective, so 80 were sold to Ethiopia (reportedly), Yemen, and Angola, while up to 120 were modernized but later on salvaged for use and converted into ARV’s, with some more T-62 tanks that were received after the USSR war in Afghanistan (received during the 1980’s) but not modernized being converted as well, those ones also being salvaged and having their turrets placed as artillery pieces on the Bulgarian/Turkish border, some even being placed on functional T-34 chassis, and now up to 250 of these secretly acquired T62’s are in storage as surplus, and have been as of 2000, Bulgaria also using the T-62 design as the basis of a new model of fire engine that had been made from T-62 parts. After the salvaging project of the Afghanistan war T62’s was finished from the late 80’s to 90’s, that left the original 250 T62’s to be in service, and they were retired in 2000, now kept in storage as surplus items, guaranteeing not to be scrapped by the state and not being offered to any countries (as most of Bulgaria’s surplus equipment).

The Bulgarian T62’s in storage as reserve (note: it is not stored as mere surplus as it is stored in the same place as Bulgaria’s reserve T-55 tanks telling by the surroundings, surplus equipment simply being stored in “graveyards” or outdoor storage. Photo: The presentation of preserved post service T62’s as documented in distributed Ministry of Defense pamphlets, stored after their retirement and left in mild reserve condition like many of the vehicles too valuable to be scrapped or sold, being put in reserve or storage, the same being done with

some T72’s. A TEREM overhauled T62. The rails underneath the track are metallic and are not attached, serving only as a platform for the tank to park on so it does not sink into the soil, showing that it is not a museum piece, simply a parking spot for the

stored tank, or later on just part of outdoor storage. Likely done just before they began to be stored after retirement from the Bulgarian military, modernized by “Han Krum” division of TEREM like all other tanks, converted to the “M” variant, standing for modernized, a casual temporary/substitution improvise in the Bulgarian military, often done in different forms of modernization with different armour and armament upgrades and in varying percentages depending on the use of the vehicle to different vehicles and in varying numbers, something that was done to many of Bulgaria’s Soviet Era military equipment, especially vehicles, particularly with tanks in order to compensate with the lack of modern day/generation tanks.

A Map portraying Bulgaria as a former operator of the T62 tank.

The Bulgarian T-62 tanks on parade. TP62: A locally produced TP62 fire fighting vehicle assembled from T-62 parts that can carry 10 metric tons of water with a water cannon, seems to have riot functions, tested in the 2012 wildfire in Bulgaria. Only one seems to have been made and displayed at HEMUS at some point in time but does not seem to be attracting customers.

TV62/M: ? An armoured recovery vehicle created from hull of T62M and half of the turret of a t54/5 spare part, utilizing unused T54/5 spares within the vehicle created from used soviet T62’s given after the soviet-Afghanistan conflict, the 100mm gun has been replaced with a 12.7mm DShK turret. TV62’s were made without the turret and with the bare non modernized t62’s, devolving from the TV62M’s, as the TV62M had tank hulls being those of “M (modernized)” series T62 Tanks as some of the given tanks were modified/modernized. The TV62 tanks play a more minor role than the TV62M’s, being the main armoured recovery vehicle of the Bulgarian Military, suggesting that not many of the TV62’s were made, those that were part of the disposal project of the useless T62’s given to Bulgaria after the Soviet-Afghan war that were not modernized but just finished off after the modernized tanks failed service and were converted, overall just being part of the disposal project for these tanks which included selling them to Angola and Yemen and conversion to these 2 models, or it could just be a means of salvaging a T62 that is beyond maintenance. Essentially, when the USSR gave Bulgaria a bad batch of used Afghan T62’s, we sold them rapidly to Angola and Yemen, modernized some but when that failed, salvaged them by converting them into ARV’s, and the ones that were not modernized were also salvaged, leaving the original 250 T62’s untouched. The turrets of the ARV’s were used on T34/85 hulls on the Bulgarian Turkish Border to act as stationary tanks/small scale artillery pieces.

The TV62M An exploited T62 Turret on a T34/85 tank hull on the Bulgarian-Turkish border, some saved and maintained.

A TV-62M Tug Tank in use hauling Turkish Border tanks to be sold or placed in a museum.

while others fell to scrappers, The tanks still being fully operational and pointed at Turkey since the days of a build up to war with Turkey during communism. Hotchkiss H35: Unknown amount stored as surplus, one example is displayed at a state owned museum. Panzer 2: Unknown amount in storage as surplus. M1A2 Abrams: Several are stored in Aytos Logistics Center along with other various American equipment (such as the Stryker) as given by the US military as part of the defensive support of Bulgaria with the deployment of housed American troops.

Bulgarian T72M2’s alongside M1A2 Abrams tanks. IFV’s: BMP 23/23D/30: 172+ in service, produced locally with an original design. This is the Bulgarian equivalent of the M2 Bradley. The Bradley has 10 more millimetres of armour (30mm VS 20mm), along with a higher calibre turret (25mm VS 23mm), but the BMP weighs far less than the Bradley (15.2 VS 27.6 tonnes), can travel farther (600km VS 486km) and costs far less with an estimated $27,463 price while having similar statistics to the Bradley, which costs $3,166,000 a unit. Recently in 2012 it was predicted by US economic aid that Bulgaria would resume production of the BMP-23 for export. Variants: BMP-23D - Upgraded variant with 9K111 Fagot ATGM and 81mm smoke grenade launchers. BRM-23 - Reconnaissance version, prototype. BMP-30 - Modified BMP-23 with the turret taken directly from the BMP-2. There also exists a 98mm mortar portee variant and a prototype that fires the sa-9 shorad.

A parading Bulgarian BMP-23.

A BMP-23 being transported.

A BMP23 in storage (seemingly in a village like base) since the days of Socialism, rusting without an update.

A BMP23 back in the days of socialist enforcing Todor Zhivkov’s Rule.

A BMP23 deployed in Afghanistan in the modern day.

A BRM 23 Recon Vehicle.

A BMP-30 IFV at a state owned museum.

A BMP-30.

A BMP-30 in use in Afghanistan by the Bulgarian army.

A BMP-30 in middle eastern camouflage.

The frontal view of a BMP-30. BMP1P/ BMP-1KShM-9S743: 100+ modernized Russian normal BMP’s in service, 360 USSR ordered normal BMP-1’s in storage as reserve. The BMP-1KShM-9S743 variants are locally produced improved soviet BMP-1KShM’s, with the main armament replaced by a telescopic mast and the new main weapon being a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun (difference to the normal BMP-1), acting as a command unit with artillery and air strike communications. Apparently, Bulgaria also produces the normal BMP-1(P variant model) IFV (note, it is the normal BMP-1 as well that is produced as the BMP-1KShM-9S743 is a command vehicle rather than an infantry fighting vehicle, 2 completely different vehicles). 100 BMP-1P’s in service with an unknown amount of BMP-1KShM-9S743’s in service. In total, Bulgaria possesses 460 normal BMP-1 IFV’s, and an unknown amount of BMP-1KShM-9S743 variants.

A modernized BMP1 variant with advanced armour on parade in Sofia.

A Bulgarian made BMP1P on parade.

A Bulgarian BMP-1 column.

A Bulgarian made BMP-1P.

A Bulgarian soldier riding a locally produced BMP-1KShM-9S743 command vehicle.

A Bulgarian soldier operating the main gun of a BMP-1 during a joint BulgarianUS field exercise.

A Bulgarian made BMP-1 being presented at HEMUS 2004.

A parading Bulgarian BMP-1 column. BMP2: Unknown number in storage, some were disassembled to create BMP23 variant with BMP2 turret. BMP-3: Unknown amount of BMP-3’s in service. Rosomak AFV: As of 2013, the Bulgarian state-owned company TEREM has been issued a production license as well as blueprints for the Rosomak/Wolverine AFV (in varying models such as AA-Turret, SAM System, Anti-Tank Missile Host, Self Propelled Rifling Bore turret version, Single and Dual Mortar Turret Version, and Light Tank/Tank Destroyer Turret Version), and intends to build a starting number of 500 for the Bulgarian army (from the conveyor belts of the “Han Krum” division that specializes in tanks, this machine being built on the basis of the T-62 tank chassis) as a project of modernizing the motorized brigades.

A Rosomak AFV in Bulgaria.

A soldier in Bulgaria standing by his Rosomak.

A TEREM official announcing the news of the Bulgarian army’s first purchase of land-based armoured fighting vehicle in years. APC’s: BTR60: 808, 781 in service, the rest are stored/in reserve, locally produced under licence. Variants=BTR-60PAU – BTR-60PA converted into an artillery command vehicle equipped with 4 whip antennas. BTR-60PB experimentally fitted with the Polish WAT turret from SKOT-2AP. Only a prototype

was made. BTR-60PB-MD (bronyetransport’or moderniziran ) – BTR-60PB modernization fitted with the VAMO DT3900 or Rover TD-200 diesel engine, four MB smoke grenade launchers on the turret (two on each side), "Melopa" night sight, new day sight, new NBC protection system, modern radios. It also has a rear view mirror on the left hand side of the hull and side hatches. Only a prototype was made. BTR60PB-MD1 – BTR-60PB-MD variant developed for the Bulgarian army, fitted with the Cummins ISB 25.30 turbocharged diesel engine developing 250 hp (186 kW), additional protection for its headlights and eight smoke grenade launchers on the turret (four on each side). 150 in service. BTR-60PB-MD3 – Export BTR-60PB-MD variant fitted with the KamAZ diesel engine, different sights, eight smoke grenade launchers in right-hand corner of the front of the hull and six on the turret (three on each side). It is also known under the designation BTR-60PB-MD2. The prototype, shown in 2004, was based on the BTR60PA.

A Bulgarian police BTR 60, note that this vehicle is as equipped as the military model what with the anti-aircraft turret and everything else.

A Bulgarian police Gendarmerie unit BTR-60 with a multiple rocket launcher attachment.

A Bulgarian police riot suited BTR-60 with an additional water cannon along with the AA Turret and extra armour.

A parading Bulgarian BTR-60

A Bulgarian BTR-60 modernized by TEREM.

A TEREM modernized BTR-60.

A Bulgarian modernized BTR-60 model at HEMUS 2004. M113A1: 30 in service. Puma 6x6 AFV: At least 1 in service in Afghanistan with the Bulgarian armed forces.

The Bulgarian Puma AFV in Afghanistan. SPR-1: 10 in service. FUG PSzH APC: Unknown amount in service. Maritza NMC Vehicle: Unknown amount in service. MTLB/MTLBU: Up to 2960 MTLB + unknown amount of MTLBU’s, 150 MTLB’s in service, the rest in storage/reserve, locally produced under licence. 1470 were delivered, while 2000 were locally produced (500 were sold to Iraq in 2012 from Bulgarian surplus, plus 10 were sold to Eritrea at an unknown time, meaning that of the 3,500 MTLB’s, 3000 remained. Variants=MT-LB AT-I - tractor for mine-laying systems. Fitted with racks for anti-tank mines. MT-LB RHR or MR HR (mashina za radiatsionno i khimichesko razuznavane) - NBC reconnaissance vehicle with detection, alarming, sampling and markings devices. MT-LB SE - ambulance. SMM B1.10 "Tundzha" (samokhodna minokhv’rgachka) - mortar platform with M-38/43 120 mm mortar and 58 rounds. SMM 74 B1.10 "Tundzha-Sani" - improved version with 2B11 120mm mortar. KShM-R-81 "Delfin" - command and staff vehicle with R-123M, R-130M and R-31M radios, an AZI frame antenna, a generator and an additional cupola on the hull roof. MT-LB TMX - mortar carrier with 82 mm mortar M-37M. BRM “Sova” (bronirana razuznavatelna mashina) - reconnaissance version with NBC detection system ASP-3 and VPHR, radiosets R-123M and R-31M, PAB-2 aiming circle and NSPU night vision device. Comes in three versions with additional specialised equipment: "Sova-1" - with R-130M radioset, an AZI frame antenna and a telescopic mast. "Sova-2" - with R-143 "Lira" radioset. "Sova-3" - with PSNR-5K (1RL-133) battlefield surveillance radar. R-80 - artillery forward observer vehicle with observation devices. BMP-23 (bojna mashina na pekhotata) - infantry fighting vehicle with 23 mm gun 2A14 and ATGM 9K11 "Malyutka" in a 2-man turret. The chassis is based on the one from the MT-LB but with components of the 2S1 and fitted with a 315 hp engine. BMP-23D - improved version with 9K111 "Fagot" and smoke grenade launchers. BRM-23 - reconnaissance version. Prototype. BMP-30 - similar chassis as the BMP-23 but with the complete turret of the Soviet-made BMP-2. Only 10 built. KShM 9S743 - command and staff

vehicle, initially very similar to the Soviet MP24 but has been upgraded in the year 2000 with new communications gear. In service. Iskra MTP-1 - combat engineer vehicle, equipped with a big dozer blade at the rear, a roof-mounted crane with a capacity of 3,000 kg and a machine-gun turret TKB-01 in the front right corner (as per MT-LB). Combat weight is 14 t. Prototype. KShTMS - command and control vehicle, fitted with automated equipment. KShM-R-55 - command vehicle, fitted with the communications set R-55B. This consists of the HF radio R-55R, the receiver R-55P, the VHF radio R-33 and the receiver R-23. MSP-1 MSP-2.

An MT-LB and MCP-1 column, tank-like mini-turrets are shown better in this photograph.

A Bulgarian MT-LB Radar variant.

A Bulgarian Assault variant of the MT-LB, the MR-HR, similar to an IFV in purpose with high speed and flotation.

Bulgarian Sani mortar MT-LB’s.

An MT-LB for sale in Sofia, Bulgaria.

A Bulgarian modernized MT-LB.

Bulgarian made MTLBs. MTP-1: This is based on the Armoured Command and Reconnaissance Vehicle (ACRV) chassis. The MTP1 has been designed to carry out a wide range of roles on the battlefield including the recovery of damaged and disabled vehicles, changing vehicle components, preparing fire positions and vehicle hides and general lifting duties. The MTP-1 is virtually identical to the ACRV originally developed in Russia. Mounted on the front right side is a turret that is identical to that fitted to the MT-LB multipurpose tracked vehicle, which was manufactured in Bulgaria. This manually operated turret is armed with a 7.62 mm machine gun, although some Bulgarian turrets have been observed upgunned to 12.7 mm. Mounted on top of the roof is a crane with a telescopic jib and, when travelling, this is traversed to the front and the hook restrained by an eye at the front of the hull. The crane is mounted in a small turretlike cupola with the operator being provided with full armour protection. The crane can lift a weight of 3,000 kg with the jib extended out to 3.4 m or 2,000 kg with the jib extended out to 5 m. Mounted at the rear of the vehicle is an entrenching blade similar to that fitted to the specialist engineer variant of the MT-LB vehicle. This is mounted on hydraulic arms and can prepare a vehicle scrape in about 110 minutes. The MTP-1 has a combat weight of 14,000 kg and is provided with an onboard winch with a maximum capacity of 30 tonnes with the entrenching device lowered or 10 tonnes with the entrenching device raised. Like the ACRV (this being its Western designation, its correct designation being the MTLBus), it is fully amphibious, being propelled in the water by its tracks. An NBC system is fitted as standard.

An MTP-1 MCP-1: In service, loosely based on MT-LB, produced locally.

An MCP-1 on parade.

An MCP-1. OT-62A TOPAS: 35 stored as surplus. OT-64 SKOT: Unknown amount stored as surplus, one had its parts used to make a BTR-60 variant. BTR 50: 700 stored as surplus. BTR40: 150 withdrawn from service, in storage surplus. BTR152: 100 withdrawn from service, in storage surplus. PTS amphibious vehicle: Unknown amount in reserve.

A PTS vehicle numbered 114 can be seen to the right end of the photograph of reserve T-62’s. Armoured Cars: BRDM2: 74, 24 in service, 50 in reserve, produced locally.

Bulgarian BRDM-2’s in Afghanistan.

A Bulgarian BRDM-2 returning home from Iraq. Autocarro blindato Fiat 626 NM: 100, retired, stored.

BRDM1: 150 withdrawn from service, in storage surplus. Plasan Sand Cat: 24 remote controlled PKM/MGM1 Armed in service.

A Bulgarian Sand Cat. Sd Kfz. 222/3: 20 is storage as surplus.

A Bulgarian 222. BMW R-12: 18 stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian R-12. AWO: Unknown amount stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian AWO. Horch: Unknown amount stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian Horch. Praga AV: At least one stored as surplus.

Volkswagen Kubel: Unknown amount stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian Kubel. Opel Blitz: 24 stored as surplus. RSO: Unknown amount stored as surplus

A Bulgarian RSO. Sd Kfz 7: 30 stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian Kfz 7. ATS-712: Unknown amount stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian surplus ATS up for sale. ATL: Unknown amount stored as surplus.

A Bulgarian surplus ATL up for sale. M1117: 37 (6 in Afghanistan).

A reserve M1117 in Bulgaria. FN 4RM: 60mm Mortar w/ twin FN-MAG’s variant, at least one on display at a state owned museum. This is one of the only surviving examples of the Belgian vehicle in the world, as only 62 were ever produced.

The vehicle on display in Bulgaria. HMMWV: 82 in service, 50 in Afghanistan, HMG armed. Mercedes-Benz G-Class: 900 in service, armed w/ PKM/MGM1 turret, a contract has been signed with Germany to raise this number to 12,000+.

A Bulgarian armed Mercedes Benz G Class. Schwerer Panzerspähwagen: Retired, stored.

Anti-Tank/Material/Personnel: 9P148 Konkurs: 24 in service. AT-2 Swatter ATGMs: 250 missiles in service. AT-3 Sagger ATGMs: 8500 missiles (locally produced) in service. AT-4 Spigot ATGMs: 400 missiles (locally produced) in service. AT-5 Spandrel ATGMs: 300+ missiles in service (locally produced). AT-6 Spiral ATGMs: 500+ missiles in service. AT-7 Saxhorn ATGMs: 100 missiles in service. AT-10 Stabber ATGMs: 200 in service. AT-1 Snapper: 500 missiles withdrawn from service, in storage as surplus. 9K115 Metis: Locally produced. Mortars: 60 mm M6-211: locally produced. 81 mm M8: locally produced. 82 mm M82: locally produced. 120 mm 2S12 Sani: locally produced. 6 Duim Mortar: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. M1876 Eight-duim mortar: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum.

The Bulgarian 8 Duim mortar on display. Artillery: 2S1 Gvozdika: Up to 750 units, 206 of which are in service, the rest in reserve, produced locally as “Karamfil” under licence. Can also be considered a tank destroyer. It was designed to act as a multipurpose vehicle, capable of offensive tank and tank destroyer use while being able to provide support by

bombarding long range points. It is an extreme advantage that Bulgaria can produce these locally, as they can combat any short comings in tank service if the opposing force have a greater amount of tanks, these may counter that as they may function as tank destroyers due to their versatility.

A patrolling Gvozdika on the Bulgarian streets.

Bulgarian Gvozdikas in reserve. 2S12: A Sani mortar on an MT-LB. Locally produced, 356 in service. Praga Assault Gun: Unknown amount, Bulgaria had them in 1945.

The Praga Assault Gun in Bulgarian service in 1945. Su-85: Some were in service in the 1990s, it is now either reserve or surplus. 2S11: 359 in reserve, a soviet 120mm Nona variant, and the predecessor of the 2S23 Nona, except this vehicle is on the chassis of a BTR-70 rather than a BTR-80. Ninja 1 mortar platform: highly mobile, unknown number in service, designed and produced locally.

A Ninja 1 mortar platform. Ninja 3: Advanced model Ninja 1 with an AA gun and anti-tank missiles, produced locally.

An Arsenal Ninja 3. SU-100: 68 in reserve. MT12: 200 in service. D20: 150 in service. 2S3 Akatsiya: 16 withdrawn from service, some in reserve, some surplus.

A displayed 2S3.

A Bulgarian 2S3 Akatsiya.

A vehicle at the military museum in Sofia. 130 mm towed field gun M1954 (M-46): Retired, stored, unknown number. 15 cm sIG 33: Unknown amount retired, stored. 100 mm BS-3 field gun: 16 in service. M-46: 73. M-30: 70. Unknown howitzer: 11 122mm howitzers were bought from Poland in 2012. 122 mm gun M1931/37 (A-19): 25 in service. 152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1): At least 1, there is one on display at a state owned museum. 15 cm sFH 18: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. 10.5 cm leFH 18: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. 10 cm schwere Kanone 18: At least one, on display at a state owned museum. 7.5 cm Pak 40: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. 10 cm K 14: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. 7.7 cm FK 96 n: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. 10.5 cm leFH 16: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. 76 mm divisional gun M1942 (ZiS-3): At least 1, on display at a state owned museum. Multiple Rocket Launchers: BM21: 200 are in reserve, 192 are in service.

A Bulgarian BM-21 on parade. RM70: 12 are in service. Katyusha: ? Withdrawn from service, in storage surplus. BM-24: At least one on display at a state owned museum. RM-51: 24 in service.

A Bulgarian Museum bound RM-51. AAG’s: ZU232: 300 are in service (locally produced). 100 mm air defense gun KS-19: Unknown amount in service. 76 mm air defense gun M1938: Unknown amount in service. PSA-4: Unknown amount in service. S60: 16 are in service. ZSU/AAD-23-4: 27 in service, 13 in reserve. ZSU/AAD-57-2: 100 in service. SAM’s: SA2 Guideline: 30 launchers and 750 missiles are in service, they are to be phased out and stored. SA3 Goa: 34 launchers and 1200 missiles in service, to be phased out and stored.

SA5 Gammon: 26 launchers and an unknown amount of missiles in service. SA6 Gainful: 20+ launchers in service with 600 missiles. SA8 Gecko: 24 launchers in service with 780 missiles.

A parading OSA on the Bulgarian streets SA9 gaskin: 50 launchers with 750 missiles, in storage surplus. SA10 Grumble: 10 launchers in service (up to 50 more in reserve), modified to intercept ballistic missiles along with other upgrades including range, some have been modernized to S400 standards, 75 missiles.

A parading Bulgarian S-300. SA13 Gopher: 20 launchers in service, 500 missiles in service, used for battlefield striking points, locally produced. 2K11 Krug/ SA-4 Ganef: 30 launchers with 150 missiles in reserve. VT1 Surface-to-Air Missile: Unknown amount in service. Man-portable air defense systems (All locally produced): SA-7 Grail MANPADS: 6,700 missiles in service with an unknown amount of launchers. SA-14 Gremlin MANPADS: 200 missiles in service with an unknown amount of launchers.

SA-16 Gimlet MANPADS: 200 missiles in service with an unknown amount of launchers. SA-18 Grouse MANPADS: Unknown amount of missiles/launchers in service.

A Bulgarian made Strela 3 displayed at HEMUS 2004. Ballistic Missile Systems: NOTE: In 2004 all ballistic (except SS-21 which was harboured secretly until recent years when the US lost interest, note it would have been included as the US ordered the destruction of the short ranged frog-7 missiles) missiles/rockets (but not TEL Launchers/bare warheads) were scrapped of their internal mechanical parts and the warheads were destroyed except for the SS 21 missiles and warheads, meaning that only the SS 21 has active missiles and warheads. The TEL’s were retired and stored later on for obvious reasons, not being part of the demolition deal. SS21 Scarab-A/SS-21 Scarab-B Tochka: 18 launchers, some scarab A along with some scarab B missiles with 36 missiles total, 28 carrying 482 kg (1,063 lb) of conventional HE (high explosives), along with fragmentation 9N123F warheads (lethal radius more than 200 m (660 feet)) and 8 being 9N123K cluster warheads (the cluster warheads seem to have been disposed of as part of the ratification treaty but not the missiles (as the missiles to not contribute to the warhead’s fillings) as Bulgaria is a member of the cluster bomb ratification force). Bulgaria also has 1 ballistic missile capable warhead, but it is unknown if it is compatible with the SS-21’s missiles. These particular launchers seem to have been taken from the abandoned ex-Soviet nuclear missile base in Sliven or possibly the abandoned ex-Soviet nuclear missile base in Sofia, as the Soviets did leave behind arms dumps in both bases, and these TEL’s are perfectly capable of launching nuclear warheads, meaning that the TEL’s may have been present for that exact reason. There are no recorded arms sales for the TEL’s entering Bulgaria. The Scarab A’s have 70km of range while the Scarab B’s have 120km of range. Bulgaria also overhauls and manufactures spare parts for the missiles and their launch units.

A Bulgarian SS-21 firing.

The tactical ballistic missile launcher roaming the suburban Bulgarian streets on parade.

A Bulgarian Scarab A.

A Bulgarian SS-21 in launch position.

2 Bulgarian SS-21’s side by side.

2 Bulgarian Scarab B launchers ahead of an OSA missile complex on parade.

A Bulgarian SS-21 column. SS23 Spider: 24 fully operational TEL’s without missiles/warheads. Retired and stored. Bulgaria also overhauls and manufactures spare parts for the missiles and their launch units.

A Bulgarian SS23 in launching position at the Museum of Sofia without a war head and with a hollowed out missile.

2 SS 23 launchers at the TEREM plant in 2002 to have their missiles ratified. SCUD B: 67 fully operational TEL’s but no missiles/warheads. Retired and stored. Bulgaria also overhauls and manufactures spare parts for the missiles and their launch units.

The displayed TEL with a missile in launching position, but no warhead and a hollowed out missile. FROG 7: 24 fully operational TEL’s but with no missiles/rockets/warheads. Retired and stored. Bulgaria also overhauls and manufactures spare parts for the missiles and their launch units (meaning that Bulgaria would be capable of repairing the disabled missiles that had their internal parts destroyed in 2002, and this goes for all of Bulgaria’s ballistic missiles). Small Arms: Side-arms: Makarov PM (Arsenal PM01 copy as well as government owned factory produced vanilla’s) 9x18 handgun(also comes in 9x19mm and 9x17mm) (local production), SIG Pro SP 2022 9x19 handgun (Military Police), Arcus 98DA 9x19 handgun (Special Forces), Stechkin automatic pistol (Special forces and police forces), Lugar P08 (retired, stored, locally produced and improved version known as the Georg Luger), Nagant M1895 revolver (retired, stored), Arsenal PM02 (locally produced and designed), 26mm signal pistol (locally produced), 6.35 mm SPS pistol (locally produced),

5.6 mm SPS (LR) pistol (locally produced). Mauser C96 (captured from Ottoman Empire, now in storage as surplus), MUD Pistol (rare, locally produced, stored as surplus), Tokarev TT-33 (known to have been issued to captains in the reserve), 5.45 PSM (in service).

A Bulgarian MUD Pistol.

A Bulgarian soldier with a Mauser C96 during the first Balkan war.

A 6.35mm SPS Pistol of the Bulgarian army.

An Arsenal PM02.

A 26mm signal pistol. Assault rifles: AK-47 7.62x39 assault rifle (local production), AKMS 7.62x39 assault rifle (local production), AR-M1 7.62x39 assault rifle by Arsenal JSCo Standard issue infantry rifle (An AK-74 based rifle chambered in 7.62x39mm for service (the current version in service does not utilize the muzzle break, so it is often confused for an AK-47 as it lacks the standard AK-74 aesthetic trademark) but also available in 5.45 and 5.56 calibres, it utilizes the stopping power of the AK-47/M rifle and the accuracy system of the AK-74, not to be confused with the AR-1 AK-47 type 3 rifle and former main service rifle of the Bulgarian army) the current version in service is a 7.62x39mm version of the modern model with varying finish and the muzzle break removed in most service branches, AR-M2, AR-M3, AR-M4, AR-M5, AR-M6, AR-M7, AR-M8, AR-M9, AR-M10, AR-M11, AR-M12, AR-M13, AR-M14 (All models of the locally produced/designed AR series are available in SF form, FS form, and in a variety of 7.62 (x39)mm, 5.45mm, and 5.56mm, M74 AK Variant rifle (produced locally, in reserve/surplus storage), SSR-85C2 (original Bulgarian AK Variant, in reserve/surplus storage), AK-74 (In reserve/surplus storage, produced locally), AR-M4SF 7.62x39/5.56x45 carbine rifle by Arsenal JSCo (Special Forces), G36C 5.56x45 assault rifle (Military Police), Steyr AUG 5.56x45 assault rifle (in limited use with the SOBT only), SKS&m59/66 (Yugoslavia and USSR sold them to Bulgaria and in use with the national guard), AKKMS (AKMS), AKKN47 (fittings for NPSU night sights), AK-47M1 (Type 3 with black polymer furniture), AK-47MA1/AR-M1 (same as -M1, but in 5.56 mm NATO), AKS-47M1 (AKMS in 5.56×45mm NATO), AKS-47S (AK-47M1, short version, with East German folding stock, laser aiming device), AKS-47UF (short version of -M1, Russian folding stock), AR-SF (same as −47UF, but 5.56 mm NATO), AKS-93SM6 (similar to −47M1, cannot use grenade launcher), RKKS (RPK), AKT-47 (.22 rimfire training rifle), SVT 40 (retired, stored), Barr 95 (entire Barr series is locally designed and produced by Arsenal JS.co as a battle rifle for the Bulgarian army), Barr 96, Barr 97, Barr 100, Barr 101, HK416, M16A2 (in storage, some used by Americans in US bases on Bulgarian soil but kept in storage at Aytos logistics center).

An AR-M1 in 7.62x39mm.

An AR-M14.

Bulgarian and American soldiers train with M16A2’s.

A Barr 97.

A Barr 96.

A Bulgarian AK-74.

A Bulgarian Military Police trooper with an AK variant.

Bulgarian reservists with SKS’s.

A Bulgarian made 5.56mm AK variant.

Bulgarian special forces thermal Kalashnikov’s.

A Bulgarian soldier using an AKS-74. Submachine guns: H&K MP5 9x19 SMG (Special Forces, Military Police), Arsenal Shipka 9x19 (issued to tank crews for its light weight and compatibility in close quarters), PM-63 9x18 SMG (Special Forces), Suomi KP/-31 (up to 5,505, stored, retired), PPS 42/3 (retired, stored), MP-34 (retired, stored), MP-40 (retired, stored), PPSH-41 (retired, stored, locally produced), MG-34 (retired, stored), MG-30 (retired, stored), PPD 40 (retired, stored), 9x19mm BORD Sub-machine Gun (locally produced/designed by Arsenal), 9x19mm Parabellum Sub-machine Gun ARCUS-96 (locally produced/designed SMG), Uzi SMG (special forces), Spasov M1939 (Rare, stored as surplus, locally produced), Spasov M1944 (Rare, stored as surplus, locally produced) Spasov M1944 Tri-Gun (Rare, stored as surplus, locally produced).

A Bord SMG.

An Arcus 98 SMG.

The Spasov M1944 Tri Gun.

A Bulgarian soldier in WW2 with a PPD-40 in the centre of the photo (Note, this photo is post 1944 as they all seem to be equipped with standard issue Russian equipment sent from Moscow that same year, meaning that it is not captured, as Bulgarians never confronted the red army in WW2 in battle).

The markings on a Bulgarian PPSH-41 receiver.

Sniper rifles: Dragunov 7.62x54 sniper rifle (local production), H&K MSG90A1 7.62x51 sniper rifle (Special Forces), H&K PSG-1A1 7.62x51 sniper rifle (Military Police), Blaser R93 Tactical sniper rifle (Special Forces, SOBT), Barrett M82 12.7x99 sniper rifle (SOBT), Steyr-Mannlicher M1888, SteyrMannlicher M1890, Steyr-Mannlicher M1895 (retired, stored), Peabody-Martini (retired, stored), Berdan (retired, stored), Turkish Mauser rifles (retired, stored), Mauser M1880 and M1907 (retired, stored), Mosin-Nagant 1891/30 (retired, stored), M1867 Russian Krnka (retired, stored), Karabiner 98k (retired, stored), 7.62 x 39 mm MAZALAT S (locally produced SKS variant), Solothurn S-18/100 Anti-Tank cannon rifle (retired, stored).

A MAZALATS S carbine.

A Bulganian soldier using a Dragunov in combat in Afghanistan. Machine guns: RPK 7.62x39 LMG and 5.45x39 (Special forces), PK machine gun 7.62x54 universal machine gun (local production), MG-M1 7.62x51 universal machine gun (PK machine gun derivative by Arsenal JSCo), NSV 12.7×108mm heavy machine gun, M2 Browning HMG, Maxim gun (retired, stored), Maschinengewehr 08(possibly /15) (retired, stored), RPD (locally produced, in service/reserve/storage), 7.62 x 54 mm Tank Machine Gun (locally produced), 2.7 mm Multi-Purpose Machine Gun (locally produced), 12.7 mm Infantry Machine Gun (locally produced), 2.7 mm Tank Machine Gun (locally produced), 14.5 mm Anti-aircraft Double Machine Gun (locally produced), Madsen LMG (unknown amount in storage as surplus), Schwarzlose MG M.07/12 (retired and stored as surplus), Spasov

M1931/36 LMG (locally produced, rare, stored as surplus), Chauchat MG (captured during World War 1, retired, stored).

A Spasov LMG.

Bulgarian soldiers during the first Balkan war, one of which has a Madsen LMG.

A Bulgarian 7.62x54mm tank machine gun.

A Bulgarian 2.7mm Multi-Purpose Machine Gun.

A Bulgarian 12.7mm Infantry machine gun.

A Bulgarian 2.7mm tank machine gun.

A Bulgarian 14.5 mm Anti-aircraft Double Machine.

A Bulgarian MG08 during the 1930’s.

A Bulgarian special forces thermal PKM.

A Bulgarian soldier in Afghanistan with a PKM. AT weapons: RPG-22 LAW (local production), RPG-7 LAW (local production), ATGL-L5 LAW (mod. RPG-7 by Arsenal JSCo), SPG-9DNM 73mm recoilless rifles (local production), RPG-29, Panzerschreck (retired, stored), Panzerfaust (retired, stored). Mortars: 60 mm M6-211, 81 mm M8, 82 mm M82, 120 mm 2S12 Sani, 120 mm 2S12 "Tundzha-Sani" self-propelled on MT-LB, 356 in service. Grenade based arms: Belgium 18mm FN 303 less-lethal launcher (Military Police), GP-25 Kastyor underbarrel grenade launcher (local production), UBGL-M6 underbarrel grenade launcher by Arsenal JSCo, UBGL-M7 underbarrel grenade launcher by Arsenal JSCo, AGL-30 30x25 automatic grenade launcher locally produced model, AGS-17 derivate by Arsenal JSCo, 40x53, Mk 19 grenade launchers (imported), 40mm lavina revolving grenade launcher (locally produced/designed), 37/38mm-40mm Ozellikler (locally produced/designed).

The 37/38mm-40mm Ozellikler anti-riot gun.

A Bulgarian Lavina. Explosives (note: all of the following are locally produced):

Grenades: RGO-78 Defensive Hand Grenade.

RGD-5 Offensive Hand Grenade.

RGN-86 Offensive Hand Grenade.

Mines: TM-62M Antitank Mine.

TM-62 PZ Antitank Mine.

OM-1-SHM Cluster-warhead Mine.

AHM-1 Anti-helicopter Mine.

Anti-transportation Mine.

PMN-250 Fragmentation.

PDM-1B е Anti-amphibious Mine.

PDM-2B е Anti-amphibious Mine.

SM-1 Signalling Mine.

PDM-2S Anti-amphibious Mine.

TMD-1 Anti-tank Mine. Anti-Radiation Clothing (NOTE: All of the following is locally produced): PMG Medium Filter Respirator.

PDE-1 Combined Arms Respirator.

PG-1 Respirator. PF-90 Combined Arms Respirator.

OKIZ Combined Arms Disposable Skin Protection Kit.

LZK-75 Light Protection Overall. Body Armour (note: all of the following is MARS (with the exception of the M36 helmet) brand and

locally produced): Model 11 Optimum protection.

Model 12 Enhanced Protection.

Model 21 Guard.

Model 22 Side Protection.

Model 31 Optimum Protection.

Model 55 Modular.

Model 56 Ultra.

Model 57 Safeguard.

Model 58 Extreme.

Model 61 Coast Guard.

Model 62 Navy.

Model 75 Fragmentation.

Model 76 Modular.

Model 77 Comfo.

Model 78 Special.

Model 82 Ultra-Light Vest.

Model 83 Quick Release.

Demining Suit.

Demining Visor.

A Bulgarian De-miner soldier in a juggernaut-like suit.

Bulgarian M36 helmet Type C.

Combat Helmet BK-3.

Combat Helmet BK-4.

COMBAT HELMET BK3V-150.

Parachutist Combat Helmet.

Navy: Bulgaria’s navy consists mainly of Bulgarian and Russian made ships, but some do come in from foreign countries into Bulgarian service. Bulgaria’s navy has suffered a lot during the Angelov era of the Bulgarian armed forces, including the retirement of Bulgaria’s last submarine, but the rebuilding process initiated by Bulgaria’s new defense minister seems promising to the cause of re-building the navy (though he is currently focusing on the land forces).

Bulgarian navy sailors. Submarines: 4 Romeo class submarines retired and stored at port or in a museum (2 stored, 2 museum), one fully operational, one lacking battery (of the subs at the museum), 2 simply surplus for lack of use/excessive needs for maintenance yet an empty requirement. 2 Stored in military port and retired. One submarine, Nadejda, has been turned into a museum piece, as well as Slava, though Slava still seems to be occasionally active and maintained, though mainly for display purposes on behalf of the state owned naval museum of Varna and the other 2 Romeo Subs are simply surplus (the Bulgarian navy is known to occasionally sail Slava though as constitutionally, state owned military museums are divisions of the Bulgarian armed forces). Bulgaria also has 2 surplus Whiskey class patrol subs retired and in storage. Bulgaria also has 3 Type M submarines in storage. In total, 7 subs (3 Type M, 2 Romeo and 2 Whiskey) are stored as surplus and 2 (Romeo) are docked as museum exhibits. Unlisted types include some 20+ unknown variant submarines that have become surplus.

The Bulgarian SLAVA Submarine on a minor sailing exorcise post retirement.

The 2 docked submarines SLAVA and NADEJDA.

Slava sailing post retirement. Ships: Training ship Hull number 421, Tugboat Hull number 410, Fireboat, Akheloy (321) Project 250 fireboat, Tanker Akin (303) Project 650 tanker, Cutter Hull numbers 331 Project 612 survey cutter, Cutter Hull numbers 323 Project 245 cutter, Cutter Hull numbers 312, 313 Project 160 multi-purpose cutter, Landing ship Antares (301) Polnocny class landing ship, Tugboat Hull number 211, Rescue ship Proteo (224), Tanker Balchik (203) Project 650 tanker, Cutter Hull numbers 231 Project 612 survey cutter, Cutter Hull numbers 223 Project 245 cutter, Cutter Hull numbers 121, 215, 216 Project 160 multipurpose cutter, Degaussing ship Captain I rank Dimitar Dobrev (206) Type 1799 degaussing ship, Minesweeper Hull numbers 65, 66, 67, 68 Yevgenya class minesweeper, Minesweeper Priboi (63) (Прибой - breaking wave) Sonya class minesweeper, Minesweeper Shkval (62) (Шквал - squall) Sonya class minesweeper, Minesweeper Briz (61) (Бриз - sea breeze) Sonya class minesweeper, Missile boat

Hull numbers 103, 104, 111, 113 Osa class missile boat, CorvetteMulniya (101) (Мълния - Lightning) Tarantul Class, Frigate Gordi (43) (Горди - Proud) Wielingen Class, Frigate Verni (42) (Верни - Loyal) Wielingen Class, Frigate Drazki (41) (Дръзки - Daring) Wielingen Class, Minesweeper Captain I rank Dimitar Paskalev (36) Vanya class, Minesweeper Captain-leutenant Kiril Minkov (34) Vanya class, Minesweeper Dobrotich (33) Vanya class, Minesweeper Iskar (31) Vanya class, Minesweeper Hull numbers 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56 6x Olya class minesweeper, Minesweeper Tsibar (32) Tripartite Class, ASW Corvette Bodri (14) (Бодри - Brisk) Pauk Class, ASW Corvette Reshitelni (13) (Решителни - Decisive) Pauk Class, Frigate Smeli (11) (Смели - Brave) Koni Class, Strogi patrol boat, Hrabri patrol boat, Smeli patrol boat, Drazki patrol boat.

2 Bulgarian battle ships. Not specified Vessels: Support Vessels: 18. Mine Vessels (Vydra class, PO-2 class, Sonya class, Vanya class, Yengenya class, Olya class): 30. Transport/Amphibian Warfare Vessels (Vydra class, Polnochny class): 25. Missile/Torpedo/Patrol Boats (Osa II, Osa I, Zhuk): 14.

A soviet missile boat the way it was before being handed over to the Bulgarian navy.

A Pre-Bulgarian service missile boat of the soviet navy, later to be transferred to the Bulgarian navy. Corvettes (Poti class, Pauk I class, Tarantul II class): 9. Frigates (Riga class, Koni class): 4+. Anti-Ship Missiles: 95 P-15MC Termit missiles with 80km of range (ballistic missile use capable, compatible with retired Bulgarian SA-2 launchers to act as the K-15 Krajina Ballistic Missile), Exocet, RIM7 Sea Sparrow.

A Bulgarian P-15 missile boat on patrol.

A Bulgarian missile boat carrying P-15 missiles.

An Osa rocket boat carrying P-15 missiles in Bulgarian service. Close-in weapon systems: AK-630: Unknown amount in service. AK-230: 2 in service. Cruise Missiles: P-5/35 Pyatyorka missile: 4K44/95 Redut: SSC-1/A/B Shaddock/Sepal/ SPU-35B/V model launcher system: 500-1000km range. The land launched variant SSC-1-A (with a 1000 kg high explosive warhead) is used by the Bulgarian navy as coastal artillery (essentially a P-5/35 SS-N-3C Shaddock unmounted launcher and missile transported and launched by a ZIL-135KM/BAZ erector truck). These are not the SS-N-3C/B/A boat/submarine welded and launched submarine/boat variants as even though the navy has 2 decommissioned Whiskey class subs, they are both patrol variants, not missile variants, the missile variants only existing as converted subs in the USSR, and very few were built (only 17 were converted into missile guiding submarines and all served only in the soviet navy). Only patrol variants were ever exported, meaning that the only means for Bulgaria to utilize this technology would be in the TEL land launched form, as Bulgaria does not possess any other launching platforms (Whiskey missile specific/Juliet/Echo submarines or Kynda/Kresta I class cruisers) for the missile. Bulgaria also does not have any of the bombers capable of dropping the missile (TU-16, TU-22, TU-95) In fact, the only exported model of the missile launcher is the land launched variant. These are also not the stationary bunker-concrete variants (4K44 Utes) as they only exist on the Ukrainian Black Sea coast and on a Russia (ex-Finish) Island (Sevastopol and Kildin Island), only 2 ever even being made. The launcher in question (the SSC-1A) was listed to have been in use with the Bulgarian coastal artillery units, and still is (with the 2nd Coastal Anti-Ship Missile and Artillery Battalion). The missile and launcher model in question was intended to threaten coastlines initially, and currently, this is Bulgaria’s only means of threatening other country's coastlines as the USSR did with the US, being used for exactly that purpose during communism against the Turkish coast.

Demonstrative concept of the cruise missile/launcher in service with the Bulgarian navy. SSC-3/4K40/4K51 Rubezh Coastal Defence System: 1 launcher in service. SSC-2: land launched variant of the AS-1 air launched cruise missile, 6 launchers in service, 100-200km range. Air Force: The Bulgarian air force is currently in the process of a great modernization period, with Bulgaria demanding a modern fighter in service (the deal was the purchase of F16’s, but when Angelov came out of power as defense minister, the search still takes place, but the new deal for the fighters is still in a stage of finding a dealer. Israel offered Bulgaria cheaper F16 recently, and it looks as if this deal will replace the Portuguese F16 deal. Also, Bulgaria’s MiG 29’s, one of Bulgaria’s only current generation model fighters, have been upgraded, modernized and overhauled to be modern for up to 40 more years), and awaiting the establishment of a drone unit in 2013.

Bulgarian pilots walk to their MiG 29’s.

Combat planes: Lisunov Li-2: Unknown amount in service. Yak-52: Unknown amount in service. Tupolev Tu-2: Unknown amount in service. Petlyakov Pe-2: Unknown amount grounded. Yakovlev Yak-7: 3 grounded. L-29 Delfín: 102 grounded.

A grounded Bulgarian delfin. Su-17: 23 grounded. MiG 15: 140, 78 in service, the rest are grounded.

3 Museum bound MiG 15’s.

A grounded MiG 15 at Kamenets air force base.

A Bulgarian displayed MiG-15 at a museum.

A Bulgarian MiG 15 being repaired in preparation for a national air show in 2010, note: it still bears the communist insignia.

An MiG 15 at the aviation museum in Sofia

A grounded MiG 15 MiG 17: 130 grounded.

A Bulgarian surplus MiG 17 stored at an airport. Avia B-534: 78, retired, grounded. Dewoitine D.520: Unknown amount grounded. Laz-7: Locally designed and produced armed trainer aircraft with duel AA guns and bombing capabilities, 313 produced since 1948 (163 of which stayed in the Bulgarian air force’s inventory, 150 being sold to Poland and Egypt) and are still used by the National Defense University Vasil Levski as a trainer for pilots.

A Laz 7 at Krumovo air base. DAR-8: Locally designed/produced, 12 grounded. DAR 6: Locally designed/produced, unknown amount grounded. PZL P.24: 36 grounded. PZL.23 Karaś: Unknown amount grounded. Lioré et Olivier LeO H-246: Unknown amount grounded. Bloch MB.210: 6 grounded.

Messerschmitt Bf 109: Up to 164 in grounded. Messerschmitt Bf 108: Up to 6 grounded. DAR 10: 2 grounded, locally designed/produced.

A DAR-10. Caproni Ca.309: Locally produced under license, grounded. Caproni Ca.113: Locally produced/designed, grounded. Panavia Tornado: At least 1, currently on display at a state owned museum. Avia B-135: Locally produced/designed, 12 grounded. DAR 9 Siniger: Locally designed/produced, up to 42 grounded. Laz-12: Locally designed/produced (prototype stage, 1954), grounded.

An Laz 12.

A Bulgarian Laz 12 prototype. Laz-8: Locally designed/produced (prototype stage, 1949), grounded.

A Bulgarian Laz-8 prototype. PZL.43: Up to 50 grounded. Letov Š-28: Up to 62 grounded. Lisunov Li-2: Unknown amount retired, grounded. Avia B-135: Unknown amount, grounded, retired. PZL P.11: Unknown number, retired, grounded. Dewoitine D.520: Unknown amount, retired, grounded. Kaproni Bulgarski KB-11 Fazan: Locally produced, retired, grounded. Arado Ar 65: 12, retired, grounded. Heinkel He-51: 12, retired, grounded. Junkers Ju 87 "Stuka": 52 retired, grounded.

Junkers Ju 52: Unknown amount grounded. Heinkel He 46: Unknown amount grounded. Heinkel He 45: Unknown amount grounded. Heinkel He 42: Unknown amount grounded. Focke-Wulf Fw 189: Unknown amount grounded. Focke-Wulf Fw 58: Unknown amount grounded. Focke-Wulf Fw 44: Unknown amount grounded. Fieseler Fi 156: Unknown amount grounded. Dornier Do 17: 27 in storage as surplus. Dornier Do 11: Unknown amount grounded. Arado Ar 196: Unknown amount grounded. Letov Š-28: Up to 62 in grounded. Aero A.304: 1 unit still in service. Tupolev SB: 32 grounded. Avia B.122: Up to 12 grounded. Avia B-135: Unknown amount grounded. Avia B-534: Up to 100 grounded. Junkers Ju 88: A few dozen, grounded. Ilyushin Il-2: 130, retired and grounded.

A displayed Il-2 at the museum of aviation in Sofia, Bulgaria.

A Bulgarian displayed Il-2. Yak 18: Retired, grounded. F-16: 8-9 to be ordered, purchase from Portugal was cancelled as GERB went out of power and BSP decided to buy from a cheaper surplus that would become less valuable and less expensive as the F-35 was released on the market, and now it is being considered to buy them from an Israeli surplus as a political gesture, given the greatly decreased price the Israeli’s are offering. SU 25: 30, 14 in service, they have been modernized for further years of use and taken from the reserve that they were once in, currently re-established in service.

A Bulgarian SU-25.

A Bulgarian Su-25.

A Bulgarian Su-25 firing its AA cannon and missiles.

A Bulgarian Su-25 landing. Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21: 186 aircraft. 6 in service (to retire in 2015), some grounded.

A Bulgarian MiG-21 Fish-Bed. Ilyushin Il-28: 15 grounded. Yakovlev Yak-17: 5 grounded. Ilyushin Il-10: 50 grounded. Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-29: 17 in service, 4 extras grounded as reserve, the MiG 29’s have been modernized as of 2013 to extend their years of flight and state of modernity for up to 40 more years.

A fleet of Bulgarian MiG 29’s.

A Bulgarian MiG 29 about to take off.

A flying Bulgarian MiG 29.

A Bulgarian pilot by his MiG 29. Aero L-39 Albatros: 36 grounded.

A Bulgarian L-39 Ablatross about to take off. Pilatus PC-9: 6 in service.

A Bulgarian PC-9. MiG-27: Unknown Amount, grounded. MiG-23: 92, grounded.

A parked MiG 23 near a hanger being displayed on a national holiday, Valour day, when air bases open to tours.

A Bulgarian grounded MiG 23.

More grounded MiG 23’s at Katunitza air base.

Additional grounded MiG 23’s.

Grounded Bulgarian MiG 23s.

Su22: 23, retired, grounded.

A parked SU 22 and MiG 27 displayed at the field of a museum in Bulgaria.

A Bulgarian SU-22 grounded at an air base Yak 23: 24, grounded.

A displayed Bulgarian Yak-23. Z 42: Unknown amount in use. Yak 9: Unknown amount acquired in 1947, grounded. Yak 11: 30, Used as training planes.

A map of Yak 11 users, showing Bulgaria. MiG 19: 55 grounded.

Arado Ar 196: Unknown amount, grounded. Combat Helicopters: MiL Mi 8: 25 in service. Bell 430: One military version in service.

The Bell 430 parked. Kamov Ka-25: 4 grounded. Mil Mi-1: 10 grounded. Mil Mi-2: 16 grounded. Mil Mi-4: 7 grounded. Mil Mi-14 Haze: 3 in service + 6 grounded. Mil Mi-24 Hind: 23 in service, 11 of which are moving to the reserve and some as surplus or to be sold. An extra 13 are grounded.

A Bulgarian MiL Mi-24 gunship over the Sozopol coast. Utility/Transport Craft: Airbus A319 CFM: 1 in service.

Polikarpov Po-2: 10 grounded. An-22: Unknown amount grounded. Airbus A320: 11 in service. British Aerospace 146: 4 grounded. Airbus A319: 3 in service. Embraer E-190: 9 in service. Ilyushin Il-18: 12in service. Antonov An-14: Unknown amount in service. Yakovlev Yak-12: Unknown amount grounded. Yakovlev Yak-40: 12 retired and grounded. Ilyushin Il-12: Unknown amount grounded. Ilyushin Il-14: 4 in service, 16 grounded. PC-12: One in service. Tupolel Tu-154: One in service. Dassault Falcon 2000: One in service, 44 in grounded. Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker: 6 in service. AgustaWestland AW139: One in service. Piaggio P.180 Avanti: One in service. Kamov Ka-26: Unknown amount, retired, grounded. Tupolev Tu-134: 13, retired, grounded. Alenia C-27J Spartan: 3 are in service. Antonov An-24 Coke: 22 in service. Antonov An-26: 3 in service. Antonov An-30: Unknown amount in service. Antonov AN-2: Unknown amount grounded.

Antonov An-10: Unknown amount in grounded. Antonov An-12: 8 in service. Boeing 737-300: 5 in service. Zlin Z-37 Cmelak: Unknown amount in service. Let L-410 Turbolet: 4 in service. Pilatus PC-12: 1 in service. Bell 206 JetRanger: 6 in service.

A Bulgarian Bell helicopter. Eurocopter AS 532 Cougar: 12 in service.

A Cougar in flight in the Bulgarian air force. Eurocopter AS565 Panther: 3 in service. Mil Mi-17/8: 33, 8 of which are in use.

A Bulgarian Mi-17. AgustaWestland AW109: 1 in service.

Tactical Air-to-surface missiles: KS-1 Komet: 6 land based SSC-2 launchers in service, 100 in service. Kh-23/AS-7: Currently kept on Bulgaria’s MiG 21’s, 250 in service. Kh-25/AS-10: Currently kept on Bulgaria’s Su-25 jets, unknown amount of missiles. Kh-29/AS-14: Currently kept on Bulgaria’s Su-25 jets, 162 missiles. Air Defense Air-to-air missiles: R-73/AA-11: 264 missiles in service, launched from Bulgaria’s MiG 21’s, MiG 29’s, Su-25 jets, and Mi-24 attack helicopters. R-27/AA-10: 100 missiles in service, launched from Bulgaria’s MiG 29’s. R-23/AA-7: 185 in service. K-13/AA-2: Up to 2385 in use, launched from Bulgaria’s MiG 21’s. R-60/AA-8: Unknown amount in service, launched from Bulgaria’s MiG 21, 23, 27, and 29’s, along with the Su 17, and 25’s, as well as the Mi 24 and other platforms. Recon/UAV/Drone: P-18 Radar vehicle: Unknown amount in service. P-37 Radar: Unknown amount in service.

FARA Short-range Tactical Ground Surveillance Radar (locally produced).

CREDO Short-range Tactical Ground Surveillance Radar (locally produced).

GR-100 Short-range Tactical Surveillance Radar (locally produced).

Coastal Radar for Surface Targets Detection (locally produced).

ROSA Wind Sounding Radar (locally produced). ROUBIN Ground Radar Simulator (locally produced). Ground Radars 133 and 136 (locally produced).

MR 1102D Small Marine Radar (locally produced).

BS Search and Resque Radar Transpoder (locally produced).

River Radar ELECTRON 4217/4219 (locally produced).

MR 2512AC/TM X-Band Marine Radar (locally produced). FILTER Radar Protection Equipment to Counter Non-Synchronous Pulse Interference DEFRUITER/ (locally produced).

RADON UHF Modulator Radio Set (locally produced). Vessel Trafic Control System (locally produced). Antonov An-30 Clank surveillance plane: 1 in service. Armstechno NITI: Unknown amount in service, small amount used in both military police and regular police forces to maintain police view over Bulgaria and keep an eye on suspected criminals still within the country.

The Armstechno NITI UAV in flight. Armstechno Dulo: UCAV, possibly up for future service as Bulgaria does have a drone program.

The Armstecho Dulo UCAV fitted with small SAM rockets and presumably an aircraft cannon. Telesys Drone: Bulgarian target drone shown off in 2012 and presumably will be in use with the Bulgarian military.

Telesys drones being shown off at an arms show. Tupolev Tu-143: Withdrawn from service, stored as surplus. P-200 target (1975): Locally produced and designed, unknown amount in service. UtRUM target (1974): Locally produced and designed, unknown amount in service. M-200 target (1971): Locally produced and designed, unknown amount in service. RUM-2MB target (1971): Locally produced and designed, unknown amount in service. Bulgaria’s drone program: Currently a Drone Unit of the Bulgarian Military (ISTAR) is being established as of 2013 and is scheduled to be fully established as of the same year with the help of NATO with these drones of Bulgaria and ones of western origin as well. Currently, Bulgaria is part of NATO’s drone program and is operating combat drones in Afghanistan. Later on, Bulgaria will be supplied with by NATO with 5 Alliance Ground Surveillance (AGS) system Global Hawk UAV’s and their associated command and control bases/stations before 2015.

The Global Hawk UAV as shown in CGI.

The poster showing Bulgaria as a member and receiver of the drones. Aircraft Weapons: Kh-29ML air-to-ground missile (on Su-25 ground attack jets), S-5 unguided rocket (on Su-25 and Mi-24 helicopters, manufactured locally), GSh-30-1 cannon, GSh-23 cannon, NR-30 cannon, AA-2 Atoll short-range AA missile, AA-8 Aphid short-range AA missile, AA-10 Alamo medium-range AA missile, AA-11 Archer short-range AA missile. Transport Cars: ZIL131 Trucks: Unknown number, known to hold the ZU232 AA Gun as a turret piece. Bridge Layers: BLG 67 Bridge Layer: Large amount in service, Bulgaria being one of the main users. MTU-12: At least 1, on display at a state owned museum.

The bridge layer at the museum in Sofia. TMM: At least one, on display at a state owned museum.

Special: BTM ditching machine: At least one on display at a state owned museum. Local Productions List: Small Arms: AR series - AR-M1 assault rifle and others. The basic AR-M1 is chambered in 5.45x39 mm, has a 600 rpm rate of fire, 900 m/s muzzle velocity, nearly 600 g lighter than the original AK-74 (loaded weight), somewhat more durable, a rail for an optical or reflex sights. Also made in 5.56mm NATO and 7.62mm Warsaw pact rounds. AKS-74u assault rifle. Ak-47 Assault Rifle produced as AKK. Arsenal Shipka submachine gun. LMG light machine gun. MG-M1 general purpose machine gun. Arcus 98DA pistol. Makarov PM pistol. RPD light machine gun (locally produced but only in reserve/storage). AKM Assault Rilfe (produced locally). DShK HMG. AK74 Assault rifle. M74 Ak74 clone. Artillery: Mortars - 60–120 mm. 2S12 Tundzha SP mortars (two variants - 82 and 120 mm). 2S1 Karamfil SP howitzers. Anti-tank weapons: SPG-9DNM recoilless rifle. RPG-7 grenade launcher. RPG-22 one-shot disposable rocket launcher (issued as a round of ammunition). AT-3 Sagger ATGM. AT-4 Spigot ATGM. AT-5 Spandrel ATGM. Armoured Vehicles: BMP-1. MT-LB/U in different versions. BMP-23/30. BTR-60. T72M2. BRDM-2. BMP-1 (P and other variants). Missiles and rockets: Rockets for BM-21. S-5 rocket. Various SAM missiles for different systems. Most of the navy’s ships are Bulgarian made. Ammunition: Starshel ECM round, RPG rounds, 5.45, 5.56, 7.62, 9, 12.7, 14.5, 23, 40, 57, 60, 73, 81, 82, 100, 120, 122, 125, 130, 152 mm ammunition. Other: Armstechno NITI drone, Armstechno Dulo UCAV, Telesys drone, jammers for remotely detonated bombs, UBGL-1 underbarrel grenade launcher in different variants, handheld radios, guidance systems for missiles, avionics for aircraft, uniforms and helmets, optical instruments, night vision equipment, AGS-17 automatic grenade launcher, AGS-30 automatic grenade launcher. Companies: Apolo GmbH uniforms, State military technology institute, Arsenal AD oldest weapons manufacturer (est. 1878), largest machine-building company in the country, produces pistols, submachine guns, assault rifles, light machine guns, machine guns, grenade launchers, mortars, air-defense systems, anti-tank grenade launchers, automatic grenade launchers, ammunition for small arms, artillery rounds, bombs, anti-tank weapons ammunition, unguided rockets and others, TEREM mostly ammunition and spares, VMZ Sopot anti-tank guided and unguided missiles, MANPADs and various other SAM’s, aviation unguided missiles and artillery ammunition (one of the richest Bulgarian companies), Samel 90 communication equipment, surface-to-air missiles and others, Armstechno drones and UAVs, Arsenal Las Vegas (largest producer of AK’s in the US, semi auto rifles and pistols in

co-op with Saiga, mostly Bulgarian rifles produced, parts brought in from Bulgaria), Beta-Cherven briag (produces armoured vehicles). Customers: Chad, Chile, People's Republic of China, Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Georgia, Greece, Guinea, India, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Macedonia, Mauritania, Mali, Nepal, Poland, Rwanda, Sweden, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Yemen.

Iraqi police using Bulgarian AR-M1’s with the muzzle breaks attached. Market strategy: Bulgaria mainly sells to countries that are at war, mostly 3rd world countries in a civil war. The products are what they need to they will pay handsomely for them, fuelling the war, and the use of the products continues the war, so they need even more, continuing a cycle. This was displayed when Bulgaria sold to both North and South Yemen during the war, how Bulgaria sold to both Serbia and Croatia during the war, how Bulgaria sold to Ethiopia and Eretria during the war, and how Bulgaria currently sells to Mali during their war. One of Bulgaria’s main competitors in the defense industry is Ukraine, who sell higher grade weapons at a low price, but seldom see at-war 3rd world countries buying from them as their equipment is still far more expensive in terms of pricing than Bulgarian equipment. Significant customers: India buys AR M1’s for a great portion, almost entire portion of the police/military police, and a rather great deal of the Indian army as well. Mali buys a lot from Bulgaria in their time of war. Annual Exports: About $400 million annually since 2011, meaning that Bulgaria possesses the largest defense industry in the region, in fact in the entire Balkans. Annual Spending: 1.36% of GDP 727736000 USD. Size: 371475 total people. Military Bases: Vrazhdebna Air Base, Sofia, Graf Ignatievo Air Base, Plovdiv region, Krumovo Air Base, Plovdiv region, Bezmer Air Base, Yambol region, Nebneb Air Base, Burgas region, Dolna Mitropoliya Air Base, Pleven region, Varna Naval Base, Varna, Atiya Naval Base, Burgas region, Chayka Naval Air Base, Varna, Novo Selo Range in Sliven region, Aytos Logistics Center in Burgas region + Multiple smaller bases in other regions still active, or formerly active bases now acting as reserve/storage bases in places such as Montana province.

Bulgarian Mi-24 attack helicopters grounded at Krumovo Air Base.

MiG 21’s and 29’s at the Graf Ignatievo air base on the main operating flight field. Significance: Novo Selo Range is a large training facility/military base dual complex with a large range for training along with both a Bulgarian and American military sector, being used for Co-ops when the time comes for such purposes, also holding the reserve equipment of both sides. Aitos Logistics Center is a complex of both Bulgarian and American military indoor and outdoor storage facilities, holding Bulgarian retired equipment that is no longer actively used in either main service or reserve(including vehicles, most notably a large variety of retired tanks numbering around 1000 Bulgarian tanks) and American equipment stored for the troops staying in Bulgaria to strengthen its defenses. All of Bulgaria’s retired military equipment (for the ground forces) is stored there. Also, the comlex is designated to be furtherly developed with the help of the US as part of the military co-op. Also, many of the air bases hold retired and grounded aircraft no longer actively used, stored in hangers and outdoor sections. No longer active bases are still used as storage and reserve bases. Joint Bulgarian-American Co-Op Bases: Bezmer Air Base in Yambol Province, Novo Selo Range in Sliven Province, Aitos Logistics Center in Burgas Province, Graf Ignatievo Air Base in Plovdiv Province. These bases are sites with dual facilities belonging to both sides, housing American reserve troops that provide defensive support of Bulgaria, being a NATO member and ally, and ensuring the support of the US forces in case of an attack, and overall ensuring that there will be no challenger.

American Thunder Birds at Graf Ignatievo air base. Bulgarian Military operations: Libya, Gadhafi era, 9000 military and non-military advisers helping the regime, Nicaraguan revolution, unknown amount of commanders in support of communism, Iraq, 1991, 270 soldiers, Cambodia 1992-1993, 850 troops 34 military observers peacekeeping, Angola military observation, 1995–2000 48 military observers, Tajikistan 1995-2000 27 military observers, Bosnia and Herzegovina 1997 peace keeping 140 soldiers, Croatia 1991-2001 demining and fighting against the JNA, Ethiopia/Eritrea, peacekeeping 11 military observers 2001-2004, Serbia peacekeeping 2000-present 10 soldiers, Republic of Macedonia 1993-2003 humanitarian/anti insurgency, Afghanistan AntiTerrorist/security force 383 soldiers, 2001 to present, Liberia peacekeeping 2003-present 2 soldiers, Georgia 2008-present peacekeeping 12 soldiers, Iraq 2009-2011 training mission with NATO, Libya AprilJune 2011 Operation Unified protector 160 military observers, including a group of 12 naval special commandos with the frigate Drazki, Somalia anti-piracy 2012-present 3 soldiers, , Czechoslovakia 1968, invading and re-enforcing communism.

The Bulgarian military in Afghanistan along with an American posing with them, holding a Bulgarian weapon. The photo shows 2 support gunners, a sniper, and an assault infantry soldier. Modernization Program: The Bulgarian Army has taken major hits since the fall of the USSR, and by 2020 plans to have spent 2 billion Levs (1 Billion Euro’s) on modernizing the Navy and Air force, along with establishing a better line of military groups and divisions such as drone divisions before moving on to the deteriorating land forces. The projects set to be complete by 2020 include:

Setting up a battalion battle group of various types of forces – worth over 100 MLev, which means that it will require the approval of the Parliament; Modernization of the three-second hand frigates bought from Belgium – worth over 50 MLev, therefore requiring the approval of the Cabinet; Purchase of new multipurpose fighter jets – over 100 MLev; Extending the life of the MiG 29 fighter jets – over 50 MLev; Maintenance of the newly purchased Cougar and Panther helicopters – below 50 MLev – requires the approval of the Defense Minister only; Modernization of the navigation systems of the Bulgarian Navy – below 50 MLev; Acquisition of equipment communication and information support of a military detachment; Acquisition of a new land-based military terminal – below 50 MLev; Development of technical systems for strategic surveillance – below 50 MLev; Completing the creation of special operation forces – below 50 MLev; Constructing operational headquarters of the Joint Command – below 50 MLev; “Cyber Defense” project – below 50 MLev; Establishing an automated information system of the military – below 50 MLev. Possible new main service rifle: As of 2012, the Bakalov Carbine chambered in 5.56mm NATO (primarily, but it does come in 5.45 and 7.62 Warsaw Pact cartridges) is undergoing testing in comparison to the normal AR-M1 main service rifle, as it has gained interest from the commando parachute brigade in Plovdiv, and 5 other parts of the army. The weapon is also undergoing testing in 2 other armies that have shown interest in it since 2012. The rifle costs $250 to manufacture while the average AK would cost $850 and up.

The tactical Bakalov carbine as being demonstrated by its creator, Georgi Delchev Bakalov.

The Vanilla Bakalov carbine being demonstrated by Georgi Delchev Bakalov. Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty: Bulgaria has currently signed but not ratified (Bulgaria signed in 1990 but has not carried out the agreement, and with the large reserves lacking

maintenance if does not seem as if Bulgaria plans to carry it out) the following agreements as to military limits: Tanks not more than 1475 units, Armoured Combat Vehicles of which armoured infantry fighting vehicles and not more than 2000 units, heavy armament combat vehicles including heavy armament not more than 1100 units, combat vehicles not more than 100 units, Artillery not more than 1750 units, Combat Aircraft not more than 235 units, Attack helicopters not more than 67 units. New defense minister: Minister of Defence Todor Tagarev took the place of former defense minister Anu Angelov as GERB went out of power in 2012, and shows promising qualities over Angelov. Angelov was known for downsizing the Bulgarian military’s strength in numbers with equipment and soldiers alike, being known to be the reason why the majority of Bulgaria’s equipment is now in reserve, making generally ill-advised decisions such as spending the Bulgarian army’s budget on expensive western aircraft, and downsizing Bulgaria’s strongest military quality, its land forces. When Angelov resigned, this was perceived with much joy among the Bulgarian public in the media, and Tagarev has already made significant repairs to the army such as purchasing a licence for the “Rosomak” AFV, the strategy of waiting for the F35 to enter service so that the F16 will drop in price and become a lot more quantitate in terms of abundance as surplus and therefor lower in price, along with his recent decision to stop the downsizing of the Bulgarian army’s soldiers numbers, along with a decision to revive the land forces as a primary goal of the Bulgarian army to improve on its strongest aspect and focus less on the navy and air force. The new defense minister seems to be making a step in the right direction for the Bulgarian army, and even amending the mistakes of his infamous predecessor.

Todor Tagarev, the new Bulgarian defense minister. Possible mandatory enlistment: As of the 25th of November 2007, mandatory military enlistment has been abolished in Bulgaria, but recently in 2013, BSP plans to possibly re-instate possible military enlistment.

Chemical weapons capability: At some point in time, Bulgaria produced chemical weapons in a plant in Smyadovo that is currently still open (but had instead been producing civilian chemicals), and supposedly the capability (the formula, production schematics) are still present. The production of chemical weapons halted due to the ratification (but not accession) of the chemical weapons convention until recently in 2006, when the facility began testing various chemical weapons on stray dogs ("Other animals such as dogs, rats or guinea pigs, are used in military experiments, particularly in the testing of chemical warfare agents", Bulgarian National Television quoted the Sofia Military Medical Academy chief, General Stojan Tonev. It was also clarified that Bulgarian military run their own research facility to test various weapons), the number reaching up to 31,377 dogs collected from 2006-2009, when roughly 22,177 were released to their families, the rest being kept for testing, as the animal shelters are already at full capacity at 2000 dogs, along with dozens of thousands of other dogs that have been admitted to have been tested on as of 2013. There are also reports of ex-Libyan Sarin gas being sold in Bulgaria via turkey in 2012. The weapons in Bulgaria’s inventory seem to have been developed for research purposes.

The ex-Libyan Sarin that had supposedly been illegally sold to both customers in Bulgaria, and Georgia. Nuclear Capability: Bulgaria is nuclear capable as it has 2 nuclear reactors and a large uranium dig reserve near Sofia into the Bulgarian countryside. Nuclear mystery: There exists an ex-Soviet Military base in Sliven that supposedly held 70 nuclear warheads, most of which having been shipped to Ukraine in 1989 and in return brought back to Russia, but this was not the end of the story. In the mid 90’s to late 2000’s, there have been dozens cases of Bulgarian nuclear warheads being found in the hands of the Bulgarian Mafia on the black market countless times, reaching a height in 1994 when there were 3 cases of nukes/weapons grade nuclear material being confiscated by authorities from the Mafia and the Mafia’s customers in just the course of less than 2 months, but where did these all come from if the original 70 were supposedly shipped back to USSR? Multiple cases have been recorded, including a French journalist with a ballistic missile compatible warhead, along with an artillery shell version bought from Mafioso’s with 152mm plutonium stuffed warheads which supposedly came from the arms dump in Sliven both of which were bought in 2007. These were supposedly confiscated within the country (unlikely that the journalist could or would

want to sneak them out of the country for non-existent purposes, meaning that local authorities must have confiscated them), and the warheads are now secured by Bulgarian authorities but do not seem to be ratified. A Bulgarian Mafioso even admitted to being approached by a representative of Osama Bin Laden for nuclear material, and they met in Pakistan face to face as directed by his representative as the material was sold to them. There are cases of local mercenaries being caught running from this region with nuclear devices, and on May 16th 2002, a nuclear warhead was confiscated by Bulgarian authorities along with 100 sensor parts from a taxi driver, and the warhead is currently secured. Though Bulgaria has signed and ratified the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, no recovered nuclear weapons at the time meant only the conversion of weapons grade uranium to low enriched uranium (and this was not even part of the treaty, it was a separate deal that did not fall into the treaty), and the fact that Bulgaria did not accede the treaty means that the nuclear weapons were not dismantled, but they never had to be as the nukes were Soviet operated, the nukes also supposedly being shipped back to Ukraine after socialism fell, there also being no information about the confiscated warheads being disposed (as they were technically not operated by the Bulgarian army but captured by Bulgarian authorities and not in Bulgaria’s arsenal, being mere criminal evidence, this being what saved them, it being guaranteed that they are still in possession of the warheads as Bulgaria has not acceded the treaty). A soviet nuclear missile base also existed in Sofia, but little information has been released regarding its details. The state of Bulgaria’s nuclear weapons possession lies at 3 warheads, 1 ballistic missile warhead, and one tactical shell warhead, along with an unknown purpose nuclear warhead. These have been saved form disposal as part of the ratification of the treaty as the Bulgarian army does not operate them, and the warheads are kept as mere evidence. This makes Bulgaria a state which possesses nuclear weapons.

The Soviet arms dump in Sliven.

The 152mm nuclear shell being photographed by the French reported.

An eerily unguarded ex-soviet base in Sliven, one that supposedly holds nuclear warheads.

The outer ex nuclear storage base.

The French man’s nuclear ballistic missile warhead being displayed for the camera.

Bulgarian howitzer shell nukes.

A shot of the French article of a Bulgarian 152mm self-propelled 2S3 howitzer and the nuclear shell.

Another photograph of the abandoned soviet nuclear warhead storage base in Bulgaria.

A shot of the abandoned missile base in Bulgaria. Biological weapons: the Biological weapons convention was ratified by Bulgaria on 8/2/72 (but not acceded, meaning that Bulgaria has not dismantled the biological weapons), and since 2000 has been known to continue to possess and operate biological weapons, for protective purposes and possibly also prophylactic purposes as research, as allowed by the biological weapons convention. The Future: Overall, the Bulgarian military can declare itself to be one of the better non former USSR eastern European nations military wise, boasting an impressive locally produced and modified cold war era soviet stock items and even advancing beyond these with things such as the drone program. Bulgaria has so far avoided importing very much NATO stock equipment, and has severed most connections of Russian military imports, meaning that Bulgaria is left in a semi-independent equipment state, living off of locally modified and improved Soviet equipment along with a lot of license produced Soviet equipment, as well as some locally designed equipment in use. Since 1989, the Bulgarian army has been left to its own devices in terms of equipment, and marks the first time in centuries since Bulgaria has been forces to take initiative in developing and producing local weapons, as during the world wars Germany was willing to entirely equip the Bulgarian army, and during the cold war the USSR groomed the Bulgarian army to take on Turkey and Greece (and possibly Yugoslavia) all at once. Now, the NATO provided equipment has proven too expensive and the Russian equipment unobtainable due to the severed political connections (though this may change soon, with the Russian oil pipelines going through Bulgaria as planned in a deal signed in November 2013 by the BSP and the Russian government, suggesting that Russian political influence may grow, allowing Bulgaria to once again buy Russian equipment), forcing Bulgaria to produce its new equipment and locally modify and modernize existing foreign equipment in service. Misc. Photographs:

Bulgarian soldiers in Afghanistan.

A Bulgarian T72M2 military parade.

An elite Bulgarian military march.

The Bulgarian military in Afghanistan in armoured vehicles.

Fully armed and armoured Bulgarian soldiers in Afghanistan with body armour.

Some Bulgarian reserve soldiers.

Bulgarian forces.

A Bulgarian soldier rides his BMP-23 behind an American soldier.

A Bulgarian fighter jet parked in a residency.

A Bulgarian storage facility.

A Bulgarian T-72 used for training.

A Bulgarian parade trooper.

Bulgarian tanks on a training exercise.

A Bulgarian armoured vehicle parade.

A Bulgarian MiG-29 landing.

A Bulgarian anti-tank unit on parade. …END (Researched by Georgi Svetoslavov Stamov, version of November the 14th, 2013).