This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
SPECIAL ISSUE ON ALEXANDER KLUGE
Alexander Kluge on the Restof Time The Assaultof the Present EricRentschler Not to Forget: Remembering in Stone of A Retrospective Reading Kluge'sBrutality Timothy Corrigan a Voice without The Commerceof Auteurism: Authority Helke Sander "You Can't AlwaysGetWhatYou Want": The Filmsof AlexanderKluge HeideSchliipmann Force:Klugeand Critical as Productive Theory Femininity Koch Gertrud AlexanderKluge'sPhantom of the Opera Alexander Kluge On Opera, Filmand Feelings Richard Wolin Habermas:A Responseto Rajchman On Misunderstanding
JohnRajchman Rejoinder to Richard Wolin Marc Silberman Remembering History:The FilmmakerKonrad Wolf
an interdisciplinary journal of germanstudies
NEW GERMAN of an studies journal interdisciplinary german CRITIQUE
Editors: DavidBathrick Helen Fehervary Miriam Hansen(Chicago), (Ithaca), (Columbus), AndreasHuyssen AnsonRabinbach (NewYork), (NewYork), JackZipes(Minneapolis). Editors: LeslieAdelson(Columbus),Geoff FerencFeher Contributing Eley(AnnArbor), Heller Peter Hohendahl U. (New York), (New York), (Ithaca),Douglas Kellner Agnes EberhardKn6dler-Bunte Sara Lennox(Amherst), AndreiMarkovits (Austin), (Berlin), Eric Rentschler (Cambridge),Biddy Martin (Ithaca), Rainer Naigele (Baltimore), Schmidt (Irvine), (Columbus), Henry (Madison). JamesSteakley Assistant Editors: Ned Brinkley (Ithaca),and KarenKenkel(Ithaca). Assistant: Herrick (Ithaca). Cynthia Project Published three times NY 10009. a yearbyTELOS PRESS,431 E. 12thSt.,New York, NewGerman No. 49 corresponds toVol. 17,No. 1. ? New GermanCritique Inc. Critique 1990.Allrights reserved. New GermanCritiqueis a non-profit, educational organizationsupported ofGermanLiterature ofCornellUniversity and by by theDepartment a grant fromthe Department of Germanand College of Humanities of Ohio State University. should be addressedto: NEW GERMAN CRITIQUE, All editorial correspondence of GermanStudies,185 GoldwinSmithHall, CornellUniversity, Ithaca, Department New York 14853. The annual subscription rateis $22.00 personal;$50.00 institutions. All foreign subscribers 15%extra. Backissuesare availableat $8.50 copyforindividuals and $17.00 a For subscriptions and back issues,writeto: NEW GERMAN copy forinstitutions. Telos Press 431 East 12th New York,NY 10009. Ltd., Street, CRITIQUE, in this and Articles and indexedin Historical Abstracts appearing journal are annotated and American History Life. Note to Contributors: shouldbe preparedin accordancewiththeModManuscripts ern LanguageAssociation StyleSheet,but should continueto includeendnotesand not a listof the bibliography. should also be senton IBM-compatible Manuscripts disksin WordPerfect, ASCII or WORDSTAR format.
NEW GERMAN CRITIQUE
Number 49 Winter1990
SPECIAL ISSUE ON ALEXANDER KLUGE
ARTICLES: .......................................... Introduction
MiriamHansen Alexander Kluge
on theRestofTime .................... 11 ofthePresent The Assault
in Stone A Retrospective Reading of Kluge's Brutality ..............23 EricRentschler Timothy Corrigan
Not to Forget: Remembering
The CommerceofAuteurism: a Voicewithout 43 Authority........ "You Can't AlwaysGet WhatYou Want": The FilmsofAlexander Kluge............................................. 59 Force:Klugeand Critical as Productive ......... 69 Femininity Theory oftheOpera ........................ Alexander Kluge'sPhantom
Gertrud Koch Alexander Kluge Richard Wolin Heide Schliipmann HelkeSander
On Opera,Filmand Feelings................................. .............89 Habermas: On Misunderstanding A Responseto Rajchman .................................................. . 139 Wolin.............................................. to Richard Rejoinder
John Rajchman Marc Silberman
KonradWolf...........163 The Filmmaker Remembering History:
pay$17).For subscription. Lichtblau: Gender Theory Notes Socialism" Meuschel: TheEnd of"East German at 80 Bobbio Adler:Norberto Bobbio with Norberto AnInterview Glotz and Kallscheuer: the Barbiero: After oftheNew Music Aging Eno and NewAgeMusic Hullot-Kentor: Barbiero. cost$28 peryear(four issues)forindividuals. write: Schuler: Adorno's Kierkegaard PressLtd. version of Critical unencumbered mentof an American by conformist Theory or ilos to on internationcontinues focus communication theory Freudianism.53-80.New York NY 10009 Telos . analysis society. 17-51.ISSUE No.50 each(institutions be accepted. on a critical of American al issuesand. ble: 13.Ilos has introduced Sinceitsfirst tothedevelopincontinental world radical Committed thebesttrends thought. Subscriptions will No Canadianchecks orders add 15%. 82 intotheEnglish-speaking issuein May 1968. Foreign Backissuesare $8. 1990) TheElizabethtown (February Luke: XmasIdeology orReaganism? Piccone: XmasIdeology Reviews Science Histories Roth:Divergent ofSexual Blindness Moral Asher:The ofPauldeMan $70 forintiutions. A Quarterly Journal of CriticalThought =TE LO S Articles WINTER 1989-90 States in Ethnic Resolution andSouth Adam: Israel Conflict Africa: Elkins: ThePolitics Ecology ofMystical and Gender Roth: Durkheim Equality and Weber Tdnnies in Simmel.431 E. 12th Street. Have a Future? Does Critical Theory Telos Conference 23-25.Checksmustbe in US funds. Backissuesavailaback issuesor information. increasingly..
Press. Mexico. December Pleaseenter myone-year subscription: Individuals $19.mThe Pressm Johns Hopkins University dliacritics a review criticism ofcontemporary Debra Castillo. Payment: 0 Check or moneyorderenclosed Account# Address: Name Address City Exp. Journals HopkinsUniversity 21211 Baltimore. EA9 Zip ..each issueexamines innovative theory. Division. residents add 5% sales money Maryland tax. other subscribers before shipment.S.90 $45.and Canada add $6. date DIACRITICS March. outsidetheU. bankor be by international order. September. mustbe drawn Payment on a U. 40thStreet. Prepayment is required payable HopkinsUniversity Subscribers inMexicoand Canadaadd$3.00 [ Institutions Payment: 0 Visa Signature 0 MasterCard State Sendorders to: TheJohns Suite275.Fostering speculation and seminal modem criticism.50 air freight. Maryland Make checks to TheJohns Press.75 postage. Editor ~ ~i~ii is thepreeminent forum forcontemporary literature and critical Diacritics and debate.S.701W. June.
Joseph Buttigieg. Margaret O'Hara.E.aninternational ofliterature and culture journal A. Ferguson. Scarcity. Deep: "Billy Cataloging Mizruchi Susan Rise / of Sociology Brown and Cost of Freedom: John and the Revolution.Spanos. ing Perspectives Weimann /Robert James Henry TheExample of Historicism: andtheNew American Literature S. inMelville's Wald Pierre /Priscilla Narrative Voices Hearing Duke Press University Division inLate ofFiction: Books TheRhetorical UseandAbuse Eating 6697 College Station America Mailloux /Steven Nineteenth-Century NC 27708 Durham inKate the Romance of Self-Possession and Maternal Discourse The Schweitzer / Ivy Chopin's Awakening in Novel America and the Realism.D. and inthe ofMark Work Twain.B. ChangIdeology. Hays. Cain W. Howells. Edward W. Daniel Michael Said. Violence.Bove. Jay Frederick /Gregory Douglass and onMark Nature": Romance the Law of "Ours Independents by Horwitz Twain's River /Howard the Sailor" and of the the Creatures Budd. and West Cornel V.Pease.DuBois /William include Jonathan contributors Future Arac. (1886-1896): W. editor Donald issue special 2 boundary issue $10 price the New Revisionist Interventions into Canon Single Americanists: $30institutions $18individuals Subscription prices Contents Warner The ResPublica ofLetters /Michael McWilliams "The American Romance" The Rationale for /John /Wai-chee and Emerson Dimock Subjectivity. Paul editor 17:1(Spring 1990) E. William Journals Division Journals boundary 2 .
C. J. J.-G. J. Dupeux. Castellan. Name Beruf Ichbestelle hiermit einJahresabonnement (4 Nummern) for1990zu senden an folgender Adresse Buletin d'abonnement 220 F [ . Grappin.Dreyfus. Goeldel. sozialem undkulturellem Gebiet. R. A. Rieg.C. (Sogenal 82536/7) oder Anbei meine aufBankkonto GeldLberweisung d'itudes 1299-41 Postscheckkonto C. Koenig.et des pays de langueallemande 1990 / S1990 revue d'Allemagne Die vierteljahrlich erscheinende wissenschaftliche des Centresd'Etudesgermaniques Zeitschrift der Robert in Sie nimmt Universitit Schuman.64. R. Bauer.P. F. D. G. F. Rovan. R6mond.-L. G.D. Droz. Valentin Wissenschaftlicher Rat J.Fink.45.A. A)an Societh Cedex. S.L.-P. Grosser. Valentin U. *. .Dreyfus.35.-M. vonThadden.F. Centre germaniques. Sontheimer. F. A. 67081Strasbourg 8.-M. Murat. P.-G.42 88.(Strasbourg Allemandes. Poidevin. und deutschen franzbsischen zu den Beitrigen Stellung wirtProblemen derB. Strasbourg. David. Poidevin.undD. Poidevin.F. J. R. /Fax 88. J.Versuch einerBilanzDeutschland 40 JahreBundesrepublik unddeutscher Protestantismus Franzosischer unddie Neugestaltung Osterreich Europas in der Bundesrepublik Industriestrategien in Deutschland im19.14 67081Strasbourg Cedex/T61.B. Schulin.D.36.J. ruedes Icrivains.R. J. und20. R. Jahrhundert Die alternative Versuchung De GaulleundDeutschland Themender letztenNummern Themenfuir 1990 REVUE D'ALLEMAGNE d'ttudes 8.Bled.-P. Losser. Urban Direktion C.E. Mousset Redaktionskomitee Redaktionssekretirin undLehre Lnder nach1945:kultur-politische Deutschsprachige Forschung inderfranzbsischen Germanistik Frankreichs EinfluB aufDeutschland . ruedes Ecrivains.auf politischem.Bled.R.P. R. schaftlichem.R. Bari6ty. K. Hartweg. Bilger. Siegburg.Ausland: 280 F [ 1990: Frankreich: Preisvon:Abonnement zurn C.
consumption theworkofdirectors or because Fassbinder." These strategies undermine lengeto the"film closure not of film the but also of typical only theclassicalHollywood of artcinema. Wenders. in thespectator's head. against terrorism and statesurveillance. I saw at the When I recallthe films time of their German release.Introduction Miriam Hansen the critical In the UnitedStates. Herzog. openness. Comrelationship problematic New German Cinema. tute and Anthology Klugemight say. FilmArchives. Forone thing. his films constellation text. debate on Alexander Kluge'swork has onlyjust begun. Artists undertheBig Top:Perplexed (1967). In Kluge'scase in particular. belongto a larger configuration they respond to specific to historical momentsand movements politicalconflicts.But beyondformalism. 3 .incompleteness. the though is between author and oeuvre a one.Thus. such as the incipient studentmovement. forinstance. forthatmatter. one's current lifeis elsewhere. Kluge's in a pragmatic often contakestheform ofan intervention authorship in a particular of publiclife.theirstylistic theirchalheterogeneity. usually ofevents and discourses. translated and exported. the masterpieces Kluge'sfilms are not as easilyassimilated to auteurial as.is a bitlikean inventory ofboxes left behindin thebasement after one has moved to anothercity.thanksto a comprehensive of his retrospective films Stuart Liebman and the Goethe Instiorganized by sponsored by A retrospective.the boxes stillcontainsome usefulthings.hisfilms paredto themainbodyoftheso-called a status as "works" havemostpersistently refused which couldbe circulatedand canonizedor. the Hiiuserkampf (the fight in real-estate the or thespiral Frankfurt of speculation Westend). thisresistance is an effect ofthefilms' textual strategies .
and . (1976).] willhavea triumphal into 21stcentury.horizon. cinemaassumesa particular for the of significance organization public the conditions of feeling and intimacy.On thecontrary." he has temthe entry shifted the focusof his activities to anotherscene: indepenporarily film in morethan denttelevision. of ticulation discourses distorted. Miriam Hansen. that usingone ofhisown metaphors. co-opted whether or not one sharesKluge'sparticular experience. It is a toposofKlugecriticism. "public sphere"(Offentlichkeit) emphatic in the word: the context.1989) 50-53. On a selectionof Kluge's television worksee MargaretMorse.is a contoo. floating temporalities). because Klugehas no illusions the "illusionthatthe cineconcerning ma [.Kluge'sconfilm is of cinema useful to that is committed tothearany practice cept of marginal.Kluge insists. "Ten to Eleven: TeleFilmInstitute Festival vision by Alexander Kluge.participated." 1989 American Video (Los Angeles: The American Film Institute. compared. suppressed. "Reinventingthe Nickelodeon: Slave (1973). detours. In thatsense.including film and dead ends.and reflected upon. In itsemphasison theecology ofpubliclife. however. .4 Introduction of reception. then.and Kluge controversies that thefilms occasionedand in which they .is notjust theindividual or the in but the the sense of oeuvre.If fewof his films could be said to "succeed" as integral or complete mostof works. teacher.as open-endedas most of Kluge's films. not made a has feature-length Kluge a seriesofroughly 30-minfouryearsbut insteadhas been producing one of ute clipsfora weekly broadcast the new. filmictextthan particular situations discussions."The objectof construction. whichsuggest relations between and the thefilm in thedominant viewers' that differ from thosereproduced experience media.' This shift does owned networks 1. a "construction his workresembles site.also due to thefact also a writer. and organizer. himself The films' on a condependency performative thatthefilmmaker in thiscase is textis. to theinstitution of cinema. life. . In Dangerand Dire Distress Part-Time Work ofa Domestic . film a of with of the Kluge'slinkage practice politics public sphere is notlimited. positions.. perience (associations. or relationship (Zusammenhang) whichexperience can be articulated. I am less likelyto remember a . in Germany..withitsboulevards. film as readersof Klugeknowbynow.privately program by in focus. theorist. of course. themwillcontain some sequenceor moments whichrevealan alternativevisionofcinema. lawyer. Because of itstechnical and aesthetic with the of exdiscourse affinity mixed the materials. history struction site. and Ferdinand Strongman (1974).
whichserved as a catalogue Liebman.byAndreasHuyssenand Fredric literary properly Jamesonto as wellaretheresponses could notbe includedin thisissue. 1974).' " Frankfurter " 'We AreDemolition An Interview with Rainerand Ernest Artists': Alexander Larsen.in particular the interventions Michelson. Fora morecomprehensive introduction including and bibliography see thespecialissueofOctober articles. 2. investment maker'scurrent The articles framedby the twotranslations as contribuoriginated tionsto a symposium on Klugeheldin conjunction with theretrospecThe symposium tiveof his films. Also see Yvonne magazin'10 vor 11.in journal 46 (Fall 1988): 178-198.MiriamHansen 5 on theRestofTime.Missing the dimenthepapersby symposium participants precisely public of YvonneRainer sion of the event. Notes on Kluge and EarlyCinema. took place at the CUNY Graduate scholarsand filmCenteron 28 October 1988. filmography. The papers thebeginnings ofa discussion reflects which publishedheredocument of in botha timelag in thecritical this and a reception Kluge country film between German American discourses on certain and divergence thetwopapersdealingwithKluge'smore and cinema. magazine(no. in the FederalRepublictoday. Fall 1988)editedby Stuart fortheretrospective. The critique in Kluge'sfilms a Dowith the Part-Time Work began of polemicsagainst mestic Slavein thefeminist film Film Frauen und (no. Kluge."TheIndependent (June1989): 18-25. to Kluge'swork. he workas a hibernating on viewshis television based a realistic strategy.rather.and the question ofrepresentations offemininity of Kluge'ssexualpolitics. DieterJeuckand AlexanderKluge und das KulturGuntramVogt. .Atthesame time..and brought together makersfrom the FederalRepublicand theUnitedStates.Kluge'sshift hibition of one aesthetic to television the logicaldevelopment represents perin his films: the that in The concern with culminated spective opera Emotion ofthevideo clipseemespecialPower (1983)." October "Der lange Abschieddes Herrn K. an interview. offilm oftheconditions assessment and exdistribution.and selected writingson opera sault ofthePresent not mean he has abandoned the cinemaas a public form.2 and Annette on twoissues:Kluge'sstatus as The symposium discussion centered an auteur (thesubjectofTimothy Corrigan's paper).AndreasKilb.Unfortunately. "Fernsehenohne Ermissigung: Rundschau 16 December1989: ZB 3. work. production.excerpts from his book The Astranslations forthe filmamong otherthings providean explanatory background in television. 46. 3. The two lywellsuitedto Kluge'srevisionist crossing thatappear in thisissue .The parameters of ofopera and film." Die Zeit 1 July1988: 15-16.
public sphere" of the Frankfurt tradition Max Horkheimer's "AuSchool.as some participants a more of a body of worklargely comprehensive charged. RubyRichtookup theissueundertherubric thatunderthecoverof modernist modernism.founding bothresumedand to some extent revised herearlier polemicalreview. A in of it. focusing motif. number a female seemto they play part Kluge's protagonists 3."October 1988): 129-150. whichshe placed.3 by of work was at once and reiterated Helke tique Kluge's complicated. the peculiar from. reception in the UnitedStates. . undFilmand co-author editorof Frauen of the first Sander. from the difficult of a woman filmmaker critique. unknown Yet the issue has implications beyond individual case and fot film Kluge's authorship implications theory and filmpractice within a feminist I will framework. A feminist in Kluge'swork whatis interesting readingrisks missing as idiosyncratic and prismatic as Kluge's)ifit (or in anyfilmpractice isolatesrepresentations of femininity forinstance.sexuality.in particular theCarmen work. in largepartprovoked duction bythesymposium. threatening prematurely foreclose. especially use myprerogative as editorof thisspecialsectionto close myintrowith a fewremarks. Politics. today. theprecarious relations between thesexes. and eroticsin Kluge's tribution." "patriarchal arguing devicessuch as voice-over thefemalesubjectwas once again'spoken' a AttheCUNY symposium.in thecontext "counter bateson a feminist on in the the and. RubyRich. especially and the Gertrud Koch the discusFamily"(1936).As Koch arguesin herconthe discourseon gender. on the one ings (explicitly bracketing oftheWestGerman women'smovement and dehand." in theFilmsofAlexander 46 (Fall entis Good': Womenand Femininity Kluge. speaking position with an avant-garde on elaborated competing ally. from in thisworkand workis inseparable theaesthetic theory implicit be reducedto ideological therefore cannotsimply muchas questions.Heide Schluipmann theconceptofa "femaleproductive force"in Kluge'stheoretical writthe films).also see Heide Schliipmann. male thefeminist crinarrator/author."She Says. in of or from visionof his representations masculinity Kluge's films.He Says:The Powerof the Narrator in Modernist Film " 'Whatis DifferDiscourse 6 (Fall 1983): 31-47. The issue of Kluge's sexual politicsclearly dominatedthe discusto sion. thority opened up sion to considerthe link betweeneroticsand aesthetics in Kluge's on hisrevisionist use ofopera.6 Introduction theAmerican of context. other.
thisnotionseemsto supplyKlugewitha socioforthe montagetexforhis aesthetic logicalrationalization practice. and tureof his films. forhisconforseeingconnections forhis ownaesthetics. Schlegel.Thus. capability ceptofcinema. commercial since mainstream cinema. although Strongman Ferdinand).MiriamHansen 7 confirm clichesoffeminine and intuition. In filmhistory. onlya few. ofthe senses. have idealized the femaleimagination male artists on thoseidealizednoownaesthetic and havemountedtheir identities ." in the essentializing discoursecriticized theyparticipate by Schliipmann . Rilke. reto sensuality. authoritative presents Kluge'sfilms commentary nor is italways with thefilmmaker's identified voice:thepolyphony of under the and the voicesin Artists female male/female BigTop.oftenlinked to his critique of institutional . The notionof a femaleprorepression stripped force to thetrope ductive functions (related byand largeas a metaphor in thespectator's to of "thefilm which uses head").This is slightly different ofthewoman'sfilm. the femalemind has suffered much less gloriously. Richardson. For centuries. irrationality.a phenomenonwe findin different tions of femininity ways in to mention Flaubert. is rarely in I recallare quitecurious(cf.Gertie thefewinstances films. To theextent thatKluge'srepresentations offemininity illusmerely his theoretical notionof a specifically "femaleproductive trate force.Dreyer. Breton. memory.predicating spectatorial pleashas tendedto revolve aroundimages ure on voyeurism and fetishism. inefficiency judges by And the relation betweenauthorial voice-over and cept of character. impulsiveness. female characteris no doubt problematic. belongs in a sight his of thismode of production. the sexual body. but the voice-overin neither a consistent. finetuning curiosity. their associational episodicrhythm openness. in thegenreoftheartfilm ofthefemalebody. protagoin In Danger nists'voice-over andDireDistress furnish examplesto the contrary. duces sexuality and borrows of a psychoanalytic theory of sexual difference.a discoursethatidentifies femaleness withmothering.a fantasy.spontaneity. if them a that one realistic-narrative conis. Kluge appropriate a set of sociallyand historically suppressedbisexualhuman qualities . Even more curious are the representations of the male body in and authority Kluge's work. WhileKluge'sidealization suchas Ophuls. variant and itsparticular exemplified bydirectors ofthe or Bergman. base to the material that femalemode ofproduction tradition.
To the extent ures of official "character (institutional authority peons. ruinsof desire.theyare partof the in relation exorcism thatKlugehas been conducting to Gerlarge-scale in man history. throw a shadowon thevery ofrelathey possibility between tions thesexes.oftenmalfunctioning doesn't necessarilyhave anything to do withactual presence. bureaucrats. centstories. mostdisturbing." To which "tenderness Klugeresponds. ofPoliceChief erection hisunit'smarchon Luga.1988])through thefewanxious The pale porous skinof AnitaG. . bycomparison.possiblerelations beters. of Generalfeldhairs around his nipples.these bodies are not only extremely of Tosca in Kluge's rewriting but theirmalfunctioning unerotic usuallycollideswiththe respective of The films. Strongman Ferdinand.fromFassbinder's to the of scene terrorists' the industrialist tion kidnapped presentation in pajamas. played bypopularcoself-parodistic ofunflattering whoperforms all kinds medianHeinz Schubert positions theslippagebetween male bodies and exercises.intercut with of his coffin. relation to the of Third the especially catastrophe in Reichand itscontinuing Eric Rentschler's article consequences(see thisissue). descriptions from foundthroughout the 1962volumeofLebenslidufe Kluge'swritings. director [thecircus and thetenderness between themwas made possiblelargely bythefact that thefather wasalready dead. their and anachronistic social and masks"). .In an interview therelease ofPart-Time following a Domestic Dawson observes films "offer a Work that Slave. Buschin thebathtub BigTop. his mostre(CaseHistories [NewYork:Holmes & Meier. subjects' positions power ferless diagnostic detailbut insteadfullviewsof agingand unshapely inArtists under the bodies:Dr. the hemorrhoids Officer Gert which marschall jeopardize Bliicher. and. Presence. inAutumn masturbaand corpsesin Germany (1978).can be bodies and theirphysicalfunctions.and a rather depressing The onlyinstance I couldfind tween menand women. the imaginedpregnancy of P. oftenderness was Leni Peickert in Artists] thatbetween and herfather. and ofauthority. impotence frailty expose in sexual powerstructures the FederalRepublic. To theextent that thesebodiesaredeliberately devoidoferotic imagination and attraction.theaccidental Scarpia . Schleyer footage Kluge's male bodies displaya masculinity congealedintoa phallic thatthesebodies belongto figfaiade.8 Introduction of male and microscopic Relentless military hierarchy.'s lover. playedbythe Alfred Edel. of Kluge's Jan and treatment of male the characfairly basically unsympathetic tough viewof the actual.
beingin loveand endsin a divorce. trophes precourseof actionand usuallylead to murder." The political conclusion draws thisanalogy is a plea Kluge forthe "disarmament of the fifth of the acts" and the reconstruction New YorkZoetrope. "The Stubborn Discourse:History and in theFilmsofAlexander 2 (Fall 1985): 19-29.his systematic mentand Kluge'ssomewhat inadequatereception in the 1980sfocuseson of"the powerofemotion"beginning analysis of erotic. Story-Telling Kluge.to thebeginnings women'smoveofit. Kluge'searliest oftheinhumanity ofsocialand political in the conditions. Alexander ofa FemaleSlave (New York: Klugeand TheOccasionalWork . In theimpossibility oferotic relations was a measure work.tenderness. and to a his former These idealizations.with passionand thedramaof immutable fate.MiriamHansen 9 of feeling an actual situation.It beginsin 1933 and ends in ruins. culminating ofthestory extreme situation in "Ein Liebesversuch" ("An Experiment in Histories: of Case Auschwitz as the absolute desire. from dead. But Kluge now viewsthe suppression and co-optation of female subjectivity as partof the historical of feelings in de/formation ofheterosexual bothsexes." reads an intertitle in ThePower a woman getssacrificed of Emotion.in particular love and itscultural mystificationas an anti-social force.1977) 29f. (thestory of the guards. 5."Persistence ofVision 4. towardthe sexuallygroundedemoresultof a profoundskepticism constructions of "love. The victim of the of feelings concatenation turgy "In and fateis invariably with female. to mostly destroys it.5 flecting upon degreerejecting are epitomizedforKluge in the paradigmof the 19thmechanisms ofromantic itscelebration century opera.masspsychosis. Jan Dawson. thelevelofcaring devotion to ajob . Whathas changedtoo is the constellation of desireand history. and thegeneralmechanisms reaesthetic."It begins with cide."4The withdrawal .is the politeness. I elaborateon thispointin myarticle. suiventany alternative and war. every opera dealing redemption in Act V.In his morerecent romantic loveitself with thecataswork. Love") negation ofKluge'sprosestill a romantic The minimalism in harbors dimension ofrefusal thegesture from thepointofviewofone describes. appearscomplicit of German it of because nourishes fictions fate that history. political illusions.thefailedattempt to gettwoprisoners to mate)." that have cultural tions governed If the notionof a femaleproductive forcebelongsto thecontext of oftheWestGerman theearly1970s.The greatoperasbegin withthe promiseof intensified and in Act V we count the feeling.
evision. AntonioGramsci. in thefirst introduces thecharacter Roswitha shotofPart-Time Work ofa Domestic Slave:"Roswitha feelswithin herself an enormouspower. citedby Stuart Liebmanas an epigraphin his essay. strength without thistension. Nietzsche If. Kluge?"October and necessary(see The Assault Present onthe Rest taneouslyfictitious ofthe of and forcooperation . refracted and analyzedinto itselements.he is also more in hispragmatism.as Koch pointsout. and fascination. Whatalso remainsto be seen is theextent to whichtheprogram of"smallfeelings" can sustain therenewal ofan aesthetic thereinvention ofcinemathrough telform.but from she knows moviesthat thispowerreally exists. Despite Kluge's militant mistrust of operaticdesire (and his workpartly libidinally groundeddesirein general). capacities . appeals to the albeitironically same sourceoffascination.discrimination(Fingerspitzengefiihl).10 Introduction in thisissue).This is how I read thecommentary translated that Time. own navigation betweena "pessimismoftheintelligence" vis-A-vis thegrowing ofthemedia devastation and an of ofhibernalandscape "optimism thewill"toward strategies tionand change. The successof suchrecycling muchhinges very upon the oftheunderlying thetension between reflection ambivalence.feelings forseeingconnections that recall partly thevirtues of thefemaleproductive force." ilThe somewhat "but" between the two sentences the filmmaker's logical encapsulates betweenfascination and critique. Whether or notdecomposing thediscourse ofpassion(as Klugedoes in his "imaginary him will lift above thepitfalls ofgenopera guides") dered representation remainsquestionable."Why 46 (1988): 8. in hisattitude Nietzschean toward illusion as simul- so-called small feelings. it risks lapsingintopostmodern and pastiche nostalgia.Klugesideswith Adornoin against of his profound mistrust theredemptive value oferos.6 6.
was shownin theUnitedStates in October.It also consists ofelecthecapabilities which. art of The cinemaconofthecentury. The following pages 7-8.1985. beginning This the 20th cinema teenyearsfrom now.12-14. screening torswishto thankMiriamHansen formanyhelpful suggestions.we willcall itthe century. The translawas at theNew YorkFilmFestival first U. withpermission Its The Blind Director.thecinema. Main: Syndikat 1985). currents is another"power plantof emoBound up withour own century sixin thenextcentury. thisis something in spectators. of der Power DieMacht ofdramatic art. all have to do withwiththe construction tronics. passagesare taken Zeit(Frankfurt/ 66-68.37.on theRestofTime' TheAssault ofthePresent AlexanderKluge CONCERNING THIS FILM PROJECT: the itis considered thesummit We speakabouttheopera 19th century.27-30.S. 55-56.79. 11 . opeGefiihle ra was likenedto a "power plantof emotions. thistranslation appears here whichis onlyloosely of the author.a loveaffair form is ninety years as on thefront-lines. The present thismediumintrigues and idols.10-11.Kluge's filmof the same title.In thefilm (The ofEmotion). tions".moviepalaces.and 105-111ofDerAngriffder Gegenwart aufdieiibrige Autorenund Verlagsgesellschaft. underthetitle based on thebook. figuren] filmprojectdeals (1) withelementsof cinema.Presumably. old .theaters for shown films are wherever well as many othergathering places."The filmCarmen by arttapcertain ofdramatic sucholderforms CarlosSaurahas shownthat we did not knowbefore. inventions of a seriesof fascinating technical money. sistsof screening rooms. This cinema tellsstoriesand it has produced artistic figures [Kunstme. very elementary comparedwith though of a timemachine. from 1. 83-84. Obviously.
belongs to the currencyof illusion. This cityin search of his fortuneand is struckdown by fate ." a lifetime with occupiesthe title.The titleis a provisional working illusion and experience.and simultaneously to of the is the catdimension the seriousness situation.wrestling timeobviously timeofcities. forexample. The cityas an idol. egory .is about 8. ] ThePlot The film hasnumerous women Five arethemaincharacters..films .. [. In English in the original trans.or: oftheCity.Please trustme to develop the definitive titleas the work progresses.. In recent years our big cities. The reconstruction ized. (see below). Renaissance Florence. you will easily observe. We will enter the 21st centurywith cities that are just like those we see before us. thatof the big city.[ . From the begin- TheIllusion and theEnd ofAll Illusion oftheCity There is a promisewhichis foundedupon enclosed space.12 TheAssaultofthePresent could also be called: The Mystery of theFinal Hour (Last-Moment-Deand the Illusion Cinema tails)2. the reality the basis fora certain comic The stylistic link. subterranean levels. (3) with people acting in the citywho have all kinds of things movingthroughtheirheads: personal experiences.. For many people this constructionis accompanied by the illusion that it leads further until cities suited to human taste evolve and the bustling and further yet livable citybecomes an idol. ] All fivestories deal withtheoften unnoticeable transitions between promise. The actual situationreveals no ambiof the citieswill soon be finaltion in this respect. new citycentersand pedestrianmalls are being built.theyare the citiesin which the fivewomen of the film live .have been reconstructed:subways.notionsabout of the city. With regard to the reserves of illusion on which we live. we have a 2. plots.The storyof the fivewomen is witha series of otherplot lines in the cityand therefore woven together with film sequences which in each case representa cinematographic translationof theirversions of reality.000 years old. (2) withthe illusion of the city. This. The film course of our lives... ofthisillusion:a man comesto the dealtwiththestrength ning. corresponding the "condensed dramatic of time Cinematic time. has been the subject matterof cinema fromthe start. cinema.
.[.the threat 3. ment.Alexander Kluge 13 reforms seriesofcurrency ahead ofus. effect cinematographic The infinite forms offilmic translation and theexperiential concerns ofour timerequiresome restrictions. This is thesubtitle of Kluge'svolumeofstories 1-18 NeueGeschichten: Hefte (Frankfurt a. entneed to be brought ofmise-entouches up to date. its or. demandsforthethirty-five hourweek. This is power ruling potential These elements. the of finality and the people's rebellion handing over of the child.but rather their translation. temporal struggle time. I intend to narrate film in thestyle ofa fiction this film. themeanscinemausesto express itsrelation to thepresHowever.thetwostories the sequencesin the filmwhichdeal withthe illusionof the city.Each of these forcinema.. sion (as a rebellionagainstfinality) are not connectedin linearseon themare the principle of the film. TheSecret FinalHour ofthe The lead characters. 1977) . I translation is blocked. illuuncanniness. have not been treatedin feature films. we need to resort to theformat oftheessay knowof no otherpossibility to supplyso muchmaterial so quickly. film.the present.: Suhrkamp. experience. corresponds categories critique KeyTerm: EssayFilm As muchas possible. summed up by the phrase: the uncanniness of time.. thefive women.In thefilmic to a of of the cinematic time. As faras thesocialdimension of is concerned."Whatdo we mean by today?Such eventsas mass unemploytheclosingofshipyards. and so forth. ] .. change industry.rather. ] quence. M.We livein a present timehas the illusions whichforthefirst to become the over all other times.Manythoughtful In caseswhere scenehavebecomehackneyed. poses a challenge the sense of how to represent in the sense ofhow to them. but variations In Closeup: Our Time In thisfilmI would liketo show a snapshotof the classicalcinema from oftoday. One could say:theprinciple of the presentrages againstthe principleof hope and againstall the ofthepast.to be surenotonlyin themes. however.trans.3 [ . thisprojectfocuseson thethemeof present experience of a for translation this conflicts.The emphasisis on: "the perspective theperspective of today. the city. in the structural industrial consciousness the areas. from theforties. finality.
that theolder however.A against an illusion. with parting do nothappenvoluntarily. with that thephenomenon known as thenewmediaposesfor film. of through Cooperation" one couldalso describe itinterms inan industrial oftheelements atwork Such real developments also involvepeople. at thelastmoingflare up and bloomanew. places once they are united. a swan thatthe secret of the finalhour song.. blows. would to part that to whichI denotbe prepared with theillusion thecinema. votea largepartofmyworking willhavea triumphal intothe life. century. [. newtechnology intocoexistence? Thiscan be narrated justlikethe"Deconstruction ofa Crime inThe Power But Emotion. marked and so forth. vitality itseemsthat.Foran instant ofthechandelier thebeauty and gas candelabra to willallowthem ment. I myself Suchpartings Forexample. butrather to a moresubstantive ofillusion. process In thisregard. theugly ineachcaseonly outlive newtechnology. could force the allianceof the threatened which. will be recounted:one can imagine a world Somethinglikethe following The sequence containsa calm factualaccountsimilarto the one about theindustrial world'sfair in thefilm The Power butitis ofEmotion.brings In of with this late theoldermodesoflightarray forms. Now the questionis: provided in forth blooms of a thenspeakofan can we brings many society. all previous gaslampssupersede supersedes Thereappearsto be a lawthat fixtures. phase. can ] . anycase. Human beingshavelivedin cities foronlyone per centoftheir five hundredthousandyearold history.. death.. several canlighting technologies notexistside by side.Therehavebeen reports. thethird of the film tells the part following story: Overthecourseofthe 19th oil lampssupersede candlelight. affection. entry This idea enablesme to deal realistically thedanger 21stcentury. Shots thatcan only be made withthe Bavaria Studio's frontprojection device are mixed with trickshots and live footage. byfateful byescapes.. The roaddoes notlead from error to truth. [ . ] THE HISTORY OF THE MEGALOPOLIS [FromSequence I:] more elaborate.14 TheAssault ofthePresent it (bothofwhichare uncanny): each of theseis a swansong. And thisinvention. in itsterminal forth once morea burgeoning technology. and are development. and electricity theoil lamps. disappear as fastas its ghostlyapparition began. One thus with an older illusion a beby constructingnew one.however. The latter parts comesa reality whenrealmaterials areincluded. Itwas. the city.
in This humanbeings arecrowded itself above all the together.theseare derived from thansimply as something (rather opportune) In thisartefact. the sense associated with thevillage.condensed sinceitsinception.In this way. an all-powerful intotwocomponents. really . countryside In it. everywhere. and the hope past in a simple As longas mostlives werespent One can see this example. thousand has the aboutthelastfive the entered years.The citadel.It would be indeed. public sphere.or a transit Ulm arisewhenlongings city or cosout of smalltowns intodistrict state towns. to theinvention ofthecity. illusions allowing people mopolitan in so that to into also sets a cities. settled could wipe country evenly Magdeburg) acted as a buffer Now. metropolis.a trations a Paris. perhapsonlyfifty in all of the villageprinciple.a Florence.destructive with Edition forces havebeen struggling (Standard offorces from illusion about combinations the same constructive issuing Realities thecity such as enclosedspace. in villages. pathsand thereby the of condensed various arts time. whichcorresponds in The an Freud his Future discusses Illusion Sigmund essay of everything XXI: 5-56). as a and cables war drama. cannotbe television. finally principle . a Berlin.says RichardSennett. an on each other. and a senseof dramaallowpassionsand spontaneity time. our up in In the Federal are decentralized urban installations. of the separation the principle specialization. Nuremberg. village principle It is an illusion insofar as hardly anymodem personcould reallyput with of time In comparison. ofa city the of no actofwaror theburning as (such burning a or The out continent. come intobeing. expresses sense of time:time becomes dramatic. as a village. at all. cares bytheabsolute predominance Everyone for eachother. thatis. concencan and more intense else we know organize Nothing produce of mental energies.Then. and so forth. intimacy has disintegrated years. sacrifice.too. We humanbeingshavecome to carry recreated the by anything within us.theworlditself consisting characterized ofintimacy. city picture. decaynecessarily city grow never come intobeingbecauseso muchis underconstruction. electrification. ofchanneling humanaggressiveness intoparallel open up thepossibility of liberating it.Alexander Kluge 15 of villages. for againstmassiveannihilation. Republic villages other words:in thecourseofbarely a hundred years. generations capitals the While continue to amass cities. One can an recreate everyone keeps eye illusionof thiswithuniversal itsreality. to develop. the ambition. thecity. of actorsand spectators. a Babylon. like drive citiesin the Ruhr. however. the Western Europefrom present for a future. remembering.Cities.
The film theater is illuminated for1/48th of a secthe film's the camera or takes ond. turn. hispulse. (4) the cinema of the 20th century. Short film ofvarious cameras. tegrate peoplecanno longer escapefrom one sphere to another. during prevails. [FromSequence II:] thetheme: Whatis a minute?Atissueis one minute Filming among the1440minutes in a day. .A minute on itsown. (2) "the myth (3) the cityin the 20th century.extracted from this day. passagethrough projector up another of a second which 1/48th darkness Thatis.The musicbegins.Halfthetimein a movie is spentin thedark. and the pleasure in Apartfromthe delightderivedfromflashing lights .In this respect (endgidltig). Several willhappenthatnobodycan quiteimagine: things the destructive (1) weaponsof the20thcentury. In music:tempo In ordinario.. You have. We death. projectors Maltese Theseareall clocks. cross. villages as cities becomemoresprawling. J NEW YEAR'S EVE 1900-1901.. Thereforewe must reinterpret the concept of drama. forexamplea minute before different.000 days a minute ifyouare as forgetful as RitaMerker. ofthe20thcentury". In termsof human life this to spans. corresponds threegenerations. The conductorraiseshis baton. It's so easy treat carefully to forget.They cities arenever finalized plodeor explode. 36..In sixteenyears the will arise: cinema in the 21st century? question Our time shattersall temporal measures just as it obliterates spatial categories. oureyeslookat something outside for1/48th ofa second. cannot live this would imeither They way.the sequenceofclocks.The orchestra theimage:a conductor takes waits. We are lookingat ninety yearsof cinema.atthemovies. very [ ..would be something in about such between our and birth death. Filmspeed is another wayto measuretime. Thatis something beautiful. and for1/48th of a secondthey look inward.16 TheAssault ofthePresent in theform at leastnever ofthecity as an idol. a moreuseful measureoftimeis thepulse. Clocksdo notreproduce thepresent. sizes. [. The 20thcentury commences. Either we wait around or thingsgo too fast. She makesno progress withherdiary.Throughout. theunconof destructive strained conflict and constructive in thecities forces (oron limit: in a situation theplanet as a city) hasan objective inwhich life public and therealm ofintimacy in which disincollapse simultaneously.
tions. everything 71 look are and when are old. 52 JU Judge Pfennig a package is he he dethroned because received one suddenly empire. guarding of little hasforgotten. cinemais Associate ingfrom in a whom we see as he flies overhisflickering Dr. thiswould be a clearlydefinedposition. 4. years they they compatible.she adds. with a small have which theworld they group friends fun and make little some have costumes.separaalways ing ingredients: from a hostofobstacles derived thearsemistakes.they in their wantto remain order to destroy a pieceofthe"present" with Film Lumiere's history began positions. Councillor Hugenberg already in in 1942.It scenes film involves self-contained (dramatized).films areshown an areareachcinema atitshigh German point thehead of German Bordeaux to Kharkov. day in thePrague the film studios Warsaw ofblackmarket meatfrom studio. that's is. well. therain. now it is takenoverby Privy the who ownsthe Scherlconglomerate.there moving images(evenmeaningless or or meets meets cousin meets fora simplestory: boy girl. . of sheltered from in the wide and illusion.How one participant convention WorldWar II: Ludendorff boughtUFA.That'smyidea. A party in the Prussian NEW YEAR'S EVE 1918-1919. oftheentire of In accordance with themontage theshort film. are cancer. occupation. is Anna as she with the box office cashier Eilers talking says experienced theater. girl boy.Atanyrate.optically transformed). clips(edpartly partly ited. in the capitalof Austria as in the earlydays of the movies.Alexander Kluge 17 is theoverwhelming need ones). documentation has been progressively Sincethen. in 1901.but nevera story likethis:a boy meetsa girl. privileged documentaries. spaces props these studios and hiswifehave setup their thecaretaker nest. history thevantage thecinemaalludedto here(seenfrom pointofthequestion: meets be filmed without further whenwillthestory boy girl4 ado?) is finally dividedamong different scenesof the second and third sequences.nowmakea film etc. nal ofdrama. just they up using parties. In Englishin theoriginal . was never filmed at theOlympia accordYet. saystheproducer cousine. saysAnna Eilers. they goes it quitenice thatthey back and think met.trans. havenotbeen used sincetheGerman Amongmannequins. games. thedayin themontage workers re-cut film during they produced [Ostmark]. costumes. convention ofthis in 1918imagines House ofLords. Throughsuppressed. out the war. happyendings. Fred Wittlichof PK-Company tries to capture authentic .For once.thestory our There these to wishes.At night. howsimplethebasicurgeto watch a film out ofit.
reversibility. for it a cinema finds Itis characterized toview the congenial. Tunisia. at theend ofApril. butwhenwe remember theaction we expanditsduration" tionoftime. Monday night. the Wall of In Great China.Now. at the same buildalways speed ..But whenever at even the battle was he foundthetroops front..""Grasping not to the on unpresent: only anticipate future thebasisofregularities in thepast. it. 1971:276).forinstance. Scenes the army captured Propaganwhileone ofthesefilms da Ministry is screened. There is a certainmoral Utopia in the idea that I could measure my life'scapacities. itineither is toretrace direction and thereby toproceedbeyond theactual courseofevents" 283 ff.i.New York: BallantineBooks. a chronometer at work.but to unfold established a seriesof conditions consciously which do notresemble eachother and areonly linked . ] A montagesequence. of theGerman Can we do ittoo? First theproduction attempts during [FromSequence III:] ofa person addicted tothecinema. . species [ . as in Succession and duration the culture conwhich homogeneous timeis tantamount to freeing oneself from the ceptsbreed.). agility.18 TheAssault ofthePresent color filmMiinchhausen.in partwithimaginary "In images: principle.. (Jean Piaget. 1945.from workuninterruptedly.he wasable to proplaying duce documentary shotsofthebattle forthenewsreel scheduled to apIn after 1945. is concerned.. THE CINEMA ANIMAL he rushedto the imagesof battlescenes on celluloid. The Child's Conception of the dimensions of what is constructed." a creature birth to death. bya tendency as a moviewhilein thetheater itviews realstreets This things objectively. over."A diagram of time. means.e.. spacethrough This above To know on other the all." "Realismis egocentric. The durations in terms couldbe measured physical of Time. value. The Americans' greater as faras entertainment skill thepolitical in film. bymovement. feature films to the U..finally. Portrait The atmosphere is thesame as in SequenceII. his case time would coining psychological " cidewith time. therefore. To comprehend is totranscend intellectual time. April pear belonging in were a tank in German offensive. a timeclock. that still within The animal is looking is.. Clocks.does thesame "Let us imagine who. cards. [ . "The state of'innocence' which (Piaget precedesthephase ofcritical construction.even ifit were . whenwe perform a rapidor accelerated we experience a contracaction.S. hand. 8..and top speed. ofanimalis supposedly threatened with extinction.
The five women.. senses. mourning Note 2: THE PRESENT above all. scale as well as their are their these imperfections. It to thehistorical secret the corresponds sequence that is vithat beautiful.all movement two as motion and sion. just houettes enter thepicture. populate typical of ambition is to show that there are out the and ways My irrevocability thatthe highpointof the bestyearsof the sheer"distended present" oftheheadingofthethird our livesseemto be. useful.timeto be gained. toursI would have control on the grammar of timein the It will turnout thatthisreflection of the time machines cinema can be friendly. At themoment in the form of silbefore mistakes mistake.certainty. In this respect the categoryof the presentis a convention. through purpose.Alexander Kluge 19 stretch ofroad.supplepointofentry. Developingprograms of time:its acceleration. ductionoftheability to remember. ofa horizon. ofpreci. Sequenceof back-lit ettes.[ . Because of perfection. a perspective..timeto be lost. older. it. the timeof experiencing retardation. a decisionabout theflow involves. engenderssympathy at themomentof itsdemise. pocket ma has developedartistic who also form thebasis figures [Kunstfiguren] of the starsystem: in each case with one flaw. For this cinefate within it. the of is the comic. also serve as thespecThese qualities they tator's thenecessary discount. This is thesignificance the of final hour. notonlymakethemlovable. other as the six men whoseactions mented countless as well by persons this imitate a trait of movie characters. classical film. Strongly imaginary.Between "just now" and "already" thereis a boundary (in termsof the Arriflex camera thisboundaryhas a durationof 1/48th of a second and a surface . (in emotion) of time. ] APPENDIX in the Notes on Details Script Note 1: "POCKETS OF FATE" the The bestwayto measurethegaps in a tragic. so-calledsilhoushots. Music. death.something experience something and threatened new tally by developments.Evidently thisis realizedthrough everso finemanipulations timepossessesa grammar.Without dealonga straight onlya questionofmoving overmyabilities to do good deeds. simple pursuedclearly illusionis really a Thatfilmis used to nourish onlyin documentaries. irrevocable system. reThe prosponsetime. people fascinating.and so forth.
Because it occursin a singleplace and on a single to narrate in the day. thinks is however. get newjob. indeed.20 TheAssault ofthePresent of 35mm)which thepresent. I would reallyprefer to recountall thisexclusively in the formof dramatized stories. itis notevenpast. qualificapresent" on a largescale.one must record thegentler tonesoftime. and so forth. In of our day.or (in they a new this does because not involve a final decision."Andwithout horizon. thisnext-to-nothing has. Something emerges thatis neither dreamnor reality. is. loseparts for lives which haveworked.the second sequence givesme the opportunity manner of the fiction film. past. present objective of thefuture and to cutoff the irrevocably powerto close thehorizons thepresent itcoulddo so.forthe first the forces the have the time. this Itis somethingdifferent from othand waiting something er thanlife: a newwayfor fate In order to strike.And whatI find cause peoplefreely mostimportant is that these of kinds behavior of new aretheopposite ambivalence and irresoluteness. the explosive forceof the .The latest callsthis the"distended research Professional (Brose). Note 3: "DISTENDED PRESENT" itsseizure ofpoweroverother ifit The present could noteffect times in humanbeings in complicity werenotforsomething with it.Frequently. is decidedthrough enoughforan announcement or "our present. Scenesemerge whosecharacteristics are neither nor but comic.On the otherhand. indeed. relationships) partner remains between and future and we call Something suspended past thepresent.inoffas something. to describe it. closely. For a they example. sense." is thewayfilm works. In this of "I er aboutwhat thepresent each time says: respect. This happensvoluntarily. "The past. passed itself everyThe consensus about toourtime. Atleastthis time I maynot. expectations oftheir becomeunemployed. a future that notdead.Atanyrate.as potentially creasingly. quantum And if one I I will be. are something these solutions peopleoptfor temporary after thedefeat have suffered.peoplewouldnotevenhavethestrength toagree with eachothis." such as topicality had earlier categories Every present thetendency to do awaywith thepastand to putlimits on thefuture.In themodemworld.people aboutlifeare beingdevalued tions. am. they cannot come to terms this new in with situation They simply an objective Facts one wishes find are and the that these facts unbearable way.I wish. could.bewillit. tragic genuinely oscillating.withouthope. what what thing. amongpeople belongs is important or a play. thing else. It is something rather represents imagined thansomething real." looks it will "I I add: was.
are unmistakable characters ing to thisurban principle Note 6: PERSPECTIVEON THE CENTURY: NEW YEAR'SEVE.underground would continue satellite and so forth.no morethanitsprehisa chronicle ofthemodemcity is that research . feelings of condensed are like cousins. (of Correspondprinciple suspense) and destinies. nerves.In all cases in whichsomething final.Imagination exin denying this which is death.World that pointin ourcentury ofreality in the ofthecharacter inpeople'sminds. 1918 withMargarethe I intendto producethissequencein collaboration NewYear'sDay)is a turning vonTrotta. there is much to This illusion was notminealone. however. themedemandsfree(non-dramatized) I will at the and of film. dwellings .as ifthe 19thcentury (thatis. He askedwhether Merkur. NewYear'sEve. Now.Alexander Kluge 21 modes of representation. as I used to knowthem. however.subways. In reality. should be something precise.By comparison. 1918(including fresh WarI is still willnever come again.I did some research. especially fascinating whichis lodged in our so-called"invisible city":the urban structure The urbanprinciple and the dramatic and knowledge.cannotbe represented in theform of essays scenes. 1900 . theviewthat thecities. in whichfinality the indefi(or desire)prefers imagination is notyetdefinitively we denite. zones. Note 5: THE FINALITY OF OUR CITIES offinality is enclosedspace. the perspectiveof New Year's Eve.Up till thetitle: ofourcities. monthly thenI had as"The Finality ofCities. time. 1899-1900) is almost naivelyillusionistic were extendinginto the 20th. willbe our as they are nowconstructed. and precision. .Anyone One of theclearest expressions lookingat a tombcan see this. ofcoursethat therenewal theinstallation sumedas a matter of theestablishment ofpedestrian malls. In all cases hausts itself finality ultimately is intuited. forexample. or dramatic tory is the is to me is a theme.the new editorof the I couldwrite an essay with calledme. support An essential result ofmy as we proceedintothe21stcentury.a sourceof thecomic.on New Year's Eve.Itlaid baresomething 20th century. to concentrate these end the try beginning Note 4: FINALITY As a category of the future it is rather unbearable. 1918. mand certainty happiness. livein cities askedaround."I wastaken aback. In December of 1983. What it cinematic Rather. untilonce againwe would cities. Karl-HeinzBohrer. In thisrespect.
Butthedecisions have 1919 notyet been ofJanuary. I Therefore. thisprocessis conveyed These imagechanges. furthermore. plan independent working sessionswillbe interrupted sessions. films. Rosa Party delivers her in The leaderUniform. by countless newones. historic Luxemburg-film. previous to have three camera teams in succession. presents or shown as historical tions.the film TheAssault on theRestofTimeis about the cinema because it ofthePresent Evansand Stuart Liebman byTamara Translated . Fora moment itseemsas ifGermany difcoulddevelopin many On this ferent directions. such Until are cinematographic renderings themselves. musically." "Proletarians Luxemburg speech. thespectator can easilynoticethenarrative process.nobody anywhere. juncture Note 7: CHANGES OF TIME AND STYLE as thefilm The Power Emotion oftheopera. made. bythenarration device. The leaders regoverns day. themselves.22 TheAssault ofthePresent illusions are scattered to the windsonlyto be replaced. Cutting by additionalshooting and Artists under theBig Top:Perplexed withaspects of the circus.Because there are clearchanges pictorial oftimeand style. strain the founding of the Communist convention takesplace.In thisway.the usingdoctoredfilmclipsor a front projection narration movesacrosstime. producedfromthe materials theycan be describedonly withgreatdifficulty. however. ship newly very This material can be seen in thecontext of Margarethe von Trotta's collaboration aboutthis makessense. of founded this is voted that same down party night. Partof the pictorial and stylistic changescan be echoed in live-action as in thethree takes. whichcreatea bridgefromone story to another. In theformer Prussian House of Lords(theLandtag). are not individually accountedforin thescript.setin thecontemporary city superimpois paralleled ofwell-defined short moviescenes sition. dealtwith elements of Just A seriesof acan abundance of things in fragmented form.
Brutality inStone 35mm. Script(1960).2Made two years before the in der under theBig Top:Perplexed 1. Refreshments saying II Young by AlexanderKluge and PeterSchamoniin 1960.and producedby Kluge and Schamoni. (Munich:Piper.blackand white." alone: "Nothingat all can stop us.NottoForget: A Retrospective Remembering in Stone Reading ofKluge'sBrutality Eric Rentschler I In Nuremberg.In 1963 a slightly in Stein].1968) 45.Applause!A breakforrefreshments.320 meters ed. edited.quoted fromthe script Zirkuskuppel: 2.Leni Peickert go through "I the would like to see vention aloud: reading protocol proceedings. a shortdocumentaryfilmdirected in Stone[Brutalitdt Brutality 23 . music by Hans Posegga. Later.cinematography by WolfWirth. (12 minutes). Film on Festival 8 February the Oberhausen The film at and Karyn premiered Kluge. Auschwitz wantsto try to prevent us from thepersonwho after saying A think to be vote: the number with we needs said. 1967]. Hans Clarin. I would liketo Peickert continues wantsto stop us fromdoing and Auschwitz see thepersonwho after are passed around."' whatwe think is right. A scene from Kluge's Artists [Die Artisten ratlos. an international conventionof circus producers and a co-worker thecontakesplace. The withthe title revised version 1961 and received variousprizes. represents German Film's earliestsign of life. majority something Leni theratswon'tbe cancelled.speakingvoices includeChristian Marschall.
to identify in Stonetells us today about the I Second." 44 (Spring/Summer 1988).I wish to ponder the pre-Oberhausen setting Film's initial efforts. allowmemories epoch in Germanhistory.and Germarw (Cambridge/London: Harvard UP. made in 1960.24 Not to Forget Remembering outspoken. In general.see eds.' he himselfconfrontsreality.evenwhenitno longer edifices of theNationalSocialist nal function.3 controversyabout the status of Nazi art and architecturewithin the von gestern] gained the designation "valuable" Eternity of Yesterday [Die Ewigkeit ("wertvoll") fromthe Film Rating Board in Wiesbaden. Jansen and Wolfram Ulrich Gregor's account in Herzog/Kluge/Straub. A subtitledcopy of the filmis available from the Anthology Film Archives in New York. Peter W. Using Brutality the theoreticalimpulse and historicalimpetus behind Young German Film's desire to renew West German filmin the earlysixties. Holo3. see Walther Schmieding's notice in Weg zum Nachbarn:Protokoll and Enno Film Oberhausen Festival. and "Special Issue on the Historikerstreit. The forsaken Party. past and its confrontation with the systematicdenigration of fantasywares to tools of dominain Stoneas a point of reference. indeed histrionicOberhausen Manifesto. Maier. to come aliveofthat as testaments in stone. New GermanCritique .as well as some of Kluge's chief discursive predilections. wish to see what Brutality historicalproject that constitutedYoung German Film and. (Oberhausen: Kurzfilmtage 5 (March 1961): 138. In other words. day events. For initial orientations. Westfilm. 1976) 132. and Rainer Lewandowski. Kluge's shorts remain all but unexplored. For initial responses to the der VII.determined the New German Cinema. I want to discern how this criticaldocumentary on Nazi architecture.I want to rehearse tion. whichled to the mostterrible catastrophe I would like to scrutinize this statementfrom a double perspective. Die Filmevon AlexanderKluge (Hildesheim/New York: Olrns.see Charles S. and Young German First. "Der Kurzfilm sucht die Wirklichkeit. 1988).it begins with a solemn declaration: emanatesthespirit ofitscreator edifice left to us by history Every in theservice stands ofitsorigiand itsage. appears in light of several contemporarydiscussions: the recent debates about historical revisionism and the place of the the heated Third Reich within the larger course of German history. deutschen 1961). Patalas Patalas. concentratingon a generation's evocation of the with the culturallegacy of the Third Reich. in subsequent years. Schtitte(Munich/Vienna: Hanser. TheUnmasterable NationalIdentity caust." For subsequent discussions of the film. Past: History. 1980) 288-291." Filmkritik stressesthe subjective emphasis of thisdocumentary film:"The creator confrontsrealHe no longer remains content with recounting 'dramas of everyityas an interpreter.
Quoted in Dietrich Kuhlbrodt. Rarely experience Nuremberg. fiir Wagner(WestBerlin:Neue Gesellschaft of an exhibition ofessays collection bildendeKunst. seen such an enthused audience .EricRentschler 25 cultural and discussions oftheroleNew German filmmakinstitution. 1964. problematic terests? III Blue The of Leni Riefenstahl's a public screening 1963.Whydon't theymake films IV On three separate occasions in the postwar period.Inszenierung uary-March and Frank eds. anti-Ufa productions resolve. declaredtheir filmmakers earlyas 1946. Hans Abich and RolfThiele issued a "Memorandum a studioin theEnga New GermanFilm" and established Regarding theFilmaufbau ofGermany. fromthe recentpast thataddressesa issuesand inreveal about present-day cultural heritage. scribes theevent: "DuringlateOctoberin 1963 I had an overpowering haveI in Hundredscouldn'tgetin ."to make against but problemfilms thatwerenot entertainment.. See Nazi-Kunst Steidl.have playedin revisionist tendencies ers..." "Leni Riefenstahl 5. German As intention to createa new Germanfilm..including in theFederalRepublicsincetheseventies. of National film the "films make desireto Socialism. July . and the insMuseum?.Thisextensive in Berlin-Wedding Ackerstrasse art in the Kunstquartier fascist duringthe springof 1987.Abich and Thiele soon foundthemselves witha constructive ed.Nuremberg: is a success. accompanied 1987). Klaus Behnken Faschismus. Klaus Staeck(Gbttingen: insMuseum?. lishsector Theyspokeoftheir G6ttingen.1988). Whatdoes Brutality inStone tellus about thepast?More importantly. Carl in the blaue Meistersingerhallen huge Light Licht] [Das in Bremen. deFilmkunst of theStudiofuir owner prominent Muiller. whatdoes ittellus about the what does this presentthatexaminesthe past? And most crucially. 157 (Jandevotedto "Nazikunst (Munich) specialissueoftendenzen im Asthetische Faszination derMacht: 1987). likethisanymore?"5 'Whata film!'.4 AlexanderKluge. How often I heard people say.. the catalogue. Cf. as a politicalintervention film. 4."No.. Die Zeit24 wiederoffiziell.
Der deutsche WaltherSchmieding."Hans Abich . younger ternative recognized almostuniversally. stylistic experimentation.ed. a third at renewing Germanfilmtook shape. Erinnerungen und Ausblick." gathering and thefilm critic Enno Patalas. WilliamLuhr (New York:Ungar/ Continuum. 10.and Ufasuffered financial prizefor collapse.Recent . Nachkriegsfilm So griin wardieHeide:Derdeutsche in neuer Sicht (Weinheim/Basel:Beltz. eds. strategies."World Cinema since 1945. interview with his longcareerin German Abichreflecting August1988." Film 5 (September epd 1988): 20-29. of film theAdenauerera. 1975)289-290. production without a distinct and critical of aldevoid will. in and did not succeed an arid DOC 59 all-but-monolithic ture. Gerhard Bliersbach. cameramen. Barthel. 1987) 213-219. forinstance." Derjungedeutsche Film:Dokumentation zu einer der Constantin-Film Ausstellung (Munich: Constantin-Film. von Bredow and RolfZurek und Campe. 1966.Theywishedto mergedocutheinternational tionswith and scripted narraand fiction.6 as as and no novelimpetus the Adenauer even late 1957 era. Leonhard H.26 Not to Forget Remembering head at Ufa. see RainerGanser." Filmund Gesellschaft in Deutschland: Dokumente und Materialien."1961: Ist der deutsche Film am Ende? Rede zur war es wirklich: Der deutsche (West Berlin: Herbig.their project. "Kontinuitat 8. Hoffman Wilfried (Hamburg: 9. Nachkriegsfdlm and Claudius Seidl. escapism. Film kanngar nicht besser sein (Bremen: Schiinemann. Georg Ramseger.7 rector initiative less compromising came more thana decade laterwiththe a ofdocumentary filmmakers. see Joe deutschen Film. For critical assessments of the postwar filmmalaisein WestGermany. to commingle mentation authenticity film all of the of culfor its awareness dead-end state tive. 4 Filmaujbau Gittingen. see Eric Rentschler. 1985).9 The dire situation. artfilm scene.Wolfgang Therewould be no decisive break Liebeneiner. Cf. For statistics the participation of filmmakers from theThirdReichin regarding see Hans-PeterKochenrath. and Hembus.Kunst oder Kasse:DerArger mit demdeutschen Film(Hamburg: Riitten& 6. who sought closerconneccomposers.Begegnungen. and voices. "Zur Chronik. Loening. im postwarWest German productions. 1961). Gminr.1967) 22. attempt on WestGermantelevision screened on thefirst channel(ARD). 1986). during films ofallWestGerman feature either a diabout70 percent employed A second. 7. Derdeutsche FilmderfiinfzigerJahre (Munich: Heyne.Indeed. or a scriptwriter who had been active underGoebbels. For a sum- accounts are less critical. See Christian Bauer's documentary filmPhonix aus derAsche:Hans Abichund der 4 7] (an adaptation of WolfgangBorchert'sdrama TheMan Love4 7 [Liebe vor derTdir]). The PastThat mary during "Germany: Would Not Go Away.8 German Still. For a lengthy filmand television. reviving productionlandscape dominatedby wornoutgenre fare. reacheditsacme whenthegovernment awardedno state thebestfilm of 1961.1961).mindless a national and paint-by-number cinema schemes. 1987). group"DOC 59. the former touted as itsdirector Outside production [Draussen first surrounded by membersof the old group.10 In thissetting. Manfred So See.
Eric Rentschler 27
resultingin the oft-quoted"Oberhausen Manifesto" of February 1962 - a document lamentingthe bankruptstate of German filmas an art and an industry, and promising, brashlyand arrogantly, a collective's desire to "create the new German featurefilm.""1 The 26 angry young men who signed the Oberhausen Manifesto claimed to have "concrete intellectual,formal,and economic conceptions about the production of the new German film." By and large, however, this was not the case, for the manifestoprovided a promise, but did not articulatea program.12None of the signatories(many of whom had won festivalprizes fortheirshorts)had yetmade a feature film;the vast majorityhad backgrounds in documentaries and experimental industrialfilms.The group gained its identity above all froma common sense of displeasure and critique, from a shared desire to combat the powers that controlled image production in Germany, from a wish to militateagainst an abuse of the medium that had continued unabated since the Third Reich. Alexander Kluge, in an essay of 1962 entitled"What Do the 'Oberhauseners' Want?," reflectedon the group's central motivations,which were to: film 1. free from itsintellectual in theFederalRepublic, isolation 2. militate of a strictly commercial orientation againstthedictates in the filmindustry operative today, 3. allow forconditions whichmake filmaware of its public rein keeping thisresponsibility, with and, consequently, sponsibility to seekappropriate film themes: shouldembracesocialdocumenand filmic educationalconcerns, innotation, political questions, but that matters all under the conditions have vations, impossible film governed production.'3
des DeutschenFilmpreises am 25. Juni1961 in Berlin," Deutscher Verleihung Filmpreis eds. Manfred and Alfons Hohnstock des 1951-80, Bettermann (Bonn: Bundesminister oftheWestGermanfilm Innern,1980) 52-58. Klaus Kreimeier analyzesthedynamics in der BRD: Ideologieproduktion und economy at length in Kino und Filmindustrie nach in English, see 1945(Kronberg: Klassenwirklichkeit 1973).Fora paraphrase Scriptor, Thomas Elsaesser,"The Postwar ed. Tony Rayns,2nd GermanCinema," Fassbinder, rev.ed. (London: British Film Institute, 1979) 1-16. Cf. Michael Dost, FlorianHopf, and AlexanderKluge,Filmwirtschaft inRaten inderBRD undin Europa: Giitterdiimmerung (Munich:Hanser, 1973). 11. Cited from WestGerman Filmmakers on Film: Visions and Voices, ed. Eric Rentschler Holmes & Meier,1988) 2. (New York/London: 12. Kluge acknowledges thisin an interview. Die OberSee RainerLewandowski, einer 1961-1982 hausener: Rekonstruktion (Diekholzen:Regie,1982) 86. Gruppe 13. The essayoriginally appeared as "Was wollendie 'Oberhausener?'" in the
Not to Forget Remembering
the Oberhausenfestival, the group convenedto discuss after Shortly thedesired thewaysin whichitcould effect intellectual transformation institutional of Germanfilmand establishappropriate supportsysA first a publicsubsidy mechanism that tems.'4 goal involved founding would allowyoungfilmmakers to fundtheir first without productions This came to fruition in 1964 withtheestabcommercial constraints. for Young German Film. Second, the lishmentof the Curatorium theroleofindependent films Oberhauseners stressed short as a "natufield"and soughtto keep themalivedespiteexhibiral experimental and statelegislation thatendangered tionpractices thegenre.Finally, thegroupcalledforan "intellectual center forfilm," wheretheory and work hand-in-hand. A for the new German might laboratory practice forFilmDesign in Ulm,was established cinema,the Institute already in October 1962,conceivedof as "a place of higher directed learning againstfascism."15 V October 1965,Oberhausen: and educajournalists, publicofficials, torsgather to watch20 previously theThirdReich bannedfilms from and to discusstheirpossiblepublic screening.16 reLater,Atlas-Film in a newlyedited versiondesigned to leases Veit Harlan's Kolberg defuseany sympathetic and voice-overs readingby means of critical The Frankfurter contrastive montagesfromwartimeGermany. Allgecalls the refurbished "a convincing meine Zeitung Kolberg example of howfilm The discan be used to unmaskand critically analyzefilm."17
tributor Hans Eckelkamp comes under firenonetheless forwhat some
to be his opportunistic revival ofthe"brownscreen."He reperceive
fromDer Spiegel:"I want to bring anti-Nazi sponds to an interviewer
November 1962 issue of epd Kircheund Film. Cited from Rentschler, WestGerman Filmmakers 10. 14. Lewandowski, Die Oberhausener 86-87. well in film). See Klaus Eder and Alexander Kluge, Ulmer Dramaturgien: Reibungsverluste
15. Thiswas theimpulsebehindthefounding oftheHochschulefilr in Gestaltung of theBauhaus (which extension offered a projectto be continued as Ulm, a postwar
Hanser, 1980) 35. (Munich/Vienna: 16. The discussionwas documentedin Der Spielfilm imDritten ed. Manfred Reich, 1966). Kurzfilmtage, Dammeyer(Oberhausen:Westdeutsche 17. Peter W. Jansen, "Die Wunderwaffe desJosephGoebbels:Kolberg, ein Filmund 27 September seineGeschichte 1965. danach," Allgemeine Zeitung zwanzigJahre Frankfurter
to ... Itwouldbe undemocratic notNazi films. films intothecinemas, in a new when we them conthese films. It is democratic put suppress textand show themthere."'8 VI texts from Structures thepast as fragments, testimonies; memories, innerand disclose the to the which another from speak present epoch inStone ofBrutality theproject ofan age: in thisregard, mostworkings to Hitler. In this From Kracauer's recallsthatof Siegfried work, Caligari as a Weimar films secret of Kracauerprovidessymptomatic readings above inner of collective all, closelyanalyzing, dispositions, history acforms motifs as "visiblehieroglyphs," allowing pictorial prominent ofthe characteristic ofhumanrelations" cess to the"unseendynamics and as an architect not started out we dare forget, period.'9(Kracauer, to sensitive structures his endeavors remained remarkably throughout of modernity.) Similarto Kracauer, as crucial signifiers and streets and formsso motifs historical Kluge and Schamonirefunctionalize in a larger we might that,manyyearslater, grasptheirtruefunction in zeal find a we Likewise, through sifting Zusammenhang.20 ragpicker's discarded the garbage pile of history, sortingout and recovering and disavowedby thepresent. lesttheybe forgotten chunksof reality from a public ofNationalSocialism to wrest awaymemories tempting It uses archiand that woulddenytheir conformism reality materiality. of a artifacts as and both actual tecture, buildings plannedstructures, the forces dream of collective combatting nightmarish proportions21,
"NS-Filmein bundesdeutschen 18. Quoted in the unsignedarticle, Kinos?,"epd
in Stonedoes not reconstructthe past, it deconstructs it, atBrutality
Kirche und Film 18 (November 1965): 17. Film to Hitler: A Psychological 19. SiegfriedKracauer, FromCaligari History oftheGerman
vol. 2 and Freedom, Princeton UP, 1947) 7; quotingHorace M. Kallen,Art (Princeton: (New York,1942) 809. it and thechallenges oftheterm 20. Cf.David L. Vierling's discussion Zusammenhang Alexander in "Quinzaine:Die Patriotin, of Kluge'sfilms Kluge:'A poses to thesubtitler
...,"' Question of Zusammenhang Film 2 (West Berlin, Spring 1980): "For Kino: German
Patriot. ofThe and formal concerns wordlie themajorthematic this within German single does it mean? is worth a In short, theterm What, then, Zusammenhangmystery exploring. offitting thestate to stick. toadhere, to cling; Zusammen: Zusammenhang: together. Hdingen: continuity" context, association; (22). together; from Walter Benjamin's Das Passagenwerk, 21. Cf. the formulation quoted in
1958]. to bicker over exact statistics in the concentrationcamps). Adorno confrontspredispositions in the Adenauer era which seek to forgetratherthan to rethinkthe past. WalterBenjamin. In this way.to mythologize recollection of the Third Reich. of The Diary of Anne Frank. 1959].30 Not to Forget Remembering that seek to suppress or.not six millionJewishdead camps. 1986) 115. Theodor W. only 1983): technology. Adorno. the film's resolve recalls Walter Benjamin's "Theses on the Philosophy of History.Harry Zohn. 22. and to effacememory in a manner more conscious than unconscious. well-meaning Bildungsbiirger. "What Does Coming to Temns with the Past Mean?. and enlightenedresolve. trans. the embodiment of a collective dream" (426). to deny collective responsibility relativize the significance (indeed even the existence) of the death (five. Hartman. Bitburg Perspective.22 In a lecture of 1959 titled "What Does Coming to Terms with the Past Mean?. Hartman (Bloomington: Indiana UP.of a desire to comprehend the experience of the Third Reich. and Bernhard Wicki's TheBridge[Die Briicke. Hannah Arendt(New York: Schocken. focusingon victims of circumstance(ajovial Luftwaffe a general.and half-heartedreeducation screenings of which ask difficult none programs questions and pursue equally probing answers. 1969) 257. Alexander Kluge (Frankfurt Bestandsaufnahme: Utopie and not is in certain manifestations "Even architecture.which at best pays lip serviceto a national project of coming to gripswiththe past (Vergangenheitsbewdiltigung) through public demonstrations of philo-Semitism. 23. even more problematically. Illuminations. the past needs to be worked through to be reshaped into something new. ed. is a mode of mass repression.23 West German filmsof the 1950s presentfewexamples of criticalsentiment. Geoffrey . Cf. am Main: ZweitausendFilm.ed." in Moraland Political trans. For Adorno. The term "Aufar(aufgearbeitet). blends relentlessness beitung" psychoanalytic in the German ever this could subject regain its lost maturity only way and reconstitutenational identity.Timothy Bahti and Geoffrey ed. With their humanistic the filmsconsole ratherthan interrogate." especially in its disdain forthose who would treatfascismas an inevitabledestiny vanquished by time ratherthan as a state of emergencystillaffecting the present. eins. The result of these predispositions. rhetoric. past are Helmut Kautner's TheDevil'sGeneral [Des Teufels 1954]. Paradigmaticinstances on celluloid of such coming to grips with the General. to forWorld War II and the Holocaust." Theodor W. Kurt Hoffman's Aren'tWe Wonderful? [Wir Wunderkinder. Adorno claims.
repress to obfuscate in theprocess. 1977) 30-57. What is at issue is the destruction of memory:"The murderedare to be thatour powerlessness cheatedout of theone thing can grant them:remembrance" (Adorno 117). Norbert Kiuckelmann (Munich:Kuratorium Junger dreiJahre. cited in Katrin Seybold's essay ". Deutscher Film. Cf. highdegree circumventing side pressures. or as a negative thatwreaks violenceon theunwitting. SheilaJohnston's account.die die Weltin Ordnungfinden. Eva Orbanz. A numberof therealvictims are cheatedout of their remembrance. 3rd rev. and no experiments?25 economicmiracle.26 a ited themselves there was Clearly..1968). Weltverbessern mitdem Geld von Leuten. (Autumn-Winter 1979/80): 25. Cf.a world largely byforces of reconstruction. romance family of Film thatrenders an thus to serves everyone orphan history. Die . display fearand misery tionalSocialismis equated withunceasing (especially either as a primalscene fortheaverageGerman thewarrecast citizen)."The Authoras PublicInstitution:The 'New' Cinema in theFederalRepublicof Germany.24 difficult faced the how to combat German filmmakers: Young questions a of with in fosthe medium so past vehemently repression implicated How to the status with an tering publicpacification? change quo apparatus controlled that likedthings as they were. Througheffective Kluge and his colleagues lobbying. Staudte. theundeniable.innocent held captiveby situations neither controlnor fathom. How to of a own and counter whose dominated images images imaginary past to imagineand imagethatpast? attempts VII A keypointofconsensus its amongtheOberhausen groupremained of in for a mode a which the author maintains preference production of control outoverthe creative endeavor. See Die ersten ed.ed. markeddifference betweenthe GermanAutorenfilm and the French desauteurs. 24. As Klugewould laterpointout." Screen Education 32/33 67-78. 26. thepastand displaceguilt. to modest formats. sufferers they These narratives finished worlds and inexorable Nadestinies..though." Wolfgang ed.thefact thatcertain politique filmmakers works is one craft that certain circlesof personal thing. Wolfgang Staudte's observations.EricRentschler 31 a groupofyoungboysdrafted intothearmy at thewar'send). (WestBerlin:Spiess. thatwould funddemanagedto setin motionpublicsubsidy systems butfilms limand pose onlyminimal as longas filmmakers resistance.
the short filmfunctioned as an experimental site.an official stranglehold overfantasy life. Bestandsaufnahme 28.valiumforthe masses. an anti-Kulturlfm an as a sort ofanti-culture. theperverting The members ofthenouvelle potential vague. Filmkritik 29. [DieStunde Kiuge's 27. and eschewed of culture. shorts. joined in a protest againsta "cinema of quality"and in the desireto combat a moribundcultural The Oberatmosphere. The Candidate [Der Kandidat.EdgarReitz'scomment: "We wereparticularly in a sort ofanti-arinterested whichhad arisen. againsta cinema that meant a cult of distraction. tionalization of amnesia. Cf. unfilm).32 Not to Forget Remembering butions of directors to omnibus filmslike Germany inAutumn [Deutschland im Herbst. Truffaut at bestprotested themisuseoflanguageand education. explored einer opera house in Munich (Fateof an OperaHouse [Schicksal Oper. it commonly protested . form itsvery subverts a Brutality stages that flourished in Third the Reich: the short "withgenre (the Kulturfilm outa plot"that infact. film in theindividual format wouldcontinue contri1957]).As Hartmut notes:"The mainfeaBitomsky turesmighthave shownrevuesand romances. Die Oberhausener 136). Godard's initial to Kluge.1978]. a latter-day in Kluge'steleviextension [Krieg 1983]. features sharedthelabor. and even among peers the reasons will vary. and analysis. revenge. der Autoren. innovators different reasons politics quite protest at different times." 27 (October1983):445. and Warand Peace filmmakers and embracecommongoals regarding film join together Film is for another. the culture films took formatters of Weltanschauung." 576-581.was directed culprotest.We were inspired chitecture by the operatic beautyof the ruins" (Lewandowski. sion spots forThe Hourofthe Filmmakers derFilmemacher].1980].29 The short undFrieden. "Der Kotfliigel eines Mercedes-Benz: Nazikulturfilme. accompanied every derstand Nazi cinemain terms of singlefilms. instance.27 hausengroupconsciously itself to shaped according thisimpulse."28 overresponsibility Fromthebeginning of Young GermanFilm. . inStone a rebellion on celluloid. nonetheless. feature One cannot. "Autorenfilm/Politik in Kluge.EdgarReitz'sfirst for thewarruinsofan effort.againstfilmin the service leastinitially of the stateand the status an instituquo. HartmutBitomsky.for .at all itsdiversepersonalities and factions. according against turein generaland against thepowerof languagein culture.finding first film wouldbe a short. and Newsreels. act of subversion.
and an abidingpenchant forthemonumen. models of and the skeleton otherfuture edifices. Bestandsaufnahme and Politics in Germany 1918-1945 Quoted in Barbara Miller Lane. (the stills of semodernized neoclassicistic structures. (Cambridge/London: study see DieterBartetzko. confronts voicesand artifacts from thepastwitha retrospective revolt.the construction 30. metropolis. revisits Alain Resnais'sNight 1955]32. . lostspace."33 Walter "has neverbeen idle. utopianexpanses. as the fiction historical thatit indeed is. thefilm an infamoussite of past barbarism: the Nuremberg PartyCongress des grounds." Benjamin. withmassed ornamental groupsof euphoricbystanda forsaken. 1988) 6-18. "document reality. 536."3"In a mannerredolent of and Fog [Nuit etBrouillard."34 Architecture. Kluge. of an unfinished site of Albert remnants building. Illuminations 240.edificescast. 31.1985).in BarbaraMillerLane's words. . provides registering vereangles. For an extended analysis of Night and Fog. Nor is thecameraidle herein itsattention to aesthetic designswitha of inhumanproportions. Benjaminonce observed. 1935] present longer zied spectacle. intended to reflect HarvardUP. documentation."30 in Stone combines theimportant and Brutality documentary bound in and inextricably impetuses Kluge's theory praxis of film: As documentation. Screening Cinema'sImagesoftheUnimaginable (Bloomington/Indianapolis: Indiana UP.in ers. of Hider at workon the empire'sfuture stills of as wellas simulations ofthat sketches Germania. capital.sharpplanes. all radical filmexperiments workat heartin a fashion. The camera. Walter "The WorkofArtin theAge ofMechanicalReproduction. it and experimentation. theHolocaust: 32. 33. 34. Lane 215. Architecture the power "symbols of the 'heroic scale of life' . seemingly shortfragments film 12-minute contains over 200 singleshots). seekingto represent reality into service claim that thefipressing every great period"finds Hitler's nal expression ofitsvaluesin itsbuildings." Kluge said in 1983.as tal and gigantic of the dictator and his modernstateoverhis subjectsin the mass. 1968) 188.EricRentschler 33 VIII "All documentary filmsthatare authentic. For a recent ofNazi architecture. authenticity. of We see the space and structure geometry the massiveZeppelinfeld.butrather vacant. This set for Riefenstahl's Triumph of theWill [Triumph is in of its countenance no the scene frenWillens. .see Ilan Avisar. Illusionen in Stein (Reinbekbei Hamburg:Rowohlt.
thediscussion "Probleme des in Eder and Kluge." Dramaturgien 36." In Kluge's arguesKluge.an exBrutality in Kluge's understanding."ThesenII. text's open mode ofaddress.willful. inStone No doubt.of building menhang. guidingenergy [Die Patriotin. Authenticity means attentive213-16. Mddel and a horrific Rudeutscher songbook.exultantHitler hear authentic Youthchoirs. radio announcers. passagefrom in whichthecommander ofAuschwitz dolfHiss's memoirs.thevoicewe hearinBrutality lacksthesubtlety and in otherKlugefilms.Ulmer 51-56. of spectators to historical spectacles. Documentation.The authentic once soone. concern informs unacknowledged place in present Straub and Huillet's contemporaneous short. An unreconciledintelligence they are terse. precise. engage. of partsto wholes. of thatpast and their withthe past.but also nomadic. "also destroys itself.36 ber.stark. displays heterogeneity multiple As a document. Kluge.A film to destroy theautonomy ofthespectator.aims to activate thoseforces that enliven thespectator. theauthentic textis bothobjective ("sachlich")and biased ("unsachlich"). hisscrutinizes Brutality ingfields thatcreatedimaginary toricalartifacts facts based on fictions." Bestandsaufnahme 535-36. analyzingthe relationship ofshapes/forms/surfaces blocksto entire to overall structures. language.thefactory-line theprocessing exterof in is mination ofdeported authentic concern Stone The Brutality Jews. Pahumation theradical pedagoguein The The triot here ferrets out Zusam1979]. Kluge.especially ofdistraction.Bestandsaufnahme 214. Speer's Convention or balanced. 35. nessin themidst a relaxed. temporalities. claimsKluge. challenge textis a communicative at tateaudiences.withthe imagesand self-images A similar discourse. concrete. Hall.35 takes sidesand never allowsitself to be objective It always a of and shiftmaterials. describes of humanmaterial in thecamps. nuanceofthecapricious enunciators be they the Patriot. inStone ofdiscourse. We guidesthistourthrough voices: Hitler on various occasions.on occasion.straightforward. effects. a visualand auralmuseumof memories. Dokumentarfilms. and and extreme. a gruesome versefrom forinstance. The film thusreflects how theimaginary becamerealand seeksat the sametimeto fathom theconstruction ofmeaning bya state apparatus. in theveinofGabi Teichert. that irriand. and cheering crowdsfrom Triumph of the We also partake of quotations: a Bund Will. between and yetcritical relationship spectator whichis mirrored in theauthentic thatseeks film. theBig Top:Perplexed under or the talking inexorable elephants in Artists .Machorka-Muff (1962). Gestalten. The quest forauthenticity.34 Not to Forget Remembering in Stoneconstitutes an eccentricwork of archaeology .Cf. rather. kneein The The soberdeclarations possessno ludicelan.
underline and overstate of the editingrhythms object investigation. See EricRentschler. in an undertaking and reinterpretation driven intervention. fueling radical imitation with a frontal an aggressive attack. Gelegenheitsarbeit Sklavin: (Frankfurt ." in Stone Brutality mergesexperimentation. einer Zur realistischen Methode Alexander Kluge."38 blends butrather The protest thisexperiment ality. torically operations present waytoo." Critique am Main: Suhrkamp. byan inexoIt contrasts. gathering fragments evoking. relationships in forward as down corridors eramovessolemnly processions expansive the calmness of a comdescribes prisoners entering gas chambers. resounding juxtaposing barren with the bombsofalliedairraids. of theregularity forming again the alreadyhyperformed. witness thecornerstone laid for the edifice and the being accompanywhich strikingly in the dramatizesstate investment ing ceremony. counterpoint. employing montage between The camthat establishes theseemingly unrelated. liticalactionsas emanations and the The opening shot literalizes the dialecticof enlightenment 37.Its schematic and patterned volvecontrast. The structures of and the are spaces. Ifrealism has a motive. the cities of the future with the visualsignifiers. the Discourseof Bitburg. are. exaggerating and surfaces.shapes. authentic.EricRentschler 35 At thecenter ofthisfilm we finda generaldedicating an Academy for in Bonn Memories of the a Adenauer where war vetera.but it is more like a deconstructed something and shards. and of in reconstruction Stone Brutality stylization memory.but indeed nal function are at once no longer . H6ss thorthatassociates neoclassicistic withPrussian bination promenades links of and thus the of edifices and the substance oughness shapes poof the same ideologicalinstrumentation.collecting. confronting paradegrounds juin inof 1934. in twoways:they in use. and memories. auraland brazenly. ofreasserts it"is never a confirmation Kluge."7 provides museum of similar. a protest. The film's dominant bilant sounds Nuremberg strategies and parody. place Military erans findgovernment We supportfortheirrevisionist enterprises. at timesrather rablewillnotto forget. past recycled worked over (umfunktioniert and aufgearbeitet). "The Use and Abuse of Memory: New GermanFilmand NewGerman 36 (Fall 1985): 73-76. 1975) 216. ceasing to serve theirorigi- In an age of "no experiments.in thehistorical film in another of areputtouse in this context project Film film German and its to renew German Young attempts history. hisso that we better the of the refunctionalizing might grasp workings in in whose continue the and that real. 38.
to is thetrees Naturesuccumbs covering ing superimposed. landscape and fields. 46 (Fall 1988). Cf. 39. Cinema and the Public Sphere: The Construction Discourse 6 (Fall 1985): 53-74. Abschied IX of West public defender Klugewillendureas the mostprominent stress on the of cinema to rean individual whose German film.propagating tools of first the world with the modernity.insisting inStone. theThird Reich(Cambridge: Cambridge UP. nowmakes later.42 from theformer confections all but indistinguishable on FoxHunting Fiichse. The scriptwas published in the journal Film 4 (Velber. The subthatcertain structures gy." New German 24-25 (Fall/Winter Critique Oppositional Public Sphere: Germany 1981-82): 35-56. See also the special issue of October Persistence devoted to Kluge.Critical Theory. and in the Films of Alexander Kluge.eds.Closed towards elders. No." "The Stubborn Discourse: Historyand Story-Telling 2 (1985): 19-29. Cf.a cinemaof Eigensinn indeed. 40.41 Two decades smugand unrepentant aggression passive in various he after commercial ventures veins. "Alexander Kluge. 1984) 169-196.see Miriam Hansen's various essays. 1966]. 42. Culture.June 1966): 45-56.Reactionary Technology." und der neue Texte tween Film. Literature.39 Kluge's experiforming in critical arthistory and outspoken archaeolomentoffers an exercise stillbear on thepresent. StuartLiebman." Film und Literatur: Literarische deutsche Film. 1984).to the same instrumental in premodern blood and soilfustian whiletransself garb. 41." And Peter forhisfeature Season Schamoni? He gainedsome attention debut. The film is available in a subtitledversion throughWest Glen Films in New York. Sigrid Bauschinger et al. "Alexander Kluge: Crossings beSite of Counter-History.including:"Collaborative Auteur Cinema and in Autumn. vongestern. ofVision ed. willthatshroudsitmonumental madness. ofYesterday" von ofBrutality "The Eternity title ["Die Ewigkeit in and finds an ironic echo the later title original replaces gestern"]. generic DavidFriedrich artists thatare about romantic (1986). the summaryaccount of Spring fromthe program of "New German Symphony Films" presented at the 1984 Berlin Film Festival:"The love storyof Clara Wieck and .36 Not to Forget Remembering of NationalSocialism:we see a lake and a construction antagonistic overwhichthenthevastfacadeofa buildbehind natural it. (Berne/Munich:Francke. For useful and dynamic appreciations of Kluge's project in its multiple directions.bio-pictures Caspar ofOpasKino. a studyof a young generation's [Schonzeitfiir like Spring feature-length Kulturfilme 1982] and Symphony [Friihlingssinfonie. power to to alternative continues deem historical and givevoice energies reality to guide his worktoday. Kluge's debut featureof 1966.Jeffrey and in Weimar Modernism: and Politics Herf.
hisdaughter love:in managwhosebond with liesbeyondmerepaternal Clara'sfather. self-fulfillment. structures.Cologne:thewealthy patron in a series of arts. submits and hiswife. DavidFriedrich connection in epdFilm3 (December1986): "Schamonimakesa political between theartist's and theresistance troops: against Napoleonicoccupation biography of ofthefilm to a morepernicious in theconfused this amounts context form ultimately Germanchauvinism" (37). self-assurance. (He does notuse thephrase"Nazi art. periodbecamean extraordinary RobertSchumann.complains public pronouncements thatrefuses to grant Gerabout the narrow (Blickverengung) perspective from 1933to 1945a placein publicinstitutions. we glimpsea cinemainstature. decperson purchased Pop previously done byAndyWarholnow commissions ades ago and had hisportrait Nazi artist to make bustsof himself the once-prominent Arno Breker It is a signofthetimes.43 man artand sculpture he claims. . National suddenly beganto reinvent The Hitler creative resource Socialism. in Staeck14. tojudge forthemselves whether theseworks are barbaric. and the a taking The anti-Kulturfilm ect. with DerSpiegel. against forgetting. film to recycle feature meantexplicitly newGerman images subsequent ofNational the and discourse from thepast.")Peoplehavea right. to thelate 1970sand early1980s. Ifwejump ahead and to militate collective Socialism. As theartist Teichert's Christo put questfora positive theGermans it:"In theseventies." The film starred he seekshisownartistic Kinski. In anycase. -Staeck 15.to confront facts. Nastassja inghercareer ofCaspar RolfHoppe. Gertrud devastating Gr6nemeyer.EricRentschler 37 X industrialist and influential ofthe 1986. a chanceto theoperative tabusshouldbe lifted and audiencesgranted of 40 yearsmight allownew approaches to the see whether a distance The same who Art two censured.but also the love-hate of Schumannand Friedrich story Wieck.PeterLudwig. 43. "Postmodern Ludwig: whatdoes thatmean otherthanbeingtraditional?"44 XI The initial behindYoungGermanFilmwas a negative impetus projofrevenge. in Gabi a mission vestedin recreating national essentialized identity Germanhistory.whenNew GermanFilmhad gained and wide recognition.a critical enterprise. Froman interview reprinted 44. and Herbert Koch's review Cf.
Not to Forget Remembering
fora whole generationof filmmakers and writers."45 When we look tofrom the of the current historians' debate, at the most day, perspective of New German revisitations the Third Reich, we celebrated Cinema findmore than passing traces of revisionist discourse in representative films like Hans Jiirgen Syberberg's Our Hitler[Hitler- ein Film aus Pale Mother Deutschland,1977], Helma Sanders-Brahms's Germany, Rainer Fassbinder's Werner bleicheMutter,1979], Lili [Deutschland, Marleen(1980), and Edgar Reitz's Heimat (1984). These films rewrite fromthe perspectiveof the present;one mightspeak of them as history into myth,or as restagedversions retro-scenarios, history transforming of the past that exorcize the shock of that experience and thus soothe the present." Three characteristics stand out: (1) the fixationon Gerand an attendantidentificamany as a nation of victimsand martyrs, tion with innocent and impotent bystandersthat undercuts the Holocaust and Jewish suffering; (2) the figurationof German historyas woman: as an allegoryof mourning (OurHitler), as the centralpresence as and source of continuity a voice (Heimat), pressed into public service - a strategy Pale Mother) or as a victimof rape (Germany, (LiliMarleen), that representsthe nation as a violated or vulnerable female body, a stand-inand medium fora hapless Germany;and (3) the reflection on reflection of thatpast, a functionof what the Nazi past as an unwitting Saul Friedlander has called a "New Discourse" about National Socialism, which replaces guiltwith fascination,shame with shamelessness, awareness of wrongdoing with a (however unintentional) complicity with criminals.47 Unlike Edgar Reitz, Kluge clearlydoes not wish to rewriteGerman historyin a master narrativethat integratesthe Third Reich into a wider course in time,relativizing its singularity, denyingits special status, and resentingthose who insist on its exceptional significance.48 short uncompromisinglyconfrontsincontrovertible facts Kluge's first H *ss speaks candidly of the and places them withinlarger structures. death camps and theiroperations,leaving no doubt about questions of
11 (1982): 20. Christo, "Wrapping Up Germany," semiotexte Cf. Bruno Fischli, "Rekonstruktion, Retro-Scenario, Trauerarbeit, Film 79/ Aufarbeitung- oder was? Neue Filme uiber den alten Faschismus," Jahrbuch 80, ed. Hans Giinther Pflaum (Munich/Vienna: Hanser, 1979) 63-75. 47. Saul Friedlinder, Reflections and Death,trans.ThomofNazism: An Essayon Kitsch as Weyr (New York: Harper, 1984) 11-12. 48. Cf. Reitz's essay "The Camera Is Not a Clock," in Rentschler, WestGerman Filmmakers 139f. 45. 46.
Eric Rentschler 39
in Stone crucial intervenes, agencyin the Holocaust.Brutality activating To be sure,thesedesiresinhere in The attimes, memories. howPatriot; how even Kluge,the of emphasisdemonstrates ever,a curiousshift most vigorousagentof historical cannotfully freehimself memory, The from a revisionist climate. mournsand recollects "all ofthe Patriot thatthey are not simply Reich'sdead,"49giving thema voice,stressing mostpersuasive and energy. The film's dead, butindeedfullofprotest knee of CorporalWieland,a soldier"who spokesmanis the talking in thewronghistory," in wantedto live,but foundhimself perishing is explicitly thebattle ofStalingrad. At one pointtheviewer reminded thatthe RoyalAir Force burned 60,000 people in the bombingsof WorldWar 11.50We also glimpseAmerican aviators Hamburgduring for a after break taking cigarette "dismantling Germany systematically we the dead and the hours." remember recall If monstrous, eighteen unburdenedof cerwe standbeforea Germanhistory conspicuously of This is clearfrom the start tainvictims and certain remembrances. in its openingquotationfromCurtisBernhardt's TheLast ThePatriot, overdead Germansoldiers, accompaniedby the music Hanns Eisler for and The thescene:"This takes describes script composed Night Fog. in theSevenYears'Waror theWarsofLiberation, butnow place either a from is The we see an anti-aircraft gun strategy troubling 1943.'"51 it collapsesJewishconcentration one; like Reagan's visitto Bitburg, common and German wardead intoone, implying their camp victims in a film that makes no further This is all the more disturbing status. oftheHolocaust,that withholds evena single mention imageofJewish in that a work of we can talk suffering prolonged mourning, suggesting odd Auschwitz. an of WorldWar II without In way,The mentioning an wherein to conforms an described Patriot approach by Friedlander, more effective of and an ever "endlessstream words imagesbecomes screenhidingthe past...."52
introduces his heroinewith thesewords:"Gabi Teichert, 49. Kluge,in voice-over, in all of the Reich'sdead." teacherin Hesse, a patriot, i.e., she is interested history Facto connotetheRed Army 50. Klugeuses theabbreviation "RAF," morelikely with he plays minds.In this tion(i.e.,theBaader-Meinhof way, group)in contemporary on Hamburgduring WorldWar II wereactsof terrorism. thenotionthattheattacks takesplace duringthe Wars of Liberation 51. TheLast Company, in fact, against Napoleon. 1-6(Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausen52. Alexander Texte/Bilder Kluge,Die Patriotin: deins, 1979) 51.
1930]. We see a drawn-out travelingshot [Die letzte Kompanie, Company
Not to Forget Remembering XII
and ing a sourcethefollowing phrase:"The real becomesimaginary, in theage forthat reasontheimaginary is real."53 Thischaracterizes life ofelectronic as wellas recent ofthepastin reproduction appropriations Germandiscourse, retro-scenarios that transform into history thespecof pseudo-fact.54 tacleof myth, intofictions thattakeon thecharacter To thisday,Klugeremains in sensitive to thoseelements inordinately whichundermine historical and seekto contemporary society memory a constant ofdiversion, a voracious state that perpetuate present engulfs and nullifies the past.These forces control deterfantasy production, in minetheshapeofcities, and dominate creatpostmodernity general, in whichthepresent horizons forecloses future and cuts inga situation off to. Forall ofthis, thepast- or atleasttries maintains Kluge (playing in The on a phraseby Christa Wolfthathe reworks that"[t]he Patriot) 55Wedarenotmisunderstand certain pastisn'tdead, itisn'tevenpast.""" of Kluge'sinsights as Baudrillardian does not share revelations. Kluge the latter's in the resilient vehement pessimismnor his loss of faith of the and Baudrillard's repowers (Kluge's subject.56 quite different in to I would and Stammheim sponses Mogadishu provide, suggest a contrast: in Autumn to "Our Theater passing, telling compareGermany of Cruelty.""57) of modernity, even in Klugestillbelievesin theproject the face of postmodern realities. He both mournsand protests the of certain vitiation forms of experience: theshattering of memory, the of the past, the destruction of livingspaces and public denigration of of humanimagination the decline the the cinema, spheres, stifling
53. Kluge, Bestandsaufnahme 473. Die Wiederkehr der Geschichte als Film (Munich: 54. Cf. Anton Kaes, Deutschlandbilder: edition text + kritik,1987). 55. Alexander Kluge, Der Angriffder Zeit(Frankfurt am Main: Gegenwart aufdie iibrige Syndikat,1985) 107. 56. Cf. Baudrillard's characterizationof a naive mode of "technological optimism" regarding the media and their progressivepotential in "The Mass: The Implosion of the Social in the Media," Selected ed. Mark Poster (Stanford:StanfordUP, 1988) Writings, 207. For dialectical optimists,claims Baudrillard, "the media constitutea new, gigantic productiveforceand obey the dialectic of productive forces.Momentarilyalienated and submittedto the law of capitalism, theirintensivedevelopment can only eventuallyexplode this monopoly." 57. See Baudrillard, In theShadowoftheSilent ... ortheEnd oftheSocial,trans. Majorities Paul Foss et al. (New York: semiotexte, 1983) 111-23.
In his Bestandsaufnahme Stock, [Taking 1983], Kluge quotes withoutcit-
59 The Time: from Assault the Present on the Rest the of of script quote on Sunday. to remember not to forget. The timenearswhenthefirst wavesofpeople willrushoff and reset our It is thedayon which we go off time daylight-savings in from the watches Saturday (that night actually happenedalready to Sunday. manFilmmakers 30-32." refusesto succumb to fatalism of resistance.Reference to the filmPeople film it is fall 5 a. Sunday towork.The main thing For Kluge. Wampe. 41-42. See GaryIndiana'sinterview withKluge. A PEOPLE ON MONDAY. 59. .EricRentschler 41 by the new media. SeeAlexander "Theses theNewMedia.in whichKlugespeaksof treating cinema"as a time-producing thisis themeaning offilm cinemaabsorbstimeanimal. Suspensetakestimeaway:ifa bomb is ticking to producetimeis a notinteresting time.I think Commercial history.It's killing very highideal of all thearts"(67). and practice strategies XIII Cinema as a time machine: images out of time vs. from the Now scene Kuhle 1984. moments lost in A time." Village 33 (25 October1988). for all his keen awareness of "fatal strateand instead continuesto articulate gies.but mostpeople didn'tnoticeit untilMondaymornis to forget whathappenedyesterday.or howwe feel.m. Kluge. it is clear: the main thingis to combat blithetakingsof leave from yesterday. about West Ger58. films from the past against the power of the ever-present.I think what we say.58 Kluge.it's likein Hitchcock. underthistable." Kluge. 60."The Demolition Voice Artist.Angriffder Gegenwart in Rentschler.60 ing).
' struggle forindependent in a which did not have a film film-making country fora culture calling comparableto thatof France. Subjectivity Kluge --Alexander who AlexanderKluge is a grudging auteur.a reluctant personality issuesmorethanthehistory of seemsto engageanyand all historical mostfamousinhimself: he has been one offilm's sinceOberhausen. that label ternational has signatures yet onlywithgreathesiaccepted tationand careful qualification. As Miriam Hansen and redefinitions trouble with original have argued."thisnew direction of ofAutorenkino a collective "revision through politics production. has shown that has been Rentschler Kluge part very in whichdifferent ofan effort ofcultural to enacta variety subjectivities of relations withhistory have decentered the conventions enunciatory for auteurism. NY: 43 . WestGerman Filmin theCourse of Time(BedfordHills.TheCommerce ofAuteurism: a Voice without Authority Corrigan Timothy is greater thansomeone's intentions.one of themostimportant collective and Eric Rentschler the ofcontemporary cinemamayhas been to resituate German gestures notion of the auteur. Commentators ofauteurism. Eric Rentschler. through contemporary film hasmeantincreasingternational Klugetheauteur industry. placing to fit of postmodern that the shifting lycomplicating position grounds within modem Germancinemahavenotedhis culture. To locateKlugewithin thistroubled ofauteur has always recategory inthe butas Klugehas evolved quiredrevision. Hansennotesthat theNew German Cinema"theemphasiswasnecessarily moreon a 'politique thepolitical des auteurs."' 1.
fragmentation. changes of an Arriflex art cinema and the introduction camera. international While these changes in productiontechniquefrequently presented Redgrave.Kluge's certain relations eliciting in film itof situates a self national/international industry writing today's worksurrounding thefilms selfbetween themore social and political and with networks) (hisinvolvements government policiesor television his film to of refuses be thereception (whosematerial practice textuality of his earlyattempts As an extension to foritsreading). the authority more recent endismantle theaura ofauteurism as expression. .In a crucialsense. "Cooperative Auteur Cinema in Auand Oppositional Public Sphere: Alexander Kluge's Contribution to Germany 24-25 (Fall/Winter1981-2)."New German Critique GermanCinema:A History (New Brunswick: Rutgers U. through in thesixties bound to and seventies was tightly America and elsewhere in production and distribution suchas theriseofan strategies. Kluge's ofauteurism havebeento use itas a textual with thepractice gagements in itsown right.rather in has been the central the mode of production. Francein thefifties Its spreadfrom er really been untroubled. 1984) 89-101 and 158-61. along ofhisown sinuse ofthecommerce Klugehas begunto makespecific and gularity subjectivity. shift within auteurism Indeed.themarked and receiving thanas a as a wayofviewing auteurism movies. in thisrevised terms stance. problematic TheMultiple Children ofTruffaut ofauteurism havenevAs a heuristic theories and practices category. See also Thomas Elsaesser. multiplication whichI themhereas partof a specific commercial willenlist strategy findin Kluge.But I are not new to studies diversification.more exactly admits to himself as an imtextual" where Kluge performing practice as a for of but the primarily strategy age writer/producer/filmmaker withhis audience. theyshould be supplemented by in which another as a way Klugehas mobilizedauteurism suggesting withKlugeone finds lessa critical subversion critical namely. 1989). Miriam Hansen. New tumn. Manyof the relevant of Kluge. change meaningof It is lines that from the sixties to the these auteurism eighties.one in whicha politics ofagency takesitsplace as much in an extra-textual as a"semias in a textualbusiness. category: than a critical of of auteurism as a productionstrategy exploitation as a category forreception.44 TheCommerce ofAuteurism Accurateas theseassessments are. a textual whichhe can act material material through of an authoritative out and disperse the specific agency. Press.
appropriate for negotiating of films. 1972). withinearlytheoriesand Indeed. Press. PeterWollen. ofmassmedia(mostnotably.The historical of the reception adaptability theworksof early likeVon Strofilmmakers back through auteurism. visionwhosecontextual as a kindofbrand-name are already meanings thewaya movieis seen and received. subsequent suchas Bernardo Bertolucci's movies. in theCinema and Meaning Indiana U. Auteurism forms ofelevated.alienated but new cultural communities. from disconnected its and commermostly marketing theories and practices cial implications. and awashin an indistinguishable spateofmediaimages. one of the chiefmystifications of of one or another idea has been a valorization auteurism practices of expression.StephenHeath. ed. method theyalso offered. retrieved sanctions to old audiences. Despitetheir largedifferences. Michel Foucault. Authorship'.1977) 113-138. on 'The Idea of (Ithaca:CornellU. a relationship audiberations between ence and moviewhereby and authorial an intentional agency governs. to thepresent ofSpielberg heimand Eisenstein and through generation the desire and of an and Cimino.Timothy Corrigan 45 auteurism as a moreaccurate thecomplications of wayto cutthrough mass entertainment and to locate the expressive core of the filmart.Signs (Bloomington: Practice Counter-Memory. a more historically less visibly.1975) 292-4. A Reader. the reverter. 1900. 3. A collection & KeganPaul. ofAmerican (New York:Vintage.sharebasic assumptions ofenunciation.3 (Autumn1973): 86-91. television).identifies demand to mainly industry aura duringa period an artistic (and specifically Romantic) generate itself from whentheindustry less as such needed to distinguish other."Comment Screen 14.JohnCaughie(London: Routledge in Theories ofAuthorshiP: Movies Movie-Made America: A Cultural History 1981).2 determined. through ofdirectorial namesacrosstitles.Despiteitsoften overstated counter-cultural auteurism became a deft pretentions. from the modernistart fered not just new audiences.3 izing expression a source for or auteurial as other textual consistencies presence stylistic and variations or as a figurative a lostor "dead" authority supplanting and debatesaboutauteurism ofthemajordocuments can be found 2.David Lean'sRyan's Daughor Michael Cimino'sHeaven's Gateguaranteed. of auteurism Astruc and PeterWollento Foucaultand Stephen from Ford to Heath. about theauteuras thestructuring an organprinciple of or one sort one locates that Whether another." . See also RobertSklar.from John Jean Luc Godard. Press. movein establishing woulddominate and stabilize a model that critical at least The auteurist for of reception thirty marketing years."What Is an Author?".in Language.
even these modernist corrections." in Image-Music-Text. in theFiction 5. "The Death oftheAuthor. the place of the auteur withina textualcausalitydescribes a way of organfashizing spectatorialpositions in a transcendentor trans-subjective ion.Within the emphasis and reception. .of the auteur as a commercial strategy fororganizing audience reception. trans. retrospectives. In David Bordwell's analysis of auteurism as an interpretative cue. Stephen Heath (New York:Hill and Wang. Narration Film(Madison: U. 1985) 211. the conceptof art cinema's mode of production has a formal function it did not possess in the Hollytheauthor Filmjournalismand criticism wood studiosystem. can vanquish most of the mythsof expressivity in the cinema in favor of more formaland heuristicuses forthe auteur. of the film. 1977) 142-48. of WisconsinPress. promoteauas do film and academicfilm thors. ofthenarration is often theovert self-consciousness by paralleled on the an extratextual filmmaker as source. Roland Barthes. parallelto thenarrationalpresence'who' communicates (whatis the filmmaker saying?)and 'who' expresses (whatis theauthor'spersonal vision?). festivals.discussions.and. as a criticalconcept bound to distribution and marketing aims.46 TheCommerce ofAuteurism source (as Bartheswould say) in the formof a textualenunciation.] More viewers to read each filmas a chapter theauthorbecomes the real-world broadly. The often strained attemptsto make consistentor evolutionarythe Britishand American movies of Hitchcock or the German and Hollywood filmsof FritzLang are governed by some sense of a historically trans-subjective which authorizes certainreadings or underand transcendentcategory standings of those movies. Directors' statements of intent guide comprehension whilea bodyofworklinkedby an authorial signature encourages of an oeuvre.[ .increasingimportance . in fact. such as Bordwell's.5 Formalist and cognitivecritiques of auteurism.. study. David Bordwell.4 To view a filmas the product of an auteur means to read or to respond to it as an expressiveorganization thatprecedes and supersedes the historicalfragmentations and subjective distortionsthat can take over the reception of even the most classicallycoded movie. 4. . Yet these too do not fullyattend to the survival. or deconstructionsof the romanticroots of auteurism need to be taken another step towards recontextualizingthem withinindustrialand commercial trajectories. Today.
BertoltBrecht.See J.Gesammelte (Frankfurt: ofAuthorship: de quat'sous: Le Procds sociologique. assimilated and expression. trans. argued self-evaluation" order the "reflective "second desires" where grounds ofcertain of"theself-interpreting subject"has as itsobject"thehaving 6.1970) 148-221. theauteurhad been absorbedas a phantom thesixties in theeighties as a within a he text. in terms of social agency. a social interaction froman intentional or textual transcendence. experience Suhrkamp. Theories A Reader Werke 2. Certheactionofenunciation increasingly exsuch a revaluation of auteurism as more than enunciatory tainly across or a and heuristic could should take any place pression category has already been imofitshistorical and to a certain extent variations in thesocialand historical ofa "politiquedes auteurs. causality Models of agency are usefulhereprecisely are models because they and the of intersubjectivity whichaim to undermine the metaphysics of action of intention."Robert Altmanand the Theoryof Authorship.Leftbvre Screen 16.rather in to a commerceof auteurism is especially critical This attention auteur a with the as and category keepingpace practice interpretative has theperiodwhentheplayofcommerce thelastfifteen during years.Timothy Corrigan 47 thisneed to investigate how "the authoris constructed by Illustrating and forcommerce. ofthewidermaterial re-theorized strategies ofa culto conditions Here theauteurcan be described the according distinct tural and commercialintersubjectivity. Journal . "Brechtand theFilmIndustry. 1967) 18: 139-209.in conjunction with theso-called artcinemaof international and seventies." 25. or she has rematerialized presence this an auteur. Lebraveand J.4 (Winter also Ben Brewster.-P. See also RobertSelf. To follow ofthe business commercial being of performance movein a postmodern thepractices ofauteurism nowmustbe culture.1 (Fall 1985): 3-11.in French. (Paris:Editonsde l'Arche. delineate a model and authority expression They and moniin whichboth expression are conditioned and reception conditions." 1975-76):16-Cinema 33.-L." emphasis plicit Yet theinternational of postmodern have made it culture imperatives disclear thatcommerceis now much more thanjust a contending course:if. agency Taylor." John Caughie has noted thatthisquestionhas been overlookedsince Brecht's1931 accountof TheThreepenny Opera in cinema trialin whichBrecht exposes the contradiction "brilliantly ofthecreative between thecommercial need to maintain theideology in termsof need to redefine artist and the simultaneous ownership thancreative investment. Charles toredby reflective their towards material postures forewhich for has a model of human instance."6 capital.
oftheauteuras a particular Wherethepractice brandofsocialagen. 28. Structure. textual as auteursis their chief commercial status path. Central .This idea of ically. 8.is.therationalization moniof to of action interact the structure toring concomitantly map expression as a reflective social discourse whichnecessarily calls attention to In both cases. notso mucha transcending cythusbecomesa place forencountering conditions desires)but the different meaning(of first-order through whichexpressive meaningis made by an auteurand reconstructed by an audience.paradoxKlugefinds in of the status the auteuras a star. Analysis (Berkeley: in in Social Theory: Problems and Contrast Action.since the commercial nownecessarily and socially becomepartofan agency whichculturally monitors identification and critical spectatorial reception. auteurs likeKlugemay Here. Human Agency Papers I (Cambridge: TheAuteuras Star Social U.theauteur-as-agenthrough socially symbolic. contemporary theauteur-star of to hark backto theearlier avatars mayappearmerely auteurism who wereplaced in certain and intellectual aesthetic pantheons:from thecelebrity ofauteurOrsonWellesto RobertBresson. Press.in whichtheir functionas auteurs: the auteur-star is meaningful as a primarily CambridgeU. and 15. 7. line positions artcinthemarketing transformation oftheauteur oftheinternational ema into the cult of personality of the thatdefinedthe filmartist auteurshave increasingly become situatedalong an extraseventies. and Language: Philosophical Charles Taylor.1983).evenreluctant of the more embrace strategically promising possibilities theauteuras a commercial statusof thatpresence presence. agencybethe material termsof its communication.48 TheCommerce ofAuteurism a materialist first-order Giddenssuggests Anthony desires. of California Press. Anthony Giddens. consistency In ofauteurist from with have deviated its textual center.conditions whichinvolvehistorical and cultural motivationsand rationalizations.1985) 43.and where of a its with film initiates revision relation audiences cy hisopeningforaddressing thoseaudiences. textual ism was a productof a certain distinction. Despitethegeneral of tradition of the the textual more recent versions auteur. as self-reflective ofexpresmodel ofexpression action:themotivation of thataction.and the reflective siveaction.8 comes a mode of enunciation whichdescribesan activeand monitoredengagement withitsown conditions as the subjective expresses itself the In the cinema."'Similarly.
NJ:Doubleday. it is the textthatmaynow be dead.'0 certain receptions moviesbeingvehiclesforcertain the auteur-star can potentially stars. promotedbiography In of a a on of textual twist the tradition movie." serving or its unmaking(as withTwilight movie (likeFitzcarraldo) Zone)forethat As an forecloses the text Godard has itself. Tania Modleski inEntertainment: Critical Studies Culture.one whichrespondsto the special statusof the is Jospeh auteur yet failsto relecton its largerculturaland critical implications." NewGerman 1981-82):57-72. of Indiana Press. as Superstar FilmDirector Gelmis'sThe (GardenCity. gardlessof thefilmic movies are oftenmade beforethey are made.9 LikeMichaelCimino'sHeaven's Gate. "A Staris Born: Fassbinder and the New GermanCinecussionis SheilaJohnston. 1988). One of the most sensational processof a examples of how the production auteurcan usurp the filmin severalsenses is Les Blank'sBurden (1981/2).are always they I but am not some brandof egotism this status as stars. suggesting By that the binarydistinctions that once formulated most models of or formal have collapsedintowhat auteurist organization expression Dana Polan has called the postmodern "evacuationof sense" within to text. like auteurist most can preempt a director's Coppola's Tucker. and.promotional technology a new auteurism in whichthe makingof a "camera-stylo."Brief to Mass ed. King incisively today's parodied look likeor how mercewe wantto knowwhatour authors and auteurs theyact. whether on theverge ofbeingconsumedbytheir wishitor not. authority interpretation longersustains 9. Francis and specifically.psymass culture. (BloomingApproaches ton: U.12The oppositionalcalculus of expression no or to to chology meaning. 24-25 (Fall/Winter ma. ofDreams ofFitzcarraldo whichdocumentsHerzog's making (1982). of and redeemany sortof textualmaterial. see Jeffery More recently Chown. Dana Polan. ofSense. . auteuras self-proaccountof the contemporary 10. Hollywood Auteur: Coppola (New York:UMI. oftento the extent carry its In that of this us material the marvel through agency." a film of text and in effect thework Placedbefore and after usurping thattextand its reception. They knowwhata director twenty-five. An example of thisposition.1986) 167-187. 1970): "Over half and sold todayare boughtbymoviegoers theages ofsixteen between themovietickets is.Timothy Corrigan 49 or recovery of a movieor groupof movies."in Mass Culture and theEvacuation Encounters: 12.frequently repromotion textitself.A moretheoretical (NewYork:New American Library. Critique 11.FinalCut:Dreams Making of"Heaven's superstar moting disand pertinent Gate" 1986). today'sauteursare agentswho. making forget and production feats become thenew sense. One particularly significant inthe andDisaster is Steven Bach. agency ground in films in it so like comrecent Lear. whathe does and whathe's done" (xvii).
postmodern following irony of his come to serve his for aims a spectator's many projects. MeaghanMorris. snippeting. Like an being it Warhol can communicate a deal for a nummovie. .RichardDyer. respectable namesin thisgroupwould includeSpielberg. GeorgeLucas." in The London: Methuen."'3To respondto a movie as primarily or merely a filmis.Although the first could theoretically includea vast category as directors and directors as stars MaStallone. AnAgent A Prismatic ofAgency: Effect Of theseveral within thecommerce tacks oftheauteur-star. 14.14 An auteur film todayseemsto aspiremoreand moreto a critical tautology. 13. FilmsofWerner ed." MinnesotaPress. capable of being understood and consumedwithout seen.a pleasurethat be equallytrueofthestandard might receptionof Herzog movies. notread. For Kluge. the pleasureof refusing Spielberg tionto it. Meaghan Morrishas noted(in languagesimilar to RichardDyer'sdescription of thattoday"the primary modes offilm and auteurpackaging are stars) . Andy great large ber of audienceswho know the maker'sreputation but have never seen the films themselves. "Tooth and Claw:Tales ofSurvival and CrocodileDundee. twoare most pertinent here:the commercial auteurand the auteurof commerce. magazineprofiles in as the and not the ready appropriation precondition.and muchofthatpleasurelies in beingable to knowalready.institutional and commercial defines almost auteurism as and advertiseagency exclusively publicity thatis. Timothy Corrigan. Although makersmaywrite manifestos and presideovermovements.1986) 3-19. "ProducingHerzog: Froma Body of Images. Timothy Corrigan (New York and Herzog:Between Mirageand History.themeaning ofthefilm in a totalizing image thatprecedesthemoviein thepublicimagesofitscreator. ClintEastwood.Stars (London: BFI. of ofPostmodernism. advertising. postproduction of meaning.and so forth). rangeofstars (Sylvester more purportedly donna.it seems thatthe evolution of auteurism into a kindof stardom has an that runsthrough now. 1979).BrianDe in Universal Abandon:ThePolitics ed. Cf.Instead.1988) 122-123. Andrew Ross (Minneapolis: U. relocating relationto a filmas a more materialengagement withthe cultural agenciesof history. after an evaluative relaall.always review altrailers.50 TheCommerce ofAuteurism the contemporary auteurfilm. as botha provocative and empty of surment. display material face thatintercepts those more traditional filmdynamics.
16. withdifferent agendas. by celebrity upon texts thatinvariably exceed themovie agencyproducesand promotes both beforeand after itsrelease. section6 (24 July1988): 23-27.the more intriguing to or instithefirst. 'literary' thesedifferent catean auteurist agencieswithin ObviouslyI believethatmobilizing implications. Fassbinder. the auteurist text If normally a movie. mustadmitfissures filmmakers and discrepancies whichconsciously in and fragemploythepublic imageof theauteur orderto confront mentitsexpressive coherence.whichare frequently readings . goryhas larger . forthere a filmmaker monitor rework the attempts of theauteurist thecommerce tutional manipulations positionwithin of the contemporary movie industry. Lina Wertmuller. Fassbinderin recentyearsmay owe something to his ability popularity filmto filmso thatthereis a 'realist'Fassbinder. and theBertolucci Allen. David Lean and. eior therfoisted them chosen the of that their them. Magazine. Fiction David Bordwell thisfragmentation andthe Film.Truffaut so farwould assimilate of the latestAcademyAwards. these filmmakers now run the promotesand recuperates and autonomousselfup againstitstextual commerceof the auteurist in a waythatshatters the coherency of both authorial exexpression and stardom. and so on" (210). In Narration recognizes on thetraditional "The of theauteurbut sees it as a merevariation auteur-narrator: to of R.My argument mostofthesenames.W. and historical Motivations. The second category on variation is. developpression in critical dramatized offilms ments. RobertLindsey. itself.'6 himself moreand morewithin sucha I believeKlugehas positioned imand ofauteurism.Woody of thelateryears. the institutional commerce admitting reworking in of an and excesses auteurist a that position way aligns today postures on this front withfilmmakers like Raoul him somewhatpeculiarly Times "FrancisFord Coppola: Promisesto Keep.Timothy Corrigan 51 Palma. a changenarrational personaefrom a 'frenzied' a 'pastiche'Fassbinder. Fassbinder. I believe.now become destablized and usuas at leastsemi-autobiographical with a did the same Fassbinder Maria Braun who made ally purpose: us is self-exiled it the same and independent give Querelle? stridently humCoppola who says"I need to be a solo guy"and thenforTucker to of surrended the film Lucas's sense what "marketing George bly auteurist positioncould depeople want"?'5Whilea moretraditional to some and expression scribethesechangesin perspective according an evaluationof many contemporary coherentnotion of evolution. desires." New York 15.sincewhatdefines thisgroupis a recognition.John Sayles.
"TheIndependent (June1989): 21. 17. with a special issue views. Ruiz. YvonneRainerand Ernest Artists': An Interview "'We AreDemolition Larsen. But I would liketo have camouflage. The answer forKlugeand others is thatthere is a businessand politicsofagency that auteurism to remain a useful in engagtactic permits commercial or semi-commercial of Alidentification. Schl6ndorff. status. like like dividually only way. I I'm can work this esoteric Adorno is. Klugehas redescribed himself as a "demolition artist" whoseposition under cently theBig Top todayalternates a highwire artist between and a performI am alone.and iningclown:"I'm RobinsonCrusoe. is less truetoday tional that auteurist as Klugecarefully circle. university symposia."" this both to claim be an artist and to mimic Again. a tightrope and Coppola.I believe. artist I think every mimicry. this particularengagementwith the commerce of indicates a moreconsciousconfrontation auteurism withhis ownevolution into the mainstream of filmculture. withAlexanderKluge. mier for hasfeatured radiointerappearance example.ifin thesixties and early seventies thoseefforts emphaand formal sized political that a counter-culleaned towards strategies tural utopia.If. comparingKluge to and Herzog. Fassbinder. Walking betweenthe image as a romantic ofitscommercial auteurand hisrecognition conditions. programs Anthology television presencein West Germany.one could previously Wenders.more reliably. is. Kluge has become a reluctant star within theinternational auteurist and thequestionhas now circle. it'simportant notto showone is an artist it's a very because nowadays. the claim thatKluge stood outsidethe internamake. IfI'm an artist.theinverse oftheAmerican scene political not how can a star absorb the but a star how does today: political reactivate a materialist his within or her commercial politics agency. of October. dangerous the image of the artist does not contradict Kluge's earlieraesthetic in the needs as a cooperative of"Autorenfilm" cineprograms revising ma norhisother to generate efforts themultiple ofa pubperspectives lic sphere. Fassbinder. Paper . ing patterns auteurism has a vacated or though today effectively agency metaphysics ofexpressive and textual theshellofauteurism causality authority. Nagisa Oshima.52 TheCommerce ofAuteurism the Godard of the eighties. W. R. prohispolitics motes thepromotion ofhisname:hisrecent through prein NewYork. and the overseeing of an Americancollection of his films and television at Film the A growing Archives.Yet. become forhim. negotiations Tiger.
sourcerepositioned as a critical intertheater the authorial his the audience."On New GermanCinema. public's knowledge one of Kluge thusfindsin the contemporary agencyof auteurism on which a several to initiate modernist grounds postmodern critique and vacancy.hisauteurist and his thatKlugeinitiates status ception of it. There are twodifferent thatis notwherethedistinction approaches:dominating The first thematerials and respecting thematerials. a have to become as director. phenomenon:all people relate like authors. would takematerials to realizeinThe opposed attitude would be to acceptthe autonomy of thesematerials. and thePublicSphere:An Interview Kluge. such a recepagencyforcritical "self-interpretation" is possiblelargely tionof auteurism because a putative creative presfrom and redislocated textual ence has been commercially authority of agency.'8 he claims."October Thomas Levinand 19. whichare living. NewGerman 1981-82):206-207. speakingsubject. one sees an especially focusedas the mechanisms and anticipatory concrete versionof thiscritical use of the agencyof in Kluge'sreleaseand re-release of perhapshis mostcomauteurism mercialundertaking. responsive tivity To put thisin linguistic the mechanisms witha foridentifying terms. MiriamHansen.usually important in film communication culture as the so-called textual statement today or the different of a movie itself audiwaysit is receivedby different dramaof a movie'ssourcecan sayas much toences: thecommercial as As the drama of the movieand the dispositions of itsviewers.Enlightenment.Indeed. of subjectivity fora dramatization as. tentions. a wayofreorganizing a devalofcontemporary cynicism as a critical As early as 1979. Alexander Kluge. But 18.Timothy Corrigan 53 .that publicity of subjectivity own thedramatization its expressive refusing authority."I havealways believedin auteurcinema."'9" even these remarks of Implicit whichcan reflect as auteurism as a processof identification an itself in itsaudience. lies. Klugeremarks: "We are notpostmodernists. 24-25(Fall/Winter Critique ."On Filmand thePublicSphere.Art." he continues.opens a space for in theform ofa material remains . locutordefined of The auteur becomes diversity by realizedas an agencyconstructed acrossthe diverse literally response I believein theavant-garde. Ferdinand: he followedthe filmfrom Strongman to theater. with Alexander 46 (Fall 1988):57.rather than managersof departto theirexperiences in is an understanding mentstores."trans. day a film as of the text becomes the work of critical reKluge important acrosshisname. in fact."But"auteurcin"is nota minority ema. ued and emptiedauteurism subjectivity."Stuart Liebman.a material intersubjecto the actionof self-interpretation and self-critique.
Margarethe von Trotta. and ideologicalplaywithagencywithin the comKluge'saesthetic be a seen acted out across ofother merceof auteurism may spectrum from and socialtexts: and socialand politiartistic publicappearances and non-literary fromrumored cal commitments to literary writings..Herzog. adaptor Likethewry voice-over whose Kluge'sownvoiceand promulgations. reassemble movies like The Patriotand The Powerof Emotionaround . professor. in in and his words he.one ofthefew. Indeed.20 television he has produced.Other.see Thomas B6hm-Christl. Yesterday counterpart place as his of own such as The and the books that stories.it is frequently themotivating WithKluge. itbecomesa diagentoftextuality. hissister in films as a familial his like Girl.not unlikeone of Charles Moore's constructed the interaction of compostmodern buildings. Suhrkamp. Rainerand Larsen23-24. fora certain histories ofone's pastto one's penchant camerapersonor A recent a particular which star. whichis often in Kluge'sand taken forgranted "semi-textual" strategy . however. 1-6(Frankfurt am Main: Zweitausen21.22 As a muchmorespecific I wantto look briefly at one case. Patriot. program a collage of different forinstance. discipleof Adorno. show VolkerSchl6ndorff).though. Alexander Kluge (Frankfurt ography. features "auteurs"fromthe New German Cinema (Helke Sanders. Die Macht (Frankfurt 1984). deins. AlexanderKluge.forKluge. through munity planning.The standard might scribedaccording to theactionofpromotion and explanation: itis the and explaining ofa film thepromotion ofa certain inwriting through tentional the commercial dramatization of selfas self.54 TheCommerce ofAuteurism of a genuinely public sphere . Foradditional and biexamplesofthesemoveswithin Kluge'sartistic practice am Main: ed. aesthetician.21 The his expressive introduce "uselessremarks" Patriot. 1983).Die Patriotin: Texte/Bilder derGefiihle am Main: Zweitausendeins. other work: theinterview auteurs' exdocumentable where his tra-textual and own spaces Klugeengages organizdisperses directorial interview be deing agencyas auteur.thevery multiplicity of his own personae. and businessmanbecomes a lawyer. through agency a "prismatic mostofthesetactics whichtendsto assert achieves effect" and thendisperseitsown authority. within theauteurist fortuitous on hisfilmmaking instability perspective career. 22.as a university novelist. moretextual wouldincludehisearly use of dimensions. about which deferral alogue complications 20. politician. the refuses to the specific yet identify product of anyparticular director. 1979).
25 Sometimes. 1975) 27."On Filmand the Public Sphere" 216-17 .D. Kluge. Kluge distancedhimself ing the transcript and askingDawson "to about itsabstractions fromit by complaining and explicatehis meaningwithmore cut down the generalisations withall thesedislofrom thefilms.] disappears formatfor Kluge may be preciselythat tractionof the interview enwhichis ignoredin mostauteurist structure dialogicor polylogic betweena concounters but whichforhim is enactedas something flictualdebate and the relationalexperienceof "chatting"(which with women). looked does of the which 8 today" already "history plow. 24. askingthe readerto "createtheirown interview the textthatfollows. conversation."Indeed muchofat"likea catalyst.Timothy Corrigan 55 from theprocess.the interview accentuates thatpresentation regularly of As a series rhetorical and structural to strategies.This kindofencounter obviously Klugeoddlyassociates to retextual and hisother with work efforts montage parallelsKluge's and conflictual exwitha more cooperative authority place creative of the Yet it has the cohere advantage reformulating change." After reada longinterview three-day further of thatinterview. [. . agencyaccording thistendency whenshe introduced as 1974JanDawson recorded early as "a fragmented."On Filmand the PublicSphere" 206. agentat the centerof empty placing digressive These anecdotescan rangefrom but manystories. 25. Kluge of PerthFilm Festival Publication. Kluge."24 "not one story in Frankfurt about the of an eviction to stories accountsof thefilming in like it A. Alexander Slave. path contemporary dently in forming modes of film has become increasingly industry important action. in thedeserts ofAfrioflove-making fantasies to pseudo-confessional of can serveas illustrations theseepisodicdigressions ca. specific ofcelebrity and theopacity that attaches ofintention herence indepenin the which to the of the agency auteurism. from filmaesthetics. as which out Brechtian as often stand but certain gests they points."Confronted concrete illustrations in Kluge's Dawson tookproperrefuge cationsofherspeaking subject. as expressive identification of For Kluge."23 one findsin Kluge's interMore specifically (and more recently). JanDawson (Perth: Occasional Work 23. withthe concrete not onlyto alternate the abstract viewsa tendency in a disconnected but to embed thatconcrete montageof seemingly himself as an stories. just and cultural to troublethehistorical seem intentionally place of Kluge A a Female andthe ed.
25. As from deflect critical has been common thebeposition.Klugeconsistently relocating self as a filmmaker of odd bedfellows." he allows." says his and with the historical focusof Habermas's work. 27.Rainerpursues the elusive the agency "we" thatKlugebecomes. but thenhe acknow"we will come television to cinema ledges. in a counter-public His objections and "classical"in itsfaith sphere. through again. Negt's disagreements "but we have a different fieldof employment. 49. TheNever-Ending TheName oftheRose. making waffling appeara strict "we no have he of politicalprogram: objections."Yethe finds Strauband Huillet'sMoses andAaron. his redefines own himalliances. Liebman 42.56 The Commerce ofAuteurism as speaking a consisthimself failure to maintain subject:theapparent in or a matter historical monitors whose ency subject episode speaker is is the matter. . tionofKlugeas historical anecdoteto fabricate himself as a transcenddoes notuse thehistorical I is and true entor opaque agentofdiscourse ("anythingsay important or I but to his because dislocate say it") disperse simply agency ofhistory's thematerial "histoires" variety ("becauseanything through could be said it surpassesany coherenceI can giveit").cinemasare declareddead and television hailed as the future. A second characteristic of the Klugevoice is itsability to absorbor a centered. he refuses witheither or postmodernist themodernist and instead declares hiswork school.26 At one point."28 In a 1989 interview withYvonne Rainer and ErnestLarsen. Kluge complexpluralin his thirdor first-person itymanifested pluralvoice and thedeflectionofmostquestions about hisspecific worktowards financial. stance." "Even films likeThe Boat. "are made the Story.In an interview with Stuart forinLiebman." Withtypifullidentification cal mobility and contrariety.27 agreements always appear as onlyqualifiers. visual in its recreation of the opera. a filmthatwould seem close to Kluge's own materialist too aesthetics. with is an an interview with a interview ginning. Liebman 31. Herzog as an ally.and theresponseonlydiffuses further beforeit paradoxically with Der ranks joins Spiegel: 26.unliketheReaganparadigm. larger artistic and political issues. Liebman 43. 28.He accepts with a variety likeme.as "an amateur Oberhausenway. This beingfractured bythat agency regularly presentaraconteur who.
Rainerand Larsen19.] The subjectof radical whichour civilizachoiceis another avatar of that recurrent figure. But the promisedtotalself-possession would in factbe the mosttotalself-loss. 29. tionaspiresto realize.As Charles Taylornotes about the subject/agent Sartre's"radical choice" (who might equally be the classical auteur or the textual auteur of the sixties): without He would be utterly identity. but my signatureresides in it.one mightsay of his agency as an auteur."one doesn't see the cut." Likewise. in Charles Taylor's words. critical. . words. obviously. .mobile. agent Interview tacticssuch as these are not. .theycan marka significant receptionof of the a "radical Indeed. is in on what a auteurism as critical be exactly implicit perspective may of agency.29 thenewsmagazine sion. the subjectwho can all being..as I believe Kluge recognizeson all fronts.is a voice of continin which it becomes more a predicateand a "porous" ual differentiation than an authorizingexpression. this auteurial voice . theaters. the "deepest unstructuredsense of what is important.As a part of the diversified move withinthe critical however. and generous in the sense he applies itto Adorno . they belongtogether.30 the preliminary Instead. 57 To paraphrase his own words. artists broadcast cinemas. question to all otherquestions of symbolicformwithintoday's international culturemust concern the materialconditionsand agencies of inter-subThis is a politicsof agencythatmoves beyond radical choice tojectivity. Taylor35. They This is And on television look very different.notnewspapers makers.one hardlysees the expressionbecause the speakerresidesso rigorously in the materialpolitics of its predication. [.radical politicalgesconfrontation that is Kluge's project.thebooks.Timothy Corrigan all opera houses We have organized ourselves.including his own. wards thatof the radical evaluationand openness of a public sphere.We also havea partner. We have organized filmin Germany. tures. todo with had nothing televibecauseoriginally understandable they DerSpiegel.towards. questionable possibility gesture" itself agency.and choose in radicalfreeobjectify dom. 30.the disembodiedego. and thecircus. and independent and theaters book publishers or In other thetraditional media." Kluge has said of the styleof his films.
plicated ifnot a matter to uses the Somewhere who. 59 . our emotional as human els of development. levand needs have come to a haltat different instincts.It becomes clearthatone of the majorproblemsis thewayin which increasingly a of women . in the seemingly definite. according exampleof dinosaurs Kluge * I wishto thank of version theEnglish forherhelp in reworking ReginaCornwell thispaper forpublication. organibeings zation is out of harmonywith our social organization. tions.Whileboth themescontribute ond. The secThe first themeis the multiplicity within thewanted. 20thcenturies."YouCan'tAlways GetWhatYouWant": TheFilmsofAlexander Kluge* Helke Sander ofAlexander continue to reKluge. thispoint. thorny themultiplicity in theseemingly In shapingthefirst definite. understanding of sheerluck.takea simpleconsourceofunending values of the betweentwo people. in which. versation withthoseof the 15thand are mixed up and confused 19thcentury we have in additionto thedifficulty This explainswhy. desires. and structure to the complexity of the content they and also cause problemsforthe serious engagedviewer. In effect. of individual life each and every Klugeemphasizesthattheemotional ofemovariousstrands butthat is notonlymanifold and inconsistent. theme. creatinga To illustrate conflict. taking shape and addingto therichness playthemselves. combecomes with others communication ourselves. the unwanted of Kluge's films.in itself to Kluge's portrayal both themesare integral and volatile issue.twothemes Lookingat thefilms of his work.forinstance.
Once realization had hitthe dinsoaur'sbrain. and the took about to travel minutes from the bled. film feature to a Kluge film. In mymindI of unknown kilograms powder product still see families with hugebags offootpowdersince. Word got around thatChristmas candles were availableat the new Woolworth.60 TheFilmsofKluge one theory. and impliedstories and the manyfragmented sociation.in light struggling of themanypowercuts. mentin traditional narrative thatmommy lovesdaddy.at the of footpowder. proper Christmastree.and dadfilm. threads wantedmarkforme theintellectual through Kluge's running thechainsofasfilms. In the filmTheAssaultofthe Gefiihle. something when one getsthissomething one doesn't at all wantbut getsall the itsown dynamic. we have the conventional In contrast thatthrives on a lackofambiguity. One was notto be had without theunwanted within The multiplicity in theseemingly the definite. because their became extinct nervous transmitted systems thatcoordination between brainand limbsgraduimpulsesso slowly a dinosaurhad a leg injuWhen. one lackof ambiguity clasheswithanother one. Forthebenefit ofthislack. Germany.you could onlybuy 10 thincandles if. ry message twenty wound to the brain. dles beyondChristmas. even to describe:one alwaysgets Kluge's second themeis difficult in addition to one what and possibly evengets. To me. parents dy is in factthecondition of murderand homicide.20 Christmas same time.you boughttwo kilograms minimum the for a candles. thebackbonefortheinterpolations. The intertitle "Reduction of a Crime by Way of Cooperation" (fromThePower der ofEmotion [Die Macht 1983]) seems to me typicalof this.a simple One standard statemise-en-scneis createdand actorsare typecast. anti-dramatic works.Here their children. He a passionateanti-dramatist.it . Theyform in his films.forinstance.but is himself "I love you" as a compromise would expose the sentence amongthe various strandswithinone person. it unfolds I wouldliketo contribute an experience thatstrongly me impressed as a childand has stayed with me.theanimalwas already was too lateforadequate reaction bleeding to death. It nowserves as a parableforKluge's It was Christmas timein postwar pointabouttheunwanted. incompatible not films are the He makes intellectually only Kluge's quite opposite. their and the parents loves his that the love children wife. .they wantedto providethemselves withcanthe other.And wants. meant four foot a to us all. same. allybecameimpossible. However.
hardly managed thought and ofgenuineentertaincourse. In a Kluge filmonly Kluge We as and visualstructure. intellectually These mental becomes tiring." whathe rebetween Klugedoes notgiveus enoughtimeto distinguish in exfersto as a "real quarrel" and a "fundamental disagreement" plainingwhy the woman becomes ill. Kluge'sfilms. its the We requiretimeto takeup unfapleased by presence miliartrains ofthought and moretimestillto dwellon and to assimiof on thenexttrain we findthatKlugeis already late them. refreshing. anotherman about his wife.says:"I have myway and she getsill.politeness is a word and an idea thateludes in marryto screen.but it quickly jumps cause in Asin the viewersimilar to thosedescribed Kluge's The symptoms onthe Rest when a man. bothcommentary speaksto us. controlling 1. This statement is pleasantly unsentiwho claims to marry the "gooeyness"normally associatedwiththe mentaland highlights word "love. This the last one.a man who says he is marrying out of politeness of his thana man be more real to the audience may projecting feelings forlove. on communicaone can understand delivers monologues whyKluge to themany thisdoesn'tmakelistening tion(one ofhismajorthemes).stimulating. The Americanreleasetitleof the filmis The Blind Director.however.However.Ifone thinks his to his audience. of politeness. . wantto be overwhelmed chaos. as author.Helke Sander 61 on theRestofTime[DerAngriff Present derGegenwart Zeit. path clarity This creates a dilemmafortheviewer. mentvalue. We must protectourselvesfrombeing overwhelmed by anothereven as we are by a chaos constructed in work." On screen. makingthemincreasingly are alwaysspoken by Kluge more important. of to reach when we have is. himself. aufdie itbrige one man confesses to another hiswife thathe has married out 1985]1. We we as are as the easier.thisis partly to confuse true. These commentaries who alwayshas the lastword.After viewers all. The truth dramaand thusalmostanyadaptability into out of not This is whyin does translate action. While leads through confusion." However. just complicated time confronted We don't are slowand need when withnew subjects. easily ing politeness as in of and differentiaas well other this. The word"politeness"meansmore herethantheword "love. in conversation with saultofthe Present ofTime. explanations tionsslip intothevoice-over commentary. out thathe is setting Klugejumps from pointto point. but wantinby an unfamiliar simply stead to organize our own.
1973] forthejournal Frauen [Gelegenheitsarbeit thathis protagonist.I reeiner Sklavin. ability by generHis films osity.is the object of the Kluge's patriarchal viewpoint. The protest the"too much" in Kluge'sfilms against lentof the above-mentioned footpowder.I Slave wrote a scathing critique of his filmPart-Time Work ofa Domestic undFilm. as it I was taken intothebackground.Step by step. to his intenproachedhimwiththefact contrary but a was once tions.This in itself find or at odds arise when we ourselves disagreeing thinking.we his laterfilms. GERLACH: Due to disagreement? BEHRENDS: Due to fundamental disagreement.somewhat as well as his wit(whichto me is irresistible). Today.In thiscase the Christmas the liberating combinations candles represent whichwe get thought without his chains ofassociwhen we ourselves over to only give mercy ations. .DespitetheopennessofKluge'sform we arealmosthermeticalis significant.Nonetheless. BEHRENDS: That was no argument. GERLACH: Something's wrongwithyourargument. not even in watching became friends and my criticism became less free.pushed. as I interpret it. his intelligence. were. AlexanderKluge and I met over a "real quarrel. Ensnaredas we are in his lycaughtup in it.hisform hisanti-drama ofkindness. always. I have my way and shegets ill. Relindiscovered that is a form to ambiguity and multiplicidramaand openingup hisfilms quishing form of kindness is like advice ty. After me. between us. by his to correlate unusual one with the and his facts.with patriarchal thisfeeling that has nevmoreinformation." something conversaing thewordsthatKluge employsin the above-mentioned tion between two men in TheAssaultofthePresent: GERLACH: Who loses the quarrel? BEHRENDS: The two of us. againnothing projection." In 1974-75. what takes However.62 TheFilmsofKluge nortimeto addressthe are allowedneither viewers space nordistance us in responseto hisconand objections within contradictions arising is theequivatrol. I am better able to express er left thisquarrel. I quite some timewhatever . giveme so much thatI am well able to push aside for I do not wantfromthem. in byKluge'scharm. other. withKluge'sconstructions.Kluge's something designedto wipe out definite occasionsfordestruction and even thedesirefordestruction. dispute actually place is morelikea It continuous is I can bestdescribe usthat "non-dispute. but a process. problems We mustthenfinda wayto intervene.
Nor it it would however.It was a lessonin discussion-terrorism. She spoke in a shrillvoice witha fearof beinginterrupted. get improve change the to his doesn't think of associate. 15 were known spent years prison.Helke Sander GERLACH: And it can't go on likethat? BEHRENDS: Sure. querulousness who tellit because theyare awarethatnothing much willchange. In thisconnection I would liketo tella story thatcontinually rein itself and those peats causingfatigue everywhere. threeof themenwerestrongly thepardon. A few television discusweeksago on German there was a roundtable sionon thepossiblepardonoftwoformer of terrorists bythePresident the FederalRepublic.Six men and one woman participated. calm.They soothingly intervened and explainedto the otherthree men that thewomanactually was notas bad as theimpression shewas and the woman sat would silent. While Kluge's landscape is filledwithwomen. say something in others. particularly is difficult withpeople one likes Quarreling a lot.whynot. three wereforit. Paralyzed or maliciously one meter removed from theothers who interpreted attackedher. The three who wanted her. byoccasionalhysterical thecharm ofyouth. there. Fortheothers. 63 Social conditions aren'tsuchthat shecould getherwayand hewould ill. but insteadinterpreted her statements. and dealt Since his releasethe sixthman had often been interviewed withthe media relatively well. got everyone's eyes to compensate She did nothave tried giggling.thewoman on forwhichshe Her were filled withtears. Klugesimply Despite ability ill. In Kluge'sfilms. in a similar. help "help" did not giveher the space in whichshe could quietly expressherself. the question always arises: what are they allowed to do? Examples from .The men were self-assured. up in herchair. and in publicforthefirst confident. somewhat womenare treated although more moderate way.she did notmakea justified favorable all hunched Sitting impression. The womanwas speaking timeafter 15 of to different from the and wanted she years silence. projecting suggest.former members ofthe RAF terrorist group.had in Five of the men to the public. pattern. Needlessto say.She wantedto say thatshe considered inhumana system whichthousandsof people die of hungerevery are day and millions without a roof over theirheads. for thosewhowanted to particularly to she was an embarrassment.The woman against and one ofthemen. They smoothedoverher hard words. himself it is she who asking gets alwaysonly why in anycase. nerves. would matters.
history mentary: withall thedead ofthe nation. she either to speakherself.after narrator. buildings. In a manner of speaking.The protagonist and commentaries is piecedtogether through onlyrarely getsa chance readstexts Whenshe does open hermouth. part in is a that teacher Hesse. ThePatriot beginswitha titlewhichtellsus thatHannelore Hoger We see her in a closethe role of history teacherGabi Teichert. such or to reconstruct the of as Ode others writings others.Then a two-word intertitle appearsin KNEE. soldiers. she to the is and audience what she what doing mentary explains themeaningof patriot: a person means by heractions. the knee does talk. by attempts to To setto music).A montagesectionfollows. recalling Then of male and choirs.the All doubtsare removed.and war materials of the lastworldwar. THE This is letters: capital title accompaniedby Kluge'svoice Christian reciting Morgenstern's poem about thelonelykneerunning war through around the world.The kneeis givena voicelentby Kluge. linguistics. withall thecountry's and For the past 20 yearsfeminist history. up.64 TheFilmsofKluge point. The comShe and saws as bores. long." questions. Gabi Teichert. plays her combut for Her not defined is bythevoice-over by her. After who want thatshe willhave better all. the very term (Patriotin) illustratethis ThePatriot 1979] and TheAssaultofthePresent [Die Patriotin. "blindly."A sequence dealing she sympathizes ofthedistant we see a battlefield with thosedead follows: past.uninterrupted passages. and out of place as not to be takenseriously.Or. in search of anotherGerman history.Yet men can return to their normalbusiness a speechsuchas after laughand calmly are so vague forthe demandsof thiswoman patriot Gabi Teichert's. philosophy. digs. patriot. The real initiative because displays only urge speak convention to changetheir a political policiesso delegates during party doesn't material. may roam bore a hole into about thewoods witha shoveland dig in the earth. in extraordinarily itself thefilm The kneefrequently during expresses Gabi Teichert. .It also defines who sympathizes dead. "Gabi Teichert. is. however. analysishave filledvolumes tellingus thata termlike "woman patriot" is not innocent. repeatedimages comes a longmonologue. butshe is never allowedto formulate it were. all. herown booksand sawthemup. teaching small Women and children and materials"? "better politicalchange can make thesedemands in all naiveteand innocence. graves. sherefuses Beethoven (Schiller's Joy poem which is she to she is tired.
who wereburnt as witches. choosing not allowed to are ses who can feign an independence posthey really of his films. is really a male who does somedoesn'teven exist.let alone to act upon. Klugeis a master excellent actresof women greatcinematographic presence. within thatresult and the actionsof his characters silence. but also. The fact is thatthelackof suchquestionsis in mostcases not thatit is due to their as a lack by critics.Butas thefilm's patriot. that within it is what a man sees. and thereis no grammatical is similar ofthefeminist to After 20 years "womanpatriot" movement. Butthis in thebookscould prompt secrets thecase.because a patriot forhis country. If we wereto go along withKluge and accept.thatshe does.forthe timebeing. thing beAfrican languagein whichyou cannotsay "I'm sleeping"simply cause one cannotsay thiswhilesleeping. A womof Kluge's female figuresis already an who nags about the irrationality . that and contends been that have emotional worlds separated. A patriot Thereis an is a partofthepatriarchal.Theirirrationality men.women who have died in childbe conofbeatings or rape. Gabi wouldretain herperception as a woman.Within of not men and the carcasses travel across where graves only might horseslie. form in thislanguagefortheexpression. together oftheworldof womenhavenotyetbeen subduedby thebureaucracy is alto men."I'm sleeping"is thusa lie. implicit agreement perceived theabsenceofa feminine thatis decisive. male perception perspective at always is notevennoticedas a lack. is And that Teichert sees onlywhatshe is allowedto see byhercreator. or female Whoever uses whether thisgrammatical it. Even astonishing Kluge'slogic only thevictims she doesn't attempt to bringtogether of domesticbattles thathereye thislogicitis conceivable withthepictures ofwar. should at leastbe awareof the extreme ironyof theterm. Furthermore. impossibility. thenwe should actually expectsomething else fromheras a woman. theyshould not nag. is handedto bore and sawforthe ceivablethat thepropsGabi Teichert is not herto suchquestions. women'sability from He praises silence. Realistically.Helke Sander 65 a woman patriot "woman patriot"is alreadya joke. Klugeinterprets to continue to bring as positive. KlugesaysthatGabi Teichert sympathizes nation'sdead. male. But obviously thisis not thecase here. now and then.We should expectherto see publicbattleIn thisway she fieldshand-in-hand withotherkindsof battlefields.wherethetermis employed with all the in dead earnest. the context sess. It might birth.Furthermore.Theyare made to appearsuperior most a signof theirstrength.
that better suitedto clearing causedbymen.suffering from whathasruined men.he takeshis child thetrampwho left from thefoster who haverearedand learnedto love him.After all.he leavesto roamtheworld.men now see in films out."recognizes is good forthechild. a lonely hero. askedwhether neveronce are they wantto takeon remeantime. Since women better are to children are with skipping people. and is found by a travellingsalesman who makes half a man. they for has the that occurred.womenwereassignedtheroleofcaring forchildrenbecause men had worthier thingsto do. . Theyare to this role for it increases their In the worth.and parents himto hisnatural returns without so muchas asking mother herifshe wants thechild.But Klugeslightly concealsthisin his basically films. stay them. Texas: after hiswifeand son is fedup again.The idea evolves womenare intact. She takes pills.whosepresence is an imposition can "get anyway. Womenwho laugh at thisirony are often rebukedby men who modem versions of are deeplymoved. implies. Underlying his attitude is a romantic of the in world.superiorto men.ForKlugecannot stand men. preparing to commit suicide because her love has left her. he also muzzles women.Then.withher"richemotional what life. Here she but childcare. conception men have either whichwomen have characteristics lost or neverpossessed.In thefilm. lost. The woman.Woman's worthis increasedand men continueto wreckthe world.He tacklessubjectsfromwhichotherfilmmakers shrink. wreckage sponsibility already Present a second exampleforexamining offers ofthe Kluge'sAssault hisparticular ofwomen. Atthesame timeas Klugeattributes valuetofeminine characteristics thatforso long have meantnothing.In thepast. The The Power film Emotion a a A womcontains about of strange story rape. treatment a socialworker takesan with her she child because does not want leave witha to it orphaned thatshe believes itthewarmth and attention family incapableofgiving it needs.66 TheFilmsofKluge an sits in a car. takesthe child not because she is capable of nothing This time she does so because she is the better person." Wim Wenderstaught thisverysame lesson in Paris.No doubtthere is a wreckage caused awaythewreckage of it.As Kluge'sthought by men and no doubttheyhave lostcontrol the world.whilemen.The is granted and contradictoriness to men is thatin theory multiplicity notgranted to women.once again.onlywomen are considered capable of delivering Womenare notsupposedto reject thisbenevolence and trust. supposed accept gladly.
yet rule). save thewoman's life. makesthewomanvomit. It is. glance.whichI did not even notice. onthe is unRest themeaningof thetitle The Assault Present ofTime ofthe derstandable. temporarily thewell-known a woman? One should enquirewhether "only saying to dead Indian is a good Indian" applieshere."The commentator thejudge is out to getrapists. The title contains the . questionis: what investigated. however." I would Atfirst liketo end byturning to a seemingly harmless concept.in a more subtleform. unconand informs man watches scious.otherwise The salesman would nothavesexualfeelings without communication. Although A the kill them not one can still babies tube are symbolically. thefeeltowards that strange of the not After the are all.The ambulance arrives.she is rapedbythesalesman. he lot of hiddenemotionmustlie behindtheman's action. in thecontempoa much neglected here raises Kluge problemvery of women better to takephysical are able discussions rape: many rary hurt from a personclose to them. other ofthemanyrapevictims Along the lines of "silentwoman. From the commentator we hear the fearthatthe man may get an we trial unsympathetic judge. and the on the rapist.a statement thatservesto excuse the accused.getsherbackon herfeetso thatshe is fit enoughto be used by him. Had tecther. hernon-feeling herrapist.He walksherup and down. whilefromthewoman duringthe trial her lover an statement the of that pain beingrejected hear emotional by is greater thanthatofa rape ofwhichshe was unaware.He does notproso thathe cannotbe calleda murderer. in fact. women (as testone cannotyetreallydo without women.he probably wouldn'thave takenthewoman to the hospital. the she salesmanarrested. whichmakesthesituation moredifficult forthe accused.A third the woman is saved.Helke Sander 67 herdo a couple ofexercises Whilestill to vomitup thetoxins. opportunity 1983]). making clear thatwe live in times in which it is possible to erase the future and thus the past as well.who did.and obviously men as well. trial During saysto thewomanjudge: "my and his cunning hurt me morethantheactionofthe lover'sobstinacy tellsus that accused.think ofwarand torture.(I also take rape thanpsychological in aller this film The Trouble Love[Der Schrecken With Beginn up subject my the ist In film the to woman has the describe Liebe. Fromthe man we neverlearnwhy to womenin an unconscious state are attractive to him. ings rapist dead makesthisman takepossessionof an unconscious.butonlyhimself he notbeen observedand informed on bya third person. unconsciouswoman.
of sawing Man on the Restof byWhite Correctly put.and seals were subjectto man. and she ofdestruction.women. Forwho is assaulting ofa future The possibility title actsas ifitwerea disputeon grammar. These nations. the titleshould be TheAssault in the Time. A terrible led. the book. aroundtheearthand themale was in God's image.yel"fellow"humans. etc.the everyperspective has onlyarrived male avant-garde at theyear1529in hisattitude artist. in theera ofpre-Copernican wardswomen. However. the hands of people who can be named: the rulingwhiteminority. The white womanneed onlyask womenwhether to thesuccess whether she is to to herself prepared continue contribute The womanpatriot could haveaskedthatalso.) are in destroying (poisons. devotedto.or haveto be. white men in theworld'sindustrial Theyare in thehandsoftheruling who have thepowerto blow up theworldaroundus. would havegivenmeaningto the would have had her which question.ButsinceKluge'stitle our emothat is notthisbutwhatitis.trees." life armaments. red.Nor do theyask white low. differently The thepresent? whom?Is itreally Klugeto be. and naiveas. thisis also in theinterest of their men do not ask whether black.thefocusofcreawhales.in whatcentury Cornwell byRegina Translated . it I would is less than all that Or expect put: precise precise. or other-colored itis in their interests. BeforeCopernicus's discovery. to whom tion.havejust arrived thought.thewomenin Kluge'sfilms are naive.68 TheFilmsofKluge on theRestof Time. The is really But not "the products capableof questioned. towards have othermales arrived? women. interpreted That would be just as concrete bestsense.itperhapsbestproveshisthesis The The title Assault tionsare lockedin variousstagesofdevelopment. by present. thesun still revolved in theyear1529. gene manipulation.as well as Kluge's general attitudetoof thePresent mostfilms and shunstheoptimism ofpossibledestruction knowledge is not at a closerlook thetitle are. notionrearsits head: if Kluge.
the oftheprosame time. published beforethe end of the 1960s.Whatever their causes inthese movements be." process.as Productive Force: Femininity Theory Klugeand Critical Heide Schluipmann the conceptof a "femaleproWhen AlexanderKluge introduced ductive force"intothedebatesofthewomen'smovement in themidof a it was as on discourse the "public 1970s. Jilrgen Habermas.and The cultural institutions." Despairing of of in formal classical inherent the thepromise universality principles derOffentlichkeit: zu einer 1. part longstanding The topos ofthepublicspherehad been a censphere"(Oiffentlichkeit). wentthrough threereprints oftheleft as the 1960scame The fact that factions wentunderground a disillusionment.social. Habermas'sinfluential Structural study. in theFederalRepublic. Juirgen this critical interest in thelibTransformation ofPublic epitomized Sphere.Strukturwandel Untersuchungen Kategorie derbiirgerlichen Luchterhand. thisloss ofconfidence defined thefragmentation of intotheso-called test movement "newsocialmovements. 1962). a lossofconfidence to an end had a lotto do with visofthebourgeois At A-vis theemancipatory substance publicsphere. legal.from tralconcern to theleft theanti-nuclear of and the 1950s 1960s to the student move(Ostermarschierer) protests ment. As an "extraparliamentary theleft claimedto promote thedemocratic opposition. particular might vokedtheEnlightenment tradition ofWestern democracies whichthe FederalRepublicpurported to havejoined. in the book ofthepublic sphere.'First eraltradition 1962.the of the German in contrast to thecontinu"coming-of-age" people hold of the National Socialist over ing past political. (Neuwied/Darmstadt: Gesellschaft 69 .
ofa undertheumbrella feminist to contextualize The attempt politics of that of the fell short counter however. Vernunft. formalism Instead.nordoes ithaveitsposocialmovements. thewomen's be explainedby lookingat the problemthatconfronted such tendencies fundamentalist at thetime:howto reconcile movement notion the leftist and of with as "new motherhood" thecult matriarchy Tohad previously been committed. movements. in the 1970s as a theoretical umbrella underwhicha left could figure into ecological. as Habermaswouldhaveit.despite political in a left that had once been united thepolitical exodusofwomenfrom of it first can the book when The considerable impact appeared protest. theseparation questionof ZurKritik HandeIns: deskommunikativen 2. themovement ofpolitics to which has since unified of a notion this disintegrated."2 litical foundation Rather. and paid thecostofmereparticularity. OskarNegtand Alin theearly1970sto resurrect exanderKlugemade one moreattempt of on the Marxist In their the project Public public sphere premises. Negt Kluge 1972]. cannotbe subsumedunderthe"new The women'smovement politics. see also Silvia of new social movements. of the bourgeoisconceptof the public sphereaptlyanalyzes critique butmissesthecentral ofpublicand private. disintegrating could once more imagineitself unified. On Habermas'sdiscussion Suhrkamp." . Sphere Re-reading sphere. In contrast. 2 (Frankfurt: chen 1981) 178. Juirgen Habermas. andExperience in particular." it is foundedin in anykindof "femininity. in the inscribed to the bourgeoispublic genderhierarchy opposition itis amazinghowits andExperience Public today.Theorie derfunktionalistisofthe vol. "Modernisierung 2 (1986): 34-49.It is no coincidence. the framework within women's movement in den Die Frauenbewegung der Subsumtionspolitik? Kontos. und and Experience and Erfahrung. of from and thedichotomy publicand private.and by humanexperience on economicproduction thatNegtand Kluge'sbook theother. they to groundthe public spherein material defined relations. politics long day. Studien Feministische TheorienneuersozialerBewegungen.70 as Productive Force Femininity theprotest movements turned to thepolitics of causes democracy.peace. therefore. Sphere [Offentlichkeit an emphatic notionof thepublicsphereby surrendering its maintain of an or form. With "counter their concept oppositional bourgeois to extricate thepublicsphere they try publicsphere"(Gegen6ffentlichkeit). specific impulse publicsphere. Public For thewomen'smovement Sphere a within which and fundaa theoretical framework continuing presented be could reflected alliance of mental struggle upon . by attempt on theone hand. and women's into individuals.
Negtand Kluge'sbook playedintotheneed forunia senseofcoherence whenitascertained tyin thewomen'smovement ofthe"post-60s"movements.HeideSchliipmann 71 genderdifference. to critithisbook developedas a reaction ByKluge'sownadmission. among otherthings. Domestic Slave. but to the proponents which the elaborated concept of femininity.In doing so. Sklavin: but also documentsKluges relaindebtedto Marxiansocial theory. in particular. Butitalso contribwithin thespectrum and to minimalizethe all-roundlatentconflicts. whichthe filmof the same name cism fromthewomen'smovement comhistheoretical upon itsrelease. in whichhe and notto his stories writings Kluge'stheoretical the While more thematic this Klugeforegrounds complexly.however. tionship on Kluge's willbe to throw in thefollowing discussion intention light hisemancipatory to Critical concept Theory byexamining relationship force. playsonly A Realistic a Toward Method Domestic Slave: Part-Time Work [Gelegenheitsof This discussionis not only einer Zurrealistischen arbeit Methode]. Kluge subsequently in his in and book Public 1975 a minor role Sphere Experience. uted to a tendency whichwould have discourseon sexualpolitics thusto evade a political notonlyto theold left and thenewmovements. in thecultural was mirrored as thiseffect at thetime. "Commentson the OppositionalConceptof Realism"thatcomprise thetopicofthe"Inaddresses one text theaddenda to thefilm section. I will referonly to of femininity as productive or films.was great:itbecame a canonicaltext forreadingand discussiongroups.Here as well. thepointofdeparforms andExperience Public A passagefrom Sphere as "productive force" in Part-Time ture for the discussion of femininity . femaleprotagonists a ofPart-Time Work theexception with rolein his theoretical of writings. Horkheimer and to Max to Critical My Theory. presents womenplaya muchmoreperipheral in hisfilms. leveled criticism the to section.Amongthe film's abortion the mentson. a challenge presented of matriarchy as well. in the Woman's Film: Contextof the Social Mode of Producterest ofthisworkon thewomen'smovement theeffect tion.at leastinsofar and academicwomen'sscene . provoked of emanciand the of women withthesituation problem ing-to-terms ofa narrow reprints space: alongwith pationoccupiesa comparatively the book includesan elucidationof listof textsand scriptoutlines. as a response is "Roswitha's protagonist) agenda" (Roswitha thefilm's In this the film." Nonetheless.Kluge comagainst scene.
This passage consistsof excerptsfromthe section Work ofa Domestic on "PrimarySocialization as the Formationof the ExperientialCapacity. It is to attribute incorrect it solelyto hormonalprocesses. Kluge never differentiates between femininity and "motherliness" he considers the entire of (Miitterlichkeit)." This sectionprimarily documents the fact that the authors have incorporated the work of Claude Meillassoux and withhim are expanding the Marxisthorizon of historical observation. problematic feminineproductiveforceand social existence only fromthe perspectiveof the mother/ child relationship." It is here in a footnotethatthe concept of a femaleproductiveforce first appears in Kluge's work. [Geschichte 1981].to an analysis of qualities that are present in varyingdegrees in everyhuman being.relationsof production.This concept is takenup again in the early "The partplayed by co-authoredby Kluge and Negt. or the productive force of the spectatorin cinema. 3. In examining the positions Kluge outlines on the "women's question" in these pieces. to a "maternal instinct" in merely It is much morethecase biologicalterms. scope of Kluge's theorizing on the "women's question": In theforms ofinteraction that define thesuccessful mother/child a of mode is maintained which can be relationship. 4.in accordance with a natural bisexuality.72 as Productive Force Femininity Slave. the productive forceof fantasy. Kluge oftenemphasizes thatthe categories"feminine" and "masculine" do not ultimately classify persons. 2. satisfying tionto thepatriarchal and capitalistic worldsurrounding it. production viewedas theresidueof a matriarchal means of production.This mode of production is absolutely to the mechanisms of superior thatworld. but rathercontribute. but is isolated fromthe degree of socializationof andObstinacy/Autonomy 1980sinHistory und also Eigensinn. I would like to quote the footnotefromPublic and Experience on Sphere as in force its because it delineates the femininity productive entirety. Femininityand sexual difference are never mentioned in discussions of the public sphere.in a sectionentitled female labor in human production. herethata femalemeansof production whichis aimed at thesatisfaction of needs ("handlingthe child in accordancewithits itsneedsat anycost")is vindicated in opposicapacities. . Kluge subordinatesthe question of women's emancipation to the Marxistcategoriesof productiveforce. the followingpoints stand out: 1.I will not pursue this point in any greaterdetail here.and class.
this overallsocialcommunication. The mode of of production superiority to women's claim it makes however use, legitimates opemancipation:
ofexperiences and deformed, a superior modeof within pressed ifonly itis able to grasp in itsentirety.3 production society
herethefundamental ideas of Max Horkheimer's Klugeappropriates 1936 essay"Authority and Family"- an essaywhichKlugealso cites in his text thequestionofthe"double character" vis-a-vis ofthefamito the not is ly.4According Horkheimer, bourgeoisfamily only the to social domination, but it is also thesiteof huagentof submission manity,even containingthe potentialfor resistance.It owes this to theworkofwomen,foritstill a rescontains emancipatory potential ofthe"principle oflove forthewholehumanbeing,"Klugespeaksof the mode of production thatis aimed at the satisfaction of needs by means of concrete, actualuse values. BothHorkheimer and Klugesee thefeminine in thefamily potential as always above is all because the woman restricted, already exclusively on thewelfare ofthefamily fixated whichis politically conmembers, in itseffect. In addition, servative to the"chains"of Horkheimer refers cessfulmother/child the child neverlearnsto see the relationship," in mother the her concrete existence as a socialand sexu(i.e., woman) al being. Kluge does not extrapolate a reality forwomen otherthan thatof themother/child He onlypointsout the"double relationship. thisrelationship: within her oppression"thatthewoman experiences social and the to her existence general oppression, oppression specific forthe child.5 In spiteoftheselimitations, Horkheimer and Klugemainhowever, tainthatthefeminine of thefamily its allowsitto transcend potential statusquo, whichHorkheimer of as the love designates "inadequacy in itsbourgeoisform"- a topos of bourgeoisliterature.6 Kluge,on
3. OskarNegtand Alexander undErfahrung: ZurOrganisationsanKluge,Offentlichkeit vonbiirgerlicher undproletarischer alyse (Frankfurt: 1971) 50; emSuhrkamp, Offentlichkeit phasisadded. 4. Max Horkheimer, und Familie," Autoritdt Studien undFamilie "Autoritit (Pariiber Kritische Theorie is, 1936); also in Horkheimer, (Frankfurt: 1968) 277-360. Suhrkamp, 5. Cf. Oskar Negt and Alexander Kluge, Geschichte und Eigensinn (Frankfurt: Zweitausendeins, 1981) 312. 6. Horkheimer 357.
idue of matriarchy. Where Horkheimer - along with Hegel - speaks
monogamy, and to the factthateven in the - to quote Kluge - "suc-
as Productive Force Femininity
the contrary, betweenthe superiority of the perceivesa discrepancy mode of production of production feminine and the relations which fromthe public sphereas something separatethisproduction "private" and prevent it frombecomingsocially valid. It is apparent, thatHorkheimer's however, conceptof thefeminine is within at base notcritical; he derives the affirmative, potential family element from a projection. The fact theutopian that mainwomanmust of taina different, earlier level socialization within retarded, capitalism, inthat sheproduces and reproduces therequisite can be read humanity, in thephilosophy of thebourgeois revolution (Rousseau).Horkheimer in itsdisintegration, more thefunction than celebrates, nothing imposed on womanin theestablishment of thebourgeois family. In thewritings of Rousseauwe see in beautiful mahow little clarity thisrole.Rousand howmuchpatriarchal violencedetermine triarchy into the organizational seau's philosophyallows us to look further structure of the family and capitalist and public (the private society does Horkheimer's on and than sphere) piece authority the family. that the discussion oftheemancipatory makeclear Rousseau'swritings offemininity cannotbeginwith thewoman'srolein thefamipotential for the is in theappropriaactual located ly, problematic priorto this, and femalesexuality The tion of the sexual relationship by society. of the and the without bourwhich separatedspheres private public, would not be able to function, are constituted geois society by means ofthefunctionalization ofthesexualrelationship, whichis thusalienated fromits own reality. female bound by its Specifically, sexuality, for to the and to the male love,is obligation reproduce species capacity withheld fromwoman's experience. Horkheimer's that emphasis on the "erotic rebellion" intimates of relations what is reallyat stakeis the emancipation betweenthe sexesand theemancipation ofwomanas a subjectand a sexualbeing. - a perspective HorkBut onlya perspective thefamily transcending heimerneverreaches- could differentiate thisfroma romanticizing of the capacity forlove attributed to women.Klugeapparently avoids thisromanticization instead by elidingtheeroticaltogether, speaking in a sobering tone of a femaleproductive force thatstandsin opposiofproduction. In so doing,he on theone handcomes tionto relations closerto theproblemof theseparation of theprivate and public,but on theother thisseparation with In theenMarxist overlays categories. Public and Experience, sexualdifference, tire to mention Sphere Klugefails
HeideSchliipmann 75 or theemancipation ofwomanexceptin thefootnote cited femininity, the on which to socialization within the bourabove, belongs chapter Yethe managesto devoteone section in the ofcomments geoisfamily. addenda to the public sphereof children. in Public What Kluge(alongwithNegt)neglects andExperience, Sphere on of the woman's he inreflection namely, any question emancipation, tendsto addressin Part-Time a Work Domestic Slave. frameWithin the of workof thisemancipatory he attempts to interpret thecontrainterest, diction theprivate between and publicin thelivesofwomenas one betweenfemaleproductive of forceand patriarchal/capitalistic relations in the of most Womenpossess production. important object production of the hulabor Their to society: commodity power. laboring produce man beings, notthings, thusalways a "humanresponse":"The retains forceof women so determined would have to be emanciproductive in of and itself."7 it does havean emancipatory efnot, then, patory Why fect? the for is of "The reason this the relation Klugeprovides answer: within which the forces of are woman production, productive expressed. Her productive is defeated force Whatthis meansis byitsprivateness."8 thatwomendevelopstrengths whichare considered weaknesses by the dominantreality While the and women critics, principle. especially, called Klugeto taskforthe simple-mindedness of the political actions Roswitha film The the of the Bronski, by represented protagonist a Domestic Occasional Work he firmly maintained that he had been Slave, of concerned withrepresenting female specifically capacities. to Kluge,thecontradiction between woman'sproductive According forceand the relations of production has assumed in current society the formof a contradiction betweenactual strengths and the public of thesestrengths as weaknesses. Thus Klugeelevatesthe recognition themeof emancipation fromthe narrower Marxist model of revoluand marks as it a tionary change ultimately questionof the modification of the public sphere.In otherwords,women will breakfreeof theirconservatism when theydevelop an alteredconsciousnessof themselves whichrefuses to validatethe dominant reality principle. thisproblemelsewhere inPublic andExpeKlugehas described Sphere as one of the productive forceof fantasy.9 "in rience Fantasy reality
7. AlexanderKluge,Gelegenheitsarbeit einer Zur realistischen Methode Sklavin: (Frankfurt: 1975) 185. Suhrkamp, 8. Kluge,Gelegenheitsarbeit 184. 9. Negt and Kluge,Offentlichkeit 66-74; thissectionhas been translated by Peter 46 (Fall 1988): 76-80. Labanyi;in October
12.76 as Productive Force Femininity in current form ofhumanlabor"' .exists themostimportant society in is a functionalized as One part bondingmediumto only splitparts. . fixatehuman beings on the statusquo as "the best of all possible discredited as "mere worlds". ofwomenwho "don't workforwages. AlexanderKluge. However."He hopes fora "transformation based on the interaction betweenthe maternalmode of productionand thatof etc. nothing in thissection to in films."Marktstruktur" 75. Kluge.Kluge drawsa connection betweenthe ness. does not possess the keyforits emancipation." related the "interest women's specudirectly Klugerightly lates that"any one of thesemodes of production. Filmwirtschaft 10. he analyzesthe "blockages"of the emancipatory In whatfollows."Womenwho are active forces in theworkforce are neverspecifically discussedin thiscontext since." permitted only is the not leisure available time. and within the reserves of beautiful feel"art. Florian und Bediirfnis. the reality of the "interest in women's films"thatKluge finally The thematic on the"antagonistic conto addressin one ofhis comments promises theforce ofwomen thisproblemofhowto liberate offantasy precisely and about women.Indeed." Raten (Munich:Hanser. and Alexander Kluge. 11. politicalfilmorand women's There is else ganizations. 1973) 75.Geschichte 320. foruse as a mediating forcebetweenthe drivestructure. forcooperation betweenfilmmakers. farmers.and the external of of a and the "confined" (kaserniert) problem fantasy emancipation but failsto draw a similar the worker. job trainingis not "classWork of a Domestic Slave) circumscribes cept of realism" (in Part-Time of these specificto the femaleclass.This hope also results in thedemand. our expectations are disappointed: of returns to on the "context social modes ofproductotal Klugeagain ofsocialrelations" tion. consciousworld.considering thathis and theemancipation fantasy in it is that of is concept fantasy grounded psychoanalysis. family.theother partis excludedas unrealistic. Negtand Kluge."" Fantasy ings[schline Gefiihle]. as posited in History and Obstinacy/Autonomy. in a footnote."'2 Perhaps the representation in derBRD und in Europa: Gditterdiimmerung in Hopf. noteworthy of sex and sexual difference has eluded him. he but nonetheless.expressed workers. any class in itself. groups. fantasy. connection betweenconfined ofwomen." of woman's (self-) again bypassesthe question of the emancipation consciousness and the role playedby cinemain thisprocess."Marktstruktur in Michael Dost.
Heide Schliipmann 77 theassumption blockagesdoes sound plausibleifone proceedsfrom thatwoman represents a productive social forceonly as a mother. ability represent femininity be blockedprimarily by the factthathe reducesthe questionof the of ofwomanherself. ofthesmall those businessman. and closed off with reference by Kluge acknowledged 13. to thefigure to thefigure of women emancipation in themultiply order to her into woman. 14. ofthemultiple oftheproducprogram tive force ofwomen andtheir this is most the oppression. women'sfilms of femininity to his own work. pointed for a realist for thethetherefore. oppressionby long Kluge analysesthese on possiblecounterforces whichform within pointby point.focusing in the end to his point of departure: the them. provocation methodology.he separates the themeof femininity as a productive from oftherelationship between thesexes. sisthat allofthe various of alsocial modes oppressed production learn each from other." In otherwords. of a confined and mainstream cinema. Gelegenheitsarbeit . and that ofsexualiforce that in within them."'3s her man is a one. oppressed bring subsequently hisdiscussion oftheproblem oftheother oftheemancipation "classes. Butbecause thefarmers. ty offemininity and to a critique of liestheelement commonto a critique of thebourgeois the and its publicsphere(in separation private public). place. Kluge. as wellas to a critique fantasy to menis at once The fact that offemininity theproblem also pertains his to bisexuality. that oftheworkers. And. 241. and never reunites this connection However. society. her "subOnly thendoes it seem reasonablethatshe mustmaintain dominant context of production and meaning.14 ternately Thus it becomes increasingly forKluge in obvious thatwhatmatters butwhatthevision is notwomen'scinemain general. intelligence."even ifthis"mainteis thecondition ofpossibility fortheoppression ofwomnancein turn And the list of that in draws the first up oppressions Kluge en. can contribute in Kluge'sfilms the to seemsto Moreover.Gelegenheitsarbeit 229.in order to return of in a that it be women is blocked such can potential oppositional way in with other of interaction modes production: organizedonly the ofcomplexity ofthe formation degree oppositional against opin ofthe is also there all of that other modes pression production. Kluge.
as productive tainsto theconceptoffemininity force) and the based on thosepassagesin Horkheimer's Family" "Authority Thiscorresponds to theearly look backnostalgically which bourgeoisie. of Critical intothefusion Theory displayinsights Dialectic of in the woman its dimension. tendencies thememory cinema. (atleastas itperTheory Kluge'sreception itis is one-sided. expressed ofqualities existthe reactivation forces ofreleasing through productive of disremanufactorial the Klugecompletely stage capitalism. ingduring in Critical of theDialectic ofEnlightenment Theory. fails. in relation to other areassuchas television. gender thatcontains themostadvanced but theDialectic ofEnlightenment family. . up sign . Kluge contrasts critiqueof the "culture industry. gardsthe dimension at affirms Marxist once and instead again categories theexpenseofthe in thework ofAdornoand Horkheimer.emancipaofnature. and Theodor Adorno. evenin theform of Critical In conclusion. itcan onlysucceedifitis ment however. Cumming(New York:Seabury.78 as Productive Force Femininity havebecome and masculinity determined. underthe movealso the radical women's of taken was by enlightenment. within themedia of film Daniel Owen by Jamie Translated trans. socially femininity Although of interchangeable thatthediscussion to such an extent secondnature individuals to identify that forces attributes onlyveilsthesocialviolence and the It is not Horkheimer's on with essay authority positions.forwomen. theemancipation But." ofmotherhood. simultaneously to be defined themselves in terms nature meansnotallowing tionfrom of "social motherhood. ofgender and power. to Kluge'sconcept. John 1969).Dialectic 15. Max Horkheimer ofEnlightenment. Nietzschean influence Perhaps that with allows itis precisely thisrelationship Critical Theory Klugethe in Adorno's tendencies filmmaker to remainimmuneto the rigorous these Instead." underthe with ofan early. withfeigned naivet&. realizedas thedomination nature. necessarily from nature was notresolved idea of theemancipation and." of truly abysmal ing oppression from ofemancipation Enlightenment project maps outhowthebourgeois Thus the of nature. precapitalist to move productively coverof whichhe is able.together that with theinsight. and television.
For Kluge.male choirs.rather.Thus. marches The musical warbling. opera itself into minimalizedparts. AlexanderKluge. periencethathas congealedin the subject.p. tendto cropup in theform ofsheetmusic. as do popular hits. Bizetand Wagner. thestories Ending ish witha Schubert white on It contains the meslied printed black.last page (n.the hymnof theplanetof the same l'Aurore.scrapsoflarger sicalmotifs finin theLearning Processes with a Deadly scores.The Power Emotion. Verdi.). Carmen Spitzname: in Kluge'sbook. tangos.' have burnedintothe forests of a distant planet sage thatresearchers with chemical weapons and can now decipher with a telescope: thefirst flushof dawn. of atname. motifs suffer the same fateat Kluge'shands as do theimagesand the down so as to bear script: spoils.Lernprozesse Ausgang (Frankfurt t6dlichem 1973). films wellbefore becamea motif. This is thetitle ofa short of story The storyconcernsFriedrich chiefeditorof the politics Karmecke.musicalmotifs are not illustrative conveyors are signsofa social exlikewordsand images. mit a. 1.often stripped theyare a collector's theburdenofthevisualand verbalmaterial. muIn his printed work.Alexander Phantom Kluge's ofthe Opera Koch Gertrud AlexanderKlugeattaches much greater to musicas an importance elementin the overallmontageconstruction autonomousaesthetic thando otherdirectors who workpredominantly with thepossibilities motifs afforded playedthrough Operatic manyofKluge's bymontage.humming. M. 79 .they mosphere.run like a threadof sound fragdismantled mentsthrough his films. and othermusical material.: Suhrkamp.
in Adorno follows intellectual Where Nietzsche's tracks. 4. Sexuality [Grenziiberschreitung] and theexogamy ofthe 19th cenbecomes"extramarital intercourse.While"Spitzname:Carmen"summarizesthereferential in theeveryday ofopera mythology interpresence of its his a move of pretations recipients."Fantasiasopra Carmen. injects practical for Adornostill contained ofthehistory ofhumanbeingsas something naturalbeings (as he sees being performed in Carmen) is translated the "venturbackin Kluge'sshort into between prosepiece opposition limits" and the "office" ingbeyond [Amt]. Adorno. Adorno299." a is an world transformed into "venimperial tury opera transgression. a Klugeproposes different wayof reading opera history and the stories thatoperas tell. Adornoviews as theuniversal lapse of sexuality in thecourseofwhichsexuality to state. Allthese amount tohisCarmen.In thesebrief thirty-minute montage producedfortheprivatenetworks.80 Kluge'sPhantom oftheOpera who findsthathe is to be subdesk of a WestGermanradio station. ifideal-typical condense tions experience it intoa natural case." is also one ofthoseoperasaboutexogamy.In his famousessay on Bizet's Carmen as shorthand an interpretation Adornooffers ofwhatin Kluge'sworkfuncCarmen. byrefusing gainsitsfreedom to societalnorms:"The fatethatholds swaythereand that conform in itsante-diluvian holdsup nothing humanis sexuality and preitself. Kluge. Theodor W. this he couldremember which morning only sleepily. which clearly meaning. form.Lamke and Butterfly to Berg's L'Afriiaine . operaclips along variety paths 2." 16 (FrankGesammelte Schriften furt/Main: 1978) 305.2 rience limits."3 Kluge The opera. and tendsfromThe Jewess via Aida."4 Lulu. beyond forexogamy. turing beyondthelimits. Suhrkamp.above all itsmusic.Die Macht derGefiihle Zweitausendeins. separate years inextramarital and in different locations sexurepeatedly engaged al congress. to a will check that include his private life: jected security On various Karmecke hadinhisyounger occasions. (Frankfurt: 1984) 346. to the concrete ofa definite. Itishisexpeexperiences together the ofventuring therest is office. "Carmen a series which exto an escapefrom to this civilization. 3.eulogies Klugerefers pasin of Adorno one his television on broadcasts which focuses sageby preof opera as a sortof social history the history of humanemosenting films tions.
the exoticCarmen. specifically century melodramato the Frenchfilmnoir of the sixties.as itwere. Klugeby no meansaccepts thecompulsion to closure whichlinks filmin dramaturgical As in his stories terms.in whichthe to wont have the heroinedie. The ofthose death. In it Klugehas SabineTrooger. In bothcases.5 etc. etc. them andthen Adornomentions on thisfatalconclusion.Gertrud Koch 81 ofthefifth to approachthemaingoal: thedisarming act. is that Wagner's notion of a ofEnlightenment Industry" in TheDialectic . Apart trajectory. ParsiMadame Richard Puccini's Kundry [from Wagner's Butterfly. title experiments L'Africaine. Klugebelieves operaand film to needs: forirdifferent whereas invokes the correspond opera Feeling the of films themselves reparable tragedy.One of the wellon the "Culture knownthesesin Adorno and Horkheimer's chapter Gesamtkunstwerk and destroyed was at once consummated by filmand it is thisthesisthatKlugeinvokeshere. Giacomo Giacomo Meyerbeer's Halkvy'sTheJewess. and opera withnarrative films. Atthelowcostlevels havea life after failed. theannouncer. in with Gone slave Lulu. Staatsoper.. director. on theheelsofthepassagefrom This sequence. majority imagine obligedto offer a happyending. in theThird World in order to father 110children to."Jahrbuch 88 (Hamburg:Intendanzder Hamburgischen 1988) 15. a FatalEnding. Kluge. nations.theearth fal]. of traditional was opera dramaturgy bears the Love One ofthesetelevision or. Angel. add: the Helen We would Quovadis. Adorno putsit. He selects details from theplotor the 5. from this that however.seduce eignwomen. as theanalyst Theodor W. return home. L'Africaine.whichfollows Adorno 20thinto from the moves cited. smoothly 19th-century opera already via the from mammoth film spectacles history."Ein imaginarer der 1984Hamburgischen Staatsoper Opernffihrer. The operasinsist Power the Inca son in The ofFate. spirit TheIce-cold theWind.Kluge approachesopera by means of a consistent policy of minimalization and atomization. returning hislife's decided work seemed when andata moment threatened. attempt of numerous toa key notion Thiscorresponds underlying operas men become infatuated with exotic forWestern the19th century. The exotic women die ofsuchlove. with say the following: from work on location film A famous abroad.lovegets left on thewaysomewhere side.
a reallife lifeof appearances. is undoubtedly themostbizarreof Kluge'ssupplemented he narrates a opera plots.82 oftheOpera Kluge'sPhantom to radicalize their intrinsic musicand attempts logicto sucha pointthat the overall architecture oftheclosedartwork. ofimages that ofwaiting. in this issue. theleitmotif for the loud.In thistext.Yetat the same time. . Klugesumsup theitemsin his "imaginary guideto theopera" in a of reminiscient ideology he gives thema differmanner critique. The latter poses tough of thatwhichopera's illusionary questionsas to the probability space evokes. forMadameButterfly culminate in her images death.(Theconductor Fricsay them the"blinding ofthemidday sunin Rome.")6 glare with Kluge'spassageon "Scarpiaas malebody"seemstome significant 6.thegraphic linesoftwigs. .almost form major brutal) somewhat the violent tofolaction blackguard Scarpia. preempting Ferenc believed he couldrecognize in low. Kluge. thislimited ofthesignsimplies thedeathoftheperquality son: exoticism as a fantasy which is carefully sheltered from . andE-major. ultimately they explode He thustakes of stock Madame a colonialist drama. trans.Usingblack-and-white with details from footage garJapanese dens whichhe projects onto a stagein an pmpty theatre .on theother. byTosca from Scarpia'smurder widevariety ofperspectives on the one trace the inevitabiliwhich. "Japan": thebamboo cane.bymeans Butterfly.he stresses the mythologized Western precisely signsof an essentialized. MountFuji. attention to detail cretyofhisdeathwith and.Kluge'sintertakes as itsleitmotif themusical motif that Puccini had assigned pretation to thepolicechief's appearance: Threethunderous harmonies from theorchestra A(in B-major. Die Machtder Geflihle . though entdirection: rather thanunmasking as he asdelusions. hand.Thus Klugeallowshis imagination free reinwith to the respect motivations: in protagonists' whydoes all actionat a particular juncture an opera appear to be connected to a powerfully effective or destiny? whataretheblindspots in theactors' mindsand motives in which result their sexual offenders at the of becoming unpredictable height enlightened civilsociety? A ten-page textin The Power entitled "The Police Chiefis ofEmotion " Dead . painstaking ate an altogether unusualpicture of PoliceChiefScarpia.etc. mythologies sumes the attitude of a quasi-naive observer. 446.
and Instead. He may adrespectto the qualities and idiosyncracies the share that withemotive states mittedly opinion opera concerns itself and worldsthathave been suppressed by civilization and which simultaneously create and express "discontentin culture".however. Macht 450. of drivesand culture.She kneels around her before he."'7 dicament he thinksof blackmailingTosca. he proceedswiththe blackmail. thing glidethrough thatScarpia.the harmonybetwen himselfand his own social contextby thinking of the social degradationof thisdivine to the passage in the opera: singer. . had been at odds withhis penis. As a consethisdeceitful seduction quence. yet in the strictest sense he would reject the antipodal division of nature and history. during fighting in fluid stuck his trousers becomes at the with a smeared penis tip notsperm and noturine. namely that he sullenlyand unwillingly factthaton thisparticular him as ifit morninghis erectpenis confronts were somethingforeign and troublesome. clearlynot with any pornographic intentbut so as to reestablish.Allow me to quote at somewhatgreaterlengthfrom thispassage. ..8 What is remarkablein thisfantasy which supplementsthe established 7." Kluge's textreturns The nextday.since the earlymorning. so trousers. endsup behindherback[."The next day.. diva.but rather which.].annoyedwiththisbrazenautonomy. whathe with good reasonhad deniedhimin his in hisofficial self has Tosca once he locked chambers gets way in and talks to herinsistently. butitfails to makeanythesilk whichare difficult to open.circling herslightly so vineposture. no longerfeels thediva'smagicand loses his desireas ifitmiscarried. rather a lubricant.Koch Gertrud 83 of Kluge's oeuvre."but he cannot cut itoff in the same way thathe can close one of his security or or departments give forIn order to extricate himselffromthe preget orders to subordinates. The textbegins witha descriptionof Scarpia's physicalcondition beforegetting up in the mornfindshimselffaced by the ing. Macht451. He shoves thatshe falls intoa position thespieshad occasionally emforward been broidered and which he. on which I shall laterelaborate. 8.not because he hopes to gain some eroticadvantage over the in orderto get his mind to prevail. . him to which proximity brings physical himso that in this diher.had histrousers upon in their reports inthemeanwhile unbuttoned and had sheremained couldhave still. in a primordial as ifhe werea goator a hare. or a manner exploited in soldier lull the French a the so forth.
9 Yet Klugedoes notlimit himself to reconstructing and supplementing mechanisms the internal of external. Once exploded into atomized 9. byexand other The in devices. Hence Klugesummarizes: Thisishowhedied. in theaffair that intodifferent situations as objectives disintegrated soonas they neared He felt the realization.Scarpia'sdesirefor that Tosca is the sheerwillto power:thechief of police blackmails thediin vine diva. sexuality him disturbed the At the act. theatrical eventsfromthe perof an omniscient observer and demiurge: he also invents unspective realizedpossibilities forthe characters involvedin the action.quite in keeping with Adorno'sintenWhere he tions.the painstaking methodof the empirical of description in the of this "male case correphysical-material processes body" in Kluge'swritings. he would havedisgraced himself with impotence. moment. Even without he wouldnothavereached hisobjective in Tosca'sknife. passionsseriously step. only whenthepassionis robbedofitssexualcore. the itwasnever his there rather were affair. Withan eyetrained ural sciences. withpassionsand all itsvariousforms. an inclination deictic spondsto a certain tendency demonstration in whichis depictedand/or surfaces to use exemplary hisfilms as thecommentator's as statements voice. he also shows not without a . Macht 451f.it is thisprecondition whichallowsopera dramaturgy to switchon "a power stationof emotions" that Kluge subjectsto a dialectical thatopera has to do with critique.thatthepassionopera demandsis alwaysone undertone mocking has been deprived ofprecisely thissexualcore. itself. its effect from the familiar thefailure comic device of of medrawing in experimentation in thenatchanicalprocesses. coming tastrophe morning. had capractical already that Ifhe hadn't diedinthis adventure. does so. without the athisdisporeason having original salthat outside observers would haveascribed tohisactions.which he sets out to rearrange.84 Kluge'sPhantom oftheOpera lishedplot of theopera is thewaythedescription is almostscientific.He takesthe assertion in to in a order second then. concerned thatScarpiadesires and thattheopera in turnclaimsthatshe is Tosca.as intertitles. Infact. . actually objective. however. assertion the that it is perts implicit opera.Opera thusbecomesforhima pile ofruinsleft courseofthe by thefatalistic story. desirable. the divinesinger.definethatpassion in terms of itssexualcore.itcollapsesby however.
as does the efficacy of closure."Ein imaginairer 20. . that the prescribed good and was to ensure with pleasing regularity harmonic end was afterall achieved.the power of fatedissipates.I wish and historically hitherto no powerhas been able to arrest to tellstories of whyemotionsare not powerless. Kluge. And incidentally it Warposes thegreatest challenge all the challengefacing power-based projects comprises greatest forsucha timeas itcan provethatno powercan hold itin check.'0 The explosive elements which Kluge extricatesfrom the operas are clearlynot those of an unbound sexus. of natural images of a utopia of reconciliation: the cover of ThePowerofEmotion shows a single photoin an air force and it is no of combat formation. (n.) preface . It is above all the short form of the television operas that is best suited to such atomized portrayal. ofFigaro it. would not consist of an imitation of thegreatopera The searchforthe needle in TheMarriage repertoires." 10." Thereis no need for a temporal build-up.ruins .Perhapsthere thing theevent[ . Kluge. it. . Opernfiihrer" 11. could fillmanyevenings: musicaux.suffices at notfinding foropeand thedesperation as a sketch The sum of such material ra material. But it remainsdoubtfulwhether are onlya hundredthousand different as fate. graph squadron flying coincidence that the volume not only contains the scriptof an opera filmof the same titlebut a wealth of criticalmilitary as well. He narrative can now hunt for and recomany ways-out give whose functionin Baroque opera mendations. Therereally Mylastfilm of real and there are also emotions. so Kluge too descends upon the smashed remnants of the opera in order to expose as misdirected determinismthe now openly visible mechanism as it runs on empty. fateafter causes whichare called is sucha Power was entitled The Emotion. power. Like the deusex machina." could be as short as the"moments yeteach singlesketch It is enoughforsucha moment to "flare up.Macht.p.and Kluge groups these miniatures ironicallyunder the heading of an "imaginary guide to the opera": to [this According guide].at theend of the 20thcentury.a modernopera now. In writings his briefpreface. to emotions.Gertrud Koch 85 details . the writerand filmmakersketches his project: The poweroffate: thenameofan operawhich almostall wouldfit therereallyis such a operas.
"Fate": mediated thename through particular opposition above all to describe used in the publicor semi-public consciousness thecauses for to invoke ofinvestigating war. opera is it is at this that he levels his The ofemoabout. expression a deepdistrust ofthepowerofseduction. individual psychosis they thatcomThe clinical descriptions Klugegivesof thesexualprocesses are not a means of emotions of ironic the core explosive prise just but a also the of of distantiation.and critique. . also which decideslife in ofannihilation.in theform ofa masspsychosis. Adornodevelops of Nietzsche's whichAdorno citescritically indebtedto thatremark in "fatalism": thatits authorremained"entrenched" when averring is methods are those of war and which founded whose "Love.travesty language. Adomo 303.one preferred in war. determined thepossibility offreely action. an overwhelming thatmustbe disarmed. thuspassing intotherealmoffreedom: "Her song..86 Kluge'sPhantom oftheOpera as diametrically Klugethuspositsemotions opposed to war." imperative. upon the this what hatred between the For is deadly sexes!"'3 Kluge. intertwining tionsand warbecomesthedecisive on whosewings a whole metaphor ofassociations is borneintobattle.can.WhenKlugedeploys that itself thepoweroffate manifested the "disarmament this formula ofthenecessary ofthefifth makes act. Adomo 305. as the of becomethebasisforcrusades just shape an with can linksexualmurder deathoutoflove. a linkbetween thepolesofemotion their abstract despite forges in Kluge'seyesbecauseittouches suspect Opera is highly juxtaposition. Rather. ofoperais spectrum Kluge'scritique 12. on the factthatthe greatest passions. song fate..Interestingly enough. Construing preordained.instead war."12 writes. gorical "is of but to no the answer fate . To return from toward Kluge away juncture Adorno with to Bizet's once moreto thenameofCarmen: regard opera.Adorno to a natural as theredemption ofsexualisawthevery state degeneration and Carmenis compelled to follow that as ifitwerea catesexuality ty.thisinitial discourse ofWestGermany thattheabstract embeddedin thepolitical is associations. 13.whichcan become thatfate and death. subject's Adorno ..yetat the on thepowerof emotionis so clearly comment same time.at this swerves Nietzsche. a power seatedfear." only of such a covert sense against the background cross-connection which and war. as metaphysically denies fateas ineluctable. no means shares the which of figure redemptive critique Kluge by in hisanalysis he seemstobe ofBizet'sCarmen.
opera plode ending. ForKluge. to suggest thatKluge'sopera performances however. ra's blindbelief. Ofwhat realflowing flag.For thisgeneration. one can interpret itas theexactcounter-program toopera seria.a shotof pragmatism would be wrong. utopian implicitly idiosyncratic to givein to thechild'simpulse verse thecourseofaction. thisaesthetic.Kluge'sfilm out a warning aesbeingarrested byshouting thetics revealwithexceptional a clarity certain compulsionto repeat. itsalliancewithdeath?I have already outlined briefly of of from that the fate and stems social Kluge'srejection pathos passion in that cannot be from seen isolation German history. with their their retheatrical-scenic drafts. immediately flips the comical has become the favorite and object of all travesties Whatis thereasonforKluge'svehement on opeattack impersonators. as which action was both lived and fatewhitewashed culpable through wouldseemto be a crucial issue. thatmutually each other and henceexparalyze in in a fatal the deaths both are deterThus. suchan antipathetic Atfirst sight. solutions. a motif is hardly that does notcropup againin some other there situais nottried once more. their Whatthey lackis a practical withwhichtheycould finda wayout.The wishto redress acts fulinvolvement ofinjustice musthavebeen as overpowering as thediffuse of experiences to omnipotenceand impotencein the war.rearranged. The endless chain of attempts The Power the dead of dramatics back to life film. multiperspectival ofaction(which hearsal sometimes takes theform ofcourt proceedings) a contain core: the wishto restubborn. contrary operaif it is of its over robbed into which. but thejammingtogether of motives ly die? FateforKlugeis nothing thatremainopaque. moformal mentseriously. of (the bring opera . utterly minedand well-founded and yetcompletely for thecharacunfounded. do notsee through ters ownparadoxes.that out. experiences Kluge is therepresentative ofan interim unwhohad their childhood generation der NationalSocialism and their in the Federal intellectual socialization . It sense. pathosby irony. including dressed of death as tion up metaphysics.rehearsed Ifone takes natedanewbydifferent contexts.in the experience of chainsof events Republic. thepoweroffate meansaboveall exposing the combatting did Scarpia causesthat hidebehinditsmighty. to savePunch from to him. of ideology could be summedup in thesimplistic terms The critique. agendawouldappearto be completo the nature of For itis no coincidence that tely opera.the serial opera which dispersesits motifsin a wealth of situational possibilities. and illumition.Gertrud Koch 87 ofWagner's his mystificaat hearta critique Gesamtkunstwerk.
88 Phantom Kluge's ofthe Opera vicalsodevotes totheeffort toresuscitate a murder itslastsection Emotion. ie. factual tim) namely. a utopian becomes with theirreversibility oftime: gambler Kluge from "once upon a time"to "ifonlyI had . !" Gaines Translated by Jeremy . part his dint of finds out that some By intransigent questioning.reducing quitesystematically ply passages a in to humanly measure. ofWagner and theenorGielenalso goes intothepractice performances moustechnical difficulties themusicians haveplaying this ofthescore. a critique of theconsequences offers the 19thcentury has forthe20th.. Klugedoggedly conductor on theabove 140barsofthe"ValkyrMichael Gielen questions and at Kluge'srequest.themass murder whichit is written in the20thcentury.hisimaginary Kluge'ssmallencyclopedia guideto theopera. Klugefinally are so that the musicians resort to a simdifficult aid they parts practical some of the and leave the out. Thisform ofthought an in trait inherent incorporates affirmative as a program. of millions ingreat this theyearning for death Against operaappears hardly backdrop. oflife YetKluge's is anyaffirmation utopianism pragmatic vis-A-vis such apologetic trends the foil historical relativized by against . Whilealready manageable Wagnerian opulence the 1950sWieland an imundertook in Bayreuth productions Wagner's ofWagner's manent deconstruction the byconcentrating matemythology itto thetransparency rialand reducing ofthemusical structures. Klugein his minimalistic one he to goes critique Wagner stepfurther: attempts in the human showplaces scoreitself that oppose practice. ofreality. ofopera. as to howlife will The question Republic onlyas a kindofre-education. non-acceptance utopian as precisely thereally to represent Kluge's compulsion majoremotions in histelevision thosewhich border on deceit takes on a burlesque form The First the 140 Bars In an interview. opera of "Valkyrie"." In thecourseof his musicological analysis. continue cannot be contemplated without atthesametime how asking life as couldbe organized itself interconnected action becomes life differently: a utopia. sentimentale. in thespirit undertaken ofthe18th as theutopian century: Enlightenment of in forms of and emotions do not which life conception relationships havea fatal but are rather and on in actedout commented ending playful This iducation in theFederal is conceivable scenarios. contains a core: the of death. lessapologetic thantheyearning for a livable In view oftheparadoxes life. however..
Changeofscenes. Editedby MiriamHansen Answer to TwoOperaQuotationsi I ("Do yousee?The angelofdeath..Aida. Radameshad stubbornly tant traitor. still sidered Radames." Jahrbuch Staatsoper fiirdie This and all subseHans Christians 1983/84 1984): 117-130. Verlag. 89 . The orchestra evokesa particular melancholic mood.. set in D minor. a lovelikethiswouldend with walled known that had always being trial Thissceneis preceded bythedramatic underground oftherelucremained silent. Her wonders where his lover of Radames acts finality..Theyareconoffice).. The off. (Hamburg: Spielzeit of theauthor. of the tomb. herewithpermission are printed quenttranslations "Vedi? di morte ... Even in the darkness XI derHamburgischen 1.The unlikely (regeneral pair. ") GiuseppeVerdi.in contrast. immediatescenes." l'angelo. in.and Feelings KlugeOn Opera.Act IV .Film. is now traitors... alone (or so he thinks) in byherself. sheis hereofherownfree snuck will. so familiar to himas itis nowthat was never presence is that?). and theEgyptian 1. Radames in Nervous movement the just sighed.though bydeputies.theEthiopian princess buried alive movedfrom are becauseoftheir love. a sigh.. accompanied in thatdungeonundertheTemple of Vulcan.he knows toucheda strange body. ly preceding she is absent.She Aida. "Antwort auf zwei Opernzitate.for thosemoments which Verdiusesfor departure is.. Qualgemito? The musicbreaks (What cry had that for the creature in the darkness searches former living general has orchestral score.
is a certain the one in doesn't level-headedness Radames: exaggerate bond geois in of falling as a result to the pointwheresomeone has to die purely also Aida's but is love." the sky in this But .the for us ("Heaven opens opens up: "A noisi schiude ..Thisthought. ("dream joy . il ciel . sorrow which of version. desperate Aida answers: me forewarned "Myheart Ofyour condemnation. disparazione): who it is. . the and whatever thevictim. of history currents Even now Radames is amazed: "To die! .He lovesherreality. etc." . every destiny forherself or herclass:she humaneye. bourher herlife. are coupled strictly and thewish The old tale goes: sacrifice forhappiness collidein the "emotionaleconomy"of thisscene.on the otherhand. declare each other that to they(against they foreach other. Andhere.."without producing anybenefit him. the lovers that shereally loves expresses "Tu.in sucha wayas willcost loyalty. thepriests. word "to close" has the same root as "to open" in Italian). Intothis tomb wasbeing Which openedfor you I mademywaybystealth.Throughout the entireopera." arms As a princess. in faded. she is awareofthefollowing: itis written thatshesacrifice for her this act benefit thecaste would lover. hisinterest in herobis a signthathe really lovesher. eyes everyone's herself before of thekingdom. He thought Aida had been saved. .. jective Thatis why he is so extremely whenhe finds herburied alive.Collidingwiththis. He calls out in extreme massima immediately despair(nella thattheylove each other. well-being. "Sognodi gaudiochein dolor svani. far human From eye every I wish In your to die.however..)are on fire powersof war.class boundaries. "farfrom of herlover... to die for love?" Two sion between values and times.itgoes without her thewomancan onlyexpress that saying together fact thatshe is a living thevery being." . and Feelings Film.90 On Opera. particular happy: in themidst ofthiscolliis expressed form ofdevotion clearly especially . Sharing she dies forhimalone.in questatomba?"("You. . and widows."). surprised the all thelawsof reality. thememory ofall princesses can be redeemedfrom thelatter. That is whyhe surprised..Againand again appear amazed. in this tomb?")..
after to withregard rather and di ness. if are there however. In Smolensk secrets state 1942. of the Angel of Death 3. an angelof 2. anyangelsof there weresome in themists in Egypt? We knowthat deathwhatsoever deathand later ofGermania becauseBrunhilde pronounces Siegmund's ofher citea myth Does theEthiopian fetches himin The Valkyrie.The executioners one? It is pitch fromburning the condemned must the because prevent priests lights to himself to death.. It cannot .Aida can to believe that sheseessomething. might is visible. Nor does sherepeat ther does sheinsist.It's another story brother of her forthe burial is walledin.werepursuing who. as wellhaveburnedthemselves.. rather that's At anyrate.that OewhenAntigone. her. Hence.. angels Why. with He does notwantto spoilthemood pointing."sogno gaudio". princess undercannot whichthe Egyptian own country general immediately the Or does Aida onlywantto comfort stand?Does she see anything? herself as Is she see this to man describing angel? byclaiming despairing havenotsetup any blackin thistomb. his soul would not be starved deathalongwithhis body. l'angelo.forwhichthey would now pay. .in whichcase.or rather at the climaxof the the lovers each other twoalternating misunderstand monologues(for . ways). they it would hauntthem realmof the dead. and was herself of laws againstthe new despotism. in Egypt are thedebtto be discharged nicht of the debtor that (Bringschuld.forifhe did so. too.indeeditwould notevenstepoverintothe . burlive the to has One verdict? of mistaken in a the case distinguish ple. The dead in Egypt thequestion.for do they ofdeath. haveled to a rashendingas well. Holschuld). claimwith Radames. whyitis dark. thedead the made therealmofthedead via the enter living: by preparations not at thehome ofthecreditor. The Unpredictability examnothelp. willing impunity Aida is in he assumes the direction for a looks time. Neia contradiction." saysAida. imprudently behaving .spellbound. old the thevalidity for shefought buriedaliveas a result." di morte in distinct Aida says:"Vedi? . Is there Are there sees at this moment? deathwhichRadames. "Do you see? The angelofdeath. Shefought dipus's daughter. No angel of death helped her. one of them.Alexander Kluge 91 At the climaxof thelovers'dialogue. condemned that the sentence from ial oftwolivelovers only oflovers thanthepunishment are casesmoreunjust Doubtlessthere dreamofhappiconsumerist an egocentric. all. butnothing thelovers can toucheach other.
92 On Opera.. refuse commands.from of of theangel. haveincertaincases no otherchoice but to mutiny. and thusCharlemagne in thenickof timeto save intervenes inDonCarlos. ifthey do exist.thetext. according . ETOILE rOLAIr 4. all. angels completely the to be suffered who wait Brunhilde is fetched.and Feelings ofdeathremain that totheininsensitive be.itliesin thegap the text.Herculesenters in Alceste. The secret is waiting that to be revealed theperspective is.Angels ofdeath. angel merely theangels from thesamesubstancefrom the which Bytheway. theInfante etc. by justice dying to decide theduel against quickly prepared Hunding. originate oldlawsarise. however.In fact. * iTOILI i POLMSu 04)'o l& NA -I 4iEPS * jCIo VA4It )LA?YRi )EO-Q t4 for Instructions thetransferral ofa dead personunderthesupervision of thestars. Thus. to Egyptian rite.How else couldwe discern whether or notwe aredealing an with of death? After we don't him follow to his be witness. employ theseare actually the signsby whichwe recognize cunning.. Film. theunderworld the to responding unjustsacrifice by robbing thedead. them." pointfor opera. The text morespecific aboutthe"di morte reports nothing Here liesthestarting another l'angelo.
that existed.Theywerefoundin medicalprobability ofyears.hardas he mayhave could neverhave seen. tasks of prop-masters since he is also on call for the Halberstadt on whatthecause ofdeathmight or be on thethird Theater. as it nestsin themindsof the20th. Nothingin theworld is as serious as (1) a dramaticopera. gravitational developfrom This is no contradiction of narrative and musicalmaterial. othersinto pyramids) rather consolidate whichin turnrepresents theearthly hierarchy thecosmos. to the 18th to Lessing or ArnoSchmidt. Aida sawan angelofdeathwhichRadamas. which (2) . theywill not have had the in theirlast momentsto changetheirpositionin any major strength way. whichis of courseeither fairly To theclassical ofplot.at 11 p. old. the 19thcentury 5. is to tellcounter-stories to thecollected stories ofthe 19th century in themannerof thestory of Odysseus. tried. different forms of accomodation(some are put into holes. have 16 years ofwhich we still ahead ofus.Alexander Kluge 93 their The dead are notequal. pacity Ethiopia. said.it conveys something At one o'clockthelovers rizesin brief Germansentences.climax.a doctorcan never be sure). those Herculaneum and namely Pompeii. of that that thelaws is. to confuse theGermanic tradition would be likely he to of or if were a sense display especially justice a personalcaIn such for a thingmighthave discrimination.there is a broadcast ofAida. out? theylying? of fromotherpictures.Myfather.An angelofdeathin theonlysecureconnection with thishierarchy. speculates fifth to Aida or viceversa(according Radamessurvives day.It's hard to embrace forfivedays straight.Air Raid on On 7 April1945.I think in myfather's ofa brown bedroomin front Radio Rome.and catharsis. no contradiction yetdearlyone to century.forms forms expression..We are sitting the foreign stawooden set. progress. 4.or setin Ireland(James Joyce).m. therefore. Radio Broadcast fromAfar. this thousands Did Caesardigthem vault. music. On thecontrary.on whether .withan illuminated glass panel showing to from and and we listen distorted off a the far tions. dramaturgies we oppose intensification. but neverin Egypt. are suffocatofthetechnical a country doctor who knows something ing.after myfather How were One can imaginethis One doesn't know. mystery little summaseriouswhichour father garbled.It could be the case. The mission ofthe20thcentury. suspense.
I would neverhave said to mysister. Becauseitgotso late. Now. Aida has.they to be buriedin the cellar.a ringon herlittle She had stolen this finger. for (who in such a condition peratecalls of Amneris which thePriests willsend herto follow thelovers intodeath). of the of tion. theprayer mustfind another direction. unknown to thoseabove. to our into albetown.We see themas theydepart.The magicofoperaimplies: ousnessthat action theoperatic we believein theabsurdbecauseitcontains a serious because mystery. on thecellar floor. PracticalUses of a Love Token in thedark. oftheorchestra. Thinking injustice their the of bombs over rich and seems insensitive action. ourbigsuper-radio comesto us from a great distance. ring. scattering poor to us. we do not knowwhyit saysin the opera guide: abovethetombsendsa prayer "Amneris forpeace to thesky. This actionhas nothing oftheseriout. whilerundi morte l'angelo. theinvocahowever. Living in the 20thcentury. really happens.. whatis spokenand whatremains theangelof (for unspoken example.we are lying ofAidahas.m. April although supposedto be evacuated oftheairraids.We knowthat ofdeathwouldnever behavethis The atangels way.theinvocation "ciel"in manyoperas. is occupiedwithbomberformations. Insteadwe have been sitting in the from11:20 a." ning throughthe burningtown: "Vedi? 6. I'm dead. tackwas unnecessary.in thefaceoftheangelof death perhaps she could survive three or five days in this vault. we didn't Hohlenthenext go to theRiibelAnder we 8 children were 1945. After shelter thefirst whenthelights went attack." We find forpeace.. thisprayer This sky. whatwe feellikewhenwe think of the entombedloversin the operaAida.Theycan buryus in the cellar.. otherwise. . on. but me. from who has delicate so that the Amneris. there becauseofthedanger was talking which everyone about on 7 April1945. in thesky. ring Egyptian fingers. fleeing from a schoolofminnows thecity: in squad formation. whichRadameshad givenAmneris whenthey werestill does engaged. camouflaged bythework Ofthebombers. death)is guardedas a secret.94 and Feelings On Opera. Film. With inthedining we would not have been able to receive the distant music this that room.a Saturday. notfit on thepawsofthemuscular Aida. we onlybelieve what hit however. ofthepriests above herthefootsteps and thedesSitting makesmistakes.Ifthey I'm not. without cannot moveus to consider whatitmight like feel doingso. managed dispense tiny foreign product provincial itwithdistortions. day.
The Dutchman faith. and hurried Thus. away."Her last and throws words:"Here I am. jewel of her father'sstock of throws herself without further ado at this stranger of commodities. on the metalring handledit. the well-protected daughter. necessary In Halberstadt. whomshe has onlyseenpictures and heardstories. towhomsheremained faithful and for thissatin the on which theprison an oblongholein thesandstone rested. Feelingstaketimeto develop. however. anything from herfinger. puttheringback herlittle viction fora definite action. Senta. Flying Wagner.orders theanstoodeverything. II Richard Sentain The ActIII Dutchman. trueto you tilldeath!" 2. shedid notknowthedate.000years. or castle that The grotto bearsthenameRegenstein is situoftheHarz. We know.thetoken valley. my whomthecountof Regenstein in thedungeon incarcerated unlawfully ofRegenstein in ordertowinherlove(compare to Countdi Luna castle inII Trovatore).reaches a cliff herself intothewaves. With this ring her fingerswould not have worked she death!" "HereI am. cellar.Alexander Kluge 95 are too short hoursthat for and too long longdrawn-out through living of for but think more to do she couldn't shetookthe dying. A Putschof Emotions For2. He renounces rushes Senta.shebeheldtheshimmering light of ofherlove had a practical use. In scratched the thespring." and misunderSentarejects has overheard to theship. The ringis thesavior whentheangelof deathfails.Erikreminds Senta"thatshe once pledgedhimeternal him. It . thatsuch pictures or mythical do not at all resemble stories theactual person who suddenlyappears beforeus. chorto be weighed.scratched cellar wall signs on and eventually She lackedtheconfinger. home the story is told of a youngwoman town.dating atedatthenorthern border from a timebefore there owned werecities.true toyoutill 1. young ring given to herbyherlover. thesea and nowhe decides. The imprisoned a woman. The Dutchmanhas overheard theconversation thehunter between Erikand Senta. from one mohe cruised mentto the next:I willmarry thiswoman (whomhe has neverseen)."Sentafrees fromthosewho are trying to herself holdherback. however.
Sentahas been readylongbefore thepale man actually enters the door. She ends her recital oftheballad ofThe through Flying Dutchman with "the ecstaticpledge to bring redemptionto the damned. as it were.An emotion sight that has been for a erupts building up long time. on thecontrary. of the Dutchman'sand Senta's fataland mutualfalling in love has ofan actofforce. as in thecase ofAbraham:there is no substitute for thehumansacrifice.yes. in thecommand of an angelor in Senta'sinterest.Here I am. required by though.One could call ita putschin thedomain something of emotion.itrelates to thepromise ofGod's messenger prophecy to lift thecursefrom theDutchman's a womandies for life.The Dutchman as Vampire to mystify thissituation. ballad curring Wagner's assumestheendlessrepetition ofthat whichhas already happenedbut has neverbeen redeemed: thepicture ofthepale man above thedoor. truetoyou tilldeath!"Thus. no than behaving differently a in would a wealthy army occupying poor or defeated country.96 On Opera. robbed fromher father. For it is through an act of robbery thatthe Dutchman ofthedaughter from fathSenta's managestogetpossession er: he beginsbydisplaying histreasures. The Wagner Senta's fatal reads: "Praise complete phrasepreceding leap yourangel and hiswords. provided him.in appearanceatleast:loveatfirst Yet. one ofthemis investing thewholeweight ofhisor herlife. tries Butthere are oldertraces. in thisregard. . Older Versions: Sacrificeand Self-Realization.The angel'swordsthenmean thereverse.enriched byfantasy.Film. opportunity. the heard.He actslikeone in love.in prehistory. 3. is notthesacrificer's sacrifice own childbutthedaughter ofa stranger. merely happy-go-lucky. itis in command this the victim of the human case. by sight. in as The discovers thebattle ocStory Never-Ending Just Arteju already in theform ofpaintings on thewallsofa ruin. stories one has love at first but onlyforone. sight.and Feelings therefore seemsunlikely thatlove at first is mutual.a moreancient comesintoplay.Thus. whereas the seized an The suddenness other. otherfeelsmagically attracted to the preythatis just lying there." The reasonsforthispledgelie.
setfooton solidground.." "Afterhis and the helmsman'scalls remained unanswered. He says:"Ah. bereft of hope as I am.Alexander Kluge 97 The pale man. sings praises daughter in a suddenfit desires herto be hiswife.has . sitting He approachesthelatter who.." of thissavior. Only theselfless of a womanwilling devotion to sacrifice herself could free theDutchman from thecurseofeternal In search damnation.the night. . stranger. in thishope I stillindulge.in the courseof the conversation thatdevelops. Daland discovered theDutchman motionless on theshore. ofpassion.thisis his last chance .he once again today .asks the Norwegian to grant him lodging forone When Daland the of his Senta..
as itwere. Only 5. like on the minds of the is resolved a generations resting nightmare living for one life is not too a to theopera. opera .and Feelings 4."says 6. civilization and itsdiscontents. For she is interested to meet someone who needs herfatally. theprospect withErik. moment.comparedto dramatic is this thecurseand the between merely opera antiphony from tovictim. fairy only deep sleep the has one sees around accordingly. Yetwhilethecursevaries victim ofliberation in rather is usually described It is based schematic terms. as faras herpersonis concerned? limited interests contrast: thenevBy neediness of the Dutchman. Whatdo I fight is at stake? "Ifthehistory ofall dead whenmylife for. typeofmale actionism. This Collides withMy Mother's Sense of Practicality on my father's of her sharp side lived by virtue My grandmother tongue. just my high price pay. Two Different Versions of a Curse A curse dates farback intoprehistory. He is nota good businessman. ternal She has to her realize interests before thefather sellsher prison.98 On Opera. Collectives blasphemy. And.for he wouldprefer that to sellhermorethanonce.as Sentawillhavequickly learnt. the abruptdecisionof thewomanto killherself. is tothewrong instance Whatmakesthefather unreliable man. The commodity."All thisis alin thefairytale ofSleeping described sheis pricked ready bythe Beauty: 13th so fall into of she can a a routine fate. would theyoungwoman and theprincemeet of romantic The invincible fascination midway.Rarely Sentabeen awakened to try thethicket from to makeherwaythrough the inside. onlyprinces lurking hedge.Film. understands moreaboutthebusiness than the merchant. in constantbattlewithher physically superiorhusband untilhe . side ofErikthehunter has only who.the "extendedpresencethatleads to death. Erik. theact actofliberation. Senta's Attemptto Escape Her Father It is a terrible fate whenthedaysthatrushus toward deathbecome new will What would life be like on the predictable: nothing happen. He fundamental reer-ending requires Thisis theloopholethrough whichSentacan escapethepademption. this would be serious.rarely. on a particular and a priormisunderstanding. of the curse:the everyday to the confinement Theyincurthe flipside of marriage habitsof life. too. whichtemptor blasphemeGod are usuallynot punishedin this way. has committed The wretch A curselikethatalwaysaffects the individual.
coming daughter. principle compulsion repeat. happiness. waypart as a of and had died of it.livedin relative harmony and 36 him another survived in 1937.physby in her 100thbirthday after weeks three and alert. had come to grief. She was wellaware this.. Thisis thecoreoftruth generation. in whichdramais submerged freely Atissuearethebalancesheets thepoets'words.She.sought happiness. shediedas well. wrong just proven feeling merely thetracks.etc.Shewasfaithful after died. with war to her him. hisdeath.e.Halfa year maternal till death. years died. i. she remained by surviving. think aboutit.to theleft. it has because not is A as consistent. grandmother.however. ofitas tragic. quite mentally ically faithful 1973.wererobbed. Senta. My especially he died herhusbanduntil with bornin 1872. . She for reserved That was of the in no was program. bywhich adaptedfrom missed their and foremothers our forefathers lived. runoff ofour for we makeareprepared The ecstatic bytheprogram pledges in the in theangel'swords.She didn't and had talked kindoftrap offate. parents' form in the closed of the in the to ballad. herself us. February oflove reasons for to grief her Formymother. and risesagainto be transfigured.Alexander Kluge 99 to him. triedto stockpile their it.
ofmusical 1.16thedition." Above.. pressed. intensification. Thus truth eludesa basicdramatic etc.truth thatis jammed up because it does not getexin passage.I can accumulate lies .. above her of on thepriests. mannerof speaking. comparisonsofanykind. by Egyptian ofAlceste and Aida is barbaric. all them still floor of the the though temple. not "artistic.Film. Keyword: "Higher Artistic Truth" truth Thereis no suchthing. dramaturgy ever linear. figment poetic imagination. buttheopposite ofthese lies more timely. in a thebottleneck.and Feelings III TheUnfiufiled Drama Program ofthe Bourgeois Tragic Reclam OperaGuide.more local." The vehemence certainly of feelings is at odds withart.. of thetheater Above thatstill. relationality (Zusammenhang). heightening. as are well clarity.isjoined bya willto form of whichis in fullcontrol itsmeansand usesthemwith . itself. thesoffits One cannotaccombuilding.in the diaspora.thantrue. Nor can truth be "higher.truths tornto shreds. moretrue.It would be interesting of "truth sense.i. Egyptian thanks to Verdi'smusicalidiom.100 On Opera. cannot be more beautiful. misunderstanding no. hardly We would reachthe same conclusion withregardto a "more proIt would be underthefeet foundtruth. Fascinating greatest themusicallandscapes local (thesceneat theriver Nile)and theEgyptian color to do withancient whichmayhave nothing music but. Misunderstandings fromthe Opera Guide in themostimmediate melodicpowerofexpression senseoftheword manifests thesoul." of Radamesand Aida . more elevated."Forinstance. the Egyptian a of heavens. 1953: "Aida is considered one of the summit of Italian opera..truths one cannot oftruth claimthat theconcept allowsfor However. etc. gravitational." forwhich There are truths thereis no time. the of standards thebehavior custom. Artistic does nothaveanyspecialstatus vis-A-vis truth. to think in a non-artistic the desert. ground is a "tempio Verdi's that thetemple divolcaHigher yet. mere can what be plish through only gained by means of a height ofexperience The is context.e. The nobility achievements whose language. principle: thestretta. . 2.. regulates In Act IV ofAida"higher"could mean: thesad Amneris.is raisedabove themerely historical into the realm of a higher artistic truth. Whatis true.
for extras Radames. thefailure political and idiom of sound. film. flowing whichdoes notknowthatitis olderand wiserthantheItalian country likethe who builtRome .the the eyes struggle seem riddledwithclass barriers: reall fortheir the ones senses with interests fight "higher" physical of which In thegrandiose rights.Alexander Kluge 101 3. projectof opera. crescendo. "Nobilityof Musical Language" MusicalLanguage" "The Bourgeoisieof . followed deterioration. ringspierced through ofthe calledlocal coloroccursaroundthesame timeas theflourishing slave trade in the Sudan.von Hardenberg.theseare marksof distinction barbarians of soof invention The the noses prisoners. cending committo thesummit. steepascent in old age. working processes eeringimagesare inapplicable. 4. as wellas marvelous discontinuation plateau For theconcrete Boccanegra)." a similarly mistaken At issue is the image of a creative ascareer'sgradually 19thcentury. raisedto the levelof a unified idiom common denominator the This heightened provides meaning. "Egyptian Local Color" Veror theAmerican feature Landof Similar to Turandot. bydecline. manymore) forces who cannotagreeamongthemselves. in the 19thcentury: Germanpolitics thePharaohet al.The humansensesthemselves or domineering slavish withthe ears. communication. "A Summit Achievementof Italian Opera" notionof the As in the case of "highertruth. however. aristocrats (von Stein. (usually trajectory. Smiles. momentary of the music.theexotic. It is appropriate or tuberculosis clinic talto a mental asylum for operas to use principleslike accelerando. of state as deputies and run the Prince affairs Hohenlohe. passages(liketheone on peace in Simone suchmountainofauthors and composers. carnage primal operasgive and ofgreat causes are ennobled tweennations. artistic an Egyptian local colorforthesakeofa "higher di's Aidainvents ofthis the"savageness" truth. forthe bourgeois 5. whichdisplaythe qualitiesof thereare musicalmaterials Certainly or Napoleons of music. musicalidioms.drumbeat. von Bismarck. of or a crisis the wife After the death lover).theevents spective bethe an account the indirect scenes. thereare workers bourgeoisacquisitiveness." The sluggishly Nile. This resembles von Caprivi. slave. fortheEgyptian theupstart and heroesalike.
the wandering ofKundry's aboutGod which thestory leads to her2. tions.As ifone could plan whether sounds. in itshold thesymbolic Likea chaotic ark. to their an incompleteformof materialism "occasional materialism" (Gelegenheitsmaterialismus).. associations setting up relations amongthemfreely . a landing is attempted sevenyears.or narraor fictional to tivesin a documentary vein..apsuch are The proach symbolicsequences fundamentally superficial. the island of . opera:a phantom century. in relation to each other thanclassantagonisms morehostile be: might of Ahasver. will.piratetales. in themannerofan administrative twocenturies act(presumably arisas ifthesesequences of the mind." ("The ocean is morebeautiful /thanthecathedrals. This multiplicity thatthe diverse (the antagonism persecution. The Wanderings and AttemptedLandings of Ulysses Via detours. The waysin whichour two centuries.far oftheevents schematic.. the 19thand the 20th. the sufferer Ulysses approaches his home.The people One ofthese "La mer est oftheoperaare notin lovewith civilization: /queles plusbelle cathidrales.This attitude corresponds in these two centuries. . . The Approach to Symbolic Sequences In the opera Le vaisseau severalmyths intersect whichare fantome.thisphantom shipcarries ofall pastcenturies. cipleofthe 19th-century ship. "Le vaisseau fant6me" title oftheoperaThe Dutchman theprinThe French Flying epitomizes music. In theend: a leap intothewaves yearin the Egyptian-Ethiopian or a walled-in tomb .thesesymbolic tocracy) sequences and authentic could be manipulated at narratives.Film. any posiat thesame time.In this wereforthefirst timesetintoa dynamic motion(beginsocialrelations and extending ningwitha smalladvancein the 18thcentury through of thewarin 1914 as partof the 19thcentury) theoutbreak .a confused and arbitrarily of firm This attiway establishing ground. is ambivalent: would to one like tell the truth that evetude.however.fartoo fewanswers.. The origins inevitably appearmultiplied too manyreasonsforone Norwegian or for a historical fjord single War. 7..").000year laughter etc. the wanderings of Odysseus. butnotboth. 8. entrepreneurially.and Feelings 6.102 On Opera. is in that in this social sea there cannot fixed be rything flux.yet. every twogoalscouldbe accomplished. foster makes themselves) mythical fragments among anyredemption . to use theimages.
a sorceress. Hard to beminoroffense.as a result. Ulysses who try to seducehimfrom theshore(buthe has cotton ballsin spirits his earsor else is tiedto themast)." "a surface up!' /. Kundry.now she leads a solitary life.beardedman.. solum)... bath. once sought ofmadnessswore. He kills whobesiegehiswife. sugfrom whichwereacdifferent stories.In one instance. geststhatthey originate entirely in whichtheability stories cumulated. word".falls intothehands princesses. the Dutchmanwas subjectedto 2. perfection separations whichhe originally Now he has reachedthepiece of land from came a pale.. Ithaca.and in a fit I'll notgive / 'In all eternity. an indecisiveness. and sue. Lucifer.it surprised him. . . He does notenter he takesa (terra. Terra. In thelogicofsuchpredetermination. got 10." As far as blasphemy goes.000 yearsof in him complicitwith the There must be something punishment. betweenthem. this is a on which to stand. Gradually. ofsuchincorrigible powers. there is no traceoffree one ofthehuman will. "that Satan took him at his curse. to discriminate lost. theycould also mean "area. Bothtermsmean "land". plot "in raging to rounda cape.at anyrate. from of This is a totally different that the Dutch captainwho. There are otherswho are cursed. committed rather lieve that.Ahasver. thesuitors he dechimself..these are large areas of abstractionfor the powers of . probablytherewas a contract 9. a cosmiccoup d'etat althe another an provokes curse.. Solum 11. This means. shipwreck eye of is saved. Rather. disguises forhaving his been disloyal imates thestaff during vagaries." Terra can also referto "fatherland" or even to the whole planet .Alexander Kluge 103 in the heat of passion. he cursed. And Satan heard. one-eyed giant. he is getting used to thehappyoutcomeof his fate. superimposed upon each other.a woman in Norway who dared to leave husbandand child.. / windand violent storm /.he seemsto managethe withalmostgreater than the rapprochements. . fallen angels: a woman who laughedwhenJesusmade his wayto Golgotha. in thesenarratives most trivial The excessivedisparity violation.. thegod ofthesea byputting he insults out the a of of his Storm one and enrelatives.notevenan involuntary species. in In one case.Nora Leaves the Doll's House .
a sourceof passionthatis notcompensatory thefilm offers lessan erotic thana fantasy oflibHence.at claiming thesame time. The Latinwordsolum cannotcompete. In theoperaAida. home.. she criticizes of feelings. unlessotherwise tion.Brackner argues. to the rulesaccording to father) contrary is traditionally whichexperience associations. eration.[Translators' note. The accumulation of causalities and family the masquerrelations.likea nourishment."in thesame issue. also see thediscussion conceptof themarket. ny.drama. in Kluge'sreply.Film. fantasy In thiscontext. produce the tragicending. 1983):233-35. works.It always refers to theactuA partofthegroundtowhich al place whereone putsdownone's feet. storieslie. country. She attributes thefascination of cult. Cannen inWestGerma(1983)was released Brickner's successwith female audiences. as the surfaceof thewaterbears the ship.itscoredan overwhelming feminist filmmaker and film theorist this from a merely distinguishes reception regressive based on a simpleidentification with theheroine. ades of choice. 12. Turning Drama Inside Out In antiquity.] ... reception undFilm 36 (February "Carmenon theCouch. energy. human beings to pieces. organized. To the extentthattheyare vampire. to theemancipatory Saura'sfilm pathosin Carmen'sdance: herbodylearnsto speaka narcissistic but an expression offreedom.In BrUckner's the article.takesits nightly morethan thesesystems oflogic. drama reported on eventsthateluded the willof the can be found in laterdramatic persons concerned. "Anmerkungen zu Jutta Asthetik undKommunikation 53/54(December BrUckner. delight offree will. however.are from WhenCarlosSaura'sfilm article.Fromthetortures in thename offree incurred will.Quotations noted.the 19thcentury.A tracethereof in thedemonstration theselaterworks."Frauen 1984):73-77." 2. every are surface used. forland. in favor deniessexualdifference ofa mutuality from theliberalist derived On thefemale of Saura'sfilm. detail was not subjectto mychoice (as little whatever as I chose to havethis mother and this thusoffers.theseintensifications tear just effects.bothterms humanbeinghas a right.104 On Opera.and Feelings fate." in response toBrickner's written "Carmenand thePower ofEmoarticle.is only the most recentlayer. luck. Chance. afree surface for a starting This is where the new point for our sense of intimacy. to Bruckner"2 Jutta "Response "That which bears us." Kluge'splea foran "emancipation that itbothremains within a maternal modelofthesatisfaction ofneedsand.
later. . ifit willnot be one. as he himself says(in opera). Jose discussion" "I requestan immediate wereto call to the protagonists. particular Jose Carmen'swill (or her love initially keeps him fromeven perceiving and stabsaway. of momentarily factory). rather than by the woman's refusalof tenderness. Saura's Carmen.thenhe forgets in relaI willnotin anyway. or theold one willbe false.all frazzledand madlyin thescenein thetextile love (or themoresubtleparallelin Saura'sfilm: not inpossession be describedas nervous. tionto suchcatastrophes. kills the he whatis dearest Carmenand. All I can see in Don Jose's short ever.however.so sedentary" philosopher. ods are thoseofwar. all his feelings state). cipationwhatsoever. A he in himself..shape. A fewkeyphrases: "In defenseof emancipated emotions" Don Jos& stabs This expression reveals a misunderstanding.. mechanism. through is logic. in his essay"The Case ofWagner"(1888): "love as destiny cruel.then. on our feeling. their mutualdatewith towards chanically withtheprompter. This same sitis preferred over is whythematador to understand The macho man is fatally Saura's reinterpretation. and-fro of thisthree-way conversation perhapson more to would refuse have thisparticular Carmen anything simply day Don the that this of man.whosemethreason. might his of Don that the force We know of any pent-up feeling.nature! very guiltless.and forthat Love. little thuskilling to himin theworld. glue..witha classifying thenclosesitoff towards again with old that is. onlything Jos&fails type him. no feeling whatsocircuit me. kind collision this of melodramatic by relying through his If moment Don draws the at daggertheprompter intuitively. uation informs wounded by the comparison with another man.or form speakofan emancipation We mustbreak Therecan be no suchthing. fortheemancipation If it the old false it be no emanno has will has body.Carmenlookingover intothe arena.I assert." This kind and "a better come "so Indian.. so 19thcentury enrages through. Regarding opens a vasthorizonand Jutta Bruickner end of the her text. we mustbecome submarines. themto proceedmetheir would notpermit feelings After thetotheexecutioner.Alexander Kluge 105 Without Ifthatis so." body." and of ideologicalvogue. metaphor: ". .Nietzschecelebrates .and whichis foundedupon thedeadlyhatebehe claimsto havebetweenthesexes!"Throughthis"African gaiety. something this too willbe seized and condemnedto death. After to do with all. cynical.
lied.exactly as theyare in everyday would come into life. ofreligious for theprocesses Instead sciousness illusion. Her soul remains Carmennever Thisis erotic Notin It'soverbetween herand you" (Carmen). I contendthat.Thisgeneral is a grass-roots be continually assembly offeelings "I" The narcissistic contrast is by merely "parliamentaridemocracy.And it is not necessarily thecapitalist firm." This differs theconceptofemancipation (for emotionsthemselves would not have to changeiftheywereinserted intoan emancipatory There is also no deferment of drives. market. intomelodramatic contact insteadof entering strugI wouldbeginbyexploring these dramaturgies ofexglesforprecedence. The thevampfilms in this butdid notactas vampsin everyday way. thatdance is performedby expertsof a culture "The marketmodel lacks history" fora certain The market model is a shorthand kindofthinking.whichis liberation cause. who come equipped 300 years has our culture producedhumanbeings withtheconstitution forsuchemotional harshness. would move would ensure that a momentarygeneral assembly offeelings before opposing them with thefoundations of thought. perience. with distortion is even more extremein the identification without "Powerof thedance. in 1920s viewed of of the Millions women the imagination.Film. underreal-life and forthesakeofthemoconditions of of our novels." Now. context). from theassembled an. pantheism life. comprehend Thereis onlythe extent ofthatwhichbelongsto thepast of markets. Severaldrives. Carmen. the physical . thereis no exchange. likecomedy. .In everysphereof intimacy. witheach other. (oranyother the police sirenis heard and things creates get serious) surprises. term do not themselves about them)definitely Markets (unlikethetheories the I am certain as yet we hardly In fact. "You ask theimpossible. Gaullism.and Feelings forinstance: The prompter's intervention intervention. but nonetheless there. that lackhistory. Otherwise logic ofsacrifice is disavowed the market only isolation.The searchfor . of conI understand that"free-floating misery"means a splitting a new offantasy... and thatofthe market.the productive move is to upsetthe strategy dernity This the willed isolationof feelingpromotedby the 19thcentury.withdeadlyconseinto withthosethatcontrol contact for quences tragedy.106 On Opera. they is funny. feminist in session.althoughnothing about the situation function This formof defensebringsthe emotionsthatgovernthe restof life the moment.
anytendency pressions reality." lation. wearing great majority for to their of have conceal body-dress a sex-object macho eyes. by principles particularly century." monstersthrive.The filmpromisesto change all that.or experieverything do. however.Nor are they askedifthey still in a private ofitsown sort. has remained. derness) products necessary of human beings. thatstandsin male rhythmic dramaturgy quickenedby to we contradiction feel. dramaturgies bylifting inunder suffer real conditions. . the are for life These are that are generated. ferentiated way. of do not walk the The women around deeds.thatis.perhapsin a moredifdanced shakesup thebodies of theviewers on urbanstreets. crueland is "cynical. themabove themisery However. In a relation that methods.. a ruin." Itwas courage. them. It rather seems to me a case of a century beingdancedbefore remote forWestGermans. is this: in the traditional The point of the film ThePowerofEmotion .a component. On thescreen.. (eventengreat learning. "thought fromthepersistent small steps thattrans"The wearinessresulting formall courage into mere tenacity.The cinematic and tenacity theweariness. butonlytenacity Holdingon to thisbitter experience. transform smallsteps. not humans.butin principle step just likethegoose A fantasies. they in real conditions there rests cona wealthof "thought herent already with structs" that can consolebyplayfully alternating self-deception imof of this has towards None murder.If theseproducts forthe manufacturing necessary and could everbe coherently organized. thematriarchal Forthosewho do notunderstand but rather not as od ofproduction exists us complete." ofproduction guiltless.Alexander Kluge 107 viewers seats believe that thebodies ence in context. at that.They fortheir bodies underclothes entire lives. inexorable.thenwe would nothave to be "androgynous "The maternalmethod of production" meththisconcept.At thesame time. war. by humanabilities of isonot the of the 19th those needs. out of fear. ofwomenis involved thismajority economy and of intuition amounts the inwhich warmth.No Don Josewillstab erotic love someone. actually complete construct" accompaniedby an emotionalovertone.I cannot ofthe jammedinto are liberated in themovie theater bymeansofa dramaturgy ofthe19th(or 16th) their eyes. The thatis relatively monstrous of the reactionary refinement social model thatis being . something among as a residue. in their are "notwarlike that these traces One can be certain.
and Feelings . or opera suggests bility anyways thatit depictsanyactualexperience. 202-205. thrive at as War.privately ownedmedia. .Q. 272-273. has seenit 17 times. withlabor + miracle. The excerpts are frompages 234-235.thatis. the 19thcentumemory with the of a forpublic framework ry.. the second German TV network]. passionate it human not without do all.FortheRoman res is in this the four letters encapsulated publica. can ruleout thepossithus 108. referring. 239-240. onlyexamples happyendings.beforetheabundanceof immediate experience producedby peoofpublicexpression. is Experience predicated on public comparison..Opera.ThePowerofEmotion (1983). of withtheabsenceofemotions rescue a or luck. sensual-practical feelings Whoever is content withthisdefeat.P. and theIndustrial WorldFair.Yet. It is no coincidence thattheindividual in The contributions positive Power the of to do have either Emotion. S. as thephrasegoes. 1984). mysister and father 14. to: "State.But are stilltacitly written one needs a long-term to be of In aware this. 50-53.public law channelsare threatened today by the newmedia. This film deals with the problem of the publicsphere (Offentlichkeit). neither alliancesoffeelings with nor submission. (accident. 346-348. 424-425. by criminal).images power reality provided orientation. Whatone ple can findanyadequate. ThePowerofEmotion(Excerpts)3 Warin theMedia Remarks Preliminary Jungle: Tunnel Both the classicalformsof public life. let himmake himself at home in thisworld.. Die MachtderGefiihle Zweitausendeins..The accomplishments of the public sphere thusbelongto themostvaluabletreasures ofthefree West." 3. emotion.108 On Opera. I haveseentheopera Carmen 48 times. I my mygrandmother this beautiful that out ofitsdilemma. 187-189. a entirely relationships critic of defeats our on all levels.Film.widerform has livedthrough can become experience (Erlebnisse) (Erfahrung) onlyif itcan be related to theexperiences ofothers. 447-456. Above theformerly Roman cityof Mainz [theseat of ZDF. are of They metaphors far-reaching significance.the public sphereis disintegrating .and the modern. even without thesenew.R. theseletters in the sky. scriptand materials re(Frankfurt: lating to Kluge's film.
Where? . however. of emotions. Not seen frontally. " The woman is "Believe me. accountant. .the ofinformation and entertainment emotionsintothecategories moderatepublic law media. TheMoment ofThuth row. opera analyst. privately (items1-3)by projecttaking conditionsof human media. Less visible though just as poweringreconstruction.) traverse contact with acwillengagein lively theplot. landscape. in an urban rendered An immense mood. sorting . . This projectaltersthe environmental It is a questionof ecologywhichcan be more imporconsciousness. are juxtaposed: The following forces. wherethework is beingdone. and yetshe is recognized. daily life.Alexander Kluge 109 theopera the In a similar vein. (2) The classicalprojectofa factory from theperspectheclassicalopera and itsabode.Would youjump after me to save me? .new shape today. a seriesof characters (fictional figures: (5) In thecourseof thefilm. Does Wagnerhave a sense of humor? .Betty Hinrichs. tual characters radio. each actingindependently.and politics.thisis more thanjust a sale. of all the formsof traditional public life (4) The superimposition the a owned. .thecinemaadaptsfrom metaphoric to a publicsphererenclassicaleconomyofemotionas itcorresponds dered obsoleteby actualdevelopments.television. opera. ful:the concurrent reconstruction This is forintensified emotions. thesefourhighly the editorDresen et al.thesefigures Throughout fromthe worldof film. specialist of an the architect an time-motion house.butfrom backstage the a modern after In to the clear contrast latter. tiveoftheaudience. diversecontexts. . . to the tantthanthequestionof nuclearpowerplantsor otherthreats environment. she's as faithful wishesand you'll be marriedby tomor"Give in to yourfather's sold. undergocomposed impressions from theoutside. imaginary (1) of the Rhein-Main which is of area. the matchmakingfathersays this: as she is beautiful. Waldstabe." On her behalf. (founded (3) project dispersed pluralistically giganticopera of the Third Reich). a the lighting RosemarieEilers.
. "Justa minute!" said Hilde. "had nothingin it to look forwardto. thoughthis bride was being unfaithful the harbor.I wouldjump in after you.You don't havetojump. They took a few hurried steps. though. Senta jumped afterhim. . .and Feelings . hoping to be saved. "This story. misinterpreting and jumped into terand Senta. who was anxious to stop in at the Leopold beforeitclosed. . to save you." In her mind she .Film. ing assuming .110 On Opera. Not thatI am the FlyI she but were? Dutchman.Yes.then emptyouter-space air and stratosphere in the nothing way of a place to live?" "You can't say 'outer-space air.Be honest.Then I wouldjump in after you.Into the cold waterof a Northern bav. that is what art is tryingto tell us. his fiancee (withwhom he had stepped out of the opera house into the Munich night)could never be the Flying the conversationbetween the hunDutchman . which I found moving. .You're lying! It occurred to her that he habituallylied when he saw no other way to shut her up.No otheroption? . ." Hilde persisted.answered Because she is a woman.To save you? .Nor are you the Flying Emil Ml1ders. To do thathe needed to hail a cab. I'm onlyasking.where we couldn't drown anyway at low tide because it's so flat?When we both know that up there past the comes the Van Allen Belt.and theyboth headed off to heaven." said Hilde.to use an example we both know . Why should I.' " replied Emil. but the dispute was impeding him.but staycool when thereare realistic issues at hand." answered Emil. said. . go offto heaven withyou by way of the dirty water of Munkmarsh harbor .It won'taffect our relationship ifyou wouldn't. like whetherI should pick up some sausage on the way home so you'll be relieved of hunger in the evening? Is that supposed to mean that the places and occasions for great emotions do not exist?" "Apparently. Dutchman. "You can't just put me offlike that."when greatand absurd emotions are involved.who. "Why do I get so worked up.I don't believeyou.
has it seems to me God's cerned.they in need ofcabs.Yet." Hilde replied.thegaze lingered oftheghostly totheshipman in theentrance directed at theapparition herfianyard.Alexander Kluge 111 withSenta'sgaze. "Whichones?" asked Emil."answered Emil. She could not answerright away.whether sheshould find (notpaying to his to payattention to herand at thesametime too hectic tention some"commonground" on there ownfeelings) or whether was still .people who in no way in theatmosphere oftheopera."Theyhad arcan't?God's vengeance. tough.That this Dutchmanin AD 30 (or zero. It hadn'treally She was disappointed for a She cab.not in the20th century. petty. As faras thisopera is conthatwe mustconstantly believein spirits. in contrast. ifI still but thatnow I was able to accommodateor mobilize largefeelings. I feelthatfora fewhours. whatdoes art on myquestion. he though asked out of politeness."she said. becausethey weresimultaneously conversation rushing she couldfinally had to makeup hermind. whichshe had held forso long . where ce ifthey had anyintention they run intopeople Hilde had no desireto see . has lastedtoo long. go theopera ifwe have to hurry "Why. "must to so she we asked. around Christ's death)laughed at the himto a jourhave condemned moment shouldn't necessarily wrong God is not that into the but 20th century.themoment open the himsuperficial atdoorofa cab.Butnow she was supposedto rushto thetaxistandwith could ofmaking itto theLeopold." "Stilltoo long. "thatartdoes wantto tellus something." ney "The action. "I am asking: "Concentrate thispiece.and so there wereobjectheonlyoperagoers hurriedly hustleif they tivereasonswhythe two of them had to show a little This seemed absurdto Hilde. been a in theconversation.Therewerenone left."I think. in which directiondid yours go?" Even "Which large feelings. wantedto geta cab forthemselves. remained Emil had not whollyunmoved by the opera.She foundEmil's answersuperficial.watching wantto tellus. depot." she thelongerbreaths requiredbytherhythms But it can't be merely said. vengeance lastedtoo long.neither to could be related to anything nor Norse were not theghostly the merchant sailors. rivedat the taxistand." in to her to be exercise much when it's over?"The opera seemed an ofemotion. "Whatdo you mean?" said Hilde."takesplace in 1810.
she to her to about whatfolIt was cost become clear thought. uneducatedin thehigherarts. going days lowinghim had meant. which she could continue livingwithhim.Since she reallydid wantto talkabout what out (had checked arthad tQtellboth her and him. Then she jumped after him into the back of the car. She had figured her watch)thatit took 17 minutesbeforeSenta and the Dutchman reached an understandingabout their firsteye contact. We must not be treated thisway. She found thislack of timequite unfair withregardto any one of her dailymovements. she asked. imaginedshe would need 30 minutes to interpret correctly only one of Emil's exasperatedlooks or the movementof his paw towardsthe car door.112 and Feelings On Opera. so much "Why. Hilde. Film. must we go to the opera ifwe have to hurry when it's over?" .
Otherwise.. Aida.she beganto doubtwhether in herjudgmentonlybecause Emilwantedto getto theLeopold illating and onlybecause he had promised to make an apso single-mindedly When at her for morethana looked entered. Gilda.in W. Aida. no. vacThus. Aida. I think thatAida.againstthe slothof the apparathe apparatus. The opera singer Austria.She usually arrived Nothwithout to arrive and sing preparation. are you goingto perform PRIMA DONNA: That's whatI'm famousfor.an Egyptian Fromhertemporal slave. dressing daily reporter questioned Tosca as well? REPORTER: Miss W.Theirfriends would apa as one of them said. who livedaround 4000 BC. humanly possiblesimply forthe Berlin CoveringFrankfurt ing big happens instantaneously.She fought noon towarmup. It is impossible. the artist her the TAZ. they nobody tookitas a matter ofcoursethatthey second. in room. in mind? thiswiththewomen'smovement R: Are you saying P: Whatdo you mean? . R: All of themtonight? P: Unfortunately. It is not at thetheater before tus. thesetwowomen to knoweach other. pearance.. of she had to fight the FederalRepublic. with living Conversely. crying. rolesfromthatperiod? R: Whatare yourfavorite P: Today. Hilde felt like pear promised. to la out how to travelsafely could probablyhelp Tosca figure donna the her cavalier.Alexander Kluge 113 arthad anything to tellthem. prima Spezia around 1804 could certainly pass on a fewwords of advice to for however. distance..however.Tosca. R: Why"unfortunately"? to compare the different P: It would be interesting experiences..Emil. and Amnesia Performance and France. againstthe inertia forherart.Have seat. Tomorrow. was a big starin Italy.
114 On Opera. and Feelings Film. 4000 B. "RejectedLover" (Beate Holle) .C. Aida.
per orderof thestage (Bell signal:it soundsthree manager). of Aida. R: And ifyou didn't? P: I would not even be one of them. P: If no one livesinsideyou. P: And who livesinsideyou? A dead writer? R: Whatdo you mean? behere. P: . Tosca.you might as wellnot R: I am here.. P: (rising) I don't believeyou. and thenyou could uniteall six womenand their various wordsof advice. I'm preparing beMore thanever. P: How do you know? You are theopera singer.I am convincedthatthereis a relationship Whata on film... and I'm moving into dramatic genre now. and poetry whichcan be captured tweenreality EleonoraDuse. Aida. P: All the same. of me. and Gilda. P: But stillonlyone a night. I concentrate. timesat length. Brunhilde. we are. P: Then you are the impression R: I am a journalist. R: How so? You embodyall thesewomen..I am nevermore thanone of themper evening. R: But you aren'tAida anyway. When P: You can'tknowwho's sitting I am I concentrate. in front sitting right in front ofyoujust likethat. P: Yes. 115 Asuzena.. R: Or theimpression of a reporter.you are Miss Wallstabe. R: But ifyou made an effort. monstrous and beautiful thing! . R: Yes. R: In myeyes. R: Why? P: Because I make an effort..Alexander Kluge R: Unitedwe are strong... R: But you knowall threewomen:Aida. Kundry..no? P: That would be difficult.
.... in thefinal act: "Carmen. .. " _4% f+. 0. ..some good termined. ..Fromtheoverture: "Everything everything predeTo whichFrasquita. . .don't stayhere!"To whichCarmen:"I am not the woman to tremble beforehim. . The "fate"motif from the opera Carmen by GeorgesBizet(see arrow.m "I' " . .and Feelings moderato Andante J=59 iv ... is inevitable.k : .... : ji ?..K 3 la"k... I I r .N::t .r.. c . the hangmenof Sevillewould not have had to killDon Jose. !o6. .... . *+.i Sespn: forza tut/a . .. Ila ~ A i1 I +lk . above). '- * . " . .. . .41 pIVl 4 .. 1/'....... lung& - : " _........." advice?Go away. * .. .116 On Opera...Film. -r.y .zs f v p .." Had she left as suggested..... however.r.' "" " " 'I"/ woi~C dim. . 16 41 * Iu~ .1' :9: 9 *..1 ..
Carmen. Perez.Alexander Kluge 117 of thisyoungwoman. .The onlyexisting photograph takenby L.Seville.
Otherwise shewouldhavebroken her word.. to wouldbe attentive wouldbe availablehourafter hour.The promiseoftheintheseduction" LillasPastia. promises withhimself. she was that to be she was to that She meant generous. every song: "L'amour est un oiseau rebel. something day. not Hence available Carmen's thingstubborn. going night.should feellike a lieutenantcolonel of the dragoon regiment.thatwhichshe had promised. thewomenworkers In a cigarette factory and She is arrested worker.118 On Opera.. The youngCarmenhas injuredanother Don "innumerable on the delights." He "succumbsto The sergeant struggles "desperately and releasestheyoungwoman. Carmenmeant of one for the duration to him be available she would that explains.as herconfidante. she. sergeant duty.and Feelings are quarreling.you have to finish. ownedbya certain refers to a restaurant numerable delights Don Jose goes there.The kindofficer She had promisedto come up with takehis time.Film."The word something.Carmen. "What you started. is someI'amour." . in Seville. Full of expectations. However." This is she meant what by theword"delight. what matterdeath?" Atthetimewhenthepromise was to be fulfilled." Jose. herpromise With Mercedes. notgoingto keepcountduring her. Carmen'sproblem in herself was to recreate a mood whichroughly to her corresponded mood whenshe made thepromise.likea gentleman. to say.who had released thisnight. on dutywho let her escape "should be able to him. say Don Jose. to the duration of theentire referred "innumerable" night.
saysZacke.has a regular dancer. .. of her achievement).] Bruickner. thenshe European legs through an like the dance also be to might prepared accept aginggallant he could not her into a master if make even Antonio..e.Alexander Kluge 119 . He might desireheras a thetimerequired in dance she moderately competent expert (although doubtshe in herunlessshe provoked would be interested envyon thebasis in no she wantto displace. it isa in vain to call it ifitchooses to refse. case would yet she oustor killthecompanionofthisnervous master.sinceZacke. [Translators' note. "Carmen" 229. ' I i " F m.. Therefore.Carmen's)style of dancingis a lot more 'masculine'thanthatof herrival." If Zacke looked likeLaura del Sol.A" " "Love is a rebelliousbird ... I " v"." "Love is a rebellious bird.."4 That tops it. top-notch all. 4. ifshe had put hermiddlethe basic training of flamenco. .. itis all in vainto callit ifitchooses to refuse.. . thefact that thedirector Saurafirst resents setsup Antonio's aging companionas Carmen'srivaland thenleavesherin thelurch. CA4'RNI~ .after job and does nothave forshowperformance. "A connoisseur offlamenco tellsme that her(i.
Don Jos&. as he pointsout. it in killing not was worth however.after willing rifice her lifeforlove.thereasonsfor ready Joseis no longer the actressplayingCarmen such action had not changed.although.and Feelings Hilde Lehmann. After the discussion. A week fromnow she would probablyeven cease to be infatuated withthematadorEscamillo.For thisone week. whomhe worCarmen.Film. in theopera performance HildegardLehmanngavea breakthrough to killCarmen. toact. but rather to himfor grateful . Besides.120 On Opera. WhenDon Joseraisestheknife it thathe think she asksfora delay:she suggests shipswithall his life. concedesthat thediscussion.Likewise. to sacshe is no longer now.She saysshe is notvindictive.she asks to discuss his action.prompter. Don overagain.she had no interest dying.
The discussionis now devotedto practical questions(polylogue). required. spectators to their to the box-office get moneyback. max? (b) thecashier was still to placatethisevening's and on herpartengagesin a discussion. .because thenhe would stab her.Alexander Kluge 121 whathas happened.she be killing Don Jose. spellbound. One should reallytryto preventthis outcome together. If she were to throwthe ringto the floor. is calledback to be foundin thecanteen. in it dramatic cliwas as lieu of her the were.the whispering spectators trialogue betweenthe prompter-who cranes her neck out of the ofthe thesingers in front as faras she squatting prompt-box can--and an feel out of are The cheated (b) evening.whenand howdoes thenewsreachherthat.whatis she doing at theend ofthe at home. trying is to without She not allowed reimburse perpatrons.As a result. Here hurry comingrestless. presence opera. patrons paying missionof the manager. would in effect thisat leastis whatit saysin thescore. beprompt-box. Don Josewould be hunted. (a) thecashierhas already gone home. againwe havetwopossibilities: sinceshe assumedtheoperawouldproceedas usual.seized. and sentencedto death in accordancewithSpanish The law. and hissing (a) have followed.
duringthe broadcastof the opera of 21 December 1946.and Feelings mg Ri- A&I i.122 On Opera. Awl. Carmen Car en gt t n h Frn n r it t .Radio Leipzig.Film. j -A- low Aw? Aw} Kitchenwithstove.Halberstadt.
.-.a?. ?i.bei. o. und zwi-schen uns ist es vor .. in . ~~~ ?im?" "~~~6!~ ---~ cl~a i:iF~ is~ n ii~l 3a:I~ -r?8~~ -:~"LC~~ ?%S~ ~:b%~ i.Alexander Kluge 123 Herz un be-weg- -lich.?s?.-- -i55~ l"-'b~~ "~~~~w i??i~cr~ ?~p~ ~?n: Z~.r.--- i-? c.???.?~~ -.n ~4v.
Schererpoints out.without music? Should the news be editorially or it should remain approved unapprovedbut subjectto "generalguidelines"?Or shouldthesourcesbe censored?Whatprotection versions? Karmecke against deviating goes to thephone. Such a service mustbe availableto the highestfunctionaries in the complex. however. ue. rather notthink about thefortuitous bordersofthecomplexof 1937.124 On Opera. danger in his vicinity.the tuallya mask. morning.he muses. He tries to convince Mrs.in several isolatedincidents thathe recallssleepily this Karmecke had in extramarital sexual encounters. andFeelings Film.the restis office.moderated. An excephowever. It wasn'tacspace which neitherclaims . feelscool. station . whichhad surrounded a villa-like The sunnyautumnlandstructure.whenever this sensitiveman detected mortal he got sleepy.His sleepdangerous inesswas perceived as a disguise fordangerous situations. verysleepy. thatthecanteendoes not servebefore11:30 a. Carmen Nickname: is situated in the The office offhallways space at the radio station same waythatroomsadjoined the hallways of theThirdReich'sWar in Berlin. tionto thisrulewould cause bad blood in-house.probably In yearspast.Scherer.It is his experience withventuring the limits. Karmecke is despondent. possibleradio actionin cases of emergency: TV transmissions willbe cutoff butradio broadcasts willcontinfirst.nor could be permittedto claim . scape outside." A new technical palace is planned here thatwill the of dominion the Karmeckewould expand complex northward. thatis.although on Bendlerstrasse thosehallswere Department and moreold-fashioned. unmoderated? Withmusic.m. He out the the of window towards lots car a the gazes depot. They mustbe transmitted to the individual transistor ownerssitin their cellars. the higher functionaries of the station discuss civilor international war. What should be broadcast?How should it be ting broadcast. to hook him up to a cup ofcoffee. she says.chief editor and head ofthepolitical sectionof a WestGermanradio station.a superviFriedrich Karmecke is a high-level political functionary sorforthe"steamradio". provisional term"parking-lot. beyond At a board meeting. Mrs. . who runsthecanteen. He used to be considered whenhe was sleepy. roomier The doorsto theoffices at thisradio are smallerthanthosein theWar Department. engaged Added up. but rather. all oftheseincidents constitute hisCarmen.Karmecke is.
acquaintances. crazyimpulseto desertto Carmen who.he himself would haveto submit to a security check of and con(a three-month long process questioning investigation cerned above all else withfactsthat could be exploitedby blackmailers: extramarital encounters relations. If.and fleewithher to the smugglers. But not a vestigate public having security was no doubtthat theradiostation an agentofitsown.etc. the editordirectors.How could he check.as mentioned not one. he agreed to the security Carmenwould be put on record.) agree security in an emergenstill be allowedbecause ofhisrankto advisethestation not but he be of the decisions made . agreement saying was before. federal had no reasonwhatsoever to inrepresentatives a state-run radio institution. This conspiracy was directed need forsecurity. cars.there presented riskin an emergency and the area of security so situation. friendships. however. room did believein theprobability ofa assembledin thisconference case of emergency. GDR that would subjecthimto a security would thatbe? The orderly check? .after1968. managers.his collective there he could be blackmailed with. self-govnow felt to come up witha remedy. in railroad If he did not to the he would check.by that was explain nothing he had an with his wife? For a he had the moment. But what.he would situation. cy apprised would haveto waitoutsidethedoor.after all. If againstKarmecke's he tookpartin it. theinterested parties anylonger. higher-ups ficers and haphazardly triedto workup some kindof security plan.Alexander Kluge 125 In general. on the otherhand. program and a fewother satat a roundtablewith offederal in-chief. In other words.he would notbe in thisoffice tolerated since. ernedorganization Inobligated steadof doing so.
and Feelings A. wa .Film.. .......9~fFV Z 'F "AM". -?~4. .... INK:..40 R 01? ?FF... ..4 ... ly . izV-Z %i . .. ....~ 15~88~8: Z. F. .... ~ssr~. ?5- FlaB pp... . . m:..... Karmecke ...126 On Opera.
. (itbeingAdvery ingenviously of Berlin. r . ?? :? ~ r I. cause . watching ....?II.suddenly having It Saura's film was a successful movietheater Carlos Carmen.Now the femalelead of of the agingwoman the throat del Carmen Sol) was cutting (Laura in thefactodance master ofthatstudioin Spain.they rydispersed and therowsof their whiletheycut through antagonists rhythmically untilsuddenly themuraroundone another circled (as in a cockfight). As forZacke. P ctl* ??? . '?? t~f -' "1 r."It is about thepowerofthedance. ~t.~! Pil?` " ~i4~ :?ri?` ... cut.at that Eilers.The womenworking floor made the tremble into hostile dance groups.likea rhythmic towatch thedance and murder whilesitforherphysically not liberating thinkthe foul air and was She was in a narrow bothered seat. RosemarieZacke.is .The first the streets vent).thatshe knew. snowfellovergreater BerOn 14 November1983.whichis libfilm filmcritic. ?~ li-~r?? 1 . by ting moment ofElfriede who.put an end to thedance..r. ' ?M I: :si? -' rZ1'?' '" hi . ." only the most recentlayer. .itwas der."lc~ I Elfriede Eilers. . lin.Alexander Kluge 127 "That whichbears us. likethe surfaceof thewaterbears the ship.theday thefirst hours to in a had two sat kill." so read thetextof herfavorite eration without on whose reviews Rosemarieusuallyrelied.was probablyscurrying through she was missing snow! Zacke had the feeling something.the 19thcentury.t.RosemarieZacke .
On Opera,Film,and Feelings
"The Police Chiefis Dead" The policechief ofRome,Scarpia, waseither at first a conservasight tiveoftheold school,a gentleman, whoseclothedbodyone forgot in ofhis face;an untouchable favor in an man,who becomesembroiled diva,Tosca. He wantsto intrigue just thisonce by the overwhelming stealTosca awayfrom that horrible immature mama's boy,that farmer whom had she for taken her lover because he had a boyMario, merely fewcrudegestures at his command;thisspoiled childwilldrop her, as soon as she,growing however, older,willbe displacedbytherising diva, Ermolli,and onlythenwill Tosca have reacheda stateof full bloom towhichScarpiacan relate. ForScarpia, each courseofactionis the need for the Vatican statesomehowto prevail, contingent upon and that in turn on that bastard Mellasleadingthe dependsexclusively Austrian in northern troops Italy.
;AwTosca: In theforeground, whomshe has stabbed. policechief Scarpia,
Or the police chiefScarpia,fearedthroughout Rome ("Trema tutta climber,a wild boar, a bureaucratwho Roma"), was a primitive he the diva on top ofan oyster could afford breakfast without thought a dutiful on this his duties; man, who, neglecting oppressive particular ambitious day,felt enoughto wantto add "man ofpleasure"to hislist of personalqualities- thatis, to augmentthe trappings of abstract as longas thestate somehowholdstogethpleasure-seeking apparatus itwould be impossible to exer. Ifthiswereindeedthecase, however, how the of a ever have could plain Naples exchanged single Queen wordwith thisScarpia, whilesuchan exchange wouldhavehad to preas police chief. cede his installment inherits a The guestperformer who is to portray Scarpiathisevening line of that characterize as a stout long productions Scarpia perpetrator of violence - probablya mistake.In this crude rendition, Rome would not obey him. He would be whispered about among his spies The Queen would be informed and counterspies. that this man violent in theexecution of is seeking personalgain.He mayprovecompetent stateenemies,but he would threaten thecourtitself and, withhislack of control, fromtheusurperapproaching could not be distinguished from in thePalazzo Farneseis himacrosstheAlps. For a police chief selfsubjectto surveillance unlesshe is a gentleman. The performtoimitate how the social climbertries the ance should at leastsuggest ofa gentleman. Trimmedlikea Christmas treewithselfcountenance made qualities, he has to acquirethismaskbefore himself the allowing of like Tosca. luxury pleasures In thebustling opera house,thereis no place quiet enough- neither on anyofthevariousfloors, norin thedeserted areasbackstage to allowforan observant Whatlookslikea hall-size attitude. dungeon or abyssnextto the Flying Dutchman'sship - setup in preparation forthe nextevening- will actually be the back wall of the Palazzo Farnesein the second act. The onlyplacesofattentive reflection are theareasbehindthepolice theseareto care. He carries chief's but the does not seem eyes, singer as around the stagewithhim. These retinas of both Sicilies scrutinize, fromthe perspective of a restless Rome, an era of whichScarpiahas in theback ofhis mindonlythe20 yearsofhis activeservice as stored a dossier foremost His call him "the enemies memory," living spy.
that does not have to read the reports of his spies in order to divine what goes on in his Roman domain.
On Opera,Film,and Feelings
foran age other constructed Whatwe havehereis a living machine, thanthe one thatis beingdestroyed. Sadly,thisretinal qualityof the role is drownedout by theroutine Scarpiamovingabout in theforegroundof the stage. "Give me," he saysto the stagemanager(and whilehe speaks,the seltzerforthisjuice theycall wine. "a little retinaremainsinactive), is constricting need themtonight." The acidity myvocal chords.I still is already on thesoda water, The prop masters butthecurtain bring it to the The The never makes table and soda glass. performing rising. on nothing otherthanrehearsed movements and concentrates singer voiced farmer's his voice. Throughthe eyes of a powerfully boy,the likea visitor intoan alien retinas historical Scarpialooksout ofinactive world. physical as Male Body Scarpia the heat of the day, the police chiefin the Palazzo Anticipating - aroundfive his ofsweat is awakeearly o'clock.A film covers Farnese he The thin sheet thrown it is still cool outside. aside, body although hidtract his sexual toolsalongsidethe surgeof a digestive considers theseinstruments. he cannotcoordinate den by hisvaulting stomach; the bellows air from the AlbanianmounAbove the stomachpit, thispartof his body tains- indicatethatScarpiais alive;unassisted, watches. risesand fallsas thepolice chief Scarpiagetsup and washes, inHis excessive of are film sweat the eyes clear,without away. cooling or unifying He considers thestateas a coordinating terest. essence,its - a metaphor fortherash outerboundaries"assailed" by Bonaparte of the bodies comprising Frenchtroops;these to-and-fro marching as an entire however, already body, presumably marching troops, As envisions in the at five o'clock now morning. Scarpia underway thesebodies - thesnoutsof armedcolumns,legs,digestive systems, to spines, and theseextended neckslinked headsupon necks, byknapthisimagesuppliedby theenesacksand weapons - he drawsfrom to integrate the centrifugal framework make-upof his my a unifying theRoman over looks for the red dawn this He spread morning. body of the Farnese walls it the and finds silk-draped beyond ("l'aube") city to contributes and for mind the it takes where Hotel, waking shape French the is of it. evenifhe unaware Meanwhile, Scarpia'sunification
soldiers carry single-mindedlytheir sexual tools - superfluous in times of war - like knapsacks; that is, as ballast dating from the
to of the mechanical himself.so she would thenscootaroundon herkneesto face himfrontally into so that forward shefalls again). had histrousers in themeanwhile been unbuttoned as had she remained could haveexploited in a primordial manner still. rathera lubricant. The nextday.She kneels before he. field-packs the doubts of the police chief. . association rulercorresponds to itmore important If he now thought thansomething else . in soldier a lull ifhe werea goator a hare. He would have to imaginethatthe singer think about him. who awaken sexual voice.All thesame. pleasure though piss-pipe in orderto achievethoseunifying wouldn'trequiresuch a thing overit off the he cut can close views. but it fails to make anythingglide through the silk trousers. though its dissociation from thebody.he cannot same way just his or or orders to subone ofhissecurity departments. The cuncall itsancientor medievalability do without this of this is thepath can kind not solution ningScarpia could be achievedbyblackmailing theacto unification. posture. organbyforcing expansion of the divineTosca.or a French the fightduring becomes Instead.He shovesherslightly thespieshad occasionally a position embroidered upon in their reports and and whichhe.the penis stuckin his trousers ing and so forth.On the contrary. whathe withgood reasonhad deniedhimchambers selfgetsin his wayonce he has Tosca lockedin his official him in physical to and talksto herinsistently. who wonderswhether this experience is in meant for he fact as himself well.Thiswould be a misunderwas lookingat himor thinking for of desire so thatthe suitable a feeling eliciting standing. unity notbe thinking ofthe tualTosca. Rather. he caredto look. a proudwomanwhowouldcertainly a who her from the of woman derives chief. smeared at the tip witha fluid .just as one sends spies out on patrolhopingthatthe suspectedpreywillbe .Scarpia could make use of the itself roused and somehowbetray forexample. an accomcauses hispenisto swellso thatScarpiacannotpisswithout due of his swollen to a medesire and feeling penis large panying ofthe the dissociation The chanicalmisunderstanding among organs.Alexander Kluge 131 needed fortheoccupationofRome. delegate forget the pressureof his colon fromthe left ordinates.however. circling if ends up behindherback (and thiswould appear indecent. Theydo not millenia. whichbrings proximity himso that aroundherin thisdivine her. of the the ruled. divinity her power police is to and not there desire.could rearousedmember.not sperm and not urine. plaguedby and venture an eruption.
todesire: himself with In hislasthourhe wascompletely unable impotence.Even without Tosca's he would nothave reachedhis objective in theaffair.132 On Opera.annoyedwiththisbrazen no autonomy. penis. died of: a confusion. . so thatScarpia. In fact.Film. tage get prevail." thisis whathe Precisely so to speak.and Feelings whichare difficult to open. Cavaradossi'sarrest. which. in theaffair rather there wereobjectives thatdisintegrated intodifferent situations as soon as they nearedpractical realization.He carried no "marshal'sbatonin his knapsack.He had alreadyfeltthe catastrophe coming that Ifhe hadn'tdied in thisadventure. he would havedisgraced morning. was neveractually hisobjective. sincetheearly had at odds with his This been is how morning. death was only anotherannoyancein the face of this failure. thisde.not because he hopes to gain some erotic ceitful seduction advanover in the but rather order to his mind to diva.without the reason at his that outside having original disposal observers would have ascribedto his actions. he died. longerfeelsthediva'smagicand loses hisdesireas ifit miscarried. it knife. As a consequence. he proceedswith theblackmail.
and Tosca's end. Now. . baton. the torture chamber Arriving dribbled red paint over the forehead and cheeks of the make-up artists was directingthe score of the cries of tenor. in advanceofthecatastrophe. probably to teach and no one had everbothered wellvia hermanyoperatic roles.also had counterin theexcitement ofthemoment at hand. notevenScarpia.that until she had thefates is. has thepowerto lift themaskoff unmasked. Therefore. And Tosca. in such a moment. too.but also not onlyin the automaticoutpouring at thispoint. It is possiblethat.following the secret would breakoffthe torture would not been revealed to then hide-out have protocol Angelotti's theRoman police. withthe diva of whose power outside the courthe was well aware.Scarpia's as was Mario'sdeath.to an insoluble to or a of mutual intimate indifference.whereone of the in small culations. rousedmerely the conductor's she could emit her another. opera cannotgo forward thejudge running thetorture sessionhad made hisowncalBesides.a highly primadonna can be trained of so-calledemotion. phase ifthe dressis torn.she thisexpression herdeathso muchthat she could nottolerate evena momentary feared and on dominion therefore to attack thedisher hastened infringement to of the the Mario with the with authority police. explanation talented ofthefan'sorigin. police. regard loyal not would have done otherwise. took adRome'sstate enemies. Tosca and Mario cannot avoid the tragicending. havingeye contact hero would have fainted. determined. knowing Angelotti's in thetorture until was revealed. Nevertheless.she cannotbe in theartofimperturbability. by on cue. and hide-out chamber.Nobody.since any other courseof actionwould have led to the singer's aging.was sit- .worried that strategies a wrongbreathmighttear open her tight-fitting Empire gown. Scarpia vantageof this weaknessof Tosca's when he displayedthe fan of full wellthat thedivawouldnotgiveup until sister. The plotofthe dispute.she for while Mario was tortured could have held back her confession of a minutelonger forat theend of thisperiodher threequarters and the Roman judge.Alexander Kluge 133 It is wellknown Tosca was very thatthedivine carried easily awayby because she had learnedto express thisemotionso jealousy.Thus.anticipating her aging.who would have lefther soon anyway. as a police chiefof her emotions.where the stage-manager the miserableMario . Onlydayslaterthe French cuirassiers would move into the city:the drama would have been cancelled. heractions death was preThus. Angelotti's ting an ofall involved weresealed.
Thisbachelor. . and Feelings thewings. he must defend thebasic ofthe Therefore. by promised. why long-term Scarpia ofCharacters Exchange Scarpia/lbsca: with Likean intelligent a primadonna becomesfamiliar the monkey.however.134 On Opera. in theposition to playherantagonist unburdened the by earthly weight ofthecharacter. as anunreal Toscaisableto bylearning. of whisTosca. likea discoverer). pera few in the which He was notinterested coulddecidethecourseofhiscareer. contrast. Foronce in hislife." correct execution were. had reasonsthatprevented her hercalculating. in other YetToscais an ice-cold bitch: sheis diva. acquired these character traits with a de-dramatizing effect.Tosca.something old regime with theancien force not to is able susregime In mask tain. words.however. butin thelongrun. clothes. Nopresent purely.very highly thought Naples. ofeternal into life thevicinity ofthepolice office. task he had to perform. wouldbe whenhe tries Tosca.thelookhe exchanged ignominious was appeasing: "I willdo no theGoddessas he left Scarpia'schambers out theletter oftheorder. She did notrecognize from secret his partisan.thejudge thought of stagedoor that onlyopened from inwhich in hisfuture. Forthecharacinternal better Scarpia's systems of Rome's chief ofpolicehavea historical the teristics they carry origin. a goddess. in slow. wouldliketobe able torelax Scarpia to lose his head and his body completely his vigil. treaty . who does not see herself the actual movement has Scarpiain view.these characters sheperforms. wheredeputy Roberti was busytrying to open a pain from theoutside.might in thetorture wordsto theQueen abouthisconduct chamber. characters areminor next to of the music. enjoyedtaking theimpatience ofsuchunaccustomed desire(what does theoverworked to stick tothetreaties. (out of happiness aboutthereunion. of the order. trusting interests.No additional morethancarry pain shallbe He as it the inflicted the knaves. in fast-motion. Allthesame.he wouldlike would have really a sliceof eternal and lifeforhimself. with Hence. She sees Scarpia's confusion almost as ifhe werewearing no genital shesupplies a causefor whose hisdaily travails.a weight oftheserealconditions within themselves that weight heavy on a its underside so that is counter-character produces Scarpia actually notatall Scarpia toplayhimself. That is she and had to die. Film.The Goddess. will die she before their time if And she a slice body plays brings Scarpia.is thus able to get to know onstagebut rather of negotiation thanhe. emotional life sometimes sometimes proceeds .
without forherand with anyregard be painting minimal sincehe wouldrather oils. From"Ein imaginirer derHamburgischen 1984Staatsoper Opernfiihrer. Adomo talksabout the disintegration of materials. by only monarchy. vinity An Imaginary Guideto theOpera:Commentary on Operaand Television5 I " "Vision. alreadyexpended opera.butalso on thisrealman lying fallow.ontoa relationship and serves as a kindofleftover afless reality cuisineforwhatremains terthe diva is done singing."Jahrbuch 1988 (Hamburg:Intendanzder Hamburgischen 1988).Alexander Kluge 135 man knowofdesire?) makeshimfeelliketearing hishairout.Rather.and the This is whyshe sacrifices Angelotti. herdominion ofartmustnotbe a republic ofpleasthat sincesheknows but can be established as a be lest she robbed ure. Suhrkamp. thatdemands she musthangontothechildMario.gothimself endesire. .who . in real relationships. in activities. her Thus. have used up all thediva's energy Yet. theyounger and quitecapableTazzi.6 Whatdoes this in precision. having already or day-breaking tor. as good as lost. earlier unable to conjure up in this inappropriate She is therefore official room therealaffair forwhichshe yearns withtherealScarpia. 5. mean?It refers to a newly interest awakened concentration.even bothtogether create thetrust magic)she obtains . already dumb dog Mario as well. Staatsoper.as in thecantata from thatevening.she knowshow to plyherunifying magicnotonly All themoreso on a spoiledboy. All of thiscould have been cleverand in line withthe Goddess's butturned out to be impossible becauseitwould contractual relations.herdevotionis primarily to herart. and caresses tangled political Through timely betrayals (only oftheagingman.Asthetische Theorie (Frankfurt: 1973) 31. in Art." 140 BarsofThe Valkyrie "Distance. it is not Naturethatprevents from thedramatic actionto a happyendingand avoiding the bringing but she fails she had her dibecause rather. Here the clever Tosca might appearedas a musicalinstruchelp. Adorno.buthe canshe willtradehimlater fora Napoleonicgeneral though not knowthisin advance. Theodor W. 6.
speech begins plays role in thefinalconfrontation. a curiosity fortheforgotten scores. never lied.such as thelibretto rawmaterial Wagnerwrote but neversetto musicon the subjectofWielandthe Blacksmith.Her soul remains It'soverbetween herand you. and too. details. 180ofthesecan roughly be heardon theoperastages and onlya smallportion thereof makeup One could cultivate the repertory. in such a mannerthatin a forinstance. yet. objective deadly firm. be to would create thus and use them to It possible fragments adapt of a second nature. In thatsense.Take. the 140 bars of the overture in Act I of The Valkyrie may constitutean .metamorphosis works ofarthavehad fora longtime. for the "I" which with a decisive Carmen. the material to the of one also pushing verge disintegration. perceptive.spoke the lines ofJose and the prompters.and Feelings . Butone could also do something else: one could focuson thevery elementsof therepertory. voice oftheactress SabineWegener Carmen's bright responded offstage. became clearonlywhenthe in thiscase two women. Such proceduresseem to suggestan artiste However.Wagner's scorenowsoundslikechamber music." Childrenspeakthis werestanding besidethemselves. and bass Wagner-orchestra. Due to the musicalagitation of thisseI do not the verbal nuances.information and imagesare to a certain extent. matter. text demands attenJosh's tionifitis spokenbysomeoneoftheother sex(whois playing a part that doesn'tbelongto thedrama). opens up newqualities within it. Thereareabout85. whichthe impresario RobertSchulz has I mayhaveheardabout40 times.In bothcases. thefinal scene fromthe libretto of Carmen.As we know. or.in such a way thata novel typeof workemerges. classicalvirtues that correlation. on whatAdornocallsthesubcutaneous structure. reducedor neutralized A similar effect can be achieved forthemusicalparameters bycreatsound the as individual musician seated in the ing perspectives: just midstof his or hercolleagues does not hearthetotalsound oftheorchestra butonlythosepartsofthescoreplayedbythemusicians in his I can place microphones or her vicinity. and which Butitnevto me that as an independent er occurred Carmenspeaksofherself oba to witness her own fate: "Carmen server. notice searched Merimse's quence. heard218 times.I turned with to talefortheorigin For my ear thewordsfinally thelibretto.000operas.Film.forinstance.136 On Opera. any group extremely foregrounded. ifI don'tsee an imagewith text is enhanced it. contrabass. Having ofthefascination theCarmentopic.by ddmoliseur.in effect. for that other are drum.as ifthey way. only the cello.
example.onlygods. thatrestedon thegenrelikea nightmare.To support ." But ifone ignores this since the materials are function serving disintegrating anyway the ofa sonata. until thecurarea.and to overhisargument whowouldsetthemtomusic. the"realismof thesocial rather. shot could elucidate affinities motifs.and againproducedmonumental 7. Verdi. Padrona) eight These "unrealistic" as thecorefrom which piecesor echoesthenserved Doniat leastItalianopera was revived via composerssuch as Bellini. shortversions of operas should writeimaginary guides .Alexander Kluge 137 work. Thiswork "serves" to describe autonomous a situation. itwas theimportance of thesesoirees.7 in a Adorno therefore suggested privatecirclein 1964 that one to composers could thenbe offered thatdon't exist. the opera was no A of dinosaur. by "entr'acte" pieces (such Pergolesi's to of twelve minutes that featured cooks. ofthepiano score. if to it in a which one were diverse as were. This is hardly long amongopera in dramatic that movetheaudience.itis absolute attributes musicassumestheformal to a descriptive function musicwhichwas neverreducible anyway. The intermissions. estates. event. to thecanon ofthisgenre. shortening group operas. works.no doubt. thisis possiblewith fail.thatis. a wooded someoneon therun.a thunderstorm.Adornoput forward interlocutors thefollowing whelmhis hesitant an a formburAs social a musical machine. foreevery totheopera. II a literary thathas so far The genreof the opera guide harbors form oftheopera thetext utilized."The stageremains tainis raisedon page five empty fora while.thepursuers.These abstracts . Bycontrast.because all three protagonists had a bad cold and theannouncements to that effect thedramatic tension bedisrupted act. notduring works especially possible on whichthey exert maximum thenights effect.and aristocrats qualified as dramaticcharacters explainsthis situation only superficially.the stormoutsideabout to abate." were filled La Serva as however.figaros. The fact that according longercapable development.I once had theopthat performances of of the the affinities in Trovatore II implied duringa performance portunity "seeing" opera at the MunicipalTheaterof Mainz in the 1950s. opera seriaof the 18thcentury dened withprescriptions.Romans.Thus. been insufficiently Nobodywouldconfuse a perspectival foreThe opera guide thuspermits withtheguide itself. zetti. servants.
Marriage Figaro. in The search for the needle The forinstance."froma distance. theysharethe gravitations in a bottle willsoundin a strange notesofsuchmessages first medium." It is sketch vidual "flares limit either enoughifsucha moment up.Film.nordo They I wonderhow the of opera performances.. (Fernsehprogramm) at a distance but represents as ifin close im(Ferne) nothing everything norreflects which neither affords a look outside a window mediacy is full of inside but instead crammed program obeysthereanything This is thecruthe children's films are even grown-up.Opebetween television cialdistinction oftherealistic thebarriers has learnedto breakthrough ra in particular of emotions.-" "Hope is mydesire: Hansen bySara S. theperspective of the opera house. Poorand Miriam Translated . though plot. ness. as a sketch foran opera at notfinding thedesperation it. III in general) in itsgreatest effects Television achieves (likebroadcasting A which shows television a naturalistic program key. means gaze by television.propertied of authenticity. modem opera.has to be as far awayas heaven." Thereis no time way.138 On Opera.and Feelings thisdevelopment. thoroughetc. ality principle. theater or and musical cinema. diet." or from whatI love.now at theend ofthe Considering of an imitation would not consist of thegreatrepertory 20thcentury. from the"timeofa rewarding fortheeduThis emancipation evening thecondition for classesofthe 19thcentury" creates cated. of operas. and as wellforcategories serialprocedures.A series as of can be as brief one the "moments musicaux.would suffice ofsuchplotscould fill an entire theindievening. no operashaveas yetbeen composedfor As faras I know.stringency. into that television chunks This confirms myhypothesis operasimport neither look like the normal television ofanti-realism.
Bernstein.All subsequent will Critique page references in the text.D. ofPhilosophy (New York:Columbia University 1985).thatHabermas. 139 . every literary alterego.C. in History 2.likehisfictional page of his review: feredsome childhoodtraumathatexplainshis "phobic" revulsion of so-called "irrationalist" does this "Where philosophicalparadigms."'' of PhilipRoth's 1968 novel. Hoy) in Praxis International C. Norris. For a review thatis much more sympathetic to Habermas'sproject. Dallmayr. Michel Foucault: TheFreedom Press. The ironies ofthis arealmost for tack too prodigious words. who also protagonist had a "complaint. (and on the latter2). appear in parenthesis For fourreviews whichsharemanyof Rajchman'sobjections to Habermas'sreadsee the"Symposiumon Jiurgen Habermas's 'The Philoing of the poststructuralists. 8 (1989): 377-464. contributions (with sophicalDiscourseofModernity"' byF.Habermas: On Misunderstanding A Response toRajchman RichardWolin One does notneed a Ph. in contemporary fiction American to dein the allusion title contained the of review cipher ofJohnRajchman's Habermas'sThe Discourse "Habermas's ofModernity.moreover. NewGerman 45 (Fall 1988) 163-191."The theoretical of implications Rajchman'switty on virtually are spelled out clearly analogy. sufviz.AlexanderPortnoy. Philosophical Jiurgen is to the The reference masturbation-obsessed clearly Complaint. review (164). beginning "In his phobia. see Martin Jay and Theory 1 (1989): 94-112.M. of suggesting book that adopts the rhetorical strategy 1. and D. Habermas conflates the irrational withphilosophical irrationalism" (171). polemical the Foucault-advocate of author a commendable short Rajchman.. J. come from?"Rajchmanasks plaintively at the phobia of irrationality of his And a fewpages laterwe are told that.
irrationalism.all ofthisessentially withFoucaultet al.one . are quoquereasoning.If Habermas's differences have "irrational" basisin unconan term). taught from and Civilization natureof clinicalcategorizaon. Or as efforts at lay analysissuggest: it was HaberRajchman'samateurish with that left himwith National Socialism mas's youthful experiences of"irrationalism" an exaggerated fear in all itsforms." vast intellectual nor a "war" (declaredor undeclared) failure"(169). Itis unproductive insofar Modernity as itresults in an ever-escalating ofsterile and counterexchange charges thus to the claims ofpoststruccharges: Rajchman responds (perceived) irrationalism Habermas's of turalist bycharacterizing theory communi." sparing hisuse oftheterm ceedingly is never. In fact. they "phobic" (Rajchman's to Rajchscious or repressed mentalprocesses. tomyknowledge. Foucault. boilsdownto a shallow instance oftu Of course. in termsof certain disturbcan best be explainedprimarily ontogenetic ances would seem a monumental act of bad faith. and itis thisearvis-A-vis lytraumathatexplainshismisplacedanxieties contemporary French after Madness all that has Foucault Yet. since his criticisms guilty are drivenby an uncontrollable psychological compulsion. us. At thesame time. is which argument neither a chronicle of"self-defeating "a nor an account of philosophies.140 Habermas Misunderstanding on poststructuralist is pathoHabermas's critical thought perspective logicalin origin. yourposition. tothework ofeither Foucault applieddirectly or Derrida.It is misleading as it misrepresents insofar legation thephilosophical and intentions ofHabermas'stext." Habermashimself is exagainst "philosophical in The worditself "irrationalism." but Habermas himself.according as it is not Habermas tells who stands man. Yet to read Rajchman's review.and thatsuch depth-psychological explanations thanthe innerlogic of theintellectual matters at issue . thought. of "irrationalism. one of theessential claimsofmyrejoinder willbe that therationalism/irrationalism on which dichotomy Rajchman primato explicate Habermas's in The relies Discourse rily argument of Philosophical is bothunproductive and misleading.It wouldofcoursebe misleading to underestimate theprofoundand fundamental differences thatseparateHabermasfromhis French and German interlocutors.And thus. about the prejudicial theargument ifsomeonetakesissuewith that this tions.an alas merely cative action another variant ofdogmatic rationalism thatis equallyfalse.offer rather intothebasisofHabermas's"complaint" his against insight privileged Frenchcontemporaries. purportedly us.
in do make the until the not an book "neostructuralists" appearance seventh lectures thatcom(on Bataille).in truth. 32. accusathat thesimplistic fruitful to show.Rajchmanmakespromising cuita potentially interesting tures in this direction:for example.theconcrete. itmight havebeen fruitful ofCritical withthetradition thebasis fora truly Theoryin productive rapprochement his own philowherehe seeksto insert lateressayssuchas "Whatis Enlightenment?". in"rationalist" tionthatHabermasis an incorrigible athavefoundso little reasonsas to whysuchthemes ternal-theoretical tentionin Habermas's own critiqueof power and domination.p.Thus.3 to pointout thatFoucaultseemedto lay 3. although the contemporary to their are devoteddirectly of reason of the critique maywell have served vogue poststructuralist reconbehind Habermas's labor of theoretical as the main stimulus underconat the same time. Moreover.althoughRajchmanwould like to read ThePhilosophical of postwar Frenchphilosophy"as "an intellectual Discourse history on the as neostructuralism" "a book i. when he points out that in about thequestionsofsexual"thereis nothing Habermas'snarrative.the "discourseof modernity" struction.in attempting tweenthe two as a resultof Foucault'slaterwritings.is decidedly more complex. . matters at issuetendto be obscuredbypolemical/rhetorical overkill.Richard Wolin 141 Discourse would think thatThe a veriModernity of represents Philosophical table and sustained jihad againstirrationalist thought. in one of his essayson Foucault. followed such pointsare rarely through. In addition. Rabinow(New York:Pantheon.. (in Derrida-excursus) lengthy only prise work. Niethatreaches"fromHegel through tradition sophicalconcernsin a theoretical ed." Cf.whichbeginswith and ends with Niklas Luhmann sideration Hegel .and among the twelve chapter four the addition to a book."TakingAim at the Heartof thePresMoreover.in terms wouldtranscend .exclusively (166) . Rajchmanbringsto bear against and prejudicial "rhetorical" dimension to the pervasive momentarily since it tendsto of his review.language. body.I viewthisdimensionas unfortunate. gender"(166) thathavebeen central Here it would have been cernsin the workof the poststructuralists."Habermasexplicitly recognizes to For Foucault.1984). ofspecifillumination haveinsteadbeen a fruitful displacewhatmight thus and short-cirof Habermas'stheoretical ic limitations standpoint overdebate. conthe and ity.e.But the substantive and instead. TheFoucault tzscheor Max Weber to Horkheimer Reader. . criticisms substantive Before I address several of the legitimate I to return wish Habermas's study. or Habermas. P. thecommongroundthatseemedto emergebeent.
Habermasessayis reprinted in Foucault: A Critical ed. David C."'irrationalism' always leads in modernsocieties to fascism" it is Haber(179). Rajchman interpolate foundational ofHabermas'sentire subtext discussion ofcontemporary French one is at a loss to identify theleastbitoftextual evphilosophy. all irrationalist ofthought that or relativist forms aredangerous errors" to (163).must provide its own normativeself-justification (Selbstvergewisserung).J. contemporaries grievances against "The evilof Germanfascism has shownus. And though would like to a "fear of as fascism" thehidden. posed twocenturies course and otherworks: of themodernage."politicalit seemslike Rajchlywithout consequences. Moreit could well be that is over. according have become the bad RomanticGermans"(163-64). And whilethisapproachmight makefor raise once more the question about the meaningof Enlightenment thatKant had thematizes inPhilosophical DisHabermas'scentral concern earlier. poststructuralismphilosophically signifior Stanley Fishmight cant.His theoretical hisFrench are explicable insofar as. unlikeany viz.142 Habermas Misunderstanding to Rajchman'sreadingof Habermas. though. which. For Habermas.When Habermas does allow himself to about poststructuralist he makes sentiments. speculatebriefly political reference notto fascism.as Richard Rorty putit.according Rajchman. man is reviewing 1952 Lukdtcs's "demonology"(AgnesHeller)instead oftheHabermasbook itself. the fascism/irrationalism nexus might Rajchman'sclaimsconcerning German historicalcontext that gued in the case of a specifically "irrationalist" ofthought forms abettedthetriumph ofa fascist political structure they seem to possessvery little value with explanatory reference to the Habermas text under consideration.:HumanitiesPress. ifwe needed to be shown.1981. hold in the case of Lukatcs'sTheDestruction ofReason4."All too often.N. as Rajchmanimplies?Can thebasisof perience hiscritique ofcontemporary French be reducedto such thought really fatuous in whatwaycan (Moreover.theunique quality The other.but . Is thetruegroundofHabermas'sposition theexreally ofNationalSocialism. as strangely out oftouchwith thetheoretical debatesat issue. And further: conviction thattheonlywayto secureourselves mas's "fervent against a recurrence of fascismis by an unconditional commitment to a universalist rationalist cannot but claims of (171).where it is ar- ."the French Thus. Basil Blackwell. Hoy (Oxford: Reader. I philosophy" regard thisnature as bizarre. butto a "primordial anarchism" (PDM 4). 4. Atlantic Heights. idence to supportthisclaim. Germanfascism be considered whereas "relativist"?). arguments? "guilt-by-association" In pointoffact. 1986) 103-108..
project theinwe supposedly need to knowis that Habermasis a "rationalist"."(179).my differences intellectual legitimate chiefobjectionto Rajchman'smethodand mode of presentation. of his positionseemsa self-evident intolerance tellectual consequence ofthislabel.Contrary abundantly thinks historical and there are models man's argument ("[Habermas] whichcannotbe contested or 'falsified"'). itwouldbe difficult to accordance with imagine an ethical theory or an ideal of justice that would be more 'falsified'. exempt process a that as unNor are there norms would be ruled out demption. Thus. Theyyield woefully plausible imageof rationalist as thoughthe Hegel-critique Habermas as an inflexible of of Philosophical Discourse (in a mannerthatparallelsthe argument and Human did not his make differences with tradiKnowledge Interests) rationalism to Rajchtionalphilosophical clear. conception andindependably discussion" to criteria laid downprior (171).Richard Wolin 143 itis oflittle and gratifying the polemics. theconception assumptions ofcommunicative ethics is "fallibilissetforth Habermas eminently by forthecretic. Discourse a global The specious chargethatPhilosophical represents irrationalism sets the struggle up philosophical equallyillusory against racharacterization of Habermas'sown theory as a typeof superficial of tionalism.exceptpossibly it withtheright ofall arguments or pointsofviewto be heard. He is of [sic] all 'rational' the advocateof "a line to be unanimously repeatedby falls victim to the that illusion "there Habermas agents"(171).Rather of those affected is the communication thatis charged community withthe responsibility of determining of lifein the normsand forms whichthey wouldlive.The problem here is that the theoretical specificity all Habermas's philosophical never comes into view..there that renone would be from the of discursive leged. . ."The counterfactual ideal thisconception recommends ationofjust political normsis thatno normwould be validthatcould not be agreedupon in practical discourseby all thosewho would be are no normsthat are priviaffected bythenorm.we are toldthatHabermasembraces"a rationalist or according of reason:judgmentby unassailable standards.In thismodel. Finally. helpin identifying provocative thatare at stakein the debate . priori thosethat would systematically interfere acceptable. whichcannotbe contested or models and assumptions are historical Suffice it to say thatanyonewho is the least bit acquaintedwith imHabermas'sdiscourse ethicwould findtheforegoing descriptions a and reductionist misleading.In truth. Instead.
which in theworkofMarxbecomesthe"production paradigm. etc. osophicalvindication The essentially character of Habermasianreason is non-dogmatic made eminently clear in his discussionof the "praxis philosophy" held in commonbytheyoungMarxas wellas 20th-century advocates of Marxisthumanism(PDM.tolerant."Moreover.Instead. White. independably to an to and criteethicis designed standards surmount precisely appeal 5. 75ff.5 community tells us that one can be opposed to "rationalism" (171) Rajchman . ethic. If one honestly (MacIntyre.g. theclaimthat is a covand democratic. Foran extremely lucidaccountofthediscourse The see StephenK. ist. presuppositions upon prejudicial clear that the discourse of instead a ethic. byvirtue political whichin principle remainscompatible withan in"proceduralism. ria thatwould be treatedas validprior e.those advocated And thus."ButHabermas is mistrustful of neo-Marxist to posit a macro-subject attempts thatwould be capable of transcending the divisions of contemporary the between man and nature." finite of practical normsor "formsof life. ofJiirgen todiscussion.144 Habermas Misunderstanding and whichhave come into by the Hegelian conceptionof Sittlichkeit or "comvogue again recently among the so-calledneo-Aristotelians munitarians" examinesits Sandel.and who would disagree?But withoutbeing an "irrationalist" (at leastin Habermas'scase) thatone can Rajchmanfailsto recognize be a defender of"rational andbe a thoroughgoing agreement" pluralin fact. cisionsthatare ultimately reached. ertappeal to "unassailablestandards" or "criteria laid downpriorand ofdiscussion"is entirely thediscourse delusive. inarguably being dogmatic an impassioned of and principled rationalism.. represents justification Thisis trueprecisely or ofits"formalism" pluralism.and that thediscourse ethicmight wellbe thesurest philof pluralism we have. thanrelying rather it seems cliches.In Habermas'swork.).forsuch attempts risk the of a of "de-differentiation" present thevalue spheresofthemodernworld. . likethat Recent Habermas(Cambridge:CambridgeUniversity Work Press. etc.He is awarethatthelatter willaland traditions waysbe in largemeasurecontingent upon the context of the specific discursive in question.1988) 48ff. variety onlya "formalistic" to ethics such as be Habermas's can approach truly sinceitin no wayattempts to prejudgethecontent ofthedepluralistic.). Both partiesremaintied to the model ofself-positing advocatedbytheearly subjectivity Hegel. there open. . society separation subjectand object.
course. would therefore. "He [Habermas]saysthatthe neostructuralists whichdon't have much in common)" (166-67).his objectis less an "acrimonious""declaration honestathis Parisiancontemporaries" (165) than an intellectually the to define and risks of theoretical limitations the poststructutempt ralist critiqueof modernity.neo. elaborated forexample. 1984. has sought via a wholewithNietzsche.one of Rajchman'smajor interpretive failings of modernity in relation to thesociological theworkunderreview understand theory in The Action.one learnslittle withTheTheory themostcursory errors" variousphilosophical familiarity (169)."8 Habermasretives.: MIT. is his refusal to 6. anti-modernism. omission." the for vahealthy suspicion respect independent ofmodemlife claimsofthevarious "valuespheres" is thusanothlidity of his er important theclaimsof persistent example skepticism vis-at-vis to his reason. in "Modernity versusPostmodernity. of Westernmodernity contains certainaporias as well as certain The central strengths. examination.6 (Cambridge. And thus. argument in TheTheory a thorough receives grounding ofCommunicasociological is thattheparadigm tive Action Mass. Rajchmanperpetuates the misconception as essentially thatHabermasviewstheneostructuralists "neoconservaIn fact. problemwiththe post-Hegelian philosophical in his viewis thatinsteadof pursuing discourseof modernity an imthis dismanentconfrontation withthe diremptions of modernity." irreconcilable . justify attitudes ple wouldbe ErnstJiinger Ibid 13. To thelatter.wouldhaveprevented Discourse receives a thoroughgoing socio-historical grounding to contain a sinreview fails That Rajchman'sentire suchan elementary misstatement. of thedevelopments in society thatmight have been linkedto the ry. upon careful of His "totalization. 1981 would seem a to work reference Habermas's glaring gle neoconservatives are structural 7. In myopinion.beginning redemption sale leap beyondthemodem age and itsaporias. Like othersbeforehim.This is suggested by of"postmodernism" in recent thediscussions that yearshavebeen asIn thinkers. only misrepresent in Philosophical Habermas's fundamental which Discourse.The term Critique ofthe 1920s ..one encounters Theory ofCommunicative "His [Habermas's] is a purely evenIdealisthistoclaimthat theerroneous intellectual.twothings is in22 (Winter 8. sociatedwiththe names of these(predominantly French) ofwar on thissense. confuse theories with totalizing approaches to serve distort and them..who "on thebasis ofmodernistic an . a adversaries. 1987).thebestexamGermanthinkers tendedas an allusionto like-minded . Surely .e. (i. NewGerman "youngconservative" 1981)3-14.Richard Wolin 145 ofhispoststructuralist we find.."7 from "leads Bataillevia fersto the Frenchintellectual that lineage of"young butas a variant Foucaultto Derrida"notas neo-conservative.in whichthe theory Action discussedin Philosophical of modernity ofCommunicative .
1982).' In Habermas's thepoststructuralist ofmoderview.Novalis. A good summation of Foucault's of an "aesthetics of existence" theory maybe found in "On theGenealogy ofEthics: ofWork An Overview inProgress.146 Habermas Misunderstanding conservatism. 10. to differentiate between and instrumental reason. "LimitedInc." in Glyph 12 (1977) 202ff Derrida. Haberlogic reifying mas himself has on severaloccasionsemphatically endorsedthe deideal of "profaneilluminations.post-auratic subjectivity. critique is distinct from that the of neo-conservatives.a critique thesurrealists that concentrates on laire. Glyph 11. twoperspectives is a share from proceeding entirely rejection albeit. as wellas his for an "aesthetics of existence" in the last volumes ofLa two option volont6 de savoir." theemBythistermhe means something quite specific: brace of an intractable"anti-modernist" (or anti-enlightenment) stancewhose origins of modernity maybe foundin the critique proof the aesthetic modernism Baudeleadingexponents pounded by . celebration and Artaud)at theconclusionofMadness and Civilization.9 ofaesthetic is transformed modernism intothegroundand baexperience ingeneral. See forexamplehis reply to Martin andModernity.). Bernstein 1984) 199-203.Rimbaud. forexample. . all. of theinsufferable effects the of modernization.Nietzsche. experience. sisfor theoretical discourse theessential philosophical precedent movebeingNietzsche's in forthistheoretical The Birth appeal ofTragedy fora "poetic Socrates.10 It also makesitself at several felt in Foucault's his key junctures development: of the four"mad poets" (Htlderlin.Thus. and I thinkthe most cursoryreviewof the Derrida-Searle debate will confirm of Derrida's intentions the aforementioned regarding Habermas's characterization Event inMargins See Derrida." 1 (1977) 198ff. I find to saveDerridafrom thischarge efforts Rajchman's unconvincing (180ff."Reiterating A Reply to the Differences: go: University and Derrida. . "Signature (ChicaofPhilosophy of Chicago. therefore. withreference attempt the genre-distinction between philosophyand literature. unwilling practical 9.ofthe(universalistic) different theoretical and temperaments premises foundations of modem political life. concepof He becomescritical. Context. Joyce. Reader." genre-distinction."This neo-Nietzschean to generalize attempt the aesthetic momentbecomes the focal point of his dispute with above to the latter's to invalidate Derrida.in normative their of modem forms of thepoststructuralists seem critique rationality. aesthetic whenthis tion however.." the conceptionof a defetishizing centered advancedby thismodern. Searle. (Cambridge: Polity." in The Foucault 340-372. nity definitely yet it the in latter an What the unexpectedly complements important regard. ed. Richard Jayin Habermas J.
anon a oftheFrench theorists as based attitudes "primordial political ofpolitical technocratendto be advocates neoconservatives archism.'3In Philosophical Discourse. tant-entrepreneurial betweenthesetwo positions." they to be staunch tend and the global spread of instrumental rationality of ofthede-reifying." critique of out account modern falls of moral-political rationality specific logic . thinkbut neoconservative lectualcurrents (notmerely Lyotard. Habermas workethic.a logicthatmaynotbe equatedwithtechnical rationality simpliciter. in endorsetheir exclusive the neoconservatives aesthetic modernity.12 Foucault'scynical equation political "normalization" normswitha repressive (e.. the he characterizes have whereas as we Thus. processof disciplinary as a good case in point. alreadyseen. mentary.Richard Wolin 147 tendto be subsumedunderthe inInstead.as does Derrida's inDiscipline andPunish) serves Butas a result ofthiscollapseoflevels. . we see thatHabermas carefully he simultaneously Butdespitetheseimportant differences.g. Or as features mentoftheeconomic-bureaucratic thisparalleldialectic: characterizes Habermas himself of Horkheimer 12.on one veryimportant as to whether point." intelof these two of a conflation Instead "postmodern" prominent cy. theauthentically democratic fear mentbya technocratic elite." erstendto be enthusiasts of modernity have been renderedobsolete).both typesof rationality ofreasonwith strumental identification variant. poststructuradistinguishes veryclearly different but complethatare at once very lismand neoconservatism. mativepresuppositions differentiates them. critics qualities aesthetic expressive-emancipatory for a of the is blamed dissolution traditional which protesmodernity. inquires or not. This is also thechargeHabermas levelsagainsttheargument See "The and Adorno in the chapterhe devotes to TheDialectic of Enlightenment. See theargument (New ofCapitalism York:Harperand Row.a desireto outflank by thing at one of its components the expense of the othertwo: emphasizing of of the virtues in theirone-sidedcelebration the poststructuralists. 1976).. many in whichmanyofthenorofa "posthistoire. implicaIn stark to the poststructuralists contrast tionsof political modernity. of Mythand Enlightenment" Entwinement (PDM 106-130). who advocategovernThe neo-conservatives. leadingto a superficial modem of domination tout court. of"technological bothendorse and as advocates modernization. the of"logocentrism. ofthemodernage.theysharesomethe problemsof modernity essential: viz. on the otherhand. Contradictions of Daniel Bell in TheCultural 13.
Partof the problemin attempting to assess the relative of merits Habermas and the poststructuralists is thattheyproceed fromsuch different theoretical traditions. Thoughhe remarks mon ground.It couldbe that to revolt are merely against they their with thevenerable tradition ofcountercloaking complicity in thegarbofpost-Enlightenment Enlightenment (PDM4-5).carceralsocieties. aremerely archism. Even in those relatively few entirely momentswhen theirphilosophicalconcernstemporarily intersect. philosophical inquiry It is clear.it seemsthatRajchmanhas misseda at one pointthat is com"there good opportunity.thesephilosophers and the [Habermas poststructuralenemiesthaneach other"(165). thananyother oftheradicalcritics ofreason.. remains undeveloped. "Habermas devotestwolectures to in conclude that his Foucault. viewedas theinitiator ofthosepernicious "sciences de l'homme" thatbecome the ultimate basis formodern.itis to theworkofFoucaultthatone mustturn. Habermas has accused him of a .and readersmight justifiably dialogue withFrench Foucaultis thepreferred More poststructuralism. thereis in his workno 'mystificaintothe 'destinings' of thisor thatprimortion' of social pathologies dial force"(PDM xiv).however. one feelsas though inhabit twoentirely different uniintellectual they To takeonlyone example:whereas verses..scuttledamid effusive polemics. ofHabermasand Foucaultmaywellprovemutualthework However. too.148 Habermas Misunderstanding Boththeories ofpostmodernity to havegonebeyond pretend this itbehind horizon tohaveleft as the [of European modernity]. thatforthosewho are interested in comparisons. trying it onceagain.Here. in severalcrucialrespects. thisinists]mayhave moreimportant sight.his theoretical concerns have overlapped withthoseof Habermasin no smallmeasure.Foucaultopensup a field of investigation forsocial research.Forat leastsince the so-calledgenealogicalturnin his work.In eswith a critique domination. sence. the Kant of and Human Interests is the last philosopher to reflect in an auKnowledge . that thepossibility neoconservatism andaesthetically aninspired inthenameofa farewell tomodernity.a tradition of a theory thentic of knowledge of wayon imperatives that Habermas seeks to revive.bothhavebeen centrally preoccupied of As Tom McCarthy has observed.. horizon ofa pastepoch We cannot from the exclude outset .too. in The Order Kantis ofThings. ly complementary It seems thatFoucault'sown analysisof "power" fallsvictimto a series of debilitating aporias. partner.
Morrisand P. there runs risk of immeof domination the And thus." whereFoucault describes Genealogy. destroy workings power correct.Bythishe meansthat during period. And conwhere ofpoweris at thesametimea site knowledge of assures theexand established every permits versely piece knowledge in "Nietzsche. of Foucault's deficiencies Habermasthusemphasizesthenormative is there an additional method."Thereis no such thing itself. is unable.Wolin Richard 149 (PDM 276ff.perhapsnot the most felicitous "cryptonormativism" hisgenealogical choiceofwords)."'"This insight ofthe theintentions and History.Or as Foucault is formed."Michel Truth. is vigorously reaffirmed erciseof power. intentions "emancipatory" of domination witha critique thatis in manyrespects self-cancelling. ofthis rancorous "The historical method as follows: analysis genealogical restsupon injustice revealsthatall knowledge willto knowledge (that or foundation for to truth is no right.viz. "it is Habermas must of then." of the various socialeffects of truth that are among recognizable regimes at one point:"every remarks pointin theexercise power. 1979) 62. methodological genealogical for the criticaland failingthat is perhaps even more debilitating thatleaves us a failing of his framework. argues. self-supplanting that the at its are characteristic those methods already disposal only Ifthistheory oftheinner meansofthereigning empireofdomination."'5 to thesame sinister. evenin theactofknowing. Language."Conversely. 1977) 163. Foucault. Foucault: ed. However. 14. .in terms framework oftheconceptual established Foucault by in which theto account for thenormative direction that hisowntheory. Nietzschean victim cycleofeternally falling diately has Any potential counter-power power formations. as Foucault's to thisdimension we mayrefer Forwantofa better term. inspired forhisgenealogy ofknowledge Foucaulthimself raises claimsthat truth that to no than the effects this and amounted more werein fact illusory of then the of within the circle its is adherents. M. oftheomnipresent oryitself disciplinary pushes."Power and Norm: Notes.anycritique truth). Nietzsche's of Foucault essentially cynical equation "knowledge" accepts but onlyvarious as "truth and "power. Patton(Sydney: FederalPublications.. and Interviews Selected Practice: 15. theory capable releasing sciences would a of the human of critical entire unmasking undertaking lose itspoint"(PDM 279). Power. Strategy. "ifthe oftheresearch thefoundations byitas well.an overturning Thisproves to be thecase insofar as ofthecarceral mechanisms society. Counter-Memory. Essays (Ithaca:Cornell.
"unmaskings.I happily acceptRajchman's is this Foucault not to an term but method. "interpretive" ignore sociological tradition which himwith alonecouldprovide thetheory ofsocialacofpowerso sorely lacks. beingno longer finds in hisownbeingwith himself interwoven histories that are neither to himnorhomogeneous subordinate with thefunchim. "Whatis an Author?". anthropocentrically approachesin thehumansciences is so extreme thatin hismethodhe effaces thepoofhisadmittedly tential addressees material He brilliant.and on that of themechanisms ofpowerthemselves theanalysis of the "subject". Or as Foucault at one point:"The human proclaims has anyhistory .to use Foucault'spreferred once "positively") i. tionof an "author"maybestbe understood in to Foucault according of"themode ofexistence. sincehe speaks." referring "objectivizing by ofa domainofknowledge"). constitute.as opposed to theanthropologically contamihim models leads to an entire nated. And thusthepotenpossibility tial"other"of poweris in Foucault's framework deepistemologically of a to one its manifestations.""7 But once the capacity within foractionon the ofsocialactors is understood in objectivistic terms part exclusively (or. theyare as purely understood of social effects passiverepositories variousprior which and shapethemodem "self' structure. terms and functioning ofcertain circulation.theproblem to the"positivity forremay be describedas follows." to such a degree on extirpating concentrates the last traces of from his analyses there that. ofThings 1970) 369. and lives.thepotential "addressees"of his theory.Summarily Foucault's of distrust oriented put. therefore. discourses a society. In themain." parallels touspositivism" corrective that (and here. . thoroughly theexplanatory framework deniesin advanceanyand every essentially of otherness and historical contestation." 16. Letus consider first the"subjective" side oftheequation.. essentially society the lens of Bentham's His one-sided through panopticon.TheOrder (London: Tavistock.e. thereby were. preference for"positive science". expression. he works.Foucaultundercuts potentials of"bio-power" to thereign bothon thesideofthe"object"sistance . left might very up potentials ofhiscritique.150 Habermas Misunderstanding which hisself-professed "felici"methodological objectivism.Foucault as it tionhisanalysis creates. subjectivism by definition.his own "methodological prison. epistemological arenosocial actors who take the constructive real. 17. Foucault.. graded priori In methodological Foucault views terms.. TheFoucault Reader 108."'6Similarly.
and normative strucone can certainly them). . no avoiding the fact that Foucault's genealogical studies point in the direction of an all-encompassing and virtuallyseamless network of bio-power. apparatus pulsions.. thatcharacterises it must createa a behaviour facture individuals. note minimize the monolithicity are the such observations exceptions thatprove the rule. it manufactures vidualsto a society something forth monlikenorms. characterises our typeof society. competence of whichthistheory sal pragmatics in terms is grounded(and one mustdoubt from of theseissues how thoroughly familiar he is with treatment Rajchman'ssuperficial oflegal." a "solution" can be found only deus ex machina. It is ironicthatRajchman considersHabermas's theory ofuniverif the a deus ex machina But even one denies as theory postulate. like Adorno.e.the aforementioned "objective" side of the dilemma. 177. thatis. pointto a wealth of modem societiesthatwould suggest of the theory the content turescharacteristic has a distinct basis in reality.constitutional. of communicative 19. That permanent ciety. Although Rajchman points to certain of Foucault's later utterancesthat tend to of disciplinarypower (above all. It is at this point that his own thesis concerning the omnipresence of power in modern carceral societyreturnsto meet his epistemological anti-subjectivism half-way.g. Since for Foucault.'9The only hints Foucault can give in thisrespectare vitalistic: e.. While[theclassical] apparatus brought norms. disciplinary apparatusof sequestration: is the series that function of normalisation.'8 to deny that vis-a-visbourgeois society. equality.Richard Wolin 151 This methodological deficiencyis then predictablycomplemented and reinforcedby his own material analyses . "Powerand Norm:Notes" 65.i.. There is 16). non-immanendy.. "the whole is the untrue. Or as Foucault himselfremarksat one point: ofsequestration fixes individuals to theproThus theapparatus habits means of a duction byproducing by playofcomapparatus This mustmanuand teachings punishments.these societiesare devoid of a potentialfor"immanent critique": thereare no ideals of freedom. and solidarityleft to redeem. the paean to "the body 18. manufactures Constituthe modem sters. ofindiwhichthesocial"belongingness" nexusofhabitsthrough is defined..Foucault It would be difficult Nietzschean the standpointof "total critique": since bourgeois adopts norms are reduced to the functionof providing a veneer of pseudofor the various disciplinary humanisticlegitimation technologies. sequestration sotionof labour-power.
one in whichthe constitution of selves is understood not as the foregone of an result modern merely as a productof autonomously acting"biopower"but simultaneously intersubjective activity. through penal system. To be sure. theextent to which theaforementioned normative structures 20. We wouldthen obligation indeed tumbleback intoa Hobbesian "stateof nature.: (Frankfurt to show (albeitwithreference to Foucault'sHobbesian Suhrkamp. so cynical. hisowntheory. Habermas."or a "primordial is essentially selfvitality" "aesthetic The the cannot cancelling." which volumeone ofThe conHistory ofSexuality dudes." Telos 32 (1977): 158. sexualprohibitions. Or the following with responsetakenfroma 1977 interview "we Bernhard-Henri be should able to rediscover the themthings Ikvy: in their selves behindasylum thespontaneity of walls. As Axel Honneth'sdiscussion of Foucaultin Kritik derMacht a. "Powerand Sex. and reliable Butisn'tthis theareawhere thetheory ofcommunicative acprecisely tiondevelopedbyHabermascouldprovide an important remedy given theaporiasofFoucault's ofpower. 21." .in ordertofurnish thetheory theory social is so sorely action that in Foucault's own analytical frameof lacking work? Woulditnotbe fruitful to understand thecapacity ofsocialactors to resist theinstrumentalization and colonization ofthevarious spheres in termsof the theory of social lifeprimarily of the life-world that the lead of Husserl has as used a basis and Schutz. following forunderstanding "new social movements" thathave contemporary traditional forms ofsocialstruggle? on largely replaced Onlybyfocusing socialization thelogics arespecific that toadvanced industrial societies can of one simultaneously uncoverthe existing forsocial contestacapacities tion." "the purity of desire.152 Habermas Misunderstanding with and itspleasures. M.21 sense) sphere"(in Kierkegaardian be treated as a self-evident basisforsocialcontestation. is clearthat whatever newvistas ofsocialcriticism haveemerged despite ofFoucault's as a result of"bio-power.Onlybyfollowing an approach that also thematizes thesocialconstitution in these societies can one unearth the real"poofintersubjectivity very fornegation" in the(universalistic) tentials that are contained normative ." ofsothematization anytheory cial contestation to base itself that tries on "thebodyand itspleasures. beneath thepurity ofdesire.aboutwhich oflatecapitalism structures tothedetriment of Foucault."20 ButI think it quency. primordial vitality: in the the fertile unrest of delinand madness. In suchterms remains alonecan one develop a social theory thatis non-monological. cohesionor political could emerge from sucha perspective.1984) attempts of society characterization as a bellum contra no possibletheory ofsocial omnium omnes).
questions Consequently.byundertaking.a pointthatshould unquestionably be contivesand gains(172ff. sacrosanct is nota one-way and thusitis likely Butmutualunderstanding street. takeson a particular of generalizable interests therepression dynamic.However.In its efforts . content terests." that Foucault's Rajchman should not that is this conclusion the blindness imply something yet and thusdeservesto remainuncured. socialtheory as itwere. analysis (as tially critique that the claims of a one theorist with whom thead hominem argument insofar be dismissed as the inflexible decan they represent disagrees mands of a "liberalrationalist superego"). provides essentially Justice primarily ofsocialpowerarebroached affair. social Spheres capacities are and wereheretofore tionthat informally communicatively governed an nowincorporated within ever-expanding organizational-bureaucratic and disequilibofinstrumental network Thus.thatFoucaultis able to ferret .) to expose thevarious ceded.contradictions rationality.by the to neutralize and defuse sphere of state administration. of a on is a us with discourse justice.it should also be constructive cul-de-sacsthat Foucault entersinto as a resultof this theoretical intellectual traditions. moreover. One can agreewith studiedavoidanceofcertain And from "blindness" stems his "insight. To claim.an "other"inoftraditional out unique analytical perspecquiry. from thatderive theeconomicand administrative Steering imperatives the autonomous of encroach decision-making upon sub-systems society ofsocialacin of actors situated the life-world. socialdomination societies. procedural of their inin of the social actors to articulate terms capacities primarily The specific ofthisarticulaand demandsfreely. thereframework. tionis in no waypre-judged byHabermas's action a that the of communicative fore. from a Habermasian framework couldequally benefit closer contact that The Communicative of Action witha Foucaultian Theory analytic power. withvarying degrees of success. empirical of a potenand "dogmatic"is to depriveoneself as "rationalist" priori basis of social and valuable does. represents relapseinto theory is thus or a newversion of"foundationalism" dogmatism philosophical and The interference misleading. asymmetrical systematic essentially is deemedthesourceof forintersubjective with thiscapacity agreement In latecapitalist in Habermas'sframework.Richard Wolin 153 role in thevariousspheresof contemporary social playa constitutive is an to dismiss a existence such criteria question. riumsthatwere once endemic to the economic systemunder capitalism have been increasingly absorbed. But then. it that is claims only by avoidingthe normative baggage Rajchman . wants.
effects bureaucratic power.Foucault. itmayindeedbe advisable toviewan unqualiof "thebodyand itspleasures" fiedendorsement at the with suspicion. tion. and moredeeplyintothe heart It is not hardto see from thiscursory accountthatHabermas'scriof instrumental reason and Foucault's tique analysisof disciplinary the schools. He is able to portray as a constipoweras an "individualizing" phenomenon. "intersubjective" orientedprimarily toward"reachingan agreement.and norms.. Habermas this from on high.)are potenBoth is of course less truein (this tially complementary." It is in this sense that Foucault's of the"productive" of power." and dynamics thefull ofpowerin advanced industriintricacies prehend al societies. of civilsociety. technologies hospitals. . same time this somatic-existential dimensionof Foucault'sthought seemsto havesensitized himto thenon-ideological. his of social action as i.It has thepowerto makepeople "sayyes"to certain in addition habits. attheabstract traces level process beginning of the "purposive-rational of and state adminissubsystems" economy thatare governed tration by themedia ofmoneyand power. adequatelytheorizedin termsof the paradigmof communicationalone. to depriving them systematically of "rights. in a waythattranscends tutive Habermas's aspectof the modernself.154 Habermas Misunderstanding of bureaucratic the tentacles reason penetrate more crisistendencies.domination. juridical component. perspectives Foucault's seem to have their in a case)would origins Weberian critique of the reifying of anonymous.e. has itsphysiological side as well. As Foucault hasshown in addition toits us. side of physiological theHabermasian of transcends powerin a waythat effectively paradigm of Habermas'sframecommunication." Habermas has criticized certain "vitalistic" residuesof Foucault'sanalytical forcefully Andwhereas framework. as itwere. of Foucault's the of investigations micro-physicspowerseem a dimension ofdomination in contemporary to capture societies that is absentin Habermas'sapproach.Foucault's methodallowshim to acin itsphenomenological." For it is uncertainwhetherthisarrayof considerationscan be structive. conceptualization paradigm. normalizaconversely. withhis genial." and historical this from below. prisons. etc. "techniques analyzes process And yet. values. countfordomination livedimmediacy. Perhapsone of the limitations workis thatbyattempting to understand ofdomination questions prein of terms the of he is unableto apdominantly problematic "justice. (in military. thick of bio-power.as well descriptions capacities of as hisrelated the inso-called remain critique "repressive hypothesis. descriptions ofself.
defective Miindigkeit necting decisionor immaturity. he thus seems to court the verydangers of aestheticism to whichhe also objects.Foucault'sstudyof discipline cryptonormativism. This history reasoning styles 155 .toRichard Wolin Rejoinder JohnRajchman In his responseto myessay. tivism. all "formal" wouldnotseekto dissolve oflegalreasoning. cryptonormaofreasonand modern wholesalerejection infantilism.Butin myviewitis has provedto be a rather sterile Habermas's complaint. history that makesthelaw.whichhas largely been relevelledagainst society poststructuralism in Wolin reiterates Habermas's for this complaint sterility.And yet. I wouldagree.the chargesof aestheticism.But sinceWolinthinks justicejust justice. His assumption and of ofjurisprudential thehistory therefore One might thought. tice. allow is to Wolin to which he the willing objects. verysterility pound in discussion:he to Habermas's thought only "specificlimitations" countenances no real questioning of it.As suchitforms partofa larger of the in a critical interested Foucaultwas very and Derridahave contributed. The "specific difocuson "formal justice." Wolin also adopts an even more dismissive Haberme of Derridain theseessays. sponsible conhe of a "diabolical" where writes some of his earlier essays.' ofHabermas'strict Wolinhas in mindis thelimitation limitation" 1. pact ofFoucault's Foucaultto NiklasLuhmann."he seemsto leave no "rational"wayofdealingwiththequestionof thebody or raised by Foucault."This focuswould allow no place forthe"physiological is "formal mensionof power"studiedby Foucault. within viewofcriminality of a "normalizing" of theemergence was a study penaljustowhichbothFoucault debateaboutlegaltheory.After accusing psychologizing to to comseems me his which mas. and of his dangerousand empty"aesthetic towards attitude ism.Wolinsimply repeats complaint. study risprudence. nihilism.Richard Wolinremarks thattherecent over reason and unreasonin contemporary controversy philosophy one.and notthelawjuitisjurisprudence was that law. .
" into a relativistic sea of "substance.Habermasassumesthat all critique or hiding norms of judgment. through arguments from criticalargument.156 to Wolin Rejoinder one cannothelp thinking thatWolin's Givenwhathe has written." intoHabermas'sclassification ofreasonor of "comworkdoes notfit and munication. one wouldstudy cause conceptual One wouldexthelaw whereitsapplications problems. The "paradigm action"is a theory of rationality and proposesan excommunicative of its types." is thus"irrationaliare self-refuting. theory sponse Whatstandsoutsidethis"paradigm. is to be foundin FrancoisEwald's book. disowning is also a simpleconceptual of Butthere consideration." idea ofparadigms.is therefore This is certainly thecase forFoucaultand Derridawhose "irrational. minorities."We are entitled ofirrationality. in terms of the kindsof problemsit was designedto solve. just arguthrough philosophical I think theseassumptions are not mentin and through "aesthetics.) whatit very bound to seem to itto be cannotclassify. there Outside"communication." tionsabout women. antilegal .It is myviewthatitwouldbe a mistake ryofcommunicative in terms of a distinction thoseproblems differences between we can solveby "formal direction thatwould lie an uncritical justice" and thosewe cannot. and thoserights would be in turnconfronted withnew sorts Rights and theriseof thewelfarefrom labor disputes state.it is "Aesthetics"is somethingdistinct . L'Etat (One example of thissortof history defends a kindofcritical It is clearthat thiskindof which Providence." indeed. forms. the environment." It would be about "problematizations". a procedure can be critically Nothing questioned is nothing about He also assumesthat there significant philosophically or which made.and amine legal thinking to whichsuchtechniques confronted thetransformations weresubmitted as they new sorts ofexperience. ofthewholeissueofreasonand unreasonis disingenuous. what"limits"it. legalnominalism.in shortabout "power.For it is in that irrationalism.and thereis thusno "aesthetics" in and preference unsupported is no or as there critical argument.they positions. justifying without ofjudgment.) wouldyieldresults from one based on thedichotomy critical different belegalhistory is advancedin Habermas'stheoadministrative reasonand "thelife-world" that tween these to represent action. The resultlems arising warfare withnew critical and queswould thenbe confronted ingjurisprudence experiences war . about communication or to askwhatassumptions ty. tive or cryptonormative. are frames the contexts. them reasonlead Habermasto thisperception Among is either normaI think are these."In theirwork he sees only "cryptonormativism" These are notrational "aesthetic decisionism.(A minor"aporia" in Wolin's rehaustiveclassification is that this as insufficiently the transcendental. Thus very one might of roughly say:a certain "problematization" would lead to a constitutional formulation of the sovereignty royalor aristocratic of probof Man. rejects.
only on whatis excluded the"limits" Forhe does notevenconsider byplacing ifnot"irrationality"? thathe does what." can them their kinds ofcritical argument. Butis theonly"dogma" viewofreason.In such cases how to judge these forms critically partof thecritical questionofjudgment. He thus arrives at modernsocietiesfromancientor primitive something more than an empiricallyfallible historicalthesis. Species." in is to set out its formal limits a "universal to why respect "plurality" pragmatics." Reason dividesintothree and onlythree scendental kinds. He cannotsee twohave contributed nothing absolutely or see as "irrationalism." division Habermastries to roothistripartite "quasi-transcendental" in the historical that would of Reason distinguish "value-spheres" ones. reasonand communication have a "dogmatic" For Wolin. normsare themselves open to question.Habermaswantsnone of this.John Rajchman 157 or restrictive ones forcritical onlyfalsebut are also limiting thought.it is not possiblethatHabermasmight one.I think ones forphilosophical reflection and argumentation.The "plurality" That is That is the"plurality" thatis to be "respected"or "tolerated.whichHabermas'saccountof rationis designedto surpass. of Kantian and post-Kantian cally"whenwe judge." trinitarian. At the . Theirquestioning a different sort to reject butinvolves is notan attempt itoutright thought down "criteria of one which would the than of critical lay argument inlines of Thus modem societies.It is thusnot norto possessin advancetheprocedure for there to exist a critical or logically "irrational" questionimpossible or in whichthoserulesor ingin advanceofnormsor rulesofdecision. in a sense is neither itoutright critical to reject To questionsomething that willsettle it. "formalist" think whatyouwillas longas youfollow my"universal" or reasoning. cases are central and In my essay I tryto show how Derrida's"deconstructions" of such a be as instances critical Foucault's may regarded "genealogies" and "aesthetiwhich is willing to askwhowe are historically questioning. Interest of the Human witha "quasi-transcendental" each matching ofreasonthusreducesto a fixed classification. sincehe has a "pluralistic" In his reof reasonitsunity? Can therebe no "dogmatic pluralism"? in has to be a order to be a one Wolin that "pluralist" explains sponse. Whatdoes this meanin practice? ofargument procedures Habermasis also a "tranWhileofficially an empirical "fallibalist. new to they open rationality" judge and discover new sorts of connections of analysis and styles vestigation Frankfurt theearlier with School.He saysthe ality to thetradition.
in a specific manner. northerefore ofsociety. of thevalue-spheres ButforFoucault "reason"was notrelated to "society" or "history" in this Foucault had no use for oftheunity manner. and to questionhis division is to wishto escape from of modernsociety is to giveup reasonitself. "How Much Does It Cost For Reason to Tell the Truth?" in Foucault Live . thathe neednot. as Objectivity Thispluralhistory is in partsocialand political. "knowledge precisely itis objective and relatively autonomous. ingsofspecific and thencomplains that he fails to distinguish itfrom Practical Reason. for that He wasthusa "pluralist.On thecontrary. because.158 to Wolin Rejoinder about modernity there is a sortof heartof Habermas'sown discourse doublet. course. He does notsee that Foucault does notstart with thisdivision ofreason." or a trueand falsestatements. mustrespect It was a positive of principle diand proliferation. I am not multiple of the moment when reason became bureaucratic." butofa differof knowledge ent sort. 2. Thus reasoning.we mayyethave. I speakof Rather speak I speakof an endlessprolific bifurcations. Foucaultadmiredin Max Weber his attempt to distinguish various of in modem but he said notthe were "types" rationality society. thedoctrine ofreason. and there is no suchthing or Rationality in general.Habermasassimilates Foucaultsaysabout theworkeverything forms ofknowledge and powerto Instrumental Reason. 1989) 243. As theforms ofreasoning wayofdetermining of "rationality" are various. to Gerard "In he declared: fact I do not Raulet. only response of bifurcation of reason[as Habermasimagines]. of that does not that mean validiBut. they In ones. division.He thought thatthe aims or interests werenot fixedby quasi-transcendental and historical categories corresponding but rather a to the "value-spheres.One limitof Habermas'stheory of communication is the "dogmatism" thatasserts (Semiotext(e). thehistory is a pluralone. an objectaboutwhich whenitputsforth there can be a "reasoning."To questionhisdivision ofreason "historico-transcendental modernsociety. We can never whatnewforms of versity sayin advance or whatnew "division"in reason."2 Here speaking thereis a persistent nexus of misunderstanding. dutifully repeatedby Wolin. thathe is a pluralist of anotherkind." through contingent history specific A discourseis "rational"or "objective" variouskindsof knowledge. of bruteforce (as Habermasoften tyis decidedonlyby considerations is power"forFoucault assumes). forFoucault was thusnota transcendental division that we "Plurality" at thecostofirrationality.
any "philosopher modernity" is more is that there historical claim experience.John Rajchman 159 in reason. there is onlya single kindofplurality in a that one grounded or of must the we way speak argue. . in literature I him. simply complex My in Germany to Heidegger is after all thanone way. to a somewhat morehistorical view. underscores.is thequestionI wantedto raiseabout Habermas and about his complaint. rigidifying greethat theconjecture to a "phobia. is nota psychopathologiwhatmotivates myconjecture I relyon nothing cal but a historical one: in makingthe conjecture I sayabouthisyouth The onlything Habermashas notsaid ofhimself. I suspect that what think evena Ph. which. that wouldinfer itis. to the considerations In particular I raise thisquestionin relation to his philosophy. using in discussionof anotherGermanphilosopher: material biographical . "pragmatics" from a puredesire that Habermas'scomplaint to Wolinthinks springs fromthe place in his tolerant heartwherepure reason communicate.and those sympathetic concerningnationalism. One wants to ask Wolin what it would Heidegger. the"limits" .First I do misunderstands or misrepresents or disqualify or historical notimpugn Habermas's arguments interpretaon thecontrary.to thedeofHabermas'thought. different rather Thus.In relation to speaks. have raised whichDerrida.whenWolin "in a specifically German in reference historical to LukAcs. to historicize It distresses Wolinis thecontext reference which by about is a context Wolin has no qualms thatis hard to ignore.D. undkein Ende. byreference ofhisarguments that theassumptions leadsme to ask and with readings them." eliminate.I try to put together withsuch otherwell- of Habermas'sgeneration." I offer thatthisfearis connected termed of NationalSocialism. indeed for mean fora critical philosopher of not to be concerned withthis today.The postwar attitude fromthatin Franceor in America. of the60s protest of theleft" movements.and not his childhoodcomplex. question what the (predominantly "philosophicaldisGerman-language) just has to do withthis"context." courseof modernity" That. but to a about to me not to he seems context.Secondly. and hisworries about with known facts as hisdisillusionment Heidegger.In his responseWolin the historical experience thisconjecture in twoways. the"fascism and I do not not is about Habermas's My essay psychopathology.and more preciselywhat Lacoue-Labarthe has dieNazis. itis theproblems to this his tions with fear. open.might and uncontrollable wellbe itis misplaced.thatitwas a Hider youth.I am inclined I speakofa fear.
This resembles Wolin'sremark at theend of his responseto me." offering rather of idea the various of its and their relations reason. Richard and theDialectic of Rationalism. therewillalwaysremaina little "enchantment" withtheir connected bodies and their senses. Critique 1987): 51-2. Habermas proposing nity.I do notthink thatHabermas'swork reduces to his I Here would takeissuewithWolin'sown objection in an complaint. thereis anothersortof difficulty. disenchanted. cepts dichotomy bodily being as rational animals as a single thing.. In hisresponse." To the degreethat "homogenizing Habermasis advancing such a "'hyper-rationalist utopiaof totalcommunicative it seems to me is that he mankind a transparency."Critical Theory 41 (Spring-Summer." in whichhe simply asserts that it is that not surhe.is notconvinced by something very It is a that is shame Wolin to discuss in since these this. . listutopia. wherehe saysthatHabermascannotunderstand thebodyis irrational in thestrong that sensethat itis induced through an acceptance ofdomination.Wolin." NewGerman Wolin. (it is) at points indistinguisha. poor capacities with"aesthetics. Habermas'satto givepluralism a transcendental face(and transcendental tempt phia pluralistic mixedmotivations." or "power" or thebody.however. . tendencies ofthemodemage homogenizing in theircapacityas 'rational animals' . On theone hand. uncritically the between the and the and our takes rational. and ofthe"aesmyentire in a footnote thetic discourse ofmodernity.. unwilling toexposea difficulty in Habermas's ofmodernipagesI try story general be "deconstructed. In particular it has inhibited a more genuineor fruitful debate abouthisownwork.connectedwith the tendencies of the modem age. prising. earlier to offer mankind the hyper-raessaythatHabermas"purports tionalist communicative It mustbe admitutopiaoftotal transparency."3 Wolin's point is that.160 to Wolin Rejoinder in thephilosophical nationalism" called"aesthetic ofmoderdiscourse of which is a reconstruction. On my reading.The problem is that this idealrecognizes humanbeings only ble from therationalizing." tyand showone wayin whichit might Habermas'scomplaint has served to getin thewayofdiscusmostly sion. Wolinsimply dismisses discussion ofDerrida. is morethan that "distorted commujust nication.at least forothersless capable of Miindigkeit. that thisremains a thoroughly intellectuated." Forme this is an "irrationalist" for it acposition. losophy one) betrays he wants to preserve from thephilosophical discourse ofmodernity the 3.
he wants thiscriterion to a pluralism thatwould allow fordifferent. tradition.withitsrelated dialectic I do not recognizethis as a centralthemein the workof either Foucault or Derrida. thebasic Forhispart. of that them. what "modernity" for are.castigating oftheearlier and "one-sided" ofInstruFoucault onlya version critique ofthe Enlightenment. question Idea. . to question and to complicate our senseof ways. changing." onlyone he finds justified erant it as irrational. Habermas's complaint stands in the way. mentalReason. modem societies. societies On theother to connect hand.spaces whichprisoners in thesensethat would not wouldbe "democratic" theintellectual that his "criteribe their he would not dominate discussion with that master." the of thekindof historical schemethatrunsthroughout assumptions discourse of modernity. Thus he can findin Derridaand view.John Rajchman 161 task of providing a criterion to distinguish rationalfromirrational or socialarrangements.he tried to create conceptions publicspacesof discussion and mad people might themselves havea say. Thus.and thuswith oneof our noindividual ofas a normal well-adjusted a certain he wanted to showthat tionsofwhatis "reasonable. In both inwithKantand witha certain democratic blyconnect is nottheir and interesting I think that whatis challenging stances supin rather the is and unreason about reason meta-views It society."His pointis to open up another tionof"epochalregimes for in critical which events that would of"historicity" provide judgment. to me that there are grounds for a more useful discussionwith Habermas. he feels in adopting a rather intol"rational. and even views about social and the of sorts relations. or ofthepost-Kantian otherthanthe ments." Similarly us kindof architectural to the that allows belongs "rationality" regime kinds of In these and specific contingent speak criminality. Derridahas sought to question on ofrationality.They bya classification in different weretrying.Foucault and Derrida werenottrying to opt outof a "modernity" that wouldbe defined ofReason. (and "reason") example." down to Heidegger's concep"philosophical kind ofBeing. one us and us and to which mayplausiopen again invention. posed critical and of what relation our thought may philosophical question inwhich Here itseems itfinds thecomplexhistory havetoday with itself. When he finds a social criticism rationality govern arrangeor of discourse.Foucault a history ofthetreatment ofthemad forms wanted to showthat an integof"rationality" that what we think ralpartofthespecific sort determines . questioning in of reason.
(Silberman1986). experience: musttakethe first on often the contradictory path in searchof steps his in in for the the home. is notsimIn Wolf'scase. After emigration in mydevelopment" mainsthecrucialexperience (Wolf1984.p. discovering place struggle onlypossiblefuthathas been and reand return.recallspatterns of Refrom literature the Weimar and class general popularworking thisprocess.The Filmmaker Konrad History: Remembering Wolf1 Marc Silberman 1944.Germanby birthbut whose had emigrated withtheir to the SovietUnion parents youngchildren to Germany. nativecountry? KonradWolfs to the film Ichwarneunzehn. toward self-awarethedifficult 1968. areless films butthey describe Wolf's publicin particular.und Literaturwissenschaft in in This short the was version German published Congress G6ttingen (August1985). consciousness ofone's own place in history of it also a the implies larger question German ply personalproblem. What Now beginsthe processof self-discovery and self-questioning: does "home" mean in thisunknown.returns He comes home withthe in Soviet a as Army.The struggle path in fromthe grandtradition of theBildungsroman ness. foritsgenerousfinancial to the AmericanPhilosophical 1. thestrugconcerned withtheend pointofthatdifficult paththanwith For thiswasWolf'sown formative "Each person gle itself. A youngRed Armysoldier. 900). I am grateful Society in screenassistance Filmarchiv der DDR foritsfriendly and to theStaatliches support von Humboldt-Stiftung of theAlexander films. This is the background in of the October Revolution to the fiftieth contribution anniversary to findoneself. tureof his people. Withthefinancial support ingseveral a condensed. earlierversionof this articlewas presentedat the Congressof the in ffir Internationale Vereinigung germanische Sprach. Proceedings 163 . triumphant conqueror his defeatedhomeland. forpolitical reasons.
Soviet Wolf citizen. writing journalistic 2.sonofthephysician and Unionin 1934and becamepartoftheGerman-speaking anti-fascist in As a naturalized Konrad Moscow. Reitz. oftheprevious twelve thoseUFA film ble forselecting productions a in In 1947 Wolf assumed the cinemas.perhapseventhe Wolfs status mosttalented to film director in come from theGDR merits attention the particular considering speof filmmaking cific conditions and strategies in a socialist Ficountry.notwithout him on Wolf's a feeling ofsatisfaction part of and his of his sense German from contemporaries shaped many after For two the German 1980).separates . ended up in the Soviet Jewishand communist. New York. thatup to now they have notenin the UnitedStates. shown be which would years a shortand for Soviet "House in Culture" the Berlin began position forBerlin lived career. Administration within the SovietMilitary ofa major as oneofthefounders other daily newspapositions among inthe andfilm attache for theatre as a cultural and Zeitung) per(Berliner was he In the latter ofSachsen-Anhalt state responsi(Halle). years etc. community in 1942andplacedinthepropaganda wasdrafted into theRedArmy intheBattle hislastactive ofBerlin.not as acquiescentbystander man history but as outsider.Syberberg. newspapers. a the of the German as over Germans catastrophe victory experience . in April 1975 (Washington.). in an are recorded and Fairbanks. (e.. capitulation years history (Sylvester in various as a Red Army officer to work Wolf continued capacities in occupiedGermany.2 In addition. The following Filmat BrandeisUniversity).His comments in the United filmsare distributed interview currently (Wolf 1975).His family. generation. I Was States: Stars and Lissy (NationalCenterfor Jewish 19 and Solo Sunny(GDR Embassy). joyed a broaderpublic reception as one of.g. Alaska). This with as lieutenant duty corps. continuous and critical examination of German Wolf's nally. Los Angeles. a dilemmawhichhas not diminished sincetheend ofthewar.Wolf'sfilms a unique windowon thepostwar Gerpresent and itis regrettable man experience. authorFriedrich well-known he grewup until1933 in WiirttemWolf. his With entire he therupture in Gerberg. is Konrad Whothen Wolf? Bornin 1925. KonradWolfvisitedthe UnitedStatesonlyonce. position. . livedthrough of the Third Reich. history andtheformal in which he has this means by highly engaged personal examination a productive to thephenomecounter-model represent in theFederal nonofthehistorical film thelastten Republic during Sanders-Brahms. Kluge. DC.164 History Remembering nationalidentity.
Party Unity consider themselves to be in the opposition treated Wolf with .Some consider Othersregardhis workas not uninteresting of his generation. President Academyof of the ruling Arts(1965-82).thefirst he producedat the DEFA studios. (Freundschaft . directorial Alexandrov's Alexandrov.Wolf studiedwith collective.Yetwhenhe appliedforfilm in Moscowin 1949. Volga.and memberof the CentralCommittee some who Such Socialist why explains prestige (1981-82).Volga 1934. influence also increasingly Nine and itwas hislatefilm at theFilmAcademy. accepted his made who class.Wolfwas one of and unexpectedly Whenhe died suddenly in the GDR.e. intermeWolfa direct 1936.Circus. diary In addition.Sohnseiner Communist the martyred leader.becamefor as he had been a close collaborator to SergeiEisenstein's legacy. 1938).Ernst Thiilmann Klasse ist film Einmal withthefeature-length (1954). citinghis within his influence but acknowledge primarily and in cultural various offices level organizations: political manyhigh of the prestigious Chair of the Artists' Union.Finally. rector the GDR.Duringhisstudies his docwith Ivens in the GDR film studios State (DEFA). Wangenheim's Kidmpfer of his playswere of several withfilmadaptations notorious difficulties knownto him(Kasjanowa1974. features) in 1982. DaysinOneYear taught on an that would have extraordinary impact Wolf'sdevelop(1961) in contact the with in Moscow. He concludedhis studies television two films thirteen of a series in keinmal (and (1955). in Eisenstein'sProletkult ofSowholemiddlegeneration the influenced who Gerassimov. (1936).itwas as mucha convenia vacation studies during In ofprofessional career "home" as thestart entwayto return training.MarcSilberman 165 of The decision to pursuefilm studies appearsto havebeen theresult conviction. Sergei would laconic and whose vietdirectors style (i. assistingJoris in Festival Youthand Student on theThirdInternational film umentary of with hisfilm Berlin portrait Maetzig 1951)and Kurt siegt. 143). In Soviet had alrather the Union Wolf than coincidence in Gustav von with as a childactor been involved filming ready practical his film father's anti-fascist Moreover.Wolf remained ment.p. SergeiBondarchuk) MikhailRomm also Wolfs films. him in forCinematography Institute theState All-Union fact. honoredwithseveralof the the best knownfilmmakers highestStateawards and medals and recognizedas one of the few in theEast as well to enjoyan international GDR directors reputation Germandihimto be themostimportant as theWest. repuGrigori musicalcomediesand satires eccentric tationproducing (JazzComedy.
conversely. . and potential ofsuchcinematicinnovations as a wayof evaluating his successand reception. is a Wolf"sigstyle. contains largepicture essayby KlausWischnewski. ifnot even didactic.3 event. power(Brasch1982.Konrad 1985a. It was theachievementofthis of grouptoreorganize againand againthevisualexperience in the cinema orderto undermine conventions and habitsof seeing. Thiswas thecase especially thepreparations for film during Wolf's Goya project." foremost ofcameraman Werner filmed all but the last (who Bergmann twofeatures) as wellas thesetdesigner Alfred thecomposHirschmeier.R. oeuvre does manifest a remarkable Wolf's Thematically continuity in its preoccupationwith the German past.Together hisfilm with teamhe was always seekpectations new to life with newtechniing ways present everyday byexperimenting cal processes and modifying filmic structure. Wolf 1985bcontainsa selectionof Wolf'swritings. 4. Wolfdid not regardhis workas an isolatedundertaking but rather as of the more of the aesthetic standards and expart general activity raising ofthepublic. a Wolf besidesnumerousphotographs a hagiographic book. a chronology and a complete Konrad filmography. especially in hiscapacity as President oftheAcademy ofArts.4 praised very Itwouldbe a mistake to characterize Wolf Konrad as a film that auteur. Wolf's produce any always roundedby controversy.p. There is in his films a practical. it is theproduct of a collective. 13). Othpolitics er usefulstudiesfromthe GDR includeTok 1972 and Richter 1983. Othersharbored ofenvy becausehislong-standing teamofcollabfeelings orators seemedto enjoyspecialprivileges.It became one of themostexpensive DEFA studios(cf. be identified with oridiosyncratic a single visual is. theworks of In introducing I wantto examinethevariety KonradWolf.thefilmography at theend of thisarticle). of a groupconsisting first and nature. tempt pursue past present show how the presentis partof the past. with the quest for a whichone might ofrecent Gerpositionfrom explainthevicissitudes man history. and as is often thecase in such situations.he cannot exclusively or evenwith an exclusive Ifthere thematic interest. he was frequently and for criticized the same reasons. There is as yetno adequate biography of KonradWolf.166 History Remembering as a representative ofstate skepticism. er Hans-Dieter Hosalla and thescriptwriters KarlGeorgEgel and Paul Wiens(for theearly and later orWolfgang Kohlfilms) Angel Wagenstein haase (cf. such as reducedpressure to In on films have been surdeadline. Herlinghaus1971). From thisperspective one intofourcategories: maydividehis filmwork 3. atto the traces of the in the to and. on cultureand cultural speechesand interviews in theGDR. several films everproducedbythe lasting years.
mustcontinuestilltodayand postwar on into the future" to (Wolf1965.Leute Mamlock mit of (1960).in myview.Ichwarneunzehn (1968). and hislastfeaofthepetty to NationalSocialism.Exupery's taleforadults. turefilm.6 whichunderlies I willintroduce in chronForthepurposesofthisoverview thefilms in to make visibletheir ological order by year of production order A clearchangeocinnovative formal diversity. p.Thus his films. This conviction. p. Wolf'stwo installments Fliigeln seriesBusch the six-part television (1981/82).SoloSunny Sportplatz filmDer kleine the television Prinz(1966) and the historical 4) epic Goya (1971).Moreover. WestGermancinemasor on television. public beyond national offers fascist a development pastand itspostwar quiryintoGermany's model than the "Year Zero" different popular equation completely the discussionin WestGermany. (1974).therehas been nothing .Der nackte (1980). The reception of Wolf'sfilms deserves a study of itsown. even achievedthe rankof a box office success after winning FilmFestival Berlinale workon Wolfhas also been (1980). referring all of Wolf'swork. A briefdescription of the plot can be not broadcaston GDR television foundin Dalichow 1983. able to me and appearsto have had little impact. 27.a processwhichwas especially intensive duringthefirst decade but which.otherthanan essayby Gregor1977. was notavail5. in WestGermany 6.ichlebe(1977). Scholarly prizeat the(West) rare. and sectionsin a doctoraldissertation by of consequence. but by and largetheGDR filmscene is comand a negligible unknown (unlikeGDR literapletely presence amongthedistributors As faras Wolf'sfilms has been used forhistory are concerned. typifies are addressedto a those concernedwithcontemporary GDR reality. Professor (1961). singt 2) filmsabout the war and the immediate postwar years:Genesung (1956).Dergeteilte (1964).MarcSilberman 167 and the riseof fascism: about the thirties 1) films Lissy (1956).itwas until 1972. 380). even the "today" of 1965. istkeinmal about contemporary GDR society: Einmal 3) films (1955).Mama. Himmel Mannaufdem Sonnensucher (1958). Blunk 1984.5 formed Germansociety That postwar has been so decisively by the "Bepast is forWolfthe consequenceof a peculiarset of conditions: on theirown initiative.Sterne (1959).Although producedin 1966. qualitiesand thematic in Wolf'soeuvre. In thereare isolatedGDR productions thatenjoyrunswithmoderate successin general. Derkleine fairy Prinz. classesto ilLissy ture). cause our people did not liberate themselves on theinteltheliberation 1945had to be realizedmainly processafter lectuallevel. curred a shift from thepathosand pretentiousness of an adaptation ofSt. lustrate therelationship bourgeoisie a SoloSunny. inGerman his lifelong borders.
Atthesame timethey problem:the pointto a further and arbitrariness abstractness of theseforms visthe content. maturation Wolf'saesthetic twoqualities.First.Second. and of her own traditional class values. where thevariety ofmontage is striking. withKarlGeorgEgel. man composervisits fallsin a smallvillagein the GDR and promptly into love (a kindofsocialist turns farce a mediocre because Heimatfilm). music and contrastivecuts using image and sound. Weiskopf's adaptation thatremainsclose to the novel. In thisrespect. the female voice-over and means of fades and dissolves. makingin Germany Thisis especially trueinLissy. Together working AlexWedding. politicalavant-garde before1933.More important thanthepsychologiof fascism's callyconvincing portrait appeal to the petty bourgeoisie of milieu and atmosphere. in whicha WestGerForexample. ing light two synchronized zoom lens in Lissy camerasor withan improvised are onlya fewofthe"discoveries" whichadd spontaneity and novelty to theearly films. with Wolfwrotea script widow.Wolfand his cameraman Bergmann meansto comsearchforand findeffective cinematic for the with unusual theatrics.patternof progression. of theweak dialogue and poor acting. this historical was not entirely connection formal Although (as was the case in theWestGersubmerged among DEFA directors man film industry of the fifties). Lissy upon Weiskopfs oder die Versuchung. The earliest films(fromEinmalistkeinmal to Professor share Mamlock) . thirties. Severtheearly and discretion I hope. novel written the C. By dialogue.The narrative of a woman caughtbetweenthe demands of her husband who. Lissy. A-vis in based F.168 History Remembering films to thesuppleness ofthelater ones. Wolf constructs Ruttmann's filmBerlin. credit whichexplainsto Lissy (except some extentthe melodramatic elementand formulaic dramaturgy.Both Walter was the carefultreatment called Germanproletarian filmsof the earlythirties were important models.if uneven . Wolf's mediationis particularly in theSovietUnion. was Wolf'sfirst tells popularsuccess. demoralizedbyunemployment. pensate Experiments in and in available a handheld camera shots with Genesung. Einmal ist a musicalcomedy keinmal. withfilmlenses.Paul Wiens usuallytogether receives forthescripts and Sterne). that al exampleswilldemonstrate. of informed that the filmmontage Eisenstein. Die Symphonie derGrofJstadt (1927) as well as soshows a constant . becomesmoreand moreinvolved with the Nazis. markedby his training hisformal workshowsa recuperation of the aesthetic the especially techniques.
Engel. The filmis an adaptationof Konrad'sfather Friedrich before Wolf's playofthesame name.on the levelling otherhand. accept inevibut his here into the historical table. of image and sound. yet Lissy turnsaway fromthe Nazi movementwhich is responsiblefor her murder and towhichherhusbandand hisfriends brother's belong.As in thesimilar Wampe. filledwith Schillerian pathos in long. WhereasWeiskopf's novelends on an optimistic notewiththe Lissy Wolf resistance.MarcSilberman 169 transitions and montagesequences. shotand dialogue.laysbare the reality of petty illusions elements.avoidsin Lissy to instrumentalize a tendency imagesas illustration and hence continues the creative of the bestfilms tradition as producedin the earlyyearsof the DEFA studiosby such directors KurtMaetzig. films characemergedfromthe DEFA studiosdurifig terizedby the socialistromanticism of the proletarian positivehero of and the veritable historical contradictions. insight consequencesof National Socialismleads to his tragicdownfall.accompaniedby faster and louder rhythm chords and recalls the of search motif well-known doorbells.Classicallyconstructed. The accelerating ple.a quality withthe Italian Neo-Realismof a director de like Vittorio miliarity in the context Sica."thefemale voice-over assures. This is all the more surprising of whatotherwise the mid-fifties.The frustrating imaginative job of husband as an unsuccessful for door-to-door salesman.SlatanDudow. is portrayed of images and dissolves. piano job in theDudow/Brecht thebikeriders film Another Kuhle (1932).written had emigratedfrom Germany. Wampe scene "quotes" the earlierfilm:Lissyis standing at the kitchen table about theworking class family peelingpotatoes. the play is still . bourgeois byjuxtaposingcontradictory achieves itsstraightforward Lissy documentary bycomposing quality thathintsatWolf'sfaimagesinjust such an expressive way. Wolfgang and Erich Staudte. declamatory monologues. Wolf.lost in her thoughts she hadjust witnessed shotas a newsdocubeingevicted (wonderfully while her husband sits the at table mentary).In thelastshotwe followheras she leavesthecemetary her chapel after brothers funeral "alone but notabandoned. readingaloud fromthe NationalSocialist how the will newspaper Party "clean up" theeconoMata Hari sequencein Kuhle thecollision my. protagonist joining the ranks of the anti-fascist still chooses a somewhatless confident heroic resolution.and thoughtfully as the walksdowna tree-lined camera path tilts is Professor Mamlock to the likewise forced skywards. examLissy's in a masterfully edited sequence.
Wolf transfers the to the film Although stage plot fairly directly he allowshimself muchfreedom in thetransposition from one script. thisfilmfocuseson the son's comand on munist Nazi In a departure from theplayagitation brutality. nevmobility er seemsto cease itsmovements: shotsin all directions. impressive filmedin 1938 in the Soviet Union by German emigrant Herbert and director AdolfMinkin.after he grounds. tilts at tracking extreme shotswithmoving angles.paralleltracking figues. is marched himself thestreets.Mamlockhas lost all sense of value in his life. Chiefsurgeon. thatpoliticshave no place in his professional lifeas a doctor.At the end of thefilm.and assimilated Jew. however. For (Bergmann the film with a New Year's eve example.whichare dominated and circular a round of champagneglasses movements by patterns: held highin a toastfroma bird's-eye of view. his communist and several Nazi hooligans.the sudden reflection froma lightfroma swiftly opened switchblade. explodingfireworks . quickcuts from all accompaniedby theuplifting chords close-upsto long shots. point of view shots of dancing couples.p.Mamlockbelievesin the state.170 History Remembering low angle. long opens sequence at the Mamlockhome contrapunctually intercut withthe street celebrations and with a confrontation betweenMamlock's son. and probably to of theday Mamlock owing ideologicalconditions ratherthan committing suicide. a record turningon It had alreadybeen today in its logic and consistency. is the of ballet-like the camera which markable. politicalliberal. is striking The early version for Rappaport itsexcellent and the static In camera. he even supportsin some justice of the constitutional but above all he insists pointsthedemandsof theNationalSocialists. of Beethoven's NinthSymphony. 28). to contrast both acting unusually the playand thelateradaptation.while a completely injureshimself new plot emergesaround the son's resistance in the underactivities in Konrad Wolf concentrates his version on Mamlock's attiground. a signaroundhisneckidentifythrough ing him as a Jew.The camera revealssuch visual opulence that thereis a riskof overwhelming thestory 1974. each lasting onlya fewseconds. The sequence'sclimaxis reachedin a seriesofshots. Allofthemaincharacters and their friends socialpretensions are introduced and Even morererapidly precisely. tudes and behaviorrather than on the son's convictions. after he has been fired fromhis positionon political after his daughter has been chasedfrom theschool. medium to the other.He shootshimself in his surgery ward.Indeed.
"His wordscome backto haunthimsomewhat in is to hearhis He Dr.The repetition of a passagefrom Beethoven's ening." endsshortly greet my sistance] is after "There no than not with thewarning crime wanting greater tide: to fight whenyou must.MarcSilberman 171 a turntable froma highangle. Mamlock's in mirror her a doubled frames symbolically image. doubling prepare protagonist for this man ultimate who the suicide of the circular logic spectator As in hisearlier film Wolfends here dies becauseofhisblindness. histragion a noteofheroic resistance. foreboding forhope and a reita kindofmusical Ninth renders vehicle Symphony toward minderof humanistic values.on the one the end of thefilm withhis youngcolleagueDr.. father replies: later whenhiscolgers. Mamlock'sconversation . sequence. grim omen. of this woman words the mouth who turns Similarly. Mamlock's daily thefilm and each timeironically ual entry times three performed during . ofthe ofiteration notonlyexposetheillusions Suchformal structures and but also the irony through distancing.the turning showsthe Another butequallyeffective.etc.a Nazi sympathizer.notas complicated ofMamlock's her the from The follows school.becauseoftheshifting in on The repeated focus a tions. the new road [ofrecallyacquiredinsight: . illusions." . against very a ritthedramaturgy iterates arrival atthesurgical ward. Lissy.at Mamlock's powerrelacharged expense. picture deep hanging ofthemedieval threatlikewise becomes a a representation reaper. Mamlock passeson to Dr. the the shocked fire. objects. year mosphere of thecircletheconsequenceof Mamlock's figure patesin theformal in on oneself. Ruoff "You musttakethe other. Finally. strategy by employed to drawhisspectator with intoa reflective thefilm: the Wolf relationship or dupliofshots. hand. son this The film thereand on road. repetition in a new context film on all the cationof thesame element permeates the Communists' levels. The frenetic of images fluctuation intensifies the motif of circling value.. and endowsit withmetaphoric The film'sspectacular indicates the tense atintroductory sequence at the onset of the new at time the same it antici1933. Ruoffimplicates Jews league in him. Ruoff in lovewith son on theother.The iteration details. Mamlock's office. the handheld through schoolyard Here we finda typical and finally intothestreets. flight daughter spectator the of a movement view shots with through point fugitive's dizzying cameraas sherunsdownthestaircase.When Mamlock'sson arguesagainst guiltfor his of theReichstag "I can feelit to the tips myfinfire. dialogue. etc.
g. Yetpreoccupationarmyand Germanworkers and honesty in showingpeople who particiciselyWolf'sdirectness in Germanhistory moments and thenhad patedin some oftheworst to livewiththisburden. striking sequence. in myopinion. This is all themore surprisfilms in because DEFA the fifties ifever. brutal crimes. expulsionand flight from countries make these characters believable under war-ravaged their difficult labor conditions and place thefilm the mostimamong documentsfromthisperiod in GDR history. the themesong of sailing intotheharboroffreedom. Producedin 1958. versialissues such as sexual coercionof women workers.also less imaginative devices. clichedmotifs (e. which consistsmore of individualshotsthan of episodic narrative. Sonnensucher is the director's to make a realistic first film attempt about contemporary GDR society to ist contrast the Einmal earlier (in film The shows a of GDR life class filled keinmal).constructed Wolf'sportrait earlyfifties. fromseveralcharacters. touchedon controing rarely.172 History Remembering Wolf'sotherfilmsin thisfirst less ambitious period are formally in finding visualsolutions for and. of "the" working class hero. The exaggerated of female rethe pathos antagonist's ofpostwar nunciation -in a story reconciliation and rebuilding as well as symbolically laden.. image reality they carefully reinforced drumsis theonlyreally tageofwarphotographs bybeating an effective or a summary of war better. the black market or themutualdislike and distrust between Soviet officers ofthe undertheir direction. panorama working withcontradictions in one ofthemostimportant largeindustrial projectsof thereconstruction the uraniumminesin Wismut in the years. portant 7. scenes. has less in common withPabst'sgenerically relatedKameradschaft of the (1932) than with Soviet documentaries or withSlatanDudow's Unser twenties Brot The highly tigliches (1949). the filmwas not screenedpublicly until1972 when it was .addresses existing audienceexpectations without theconstructed questioning A of from monwhich derive.is notableforitsnaturalistic edge. Forthefirst timeWolfdemonstrates herehisidifordynamic talent whichwillcontinue osyncratic imagecompositions to evolve. portrayal. theendlessshotsof sea waves).7 Nevertheless.fascism.Genesung seems to have the plots' ratherobvious structural morein commonwiththeUFA entertainment films producedduring theThirdReichthanwiththefilm of critical films of language socially theearly thirties. short edited. and itssenselessness.
for the in love withher. rather thanto itsformal realization."]) (cf.It was completedat exactly shownboth on television to discussatomicweapon conwerebeginning theSovietUnion and theUnitedStates in the GDR urato increaseproductivity trols.8 Angel chargeofitssubjectmatter ofthree takesup thestory Wagenstein's script youngadultsin 1943: a to be transported to a death woman in a refugee camp waiting Jewish non-com the who a German beginsto fall guarding compound. He could have saved her but missesthe opportunity. to portray Leute mit a working class heroin the also attempts Fliigeln This time. Sterne.thefilm's in Professor dramaturgy be dominatedby dialogue and obvious symbolism. of the partisans. tieswith because the GDR had no diplomatic at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival try France. aerospaceengineer." ["in those days . responsible the the"friendly" faceoffascism." ginning "Damals .. Then she walkswithher young oftriumphant orchestral musicswellin childintothesunsetas strains the background.The Lutz loses her husband in a mining film'syoungfemaleprotagonist she is once againable to laugh. camp. as a visual much morecreatively late colortonesand black-and-white I of in mood. Wolfhimself laterdescribed In a discussionwithSovietdirectors thetimewhen and in cinemas. presentas the consequence of personalhistory. thefilm film was releasedwithan additional. to overcome accident just after her distrust and embracethe future. in the life the filmstresses the "typical"insteadof the contradictory Wolf of an a single employstheconfigure.. . prologuewhichrepresents historicizing bewith refrain-like and now overcome(a filmed text conflict as finished explanations enwas screened as theofficial 8.Apparently a filmabout the struggle later the Fourteen niumminesdid notfit intotheimageofpeaceful years negotiations. key changes the to emotional launched Wolf into the international limelight.however.and theGermanofficer prisoners. story ofthe forthehistorical ofblack-and-white stock scenes(memories trast in in somewhat mefor the a color scenes and stock thirties) present whereasin thelaterGoya filmhe learnsto manipuchanicalmanner. late.. Justas with for the woman too the nature of his man sympathy recognizes young In closing. On theotherhand.. the filmsuggests thathe may stilljoin the struggle unusualcameramovements and contrasting Once againWolfemploys almostarbitrary use as their shotsand anglesbutwithout exaggerated.MarcSilberman 173 the unmotivated melodramatic ending cannot be overlooked.The filmwon the "Prix specialedu Jury.thatis. tendsto Mamlock. Egel 1974). who presents Mamlock. would attribute the which to success Sterne. a GDR-Bulgaria Bulgarian co-production.
The is herfather. his real conditions. after these"advisors"no longer in typical whoarecaught and existentially circumstances. Lutzisprotected friends andfellow the butnotuntil workers. physically handicapped in Genesung anddemoralized former will conresistance fighter regain trol ofhislegsand willevenbegin to study at theuniversity. changeability. production year light entertainment farethatavoidedanybutthemostoblique reference to in In contrast. is almost on her friends young Lissy entirely dependent young in herstruggle tofind a wayoutofherhusband's Nazi activities. chargedconflicts abandoning his first film. evenin sometimes unreflected Wolf's Nonetheless. pp." thepossible echoesof tybytheir Beyond autobiographical this itpoints to an otherwise socialissuein the structure.174 History Remembering film's end does she actindependently. buthe generation their doesnotoverlook weaknesses. demanding their butheavoids individual The filmmaker leaves fates.Wolfrefers GDR during and notonlyin thecinema.I beganto construct like a of reflection something the That an truth. aretwo inthis There textual Wolf First. inLeute mit thesonoftheCommunist andMamlock's sonbear Fliigeln.1960was thepeak thefifties. a disillusioned Social onlyelderto whomshe can turn Democrat andunion whoinfact throws heroutofhishome. always society's younger of twenty to thirty-year-olds. Lissy. the DEFA butthefilms at weretypically studios. earlyfilms. ability lieving comprehend takenfrom reallife. 175-76). the Max.thegenerational conflict and theproblem ofhierarchy for all of connected to it. thecommitted but Friedel. patterns strategy. shamphysician thenon-com officer Lutz. inSterne. byolder this stylistic naiveteas the resultof uncertainty about his audience: films I sometimes "When making myearlier consciously stoppedbein in the his to the that stories are spectator. Yetthe andimagination for his"healing" comeexclusively from the strength Friedel.His plotsintroduce after characters py ending"formula . thehopeofthefuture andas suchareinvested with great responsibili"fathers. member. submerged GDR . amazingly ways. takes Wolf. up highly and callson strong the"hapemotions. generation in Genesung.' was enormous mistake" life.'skirting (Kasjanowa here to a problemwidespreadin the 1974. noteworthy or identifies the its with future. in these films aimsatchallenging thespectapartisanship early always torto drawconclusions. harmonizing no doubtas to his understanding of thehistorically "correct" path. Wolf tribute to the patterns change certainly pays andsacrifices oftheolder achievements ofpartisans.
Professor Mamlock becomes thevictim in hispolitical ofthelimitations liberalism. ever audiencesdetendency younger whichtreated their mandingfilms problemshad begun to make itself feltin the GDR.that is. partitheonlyactive or rebsans)are practically oppressors people. though.is the newfilm dramaturgy developedbyWolfin thecourseofthesixties. and Mamlock's Dr.her social satisfaction in serving . More important. was is not to a of fathers claim that new ty waning(which generation did not establishitself in its place!). In Sterne the youngadults(victims. Christine. recognizing only is theonlyanjust beforehe dies thathis son's courageousresistance swerto NationalSocialism.MarcSilberman 175 exerciseinfluence.each ofthefemale (male)character. as was the case internationally in the 1960s. (twoothers Sterne) colleague in RitainDer Himmel be and Solo must as considered.whether els. Sunny I arguebelow.Finally. she finds her fulfillment in renunciation. 1952. often In hislaterfilms Wolfreturns againand againto thisyounggenerato the even whiletheroleofthefathers tion. resent but they also symbolize theneed forperas theverynegationof thatbond. A second significant elementin theseearlyfilms is the role of the women characters." ready-made interpretation of reality. as important fortherespective vehicles either emplotresolution: they or act as a catalyst forthe insights of body a coming-to-consciousness another On theother hand. derLiebe. Wolfextendsthe themeof women'semancipation embarkedupon by Dudow (Frauenschicksale. Verwirrung and the unfinished with a series of female 1959. officers. LeutemitFliigeln the model combinestwo "young generations": member of the thirties in political Communist becomes involved Party in activities his father's will and later the GDR conyears against twenty . younger twenty-year-olds.a conflict fronts his own son's politicalcommitment whichseems more anecdotalthan political. geteilte Sunny.in another On one the these women function hand. Lutz (Sonnensucher).For theyoungpeople theeldersmayrepa sourceof solidarity. By and traditional forms of audistructure dispersing plot relinquishing ence addressbased on emotionalidentification. IngeRuoff in later films. Ruth(theJewish woman in Lissy. 1963) figures: Irene (Genesung). manentstruggle. Socioin this in GDR socieolder role generation's decision-making logically. figures incorporatesthe stereotypical image of women as victim. light). The demographic of diminishes. he can abandon the narrative which the with a "reflection of spectator strategy presents one to in which strives contain itself a life.
More interesting. Wolf takes note of guide exclusivedewomen's social role withitsdiverseand often mutually mands. Consequently he multiplies the identificatory for possibilities the spectator and thusawakensmore sympathy forthemthanforthe That Wolfresorts stillto harmonizing male figures. In contrast to Wolf'smale protagonists thewomenbean encome active. films to be a socially in whicha process ofreality mediatedstructuring of coming-to-consciousness is setin motionby his characters' experience and reflection.Such accessis.Ruth. also mediated oftheparticular national film as wellas cinebytheevolution industry matictradition itsculturwith and. . by difficult to createnew modes of address. and however. structure and style. Lutz. This breakthroughcannot be credited to Wolf alone. fighter and working class womanwithan intact tradition of progeois fascist and mother commitment. woman. camp prisoner as wellas doctor and Nazi sympathizer possible sense. characters through emotional socially responsible love relationships. and formalrealization where a tendencytoward declamatory thematicexplicationoften works thereflective. the truth." His later films no do so. Wolfmanages to avoid thegeneralizations and platitudes oftheearlier films. in thecase oftheGDR in thefifties al program defined the narrow strictures of socialist itwas realism. of and rescuer Mamlock's communist son. however. in theseearly is a characteristic of thewomen more exceptional films whichall themale figures lack:theability to livein and liveout contrasituations the wife of the handicapped resistance Irene. Inge Ruoff. through gagement. gressivepolitical working and in concentration mentor the broadest widow. relying on associational whichassume the participaincreasingly techniques tion of the spectatorin the constructionof conflicts. ing longer The filmingof ChristaWolf's novel Der geteilte Himmel remains consistent with Wolf's earlier work marks a breakthematically yet in thefilmmaker's Ifwe consider formal Wolf's through development. dictory and of former lover the sham wife ofa petty bourdoctor.This dilemmaaccountsfor the gap betweenintention in the earlyfilms. It is symptomatic that his scriptis adapted from a contemporaryliterarysource.176 History Remembering others'needs.Lissy. thenit follows thathe is trying to make thisprocess accessibleto his audience. formal Dergeteilte Himmel against strategies. signals thebeginning to overcomethisdilemmabyinsisting ofan attempt on a radically newnarrative As a result. such conflicts by of his heroinesrather renunciation than showingthe "triumphant" further confirms his suspicion thathe was "skirtprobing dialectically.
to rehisimpetus thatKonradWolfdiscovered It can be no accident of Christa new thevisuallanguageof the GDR filmin an adaptation the The story concerns to thedirector). collapsesphysically young after herloverleavestheGDR heremotions and herconvictions tween for WestBerlin. in Wolfs The challenge transforming shape film involved representingmultiple narrativeperspectiveswhich are . ideas morethanstructuring soof run-of-the-mill to the of a desire overcome lieve.For Rita.MarcSilberman 177 scene knownas the forsince about 1960 a new trendin the literary on everyday issues which focused "Bitterfelder Weg" had begun. genuine cliches cialist-realist filmmaking. Somewhat whileeschewing vulgar films"("AUtagsfilme") also began to appear.thedividedheavenofthetide. calling his imaginative withdemonstrating wereconcerned as ifthefilmmaker I behisfilmic text.unexpected to itself attention frame almostevery byitsunusualcomposition. Wolf'snovel(she is notrelated to choose beforced when who woman Rita.theprocess oflanguage.all thiswas new to GDR literature. material on current issues. a a shotfrom Dergeteilte Himmel: out ofcontrol.historical and actions of characters' nature the the conflicts. film centing everyday Yetatthesametimea formal tendto becomeimpoverished.a trend are later a series of what didacticism. is dominated that thestory as itexists. motivations ofthefilm enriches thevisualexperience beginsto evolvethat language of in the construction and enhancesthe spectator's participation story At this formalism times innovative thefilm characters' gets subjectivity. Yetthisis theproduct.among called "everyday eines Sommers themRolfKirsten's Beschreibung (1962. ofsocialist ticaffirmation society onerather thanideological and despondency by a toneofresignation and all thistakes upmanship. betweenher to recognizethe discrepancy and finally her thoughts That this understanding worldview and her experience.Her final on thenature entails reflection ofconvalescence of their to communicate. is the result from Manfred inability separation the same words. as in Wolf's film hardly to a an extreme shot cuts from normal close-up.Withthestress (1965)and Giinther Riicker's and by acdiminishes in interest. long angle.To the whenspeaking to assumethe same meanings of languagewhen it extentthat she rejectsthe oppressivefunction of Ritais able to escapethestrait-jacket or renders absolutizes harmless.also theadaptation Lots novel by Karl-Heinz of a contemporary Egon Giinther's Jakobs). alwaysinno that the narrative of the dudes presents unproblemadanger failure. Die bestenJahre Weib (1965). the novel into a of film.
p. associativehandlingof timeand space in orderto definethe logicof the emotions.highly worker quet organizedby Rita's factory. Wolfwas able in his earlyfilms to film take the first classical The narrative beyond steps dramaturgy. in theflow oftheplot. dispersal and defines the reader's role demands an of active readplanes process taskwas to findcinematic whichwould ing.178 History Remembering interwoven on threeplanes: the first-person narration in the present. An older. fivescriptwritactivity.and repeated interruptions symbolicimages such as the highway overpass or the river.) Wolfconfirmed. respected tellsRitaabout his proletarian thewarand hisyearsas a background.nobodynoticedthat..Wolf establishesa fragmentary thatfunctions not styleof representation in a but Brechtian kind of dialectic.p. they necessaryfor The and analyzing feelings thoughts.The director's techniques in theprocessofconstructing thenarrative engagethespectator plotso as to stimulate a similar self-reflective For that. the protagonist's internalized and the third-person narrareflections.This is especially pronouncedin the film'sepic of complicated structure montagesequences. prisonerof war in Siberia.The short and the convisionary sequencesin Sonnensucher trast betweencolor and black-and-white stockin Leute mit are Fliigeln the antecedents to reconstructive of the acts unsophisticated memory. thefilm's successis theresult of thescriptwriters' refusalsimply to illustrate theepic work:"Thatthefilm [. 51). Wolf1964. 569ff. As I have triedto demonstrate. Wolfand KonradWolf) ers(including Christa worked to find together a satisfactory solution(Dergeteilte Himmel As Christa 1964. Cut parallel to and framedwiththe first pair . at leastthedifference theimpression that it appearsto create is a successful 'adaptation"'(C. in Genesung and Sterne theconsistent use oftwonarframing anticipates rativelevels in Der geteilte where are Himmel.The goal ofall theseexperiments a story narrate butto formulate situations whichthespectator mustinvestwithmeaning. of The the narrative onto three tionoftheprotagonist's past. through suspense The three-part in the middle of the filmexemplifies conversation themeans bywhichthefilmmaker combinesa central thematic motif withsubtleformal The interchange takesplace at a bantechniques.] is a successful'adaptation'mustbe attributed to thefact that from thefilm differs thestory: or interesting and as remarkable as itmayseem. complicated montagesequences inLissy and Professor Mamlock lead in thelater film to a muchfreer. interior is notto monologuesofRita..By means of foreshortened cameraangles..
. The WestBerlin is a good sceneneartheend ofthefilm almostexaggeratedly comicencounter of example. Although is aware the are of the connected camera's other. always shot frames theseare only a fewexamplesof the many strategically whichcomplicate the narrative flowin orderto make it meaningful.The highly stylized. posing expectations.corresponds withthefirst identifies herself group.in Manfred's necessity. the twoloversis accompaniedby electric organchordswhichsound like the cacophonyof automobile horns.leads into a dialogue betweenhim and Rita about his dream of a sinking of theirshipboat. and the scene dissolves intothe present as Ritaremembers when she first read Manfred's from letter WestBerlin.who listens framing. from in bed.the background noise and the dance musiccease.MarcSilberman 179 in a wall mirror behindthemare Rita'sshop foreman and Manfred.The shotthenfreezes (a long shotof thegroup). atticroom . The wide-angle shotof a poplarplane linedroad. With such sober. by close-ups longtracking disappointed and cynical Manfred learnsfroma friend thathis research project has been rejected. point ofviewfilmically with confronted thesevariously articulated philosophicalpositions on historical The following shot. Wolfuses music(a combination ofjazz quotes and popular Similarly in striking or and noise to on comment songs) imagesequences.theintersection in front of Rita'sfactory a highangle. the metaphorical anticipation wrecked as well as a of theiroprelationship symbolic representation A social marks later which the scene. whichthecameraclearly presentsas composedoftwogroups. thehighway theclose-upof Ritaconvalescing outside overpass herwindowwhichis linked withherrecovmoreand morefrequently thefootbridge to theriver shotfrom an extreme low angle: ery. guide through shifts spectator one narrative from to another. A poeticquality ofregrowsout of thefilm's rhythmic punctuation which also to the the serves peatedshots.Like the novel. Ata pointwhereRita . turning point in the love story. troduced of a series and a a shot. pair they directly by careful is from thespectator's Rita.At a party colleagues.Manfred agreeswiththe simpleminded self-righteousness of the other. in another revealssuch an overlapping of meanings inwithhis university who are sarcastically way. astute Wolfis able to construct a highly compositional principles complexand contradiction-laden. who are arguing views of neither radically opposed history. This socialgathering.often unusualways.thesensitive and thearrogant ones to thetension between thelovers.image of socialist realities. silently.
their inundramatic then. susmarked. To this .ichlebe.180 History Remembering thefilm was greeted withcriticism and bewilderment bysome reviewers and spectators because itwas deemed too intellectual and too deviewsstemfromthosewidespread.g. 1957. saved Wolffroma dead end. The director Mama. habitual manding.and Solo Sunny avoids visual distantiation and sudden ruptures in these laterfilms without his dialectical view of Wolfbecomes inabandoning reality. EineBerliner . Mannaufdem Dernackte Sportplatz.EckeSchiinhauser. Without Der geteilte Himmel films suchas Ichwarneunzehn. 26). interrupted byassociatively and flashforwards. triocoined a laconicnarrative that no the on exstyle longerdepends ternal motivation of a struggle and negative betweenpositive plot figures but rather restson a principle of innerdramaturgy fordelving intothe intellectual and affective worldof themain character. I think (Wischnewski judgment overlooksthe factthatworking on these formal problems. mentioned Yetin retrospect. both directedby Gerhard the with cameraman Werner the Klein). A crucial ingredient in these later filmswas Wolf's collaborationwith the scriptwriter a reputation for Kohlhaase. Rita's juxtaposedflashbacks effectively reproduces of to and in herself the Wolf s process coming represents turning point directorial work. comfortable with textual structures and emphasizes creasingly open more and more forthrightly the unheroicqualityof everyday life. by thoroughly they tendto makereality visiblebytracing whatseem to be thenon-essentialdetailsand achievein thiswayan authenticity. 1956. thisnon-linear structure.even the unresolvedones.critics resolution.Together Bergmann. would be unthinkable.who had alreadyestablished Wolfgang successful scenariosabout the problemsof youth(e.Such negative which Wolf was to counteract: a hero reception patterns trying positive and a clearly In addition.optimistic that of the dissolution relations into pected spatio-temporal paratactic and iterative of "bourgeois patterns pushed the filmin the direction modernism"(Felliniwas the red herring in thiscontext).p. Ten yearslaterWolfcandidlystatedthathe no longerconsidered thisfilmto be among his successes.At thesame timehe takesimagination in not a didactic seriously.He came to the conclusionthat in unresolved in thesearchfor formal an origi"we gotstuck problems nal and adequate filmstructure for ChristaWolf'snovel structure" this is too harshbecause it 1975.. These later films. waybut as a pointofdeparture rather forcareful observation. and Berlin Romanze.are characterized form.
for instance. script givesan impression plannedout in careful seems for direction which the particularly capturing maprovised apt of authenticity withseemingly and interial'sgesture uncomplicated A means. Bergmann's experience taries withthemain character's observant converge posture. identity.framed an epilogue(their character underscored by introductory journal-like of a voice-over informative tidesand the short. thelastdaysoftheWar (Ruschin1968. contrapuntal episodes Cameraworkis. comments narrator).GrigoriChukhrai's were especiallyimportant Ballad ofa Soldier and MikhailRomm's NineDays in One Year (1959) in war neunzehn case of the Ich (1961) (Wolf1964. opposes this who often reactsin a confused. Thus timeand timeagain and empirically thatGermany theSovietsoldierbornin Germany reacts and onlyinvoluntarily shyly thefilm of to thequestionofnational is an elaboration In fact.p.MarcSilberman 181 in the Sovietcinema of the time end examplesof formalinnovation to Wolf. in comic or tragic his emotions manner. or simply naive embarrassed Gregor.Six independent by a prologueand episodes." The taskofthespectator is to construct questions present and answers.pp. Ich war forsaking political he is still of to neunzehn with the how problem pose political struggling Whatdoes itmean to be a German by asking: questionsmeaningfully derivesfromhis inability as a returnee today?Gregor'sbasic conflict to not also but ("Heimkehrer") recognize onlyrationally emotionally is his home. defeat Germany's questions. among the most successful in general.whether situations. Here he describes The film witha sensitivity thatallowsforno distance. in my opinion.powerlessness and hope to25). scene towardthe film'sbeginning is conspicuoustechnical in thewaythe camera. 5Wolfs own diariesfrom hisfeelings ofhate. This filmholds a privileged place in Wolf's oeuvre and can be DEFA studio counted. In addition. 56).without thematic. sections footage shotsof battles and ravagedlandscapesas well as a long scenefrom a .witha single. exposes and innocence.calm pan.fascism grandexistential In his and division. of course.Wolfhad leftbehind him the dimensionof productions or resistance. wardtheevents historical directness to the of subjectivity memory. feels womaroundtheroomand objectsofa deceasedelderly itswaygently archival of documentary are intercut: an. exemplary long.Despitea ofimthefilm detail. indispensablein the film'sstructural and documenwithshortfilms composition. this"hero. thesesand countertheses out of thejuxtaposition of the with their motifs.
" folksong March. disrupted with a German raft deserter bya slowly turning bya noose.suggestsa pe- which invitesthe spectatorto share in the main character'scoming-toconsciousness so thatthe spectator'sown sensitivity mightin turnlead to self-reflection.both in image and theme .Wolfachieves an extraordinary textual in thisfilm density consistentuse of nature .notably the "Ahnchen von the Prussian "Hohentions. That the Sachsenhausen is furtherfootage moreinterrupted of twice short shots under a shower creates by Gregor a striking that to mind the monassociative image immediately brings Himmel. refugees. On another leveltoo thefilm in a subtle poses this question way. immediately downwithcroaking in the while refriend frogs background Gregor's "Ich citesHeine's famous hatte schdnes . (soldiers. .". the filmmusic: it consistsnot of an originalscore but of Similarly fromGermanmusic. etc.)and his sensitivity toward the questionof self-identity as a German." Tharau. Here the techniqueservesto tage sequences in Der geteilte of ambivalence towardthe Germansin the heighten feeling Gregor's film anti-fascist resistance officers. break intensifies ofthehorror theuniqueness is that shownhereand guarantees theshockon thepartofthemaincharacter as wellas of the spectator. fighters.182 History Remembering Soviet documentary about the Sachsenhausenconcentration camp and with Sachsenhausen. poem thepenultimate forhissenselessfinally. The culiarly of a in Oderbruch the images peaceful landscape prologue. it introduces a is break in the narrative of perspective symptomatic the film's Thisvery structure.the hanging scenewith in front thelandscapearchitect ofa largepainting ofa sitting tojustify his"inneremigration" durgardenas he tries philosophically after that theshotofa kitsch suningthepreceding years. theinterweaving ofthesenatural motifs ofan inresonances produces herited tradition whichonce again is linkedto Gregor's basic conflict. Vaterland einstein .thatis. amazingcomplacency The fact thatthissequence(and a laterconversation in thefourth epiin the Spandau fortress) sode between twoSS-officers cannotpossibly be explainedfromGregor'spointof view .."theSpanishCivilWarsong"Rio Guarama"sungby friedberg Ernst Busch. Gregor.The ofwhichGregor German isjust barely narrative conscious. sequencewhereGregor's grief comradeturns intodespairand thecamerablendsintoan endlykilled lesspull-back shot whichtheframe tracking during expandsto include first then the then the then the wholecountryside: road. pond.from Bach's "Goldberg Variaquotes. (Todeslager 1946) in whicha camp guardquietly talks abouthowthedeathapparatus functioned.
Sunny). make a "correct"politicalchoice and join the men in the politicalstrugis self-evident to them. again up such continues of Germanidentity.This "betrayal" even it than because the plot unfoldsin an might appears stranger Yet is practically almostpeaceful the of invisible war reality atmosphere. performance.non-abstract the narracreation experience possibleof artistic by constructing of thesculptor tivelogicaroundthedailyroutine who strugKemmel. ich lebe. ich lebe. unhappy the new beginning barelyconcealsthe intrinsically tempt. What theyhave achieved politically . Four Wolf'sexamination explicitly in to ofwar theSoviet German Unionvoluntarily prisoners agree particiLaterthreeof themare sent retraining pate in an anti-fascist program. Dernackte Mannis remarkable more laconiceven foritsalmostunfinished camerawork.banality. Mama. in Solo He and the concentrates Mama. in theprosaicrhythms thecontradictions ofdailylife. pop singer Sunny in the figures' his attention on the nuanced shifts and assumptions theresponsibility of explaining to thespectator whileleaving behavior. itrecalls structure (Wolf also because of thestylized and thefemalelead. in that in thiswarfilm on and of itfocuses theuncertainties inhibitions in their Soviet thesefourGermans environment. behind Germanbattlelines as partisans and killed.thesinger's love her thesuicideatacter affair. he treats films. episodic of the dramaturgy evolvedby Wolfoverthe preceding twenty quality The the and editing years. photography his to earlier female these women are not satisfied to Contrary figures. to humanizehis artist figure. demanding paratactic A DEFA films at thebox office the theleastsuccessful seventies. function the narrow. during film's quick-paced montage sequences of the camera its and first the use with half. At first Solo of an action seems to return to thepattern Sunny glance suchas Lissy. ofart's in society.In thisrespect. thanin Ichwarneunzehn. Himmel. ofa highly film Yettheexposition dramatic plotand char. during takes of World as later memories War and II film. gleswith popularnotions Perhaps of of dominant Wolf which uses atmosphere understatement.MarcSilberman 183 Wolfand his teamessentially thisapproachin his subsequent perfect Rather thanproviding narrow of events. energetic rapidmovements the lively all contribute to the discontinuous textual musicalrhythms Dergeteilte and Kohlhaase1984). explainsthecinemaaudience'sresistance itshighly to thefilm Itremained one of with form. The filmaims at themostsensuous.and they gle. interpretations or therespective film thematerial as encounters characters (thesculptor inDernackte Mann in thefour German soldiers Kemmel aufdem Sportplatz.
He himselfexpressed certaininhibitionsabout filminga scriptto which he had no director to liveas full-fledged nowmakemoreradicaldemandson society peoand In SoloSunny emotional intellectual with all their capabilities. 1977 (Wischnewski Wolf chose 1980). whenhe can WhenGoya's"demons"arematerialized. he makesvisible conditrapthemon canvas. ple a woman's difficult Wolfonce again follows processof self-discovery In and to thereflective. yielding notonlytheGoyastory densetext butalso that incredibly encompasses in political as an artist exileas wellas echoesFeuchtwanger's experience abouttheeffect of constraints on imaginahis own practical knowledge to the tionin theGDR. earned as themaincharacter suchan uncompromising non-conformist in but thishighly him sharpattacks.but a mega-film in theHollywood also thetendency toward has studiostyle .Goyais thehistorical counterpart one artist Kemmelin Dernackte but Mann. those of does notfeartheprovocations especially here carried the men around her. attempt by respond policy young in theseventies. and assertive passivetendency of herenvironment. archy.184 History Remembering littlein common with Wolfs previous practice. even her distress.Feuchtwanger wanger's . by a Wolf to to was an the cultural woman. tionary thereactionary. as an opportunity to investigate the takesthisfigure Wolf. Not onlytheenorimagine widergap hardly from mousproduction actors and technicians including eight apparatus. ofthecreative historical and psychological limits an personality. could a between the two films. to thecritical and desituation retrospective especially Probatewhich tookplace at theThirdCongress ofFilmand Television That in this film ducersin May. forhis part. successful production represents of his and entire aesthetic thematic as a facta summary development filmmaker.monitself tist's as itasserts socialforces amongopposing personality As revolution. contrast through vulnerability in Rita. In one sense. Goya figure to liveout therelationship forceof Brecht's Galileoin the struggle bebetween radicalformal and tweenartand politics. the shares the ethical church. films from lateperiodare somewhat lesstypical for Two other Wolf's der is oder Der Erkenntnis historical this an Goya arge Weg development. oppressive tionsof his belovedSpanishhomelandduring the French Revolution. revoluexperiment content. epic de Goyaadaptedfrom Lion FeuchtFrancisco abouttheSpanish painter on thearnovelofthesame title focuses (1951).The claimforself-realization. aesthetically speaking. such. countries and on-location shooting spreadall overeastern Europe.Sunny is insistent. She is intense.
Instead he introduces a declamatory.In thecritical possibledespiteand against representation of the everyday.At thesame time.However. skill does surface in theeloquent muWolf's sic and thecareful use of colornuancesfromGoya'spaintings.Marc Silberman 185 film ofarchival filmed material. Part III. ofexperiences questions disappointment in theprivate and failure Yetthesecharacters all taketheir sphere. hisdeath. creating poignant homageto Buschwhichgainscredibility from thedialectical of and play objective narratives about subjective history.ErnstBusch) indicates to an exploration ofisolation.p. evenifthat ially socialnorms. 1933 oderDas FaiJder Pandora.however. exaggeration pathos employs broadrangeoffilmic to transform historical into techniques experience the artistic He succeeds too in a process.Wolfis credited with theidea and artistic fortheentire seriesas wellas directing twoof responsibility . Here staged Spanish is none oftheauthenticity there that so conWolf was able to formulate in other films. Ein against growing auf Germany. lastpartof 1971. films KonradWolf's call Historicizing memory.is a relatively personal access.forherethefilmmaker Urlaub. embarks on a kindofarchaeological thetraces ofthe journey. fromepochal political Wolf'sdiversion Sunny. theartists. 13). wasa six-part televiWolf's completed onlyafter sion serieson thefolksinger Ernst Busch. folksinger's (cf. we "page" through thepainter's fashion. the segments. latework intercut with from scenes the Revolution. imprisonment thecounterit is a self-presentation: 1982). all seekhappiness is only and self-realization. lastproject. singt flight. Wolf's especprotagonists. straightforward documentary consisting interviews and a selection ofBuschsongswhichstress thestruggle ofthe in artist the fascist threat Toter PartV. Wolfdiscovereda vehicle both forrevealingthe mechanisms of social change and forarticulating of individthe responsibility uals to realize such change.Kemmel. anti-fascist on hisown arwith reflections posingofthedirector's youth Without Wolf a tistic or false development. folkloristic vincingly that is to of the the latent quality supposed suggest powerand anguish commonpeople. particular struggles sufferings ofeveryday theconsequence socialpressures. place within and and are social their structures. remembering history: forth thisprocessbyaddressing thequestionofhisown place in history as wellas thelarger in Germany. Thatthe problemof national identity in his lastfilms main characters are almostall artists (Goya. as had been the case in all previousfeatures (H.Thatmight Herlinghaus explainwhytheentire In picture-book thefilm fails. following and liberation Busch exile. concerns Wolfas muchas itdoes Busch.
Ulrich. Miinchen: Thomas. Hans Guinter Pflaum. Berlin/GDR: Henschel.Kiinste undPolitik.Selbstzeugnisse. Kritiker.186 History Remembering WorksCited . Filmerzdihlung. 17:12: 10-27. Kuinste. "Er drehtesich um und gingweg. 1971. Miinchen:Hanser. Ruth(ed. Eds. Konrad imDialog. Die DDR in ihren Spielfilmen. 1982.Begegnungen Kasjanowa. Heinz. Konrad Dokumente. Dalichow. Gregor. 1980. "Filmmonographie Dernackte Mannaufdem DEFA24-37. 1964. Fotos. 1974.1984.1985b. "Konrad Wolf:Aufder Suche nach Heimat.Ed. 1983. RolfRichter. Berlin/ GDR: Akademieder Kuinste.Munich/Vienna: Jahrbuch Hanser.1974."AusTheorie undPraxis desFilms 1. 77-98. Kiinste Barbel(ed. Berlin/GDR: Regisseuren.Goya."Weimarer Herlinghaus. Wolf Egel. Dietz. Ruschin. and Anatoli Ludmilla Karawaschkin (eds. 1983. Eds. "Konrad Wolf. Henschel. Umsetzung. Roman zumFilm. 1974. 1977. Blunk.Zur filmischen Kurt. and Aune Rank. . 1968.1964. Beitridge.). "Sunny politischSorgenherzungewisse. Ed. Bergmann." 5. "Gespraichmit WernerBergmannam 16.1973.Regie: Konrad Potsdam: Filmmuseum.Harry. (VEB Sportplatz" Spielfilme): Profil. Sonnensucher. auf KonradWolf. Akademieder Berlin/GDR: Jahrhunderts.). der Akademie Berlin/GDR: Wirkung. Wolf. Berlin/GDR: Intention und Thomas (ed. deutsche-deutschen Rezeption des DEFA-Films Solo Sunny. BarbaraKoppe 1985a.). Berlin:Henschel. Karl Georg and Paul Wiens.Filmfaust 28/29:13." Nachruf Brasch. "Dergeteilte Himmel Barthel.3: FilmwissenschafJtliche Mitteilungen 565-95.). Behandelt am Beispieldes DEFA-Films Dergeteilte Himmel. der DDR. "Gespraich mitKonradWolf." Filmin derDDR. Hermann. DieterHeinze and Wolf Hoffmann. DeutscheAkademieder Kiinste. Henschel:250-87. Zur Klunker.DerFilm"Ichwarneunzehn". Eine Dokumentation. und ihre Rolf." DEFA-Spielfdmregisseure Richter.Werner.1971.11." Film80/81. (1982) Sechs Filme uiber die erst H~ilftedes 20. mit 133-86. Busch singt. Vom Berlin/GDR: Herlinghaus. Berlin/GDR: Ludwig Probleme des sozialistischen Realismus in der darstellenden Kunst.
1986.Copenhagen:Gjellerup& Gad. Tiibingen: 10: 339-352.Filmund ----. Regina. 1984. des "Sozialistischer ----. 1980." Wischnewski.1964. "Diskussionsbeitrag. Ed.----.Konrad and Wolfgang Bardramand Bent Lantow.Die Filmevon Marc. Probleme Konrad.MarcSilberman 187 . mitKonradWolf. Henschel. Tok.FilmundFernsehen Werkstattgespraich denn End' "Was 'Happy . 111-28. Wolf. "In Amerika.Sonntag Ed. [mitKonradWolfund Wolfgang 1: 9-15. Erforschung Unerforschten. Kontroversen. alteundneue. iiber . 51-4. KonradWolf." Gespraich 18.)..1972. Hans-Dieter. . Fred Gehler. "KonradWolf. Fernsehen 1964.Erzahlen." SinnundForm. Intemationalen Germanisten-Kongresses. 4: 18-26."Regiestiihle. Niemeyer. 1964. 55-61. . Berlin/GDR: Klaus. KonradWolfund EberhardGeick." 1964.Christa."Gesprachmit KonradWolf."Aufder Suchenachdem Lebenszentrum. 9. "Erinnern Silberman." Film..Filmwissenschaftliche Mitteilungen Gespraich 366-83. 1975. Fernsehen 36:5: 897-902. Ein Gespraich heilt Film und SoloSunny" Kohlhaase].1965. "Rot ist eine schone Farbe. SoloSunny." . 2: mit Heinz Baumert. Wolf. mit Sylvester. Lars Kohlhaase. "Selbstaulerungen. "Diskussionsbeitrag.Filmen. Akten des VII. 1975. 1984.1980."Albrecht Sch6ne (ed. Probleme Wolf.
Camera: WernerBergmann. Georg (Elvira). Wilhelm Koch-Hooge (Max Kerster). Willi Schrade VladimirYemelyanov Melnikov). Wolfgang Kieling (Friedel Walter). (Lissy's Oligmiiller Raimund Christa Gottschalk Schelcher (Max Franke) (Lissy'smother).Dramaturgy: KarlGeorgEgel.Producer: HansSimon(Franz Germer (Lutz). (Sergei Avdyushkho (JuppK6nig).Cast: Sonja Sutter (Lissy). father). Sets: Karl Schneider. Camera:Werner Script: AlexMusic: Kochan. Sonnensucher (1958) Wiens. Manja Behrens(EmmiJahnke).Hans-Joachim Wallstein. Friedrich Gnass (Hunzele). Lissy (1956) Alex Wedding/Konrad CamWolf. (Gtinter Stein).Christoph Engel (Erwin).Cast:Ulrike Joachim Erwin Victor Geschonneck Beier). (Toni Franke). Cast: Horst Drinda (PeterWeselin).Eduard von Winterstein Langhoff Wolfgang Erika Dunkelmann (Professor Behaim). Hans-Peter Minetti Kurt Horst Drinda (Fromeyer).Giinther Schoeppe. (IreneSchorn). (Paul Schroder).Sets:Alfred Tolle. NorbertChristian Hollek). Script:Karl Georg Egel/Paul Music: Joachim Werzlau.Cast: KarlaRunkehl Producer: Schiller. Bergmann/Hans Joachim GerhardHelwig. Gerhard Bienert Else Wolz (Kaczmierczik).Brigitte Krause AnnemoneHaase (Anna Hunzele). Producer: Bergmann. Script: Music: era:Werner Sets: Werzlau. (ErnstMehlin). (head nurse). Dramaturgy: Script:Karl Georg Egel/Paul Camera: Werner Bergmann.Music: Joachim Werzlau. Heinrich. Wiens.HilmarThate (Buhlemann).188 History Remembering Konrad WolfFilmography istkeinmal Einmal (1955) Paul Wiens.ErichFranz (Weihrauch). Sets: Willi Eduard Kubat. Harry (publicprosecutor). LotteLoebinger Niemann(Diidelit-Diidelat). AngelaBrunner Hindemith (nurseHilda).Paul Schulz-Wernburg (Edeltanne). Genesung (1956) Willi Briickner.Producer:Eduard Kubat. (Muhme). (Major Fedosseyev). (Josef . Guinter ander Ldsche.
Stilyan LeutemitFliigeln (1960) Sterne (1959) Willi Brickner. Georg Gudzent (Max).PeterSturm(Dr. Herrfurth). (Mrs. Dehringer). Music: Simeon Pironkhov. Werner Seidel). . Herrfurth). Naumov Klein (Kurt). Sets: Alfred Hirschmeier. HorstJonischkan (Martin Jung). Fernandez(Ines). HerwartGrosse (Dr.Ursula Burg (Ellen Mamlock).PetraKelling(Sigrid). Franz Kutschera (Dr. Wolf. Camera: WernerBergmann.Georgi (Blashe). Lamert). Kunev ("doc"). Pelikowsky GiintherGrabbert(Schwarzenbach). Abesser(RuthMamlock). AlfredDrosdek.StefanPeytshev (Bai Petko). NorbertChristian AlbertHetterle (Alyosha).Dramaturgy: Producer: Music: Hans-Dieter Hosalla.Rosita Fred Mahr (Friedrich). Wiens. MilkhaTuykhova(a femalepartisan). Ost.Cast: Erwin Geschonneck (Bartuschek). Lissy Tempelhof (Dr. Carlsen). Erika MartinFlorchinger HilmarThate (Wendland). Inge Ruoff).Otto Dietrichs (Dr. Producer: SiegfriedNiirnberger.UlrichThein (Ernst). Sets: Gerhard Helwig. (Mr. Hilmar Thate (Henne). Franz Kutschera(Dr. Barthel. Camera: Dramaturgy: Script:Angel Wagenstein. Hirsch).Doris Harald Halgardt(Dr. Dramaturgy: Script:Karl Georg Egel/Paul Camera: Werner Bergmann. (Kneipack). Cast: Wolfgang Heinz (Professor Mamlock). Ivan Kondov (Ruth's father).Dramaturgy: Script:Karl Georg Egel/Konrad Camera:Werner Hosalla. Music: Hans-Dieter Hosalla. Music: Hans-Dieter Bergmann/Ginter Sets: Harald Horn.Hilmar Thate (Rolf Mamlock). Producer:Hans-Joachim Funk.Marc Silberman 189 Willi BriAckner. Nuirnberger/Vyltsho Erik S. Willi Briickner. Renate Blume Cast: Funk. (Rita Seidel). Producer:Siegfried Draganov.Wilhelm Koch-Hooge (Dr. Himmel(1964) Der geteilte Mamlock (1961) Professor and Gerhard Christa Bruckner/Kurt Wolf/Konrad Wolf/Willi Script: Willi Bruckner. Klinger).Juirgen Frohriep(Walter). Herrfurth). Eberhard Hans-Joachim Hans Hardt-Hardtloff Esche (Manfred (RolfMeternagel). Sets: Maria Ivanovna/ WernerBergmann. Hellpach). Mathilde Danegger (Mother Friedrich). Cast: Sasha Khrusharskha (Ruth).
Katharina Thalbach(soldier's Fritze). VassiliLivanov(Vadim). Piontek Anna-Katherina Keller (Fox). Gustav ErnstBusch (Jovellanos). Bergmann/Konstantin Ryshov. Marga Ute Lubosch (Regine). Camera: AngelWagenstein.Michail Kasakov (Guillemardet). Gerhard Kohlhaase. Sets: AlfredHirschmeier/Valerie Producer: Herbert Cast:Donatas Ehler/Genrich Yurkevitsh. AnatoliSolovyov (Germangirl). Gr6llmann Kalmursa Rachmanov Rolf (policewoman). Cast: KurtBowe (Kemmel). Hirschmeier.190 History Remembering Der kleine Prinz(1966) [Television film] KlausWischnewski. Dramaturgy: Script:WolfgangKohlhaase/Konrad Camera: Werner Sets: Alfred Producer: Wolf. Bergmann.Dramaturgy: AngelWagenstein/Konrad Script: Janka/ Alexander Camera: Werner Dymschitz. (Dsingis). Mann aufdem Sportplatz Der nackte (1974) GoyaoderDer arge WegderErkenntnis (1971) Ich war neunzehn (1968) .Cast:Jaecki Alexei Eibishenkho (Sasha).Cast: Christel (Prince).Sets:Alfred Bergmann. Greese(landscapearchitect). (Esteve). Wolfgang Walter Wolf. (mayor). Klaus Esche (Pilot). Producer: Bodenstein Herbert Eberhard Ehler. Wolfgang Heinz (King). Galina Polskich (Soviet girl). wife).Giinter (maElse Grube-Deister farm Helmut son). Music: Kara and Faradsh Karayev.Jenny MichailGlusski(general). Dramaturgy: Script: Konrad Wolf/Wolfgang Music: Camera: Karl-Ernst Werner Wolf. Giinter Marczinkowsky. Strassburger ErikaPelikowsky (manwith (Aunt glasses).OliveraKatarina Fred Duren (Princess Alba). Ehler.Martin (Hannes). UrsulaKarusseit Trettau Schubert (Gisi).Horst Schulze (Vain man). Herbert Schwarz(Gregor). Sasse. Banionis(Goya). TatyanaLolova (Queen Maria Luisa). Voit (Grand Inquisitor). Marie). Hirschmeier. Hoppe (major).DieterFranke (factoWerner St6tzer Walter Lendrich rydirector). Fred Diiren(Lantern lighter). Inge Matschat(Rose). Jorgen Gerhard Wolf. Mieczyslaw Holoubeck (Bermudez).Vera Oelschlegel (Miss Legal (apprentice). Hirschmeier. Chochlov. Script: Dramaturgy: Kiril Sets: Music: Alfred Cibulka. (collective director). Producer:HerbertEhler. Rolf Hoppe (King Carlos IV). Wolfgang Kieling(Godoy). (Snake). (cashier). Holtz (Businessman).
ichlebe(1977) Wolf. Harald Warmbrunn Klaus Hindel (Bernd). Lapitkov (general). Cast: Peter Prager(Becker). Detlef Giess (Kuschke). (Hubert). Ehler.Narrator: Hans-Joachim Jiirgen Konrad and PartV directed Wolf). HerbertEhler. YevgeniKindinov Michail Vasskov Ivan (Glunski). Producer: Teschner(PartIII Holtz/Ulrich Funk. Script: WolfgangKohlhaase. Dramaturgy: Voigt/Dieter Jutta Sets: Alfred Producer: Herbert Cast: Fischer. Hirschmeier.Camera:EberhardGeick. Hans-Jiirgen Huirig Busch singt (1981/1982) series] [Television Director:Konrad Wolf. Sets:Alfred Producer: Hirschmeier.Directors: Reiner Conceptionand Artistic Hoffmann/Peter Bredemeyer/Erwin Burkert/Ludwig Voigt/Konrad Keil/Ernst Wolf. Lang(Ralph). Music: Wolf. Camera: EberhardGeick/Lothar Oeltze. (Kolya).Uwe Zerbe (Pankonin). ry). (physi(Benno Bohne). SoloSunny (1980) Co-director:WolfgangKohlhaase. Dramaturgy: Script:WolfgangKohlhaase/Konrad Wolfgang Klein/Klaus Wischnewski/Dieter Wolf. cian). Klaus Brach(Norbert). FredDuiren Heide Kipp (Christine). Eberhard Kirchberg(Koralevski).MarcSilberman 191 Mama. by .Margarita Terechova(Svetlana). Regine Doreen (Monike). Bergmann. Giinter Alexander Dieter RenateKr6ssner Montag(Har(Sunny).Donatas Banionis(Mauris).Camera: Werner Beck/Giunter Music: ReinerBohm.
for institutions. is available from: ofAmerica The Semiotic Society of SSA and in election in annual meetings otics. and the theory political.Further including bulkorder discounts. volume are$25per $40 (4 issues) Subscriptions in the SSA is $30. teaching. Bloomington.and discountedpurnational eventsof interest chase of theProceedingsof theannual meeting. The AmericanJournal of Semiotics is published by Indiana Press in April. officers. includescriticalessaysthat examine the theory and methodof semioticsand theirpractical. receiptof the Semiotic Scene. in theSemioticSocietyof ofmembership Rightsand privileges Americainclude a subscriptionto theAmericanJournalofSemiof theSSA. and otherimplicationsand tendencies.$20 forstudents.and offers issues:thesemiVolume 6 (1988/89)will include twothematic and Africansemioticsin America. otics of pornography The SemioticSocietyofAmericais a professional organization of infordevotedto fostering research.thequarterly journal of theSemioticSocietyofAmerica(SSA). toindividuals.September (a double issue) and DecemUniversity a discountedrateto students. and methodsof academic disciplines fromthestandpointof their relationshipto semiotics.and otherforms mation disseminationin the field. . post. ber. add $5 forsurface subscribers information. Foreign joint.The American Journal of Dean Edited &Juliet Flower MacCannell MacCannell by SEMIOTICS The AmericanJournal of Semiotics.participation Division Journals Press Indiana University Indiana 47405 &Morton 10th Streets. $40 membership Regular and $30 for jointstudent. the newsletter which includes announcementsof upcoming national and interto semioticians.
Berlin HAN.ParisBUCK-MORSS:The Flaneur. the SCHNEIDER: Damaged Relationship WEIGEL: . andPbstmodernity lyGermanFilmTheory Modernity HUYSSEN: MappingthePostmodern JAMESON: ema.Settembrini? HOHENDAHL: ArtWorkand MoHOHENDAHL Habermas'Critique ofSys. 31 .Benjamin's IVERNOL: Paris. ADELSON: Subjectivity Jewsand Germans ROBERTS: The Birth of Resistance LINDNER: of Postmodernism ReadingtheAesthetics Realism KLUGE: Mass Death in Hallucinatory NEW GERMAN VeniceFEHER: On PeterWeiss CRITIQUENO.and Foucault FEHERVARY:Christa Wolf'sProse BENJAMIN: as Shame and Sexual Politics POORE: Disability Disobedience? NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO. on Fassbinder's and Garbage. 30 ReconsideredSCHERPE: Bitburg. 36 IssueonHeimat Special HANSEN: Dossier on Heimat RENTSCHLER: New GermanFilmand BitburgADORNO: "What is German?" LEVIN: Nationalities of Language THEWELEIT: The Politics ifOrpheus NEW GERMAN NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO. 34 inWestGermany and Critical Anti-Americanism MARKOVITS: TheoryGOODING-WILLIAMS: Nieof Modernism DICKEY: Blumentzsche'sPursuit on Walter Section Benjamin Special and Secularization Park KOCH: Central berg Re-Visioning BENJAMIN: FilmTheoryRABINBACH: Modern Feminist Jewand Benjamin ishMessianismFEHER: LukAcs NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO.Sandwichmanand the Whore KITTSTEINER: GermanWomen'sLiterature Contemporary Historicism Dis. and Feminist Fetishism SEN: VisualPleasure. 29 NEW GERMAN CRITIQUE Vulcano MEUSCHEL: On theGerman and Imperial Mass Culture Germany HUYSSEN: Adorno in Reverse TROMMLER: Cultureand Modem Mass Culture Working-Class NEW GERMAN SCHULTE-SASSE: Toward a "Culture" for the CRITIQUENO. 41 Issue on Postmoderof BENHABIB: Enlightenment ofthe Critiques Special Epistemologies demity WOLIN: HABERMAS:The Idea oftheUniversity nism WILSON: Punching The Dialecticof Rationalism LOVE: Marx.AVAILABLE BACK ISSUES OF NGC NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO. Criticism. and Experience PoofTheory FOSTER: (Post)Modem The Politics NEW GERMAN lemics HABERMAS:The FrenchPathto PostmoCRITIQUENO. 32 onWeimar Fidm Issue AbsenceHERMAND: ModTheory Special WEIGEL:Overcoming and theCinemaLEVIN: Intellectuals Restored BLUMENBERG: To BringMyth KAES:Literary ernism to an End ADORNO: The Essayas Form SAYRE Reading LukAcson Film ELSAESSER: Cinema. 40 CRITIQUENO. Symposium Death KOCH: Jewish in Fassbinder FUNKE: NEW GERMAN Figures CRITIQUENO. Capitalof thePopularFront courseJAY:Adomo in America NEW GERMAN NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO. 42 NEW GERMAN Section on Lukdcs CRITIQUENO. The Irresponsible KRAGAUER:The Cult and LOWY: Romantic Signifier Anti-Capitalism of Distraction (1926) SCHLiiPMANN: Kracauer's in Earof FilmPETRO: Sexuality NEW GERMAN Phenomenology CRITIQUENO. 27 Writers and Critics Women MARTIN: Feminism. 39 Issueon Walter Second Benjamin Special WITTE: Paris WOHLFARTH: The ArcadesProject NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO.dernity School MCCARTHY:The Seducements furt JOHNSON: Jauss'sDisputewithAdorno tems TheoryBENHABIB: The UtopianDimension BIRUS: Hermeneutics Today WOODHULL: FasEthics FRASER: The Case of cistBondingand EuphoriaCOATES: The Apoloin Communicative and Gender Habermas Art gistof Inauthentic . 37 CRITIQUENO. 35 Special Habermas IssueonJurgen EORSI: The Unpleasant LukAcs LOWY: Naphtaor Special of theFrank. Nietzsche out the Enlightenment NEW GERMAN CRITIQUENO. 33 CinHANSEN: Benjamin. 28 Issueon theGerman on the West German MARKOVITZ: Reflections Special Question ElectionsMEWES: The WestGermanGreenParty FEHER/HELLER: Eastern Europe Under the Shadow of a New Rapallo FETSCHER: Two Aesthetics HOHENDAHL: BeyondReception RepliesSUSS: Detenteand the Peace Movement AND SEMLER: Occasion for Unrest ESCHE NO. 38 Issueon German-Jeish Masses BUCK-MORSS: Benjamin'sPassageniverk Controversy Special TheCity.
33Modernity #24/25New GermanCinema Walter #17. and information listofbackissues.A.20. Cost issue: $8.BACK IN PRINT as Well as Bodies" "HeartsStarve NancyVedder-Shults."Women's Daily Life" Fathers?" JessicaBenjamin.S.00 ofa single .21. Davis. St. a full write: 431 E. 12th New NY 10009 Telos Press. Mayer.00forinstitutions)." and Brecht R."A WorldWithout Christa Wolf. Stefan. York."Benjamin. Irving ImageofInterpretation" Benjamin's of Politics" AnsgarHillach."Consciousness-raising JiTrgen Criticism" Redemptive "Walter Wohlfarth.39 Benjamin oftheEnlightenment #41 Critiques Habermas #35 Jiirgen WeimarFilmTheory #40 Lukfics #42 Forsubscription Backissuesare $8.38Germansand Jews and Postmodernity #22.50 ($17."Self-Experiment" Women and Film a discussion of feminist aesthetics and articles Sudau. ngc#13 Special FeministIssue oftheSimilar Walter Benjaminon Fascismand theDoctrine Anson Rabinbach. Storytelling back issues special Also Available: ngc#17 Special WalterBenjamin Issue #19. UlrikeProkop.34.G. Jacobs by Schlaeger."The Aesthetics in theU."Critiqueand Commentary/ and Chemistry" Alchemy or Habermas.26.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.