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: takro; Lao: "ka-taw"; Filipino: "sipa"; Vietnamese: "cầu mây"), or kick volleyball, is a sport native to the Malay-Thai Peninsula. Sepaktakraw differs from the similar sport of volleyball in its use of a rattan ball and only allowing players to use their feet, knee, chest and head to touch the ball. It is a popular sport in Southeast Asia. In Malaysia, the game is called sepak raga or "takraw". It is also thuck thay (Lao: "twine" and "kick") while in Thailand it is sometimes calledtakraw. In Myanmar it is known as chin lone (Although in Myanmar it is considered more of an art and there is often no opposing team. The point is to keep the ball aloft gracefully and interestingly.). In the Philippines, besides "takraw" it is also known as sipa, meaning "kick". In Australia it is also known as "footnis", presumably a combination of football and tennis. Similar games include footbag net, footvolley, football tennis, bossaball, jianzi and sipa. These similar games all involve keepie uppies
Earliest historical evidence shows that the game was played in the 15th century's Malacca Sultanate, for it is mentioned in the Malay historical text, "Sejarah Melayu" (Malay Annals). TheMalay Annals described in details the incident of Raja Muhammad, a son of Sultan Mansur Shah who was accidentally hit with a rattan ball by Tun Besar, a son of Tun Perak, in a Sepak ragagame. The ball hit Raja Muhammad's headgear and knocked it down to the ground. In anger, Raja Muhammad immediately stabbed and killed Tun Besar, whereupon some of Tun Besar's kinsmen retaliated and wanted to kill Raja Muhammad. However, Tun Perak managed to restrain them from such an act of treason by saying that he would no longer accept Raja Muhammad as the Sultan's heir. As a result of this incident, Sultan Mansur Shah ordered his son out of Malacca and had him installed as the ruler of Pahang. In Indonesia, sepak takraw was spread from nearby Malacca across the strait to Riau islands and Riau area in Sumatra as early as 16th century, where it is also called as Sepak Raga in local Malay tongue, at that time some of Sumatran areas were part of Malacca sultanate. From there the Malay people spread across archipelago and introduced the game to Buginese people in Sulawesi. Then the game is developed as Buginese traditional game which is called "Raga" (the players are called "Pa'Raga"). The "Raga" can trace its origin from Malacca Sultanate, and was popular in South Sulawesi since 19th century. Some men playing "Raga" encircling within a group, the ball is passed from one to another and the man
standing or working. it was dubbed "Chinlone". takraw was introduced to the curriculum in Siamese schools. or Burma. The game became such a cherished local custom that another exhibition of volleyball-style takraw was staged to celebrate the kingdom’s first constitution in 1933. Within just a few years. By the 1940s. and formal rules were introduced. murals at Wat Phra Kaeo which was built in 1785. the animal hide and chicken feathers were eventually replaced by balls made of woven strips of rattan. Sepak Takraw is included in Philippine's elementary and highschool curriculum. improve dexterity and loosen the limbs after long periods of sitting. It is a popular sport played by children in Philippines. such as kicking the ball and putting it on top of player's head holds by tengkolok bugis (Bugis cloth headgear similar to Malay tanjak). but rather cooperative displays of skill designed to exercise the body. The first versions of sepak takraw were not so much of a competition.who kicked the ball highest is the winner. Four years later. In 1829 the Siam Sports Association drafted the first rules for takraw competition. Other historical accounts mention the game earlier during the reign of King Naresuan (1590–1605) of Ayutthaya. the year after Thailand abolished absolute monarchy. the net version of the game had spread throughout Southeast Asia. the association introduced the volleyball-style net and held the first public contest. This sport became officially known as 'sepak takraw'. and the modern version of sepak takraw began taking shape in Thailand sometime during early 1740s. As the sport developed. The Volleyball Story THE BIRTH OF THE GAME . this is their national sport.In Myanmar. The game remained in its circle form for hundreds of years. "Raga" is also played for fun by demonstrating some tricks. It is believed that many variations of the game evolved from an ancient Chinese military exercise. "cầu mây" in Vietnam and in Indonesia "Raga" or "Sepak Takraw". In the Philippines the sport was called "sipa" and along with traditional martial arts survived the three century Spanish colonization. where soldiers would try to keep a feathered shuttlecock airborne by kicking it back and forth between two people. in Laos "Kator". depict the Hindu god Hanuman playing sepak takraw in a ring with a troop of monkeys. In Bangkok.
Morgan spent his first year at the Auburn (Maine) YMCA after which. which was too big and too heavy. with a rubber inner tube. in 1891. the Administrative Committee of the USVBA voted to spell the name with one word. and his classes grew in numbers. in Massachusetts. Describing his first experiments he said. he moved to the YMCA at Holyoke (Massachusetts) where he became Director of Physical Education. "Volleyball". We therefore tried the basketball itself.6 cm. Morgan asked the firm of A. Halstead called attention to the action. to make a ball. he developed it from his own sports training methods and his practical experience in the YMCA gymnasium. Frank Wood and John Lynch. so it was eliminated. After graduating. Morgan (1870-1942). Morgan took two teams. respectively). Mr Morgan explained the rules and worked on them. At that time Morgan knew of no similar game to Volleyball which could guide him. Luther Halsey Gulick. with one slight alteration: in 1952. After seeing the demonstration. A committee was appointed to study the rules and produce suggestions for the game's promotion and teaching.G. who was born in the State of New York.William G. and its weight not less than 9 and not more than 12 ounces (252 gr and 336 gr. Spalding & Bros." This name was accepted by Morgan and the conference." In the end. or the act phase. He came to realise that he needed a certain type of competitive recreational game in order to vary his programme. to draw up (based on his suggestions) the basic concepts of the game together with the first 10 rules. then gave a hand-written copy to the conference of YMCA directors of physical education. Morgan asked two of his friends from Holyoke. balls. We needed a ball and among those we tried was a basketball bladder.J. but it was necessary to find a less violent and less intense alternative for the older members. Basketball. respectively). a sport that was beginning to develop. where the demonstration was made before the conference delegates in the east gymnasium. from one side to the other. An unlimited number of players could participate. but could also be played in open air. Curran and of the other John Lynch who were respectively. had invented basketball. but the idea of a net seemed a good one. but continued to use USVBA to signify United States Volleyball Association). and proposed that the name "Mintonette" be replaced by "Volley Ball. Dr. a net and other equipment. In this role he had the opportunity to establish. just above the head of an average man. director of the professional physical education training school (and also executive director of the department of physical education of the International Committee of YMCA's) invited Morgan to make a demonstration of his game in the new college stadium.98 metres) from the ground. but this was too light and too slow. to which he originally gave the name "Mintonette". The captain of one of the teams was J. develop and direct a vast programme of exercises and sport classes for male adults. A brief report on the new game and its rules was published in the July 1896 edition of "Physical Education" and the rules were included in the 1897 edition of the first official handbook of the North American YMCA Athletic League. We raised it to a height of about 6 feet. seemed to suit young people. Early in 1896 a conference was organized at the YMCA College in Springfield. The result was satisfactory: the ball was leather-covered. Worldwide growth . has gone down in history as the inventor of the game of Volleyball. bringing together all the YMCA Directors of Physical Education. His leadership was enthusiastically accepted. Dr. of the ball's flight. the object of the game being to keep the ball in movement over a high net. its circumference was not less than 25 and not more than 27 inches (63. Professor Alfred T. as a guide for the use and development of the game. tennis occurred to me. mayor and chief of the fire brigade of Holyoke. The young Morgan carried out his undergraduate studies at the Springfield College of the YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) where he met James Naismith who. each made up of five men (and some loyal fans) to Springfield. which they did at their factory near Chicopee. 6 inches (1. during the summer of 1895. and hearing the explanation of Morgan. but this required rackets.5 cm and 68. (It is interesting to note that the same name has survived over the years. Morgan explained that the new game was designed for gymnasia or exercise halls. "In search of an appropriate game.
the YMCA managed to induce the powerful National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to publish its rules and a series of articles. J. Cubbon. organized in Manila. Dr. Until the early 1930s Volleyball was for the most part a game of leisure and recreation. and there were only a few international activities and competitions. and also in many other countries: Elwood S. . among other things. Volleyball thus became more and more a competitive sport with high physical and technical performance. and in 1922 the maximum number of authorized contacts with the ball was fixed at three. in that year. used 16 players (to enable a greater participation in matches). An indication of the growth of Volleyball in the United States is given in an article published in 1916 in the Spalding Volleyball Guide and written by Robert C. In 1918 the number of players per team was limited to six. Franklin H.000. adopted Volleyball in all its societies throughout the United States.000. There were different rules of the game in the various parts of the world.000 and in colleges (young men) 10. encouraged particularly by two professional schools of physical education. in Eastern Europe where the level of play had reached a remarkable standard). and others in Mexico and South American. J. contributing to the rapid growth of Volleyball among young college students. Volleyball was played in Asia according to the "Brown" rules which.000 people subdivided in the following way: in the YMCA (boys. Brown in Japan (1908). the game was included in the programme of the first Far-Eastern Games. Canada (in 1900 Canada became the first foreign country to adopt the game). Springfield college in Massachusetts and George Williams College in Chicago (now at Downers Grove. national championships were played in many countries (for instance. and older men) 70. Howard Crocker in China. young men. Gray in Burma.The physical education directors of the YMCA. Illinois). In that article Cubbon estimated that the number of players had reached a total of 200. In 1916.000. European and African countries. for a long time. however. in the YWCA (girls and women) 50. By 1913 the development of Volleyball on the Asian continent was assured as. in schools (boys and girls) 25.H. It should be noted that. Brown in the Philippines (1910). in China and in India.
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