Hypnotic Realities

Hypnotic Realities
The Induction of Clinical Hypnosis and Forms of Indirect Suggestion

Milton H. Erickson Ernest L Rossi Sheila I. Rossi
With a Foreword by Andre M. Weitzenhoffer IRVINGTON !"#ISH$RS% Inc&% Ne' (or)

Copyright * +,-. by $rnest #& Rossi% h&/& 0ll rights reser1ed& No part of this boo) may be reproduced in any manner 'hate1er% including information storage or retrie1al% in 'hole or in part 2e3cept for brief 4uotations in critical articles or re1ie's5% 'ithout 'ritten permission from the publisher& For information% 'rite to Ir1ington ublishers% Inc&% -67 "road'ay% Ne' (or)% Ne' (or) +7+-.& #ibrary of Congress Cataloging in ublication /ata $ric)son% 8ilton H& Hypnotic Realities "ibliography9 p& +& Hypnotism : Therapeutic use& I& Rossi% $rnest #a'rence% ;oint author& II& Rossi% Sheila I&% ;oint author& III& Title RC6,<&$-= .+<>&?<+= -.@=7.A. IS"N 7@?=,7@7++=@A 2Formerly IS"N 7@6-7@+<+.,@=5 rinted in The !nited States of 0merica +< +6 +A += ++ Reprint $dition +,,=

/edicated to an e1er progressing understanding of the total functioning of the indi1idual person 'ithin the self separately and simultaneously in relation to fello' beings and the total en1ironment&

/edicated to those clinicians and researchers 'ho 'ill further e3plore some of the approaches to enhancing human potentials described herein&

/edicated to all those persons learning through hypnotherapy for personal gro'th and professional de1elopment&

A !"#WLE$%ME"&S Be 'ish gratefully to ac)no'ledge the help 'e recei1ed from the follo'ing friends and colleagues9 Ro3anne $ric)son% Christie $ric)son% Cohn Hedenberg% Cac) 0& Oli1er% 8&/&% Robert earson% and Day Thompson& .

References F A+< .#'ER'IEW Introduction F + #"&E"&S Fore'ord% by 0ndre 8& BeitEenhoffer F 3ii One 0 Con1ersational Induction9 The $arly #earning Set F < Two Indirect Induction by Recapitulation F =Three The Handsha)e Induction F ?A Four 8utual Trance Induction F +=Five Trance #earning by 0ssociation F +6. Six Facilitating Hypnotic #earning F =7< Seven Indirectly Conditioned $ye Closure Induction F =AA Eight Infinite atterns of #earning9 0 T'o@(ear Follo'@!p F =?+ Nine Summary F =.

nduction Compound Suggestions The 'aradigms o.by Association . Weitzenhoffer Introd*ction #"&E"&S #"E A on+ersational Ind*ction.Shoc& and Creative +oments Contingent Suggestions and 0ssociational Net'or)s 8ultiple Tas)s and Serial Suggestions F#. &he Early Learnin.Set Obser1ation and $ric)son>s "asic 0pproach The Conscious and !nconscious in Clinical Hypnosis The !tiliEation Theory of Hypnotic Suggestion Truisms !tiliEing 8ental 8echanisms Truisms !tiliEing Time Not /oing% Not Dno'ing &W# Indirect Ind*ction by Recapit*lation The G(es SetG sychological Implication The Bind and Double Bind Question The Time Bind and Double Bind The Conscious.nconscious Double Bind The Double-Dissociation Double Bind ! "eneral #$%othesis !bout Evo&ing #$%notic 'henomena (everse Set Double Bind The Non Se)uitur Double Bind Contrasting the Thera%eutic and Schi*ogenic Double Bind nconscious and +etacommunication Open@$nded Suggestion Suggestions Co1ering 0ll ossibilities of a Class of Responses Ideomotor Signaling &HREE &he Handshake Ind*ction Confusion in the /ynamics of Trance Induction /ynamics of the Handsha)e Induction The #andsha&e .!cce%tance Set. (ein-orcement or S$mbolic /ogic Compound Statements The 'aradigms o.R M*t*al &rance Ind*ction The Surprise The Confusion@Restructuring 0pproach Therapeutic Trance as a State of 0cti1e !nconscious #earning FI'E &rance Learnin.A"AL(&I AL &A)LE #F Foreword by Andre M.

The Implied /irecti1e Huestions that Focus% Suggest and Reinforce Huestions for Indirect Trance Induction The Fragmentary /e1elopment of Trance /epotentiating Conscious 8ental Sets9 Confusion% 8ental Flu3% and Creati1ity .

A &wo1(ear Follow1.ndicators o.(e-erence .Hypnotic Learnin/isplacing and /ischarging Resistance 8ultiple #e1els of Communication9 0nalogy% uns% 8etaphor% Co)es% Fol) #anguage The 8icrodynamics of Suggestion SE'E" Indirectly onditioned Eye los*re Ind*ction Trance Training and !tiliEation The /ynamics of Indirect and /irect Suggestion Indirect Conditioning of Trance Voice /ynamics in Trance Interconte3tual Cues and Suggestions Right@ and #eft@Hemispheric Functioning in Trance EI%H& Infinite 0atterns of Learnin-.Functioning The Sub1ective Ex%erience o.Trance Clinical 0pproaches to Hypnotic Induction Orientation to #$%notic .#$%notic Suggestion .nduction De%otentiating #abitual Frames o.ndirect !%%roaches to #$%notic Suggestion Structuring an 0cceptance Set !tiliEing the atient>s 0ssociati1e Structure and 8ental S)ills The Facilitation o.#uman 'otentials REFERE" ES .Trance Develo%ment (ati-$ing Trance The Forms of Hypnotic Suggestion The Nature o.SI/ Facilitatin.p Infinite ossibilities of Creati1ity% Healing% and #earning "I"E S*22ary The Nature of Therapeutic Trance Trance 0iewed as .nduction !%%roaches to #$%notic .nner Directed States Trance 0iewed as a #ighl$ +otivated State Trance 0iewed as !ctive nconscious /earning Trance 0iewed as an !ltered State o.

'hen he hypnotiEed and demonstrated 1arious hypnotic phenomena 'ith a sub.ect 'ith 'hom 1erbal communication 'as impossible& He spo)e no Spanish and the sub.ect% ho' one says it% 'hen one says it% and 'here one says it are all e3tremely important factors in the effecti1e use of hypnotism% particularly in a clinical% therapeutic setting& It also becomes clear that one must 1ie' the hypnotherapeutic interaction in its totality and not piecemeal% and go e1en a step further by 1ie'ing it 'ithin the totality of its utiliEation& This ta)es the use of suggestion% and more broadly% of hypnotism out of the domain of the use of simple magic formulas and places it 'ithin the frame'or) of the science of interactional and communication net'or)s& $ric)son% ho'e1er% is not .<< at a meeting of the Society for Clinical and $3perimental Hypnosis in Chicago& Bhen I met him he 'as engaged in con1ersation 'ith a small group of colleagues in a hotel lobby& I had ne1er seen the man or e1en a photograph of him& (et in a strange 'ay% as it then seemed to me% as I sa' him from some distance out of hearing range% I )ne' this 'as 8ilton $ric)son& I ha1e thought bac) to this incident a number of times& Concei1ably I had heard some'here that he had had polio and the fact he leaned on a cane might ha1e been the clue to his identity& I cannot be sure% but I am inclined to belie1e the clues 'ere more subtle& In a 'ay% I had encountered 8ilton a number of times pre1iously:through his 'ritings 'hich I had studied e3hausti1ely& Through these% I had begun to appreciate the uni4ueness of his person& I belie1e that some of the 4ualities 'hich ha1e made him the indi1idual he is% 'ere communicated to me through these 'ritings% and that I e3perienced them more directly as they 'ere manifesting themsel1es as he interacted 'ith others& In the years 'hich follo'ed I 'as to ha1e other occasions% by far too fe' to suit me% to meet 'ith him% 'atch him demonstrate% 'atch him doing therapy% and listen to him tal) about hypnotism as 'ell as other matters& 8ore particularly% I had the opportunity to see 'hy% as the years ha1e gone by% he has gro'n into a 4uasi@legendary figure to 'hom the title of G8r& HypnosisG 'as once gi1en& I ha1e also had the opportunity to see in action such famed stage hypnotists of the forties and fifties as Ralph Slater% FranE olgar% and others% many of 'hom billed themsel1es as G0merica>s Foremost Hypnotist%G the GBorld>s Fastest Hypnotist%G etc&% and 'ho e3tolled their fantastic pro'ess ad nauseam2 Good entertainers% yes& 0s hypnotists% ho'e1er% they came up poor seconds to 8ilton $ric)son% and yet there ne1er 'as a more 4uiet% unassuming man& It is not surprising then that many professionals ha1e tried to emulate him& None thus far ha1e e1er truly succeeded% although a fe' ha1e managed to become a fair appro3imation& Some of the reasons for this become clear on reading this 'or)& Some of these 'ill still remain unclear& If the authors ha1e failed to deal 'ith them to the e3tent that their importance calls for% it is only because they are not e3actly the )ind of things one can ade4uately teach merely through the 'ritten 'ord& erhaps it is also because they are not teachable and% I suspect% there is some un'illingness on their part to admit this to themsel1es and the reader& 0s the 'or) ma)es it most clear% not only 'hat one says to the patient or sub.<6 or +.ust a master of 1erbal communication as the 'or) ma)es e1ident& He is e4ually adept at non@1erbal communication% 'hich is one of the aspects to 'hich the 'or) does not and can not really do .Foreword For the many 'ho ne1er had the opportunity and ne1er 'ill ha1e the opportunity to attend 'or)shops led by 8ilton $ric)son% this 'or) 'ill ser1e as an in1aluable surrogate& sychotherapists% in general% as 'ell as hypnotherapists% 'ill find the 'or) re'arding reading and study% for $ric)son is abo1e all a psychotherapist% and his modus o%erandi transcends clinical hypnotism& 0s for academicians and researchers% I belie1e they 'ill find enough food for thought and research here to )eep them busy for some time to come& 8y first encounter 'ith 8ilton $ric)son 'as in +.ect spo)e no $nglish& From beginning to end% communication 'as carried entirely .<.ustice& This is unfortunate but una1oidable and certainly not an o1ersight on the part of the authors& One of the more memorable demonstrations of his s)ill at non@1erbal communication that he has gi1en in his career 'as in 8e3ico City in +.

years ago& Here I thin) I should ma)e it clear that% to my )no'ledge% I ha1e ne1er been hypnotiEed by him% at least formally& 0 group of us had met in hiladelphia 'ith 8ilton% in a special seminar aimed at gaining some understanding of his modus o%erandi2 One morning I 'as alone 'ith him sitting at the brea)fast table% facing him some'hat obli4uely to'ard his left& 0s I recall% I 'as doing most of the tal)ing& 0s I tal)ed% partially absorbed in my thoughts% I became 1aguely a'are% peripherally% of 8ilton ma)ing peculiar repetitious gestures 'ith one of his hands& 8omentarily I made nothing of this% then 'ith my a'areness increasing% t'o things happened in 1ery close se4uence& 8y right hand mo1ed out% spontaneous@li)e% to pic) up the coffee pot 'hich 'as on the table and begin to lift it& Bith this% the realiEation da'ned on me that 8ilton 'anted coffee& 0t that point% to use the terminology of this 'or)% my Gconscious mindG too) o1er the action and I completed the act% 'hile realiEing no'% that 8ilton>s gesturing had% indeed% clearly spelled out a non@1erbal re4uest to ha1e coffee poured into his cup& This sort of thing% as I learned in time% is one of his fa1orite 'ays of teaching or ans'ering a 4uestion about a related matter& It is also his 'ay of subtly testing an indi1idual>s suggestibility or hypnotiEability& It is also his 'ay of )eeping himself in shape% so to spea)& I said% to'ard the beginning of this paragraph% that I had ne1er been GformallyG hypnotiEed by 8ilton $ric)son& True% if by Gformal induction%G 'e mean the use of any of the usual classical and semi@ classical techni4ues described o1er and o1er in 1arious te3ts on hypnotism& For reasons that 'ill become clear presently% and certainly after reading the present 'or)% I am sure that the authors 'ould say that I had indeed been hypnotiEed by 8ilton at least on that particular occasion& There is% of course% much more to effecti1e 1erbal communication than saying 'ords according to appropriate syntactical and other linguistic rules% or the introduction of appropriate non@1erbal elements at the correct time and place& In my e3periences 'ith 8ilton $ric)son% I ha1e found that his control of such features as intonation and 1oice modulation% to mention only these t'o aspects% forms an intrinsic part of his approach to hypnotism& One has to hear and 'atch him to get the full fla1or of his manner of speech& To say that he spea)s gently yet incisi1ely% slo'ly% calmly% softly% enunciating clearly and carefully each 'ord% sometimes each syllable% the 'hole 'ith certain cadence% can only gi1e but a s)etchy fla1or of the process& There is% unfortunately% no 'ay for a boo) to con1ey to the reader the )inds of information that 'ould allo' him to duplicate these features& Ho'e1er% attention can be called to this matter so that after studying the boo)% if the reader finds himself some'hat less effecti1e than $ric)son in spite of his efforts to do e1erything .ects and patients& 0s one 'atches him% one becomes 1ery much a'are of his ability to communicate to the sub.ect about a s)ier Gout thereG on a distant sno' co1ered hill 'hich he describes in some detail% or about a rabbit Gright do'n there at your feet@@@@@and 'hat color is itIG one often has the eerie feeling that he too sees the s)ier% the hill% the sno'% and the rabbit& Ho' then% can the sub.ect indeed fail to see them tooI Bhether or not 8ilton actually shares in the sub.ust so% he 'ill not dra' the 'rong conclusions& 0nother element 'hich I belie1e enters into 8ilton>s effecti1eness and 'hich% in my opinion% this 'or) does not sufficiently bring out% is the 4uiet confidence% and strangely enough in 1ie' of his permissi1e approach% the authority too% that he e3udes& There is a con1iction e3pressed by his 1oice and his actions that e1erything is% or 'ill be% as he says& erhaps part of this e3uded con1iction has its roots in another feature of $ric)son>s interaction 'ith his sub.ect and patient that he is participating in some of his e3periences and sharing these 'ith him& This is particularly e1ident 'hen he elicits hallucinatory phenomena& 0s one 'itnesses 8ilton $ric)son tell a sub.non@1erbally through pantomime& I can personally attest to the effecti1eness of his non@1erbal communications% through an e3perience I had 'ith 8ilton $ric)son some +< or +.ect>s sub.unct in his elicitation of the desired responses& This is to say then% as a 'arning to readers 'ho might e3pect much more than is reasonable from this 'or)% that I belie1e there are important elements 8ilton $ric)son brings .ecti1e e3periences% the impression is 1erbally and non@1erbally communicated to the latter that he does& In my opinion this is an e3tremely po'erful ad.

ustify certain omissions% particularly of material e3tremely difficult to deal 'ith in 'riting& Indeed% as e1ery modern educator )no's% the three ma.or modes of communication% audio% 1isual% and 'ritten% each contributes in a uni4ue and non@interchangeable 'ay to the total process of education& Bhat I ha1e .ust stated merely reflects this fact& 0s 'ritten communication goes% the present 'or) does a superlati1e .udgmental manner% an action hardly appropriate to a fore'ord& That aspect of the induction and utiliEation of hypnosis upon 'hich the authors ha1e chosen to focus is sufficiently comple3 and central as to .to bear in his production and utiliEation of hypnosis 'hich are not gi1en as much attention as they deser1e& This is not being 'ritten in a .ob in elucidating the comple3ities of $ric)son>s approaches to clinical hypnotism& Indeed it accomplishes admirably that 'hich can only best be done by the 'ritten 'ord& 0ll of this leads me to one last point I 'ould ma)e for all those readers 'ho 'ould aspire to become another 8ilton $ric)son& The boo) 'ill teach them some of 8ilton>s Gsecrets%G 'hich actually 'ere ne1er secrets at all& It is simply that 'hat he did% and still does% 'as so ob1ious and natural to him that he assumed e1eryone )ne' 'hat 'as going on& Bhether )no'ing the secrets 'ill be enough is a moot 4uestion& 8ilton did not become G8r& HypnosisG o1ernight& 8any e1ents and e3periences ha1e preceded his <7 years and more of e3perience 'ith hypnotism& 8any other e1ents ha1e filled these fifty years& Bhich ones ha1e materially contributed to ma)e the man% the hypnotist% and the clinician that he isI No one can really tell% e1en 8ilton himself& Some can be specified& Of these% some could be duplicated% some could not% and there are some 'hich one 'ould hardly 'ant to duplicate& 0 'ide e3perience 'ith the phenomenology of hypnotism% especially in a naturalistic setting% e3tensi1e and long e3perience teaching% applying% demonstrating% and e3perimenting 'ith hypnotism% all of these must be seen as undoubtedly ha1ing played an essential part in 8ilton $ric)son>s spectacular success& These are duplicable& otentially duplicable by deliberate innoculation% but hardly the )ind of e3perience anyone 'ould readily undergo% is being stric)en t'ice 'ith poliomyelitis as 8ilton $ric)son 'as& Certainly not duplicable is being born tone deaf and color blind& $ric)son attributes much of his heightened sensiti1ity to )inesthetic cues% body dynamics% and altered modes of sensory@perceptual functioning to his life@long struggle 'ith his innate and ac4uired infirmities& In his study and effort to mitigate these problems he ac4uired a personal a'areness of altered patterns of functioning that 'as channeled into his life@'or) as healer& 0dditionally% $ric)son has brought to his life@'or) a remar)able imagination and creati1ity% a high degree of sensiti1ity and intuition% a )een obser1ing po'er% a prodigious memory for facts and e1ents% and a particular ability for organiEing 'hat he e3periences on a moment to moment basis& There is little here that can be duplicated on demand& If one is not li)ely to e1er be another 8ilton $ric)son% one can at least learn something about his modus o%erandi and utiliEe it as completely as possible 'ithin one>s o'n limitations and in terms of one>s o'n personal assets& If this 'or) does nothing more than help the reader accomplish this% it 'ill ha1e attained its purpose& In approaching this 'or) the reader should )eep in mind that it is the product of pragmatists% and that it is specifically about therapeutic or clinical hypnotism% and neither about theoretical or e3perimental hypnotism& The reader might as 'ell )no' from the outset that he 'ill not find in this boo) any 'ell defined and 'or)ed out theory% nor any solid scientific documentation of many stated facts& Huite clearly% the authors espouse a certain theoretical position 'ith regard to the nature of hypnosis% of hypnotic phenomena% of suggestion% and of suggested beha1ior& One may or may not agree 'ith them% and many alternati1e e3planations 'ill come to the reader>s mind as he follo's the authors> e3planations of 'hat ta)es place 'hen $ric)son ma)es a certain inter1ention or ta)es a certain step& Ho'e1er% to get the most out of this 'or)% one needs to )eep in mind that its focus is not so much upon de1eloping a scientific theory as it is upon elucidating ho' 8ilton $ric)son obtains the )inds of results that he doesJ results 'hich most 'ould agree in1ol1e beha1ior 'hich may be labeled as being GsuggestedG andFor being Ghypnotic&G From a practical% pragmatic standpoint it is relati1ely immaterial 'hether these elicited beha1iors are G1eridical%G Grole@playing%G Ga product of cogniti1e restructuring%G in1ol1e some sort of .

ect is in a state of Ghypnosis&G Ho'e1er% e1en prior to "ernheim% and earlier% it has also been 'idely recogniEed that suggestions leading to the sort of beha1iors e3hibited by hypnotiEed indi1iduals can also be effecti1ely used in the absence of any induction of hypnosis& That is% they can be effecti1e 'ith persons 'ho ha1e presumably not been hypnotiEed& One interpretation of this obser1ation% to 'hich a small number of modern in1estigators ha1e ascribed% is that hypnosis is not only unnecessary for the production of hypnotic beha1ior% but is also actually an unnecessary concept& This interpretation leads to the position there is no hypnosis as a state& Ho'e1er% one alternati1e to this position% and this is the one ta)en by the authors% is that all bona-ide responses to suggestions are associated% i%so -acto.ust one tiny e3ample% the use of the Gdouble@bind%G be it as understood by "ateson% or in the special sense that the authors use it% is not a hypnotic techni4ue or approach per se% nor does it in1ol1e a hypnotic or suggestion process% but it can be used as a specific tool to induce hypnosis andFor as a tool to elicit further beha1iors from a hypnotiEed indi1idual& 0lthough theory is neither the strength nor the focus of this boo)% a 1ery definite theoretical position is reflected by $ric)son>s modus o%erandi. 'ith a hypnotic or trance state& From this standpoint there is no longer any distinction bet'een G'a)ingG and GhypnoticG suggestions% or if one prefers% bet'een e3tra and intrahypnotic suggestions& To respond ade4uately to a suggestion is to be hypnotiEed& To put it a little differently% according to the authors% one cannot respond ade4uately to a suggestion 'ithout first% or at the same time% de1eloping a hypnotic trance& This particular 1ie' of the situation comes about in a t'o@fold 'ay9 For the authors% if a response is to be an ade4uate response to a suggestion% it must be mediated by a different aspect of the mind than so@called conscious beha1ior& Thus they distinguish bet'een beha1ior e3ecuted by the sub. or at least guides it& It has been traditional% and this is still 'idely done% to 1ie' hypnotic beha1ior as beha1ior elicited by GsuggestionsG gi1en 'hile the sub.ect>s GunconsciousG and GconsciousG mind& Normally% the conscious dominates the unconscious& The traditional inductions of hypnosis are nothing more or less than a freeing of the unconscious from conscious dominance% 'hich is 'hat they see as also momentarily e3isting any time an indi1idual responds ade4uately to a suggestion& For them to function completely at the unconscious le1el is to be in a trance or hypnotic state% too& 0ny shift from conscious to unconscious functioning is a passage from a non@trance to a trance state 2G'a)ingG to Ghypnotic stateG5& 0lthough this 'ill most li)ely be clear to many readers% it may be 'ell to ma)e the point here that the authors> conception of the GunconsciousG is definitely not the one held by Freud& 8orton rince>s GsubconsciousG is perhaps the closest to it& In any case it is an intelligent% comple3 le1el of mental functioning 'hich appears to retain certain ego functions possessed by the conscious mind% 'hile relin4uishing% or not being affected by% some of the other functions usually associated 'ith the ego& One conse4uence of the abo1e 1ie' of suggestion and hypnotism is that the notion of hypnosis as a state of hypersuggestibility becomes meaningless& To be suggestible is to be hypnotiEed& These are merely alternati1e 'ays of spea)ing of the same thing& It follo's from this then% that it is also meaningless to spea) of testing an indi1idual>s 'a)ing or non@ hypnotic suggestibility% as a predictor of his hypnotiEability& Finally% a formal induction of hypnosis% 'hen it is successful% might be 1ie'ed in this frame'or) as nothing more than an obtrusi1e techni4ue 'hich brings about a shift in degree of increased unconscious participation in a step@li)e fashion& The real impact of 1ie'ing hypnotic and suggested beha1ior as the authors do% ho'e1er% is to be found in the central topic of this 'or)& Ho' to .Gdissociati1e process%G or are the conse4uences of a GshapingG process% and so on& $1entually% the GtrueG scientist 'ants to )no' 'hat is 'hat& This the authors ha1e 'ell recogniEed% often pointing out areas for in1estigation and suggesting e3periments 'hich could be made& "ut for the busy clinician and for the long suffering patient it is results% and 4uic) ones at that% 'hich count& $fficacity is the issue& For this reason effecti1e hypnotherapists% 'hich the three authors are% do not limit themsel1es to hypnotic procedures per se& On the contrary% as is e1ident from this boo)% and e1en more so from other 'ritings of $ric)son and of Rossi% effecti1e hypnotherapy constantly inter'ea1es the utiliEation of hypnotic and non@hypnotic beha1ioral processes& To ta)e .

ustifiably so% since this is a boo) about his approach to the therapeutic utiliEation of hypnotism& Still% this 'or) is a .oint effort and% had it not been for another of the authors% in particular% $rnest #& Rossi% it 'ould ne1er ha1e seen the light of day& Rossi has done much more than record and report that 'hich $ric)son does and says& He has spent an enormous amount of time and effort getting him to e3plicate 'hat has been so clear to 8ilton but so obscure to e1eryone else& Ha1ing done so% Rossi has proceeded to unra1el% sift% analyEe% translate% organiEe% and finally integrate 'hat must at first ha1e seemed to him to be a be'ildering collection of data& This has been no small tas)% as I can attest to from my o'n unsuccessful past efforts to do something similar on a much smaller scale& Furthermore% Rossi has succeeded% I belie1e% in gi1ing us an opportunity to see in a uni4ue 'ay% 'hat $ric)son does through the latter>s 1ery o'n eyes& $rnest Rossi>s particular contribution does not stop there% ho'e1er% and is to be further found in his compilation of interesting% useful% and thought pro1o)ing e3ercises% 4uestions% commentaries and suggestions for research& Finally% I belie1e that students of $ric)son 'ill find in this boo) ans'ers to 4uestions they 'ish they could ha1e as)ed of him% but ne1er did or could% and e1en more so% ans'ers they sought but ne1er got& 0ndre 8& BeitEenhoffer O)lahoma City .facilitate% acti1ate% culti1ate% and% to some e3tent% utiliEe unconscious le1els of functioning& This is 'hat this boo) is about& I ha1e spo)en at great length about 8ilton $ric)son% and .


Hypnotic Realities .


ME $ach chapter begins 'ith a carefully transcribed record of $ric)son>s induction of clinical hypnosis and his 'or) 'ith a sub.unior authors% the Rossies% in clinical hypnosis& 0s this training progressed% it became an analysis of the basic aspects of $ric)son>s 'or)& Since the Rossies 'ere beginners in the field% $ric)son had to introduce and demonstrate the basic principles of clinical hypnosis in a manner that ma)es this 1olume suitable as an introductory te3t to the field& Since $ric)son is such a creati1e inno1ator% ho'e1er% much of the material 'ill be of great interest to all psychotherapists% 'hate1er their le1el of training or field of specialiEation& It 'ill be seen on the follo'ing pages that clinical hypnosis and therapeutic trance 2using these terms synonymously5 are carefully planned e3tensions of some e1eryday processes of normal li1ing& Bithout 4uite realiEing it% 'e all e3perience the Gcommon e1eryday tranceG 'herein 'e are absorbed in a moment of inner re1erie or preoccupation& /uring such periods 'e go about our daily routine some'hat automaticallyJ much of our attention is actually focused in'ard as 'e e3perience oursel1es a bit more deeply and possibly gain a fresh perspecti1e or e1en sol1e a problem& Similarly% in the clinical utiliEation of trance 'e can be more recepti1e to our o'n inner e3perience and unrealiEed potentials in 'ays that are most surprising& Bith the help of a therapist>s suggestions% these potentials may be e3plored and further de1eloped& The hypnotherapist shares many 1ie's in common 'ith other 'ell@trained psychotherapists9 an understanding of the dynamics of unconscious processes in beha1iorJ an appreciation of the significance of emotional and e3periential learning as 'ell as intellectual )no'ingJ a high regard for the uni4ue life e3perience of each indi1idualJ and so on& Hypnotherapists are different in practice% ho'e1er% in that they are more specialiEed in the deliberate utiliEation of these processes 'ithin indi1iduals to help them achie1e their o'n therapeutic goals in their o'n uni4ue 'ay& In these pages $ric)son demonstrates a myriad of approaches by 'hich psychotherapists of all persuasions can facilitate psychological de1elopment 'ith or 'ithout the formal induction of trance& He belie1es that trance itself is a different e3perience for e1ery personJ indeed% clinical trance may be understood as a free period in 'hich indi1iduality can flourish& From this point of 1ie' one comes to understand $ric)son>s 'or) as an acti1e approach to the basic endea1or of all psychotherapy9 helping indi1iduals outgro' learned limitations so that inner potentials can be realiEed to achie1e therapeutic goals& &HE F#RM #F &HIS '#L.Introd*ction This 1olume is the record of a uni4ue demonstration by 8ilton H& $ric)son of the art of inducing clinical hypnosis and the indirect forms of hypnotic suggestion& It is the record of a process of training and disco1ery& Initially% the senior author% $ric)son% 'as in1ol1ed in training the .ect along 'ith a commentary to elucidate his procedures& His non1erbal beha1ior 2gestures% pantomime% etc&5 is described in parentheses& In these records there is some repetition of the procedures utiliEed% the 4uestions as)ed% and the issues discussed& This repetition came about naturally because $ric)son 'as engaged in training the Rossies in hypnotherapy& The Ros@sies fre4uently had to as) the same 4uestions o1er and o1er to be sure they understood 'hat $ric)son 'as trying to con1ey& The repetition of similar themes in different conte3ts allo's the reader to e3plore the significant features of $ric)son>s 'or) and ho' he utiliEes them in the contingencies of daily practice& The induction section of each session is an e3tremely careful transcription of $ric)son>s e3act 'ords in boldface type& Bhen he paused momentarily% his 'ords are set off by a ne' line of type or by e3tra space bet'een his 'ords or phrases& Bhen he paused for more than =7 or A7 seconds% it 'as indicated by the 'ord GpauseG in parentheses& Since this material 'as recorded 'hen $ric)son 'as -= years old on an ordinary cassette machine% there 'ere a fe' occasions 'hen some 'ords 'ere lost& This 'as carefully indicated 'ith ellipses 2& & &5& The induction section thus pro1ides the reader 'ith the empirical ra' data of $ric)son>s 'or) .

ust illustrated& 0t times Rossi attempts to analyEe $ric)son>s clinical approach in order to unco1er some of the basic 1ariables that could be isolated and tested by future e3perimental 'or)& These sections may be understood as an effort to build a bridge bet'een the clinical art of $ric)son>s hypnotherapy and : the systematic efforts of the science of psychology to understand human beha1ior& In studying this 1olume readers may do best by first reading the induction sections that are the GpurestG indications of $ric)son>s 'or)& Readers can then dra' their o'n conclusions and as) their o'n 4uestions about the 'or) before progressing to the commentary sections& They can then determine for themsel1es the ade4uacy of the e3plications of the inductions& Readers may then 'rite their o'n analyses of the rele1ant 1ariables and perhaps test them% adding to the general )no'ledge& 0t the end of each chapter or section 'here ne' material has been introduced% a number of graduated e3ercises are offered as a guide to aid hypnotherapists in de1eloping their o'n s)ills in the clinical arts of obser1ation% hypnotic induction% and the formulation of indirect suggestions& 8any of these e3ercises 'ill be of 1alue to the general psychotherapist 'ith or 'ithout the formal induction of clinical hypnosis& This 1olume thus can ser1e as a heuristic% stimulating practicing psychotherapists to impro1e their o'n education and training& It also pro1ides researchers 'ith a clinical source of hypothesis about hypnotic phenomena and hypnotherapy that can be tested in a more controlled e3perimental fashion& .ecti1e record that other research 'or)ers could analyEe in future studies of $ric)son>s approach& The commentary sections% indented in ordinary type% are a discussion bet'een $ric)son 2$5 and $rnest Rossi 2R5 'herein $ric)son e3plains his 'or) 'ith the sub.ects 2S5& The content of these commentaries 'as determined in e4ual parts by 'hat $ric)son felt to be the rele1ant material to be taught and by 'hat Rossi felt he needed to as) in order to understand& These discussions 'ere comple3 and sometimes drifted far from the issues at hand& For the practical purposes of publication% some of these discussions ha1e been edited or paraphrased to ma)e their meaning clear& Bhile some of these commentaries are thus slanted a bit through the lenses of Rossi>s understanding and needs% they 'ere also carefully read and sometimes modified by $ric)son to emphasiEe a point here or clarify an issue there& $ach chapter ends 'ith a number of sections by $rnest Rossi to clarify and elaborate on the rele1ant issues of $ric)son>s 'or) .unadulterated by anyone else>s preconceptions& $ric)son carefully read and appro1ed of these transcriptions of his 'or)& The induction section could thus ser1e as an ob.


"ow I52 -oin.Set /r& S 'as a psychologist and mother 'ho 'as a1ailable to cooperate in a uni4ue demonstration to ascertain if it 'as possible to train a professional person to become a hypnotherapist by ha1ing her learn by e3periencing hypnosis personally& /r& S had no e3perience 'ith hypnosis apart from one demonstration 'here she e3perienced a short induction& This ser1ed to arouse her interest in the field% and she agreed to being tape@ recorded in return for the free training she 'ould recei1e& $ric)son initiates the process in this first session 'ith 'hat 'e may call the G$arly #earning SetG induction& He simply re4uests that S focus on a spot 'hile he tal)s 'ith her& His approach is casual% gentle% 'arm% and friendly& $ric)son simply tal)s about )indergarten and learning% imagery and comfort% the abilities of the unconscious and some alterations of the blin) refle3& This is an e3ample of con1ersational induction so innocuous and indirect that it is often difficult to recogniEe that trance is being induced& The impatient tyro 'aits in 1ain for him to begin the HK(K KNKOKSKIKS& Bhere are the mysterious manipulations that 'ill ta)e possession of the sub. Look at the far *pper corner of that pict*re.#"E A on+ersational Ind*ction. &he Early Learnin. &he far *pper corner of that pict*re. 30a*se4 $9 So often the therapist does not e1en loo) at the patient>s face& (et changes in facial e3pression% muscle tonus throughout the body% and the breathing tell you ho' much of the patient>s attention has been directed to the problem at hand& No sense in trying to .ect>s mind and bodyI Bhere are the frenEy% prostration% stupor% and biEarre gesticulations that ancient medical lithographs ha1e illustrated as possession and tranceI 8odern hypnotherapy is 4uite different from the popular conception of hypnosis as a mysterious drama& Therapists are not sho'men& They are% ho'e1er% highly s)illed in obser1ation and can recogniEe e1en minor 1ariations in beha1ior that pro1ide important clues to the patient>s interests and abilities& These clues are then utiliEed to help guide the patient into those interesting states of altered a'areness that are generally called trance&G Therapy then proceeds by Gta)ing the learnings that the erson already has and applying them in other 'ays&G $ric)son is 'ary about suggesting or adding anything ne' to the patientJ he 'ould rather facilitate the patient>s ability to creati1ely utiliEe and de1elop 'hat he already has& In this first session $ric)son introduces a number of themes that 'ill be repeated in e1er@ 'idening conte3ts in the later sessions9 focusing the patient in'ard% freeing unconscious 2autonomous5 processes from the limitations of a patient>s conscious sets% some principles and forms of indirect suggestion% and the ethics of trance and hypnotherapy& The beginning student in hypnotherapy often 'ants to learn e1erything all at once& That approach cannot really succeed& 0n understanding of the material de1elops naturally o1er time as $ric)son goes o1er the fundamentals again and again in successi1e sessions& Fre4uently% the significance of the material in the early sessions is not entirely understood until later& "ecause of this% serious students may find themsel1es returning to restudy each session many times before it 'ill be 'ell understood& #bser+ation E. "ow yo* 3R4 watch her face.to talk to yo*.

(o* didn5t know it at the ti2e6 b*t it was a per2anent 2ental i2a-e.letters and n*2erals see2ed to be a bi. 30a*se4 $9 The a1erage hypnotherapist says% G#oo) at this spot%G and tries to focus the patient>s attention to the spot& "ut it is easier to deal 'ith the images the person has in his mind& There>s a large 1ariety of images in his mind% and he can slip easily from one to another 'ithout lea1ing the situation& R9 So internal imagery is therefore much more effecti1e in holding attention& $9 Some e3ternal thing has no real 1alue to them% but the images they ha1e 'ithin are of 1alue& Furthermore% you>re only tal)ing about 'hat did occur in their past& It is their . (o* de+eloped 2ore and 2ore 2ental i2a-es witho*t knowinyo* were de+elopin. $9 No' here you are merely ta)ing the learnings that the person already has and applying them in other 'ays& "ut you>re not creating anything ne'& R9 (ou>re utiliEing a learning set that already e3ists in the patient& It is a learning set that you>re e1o)ing by this particular induction& $9 (es& &r*is2s as the )asic For2 of Hypnotic S*--estion &o reco-nize the letter A to tell a 7 fro2 an # was +ery6 +ery diffic*lt. And then too6 script and print were so different. And yo* can recall all those i2a-es. )*t yo* learned to for2 a 2ental i2a-e of so2e kind. R9 (ou are using a series of 1ery ob1ious truths% truisms% as suggestions here& 0s you spea) of these early e3periences% your 'ords tend to e1o)e early memories and may facilitate an actual age regression in some sub.'or) 'ith a patient 'ho>s ma)ing restless mo1ements& R9 The 4uieter the patient% the more he>s directing energy to 'hat is being said& $9 (esL 0nd you also notice 'hether the patient can be distracted from the therapy& Can the patient be disturbed by a bus outside or a sirenI The less disturbed they are by such outer distractions% the more focused is their energy on therapy& (ou can only tell these things by carefully 'atching the patient& Early Learnin.2ental i2a-es.ins*r2o*ntable task.ects& $9 (es& Suggestions are al'ays gi1en in a form that the patient can accept easily& Suggestions are statements that the patient cannot possibly argue 'ith& Internal I2a-ery And later on in -ra22ar school yo* for2ed other 2ental i2a-es of words or pict*res of sentences.Set When yo* first went to kinder-arten6 -rade school6 this 2atter of learnin.

Allowin. )*t yo*r conscio*s 2ind isn5t -oin.it wishes. (o*r *nconscio*s can try anythin.of i2portance.ust as 'atching a spot focuses their attention on an outer image& "ut being absorbed in an internal image is much more effecti1e for focusing attention& $9 8uch more effecti1eL R9 0nd 'hile they are so absorbed% their consciousness is distracted so you can ma)e suggestions directly to their unconscious& $9 They are far more interested in the conscious things& They are not paying attention to 'hat I say consciously& They are paying attention unconsciously% so there is no interference from consciousness& . (o* can feel water yo* 2ay want to swi2 in it.past and I>m not forcing anything on them& They did learn the alphabet% their numerals& They did learn many% many images& They can be pleased and select any image they 'ant& R9 Far from arousing resistance% you>re actually on their side in sympathy 'ith them& (ou sympathiEe 'ith their difficulty in learning% so you align yourself 'ith the patient>s difficulties& $9 That>s right& 0nd you )no' from your o'n e3perience it 'as hard& R9 Bith all that early accomplishment you>re tapping% you also arouse their moti1ation for their current 'or) in hypnosis& Relations of onscio*sness and .nconscio*s "ow yo* can -o anywhere yo* wish6 and transport yo*rself to any sit*ation. $9 The patient is not paying attention to me 'ith his conscious mind% but the unconscious will pic) up 'hat I>m saying& R9 So your method gets directly to the unconscious 'ithout the inter1ention and distortion of consciousness& $9 Sometimes patients 'ill later say% GI 'ish you had let me stay in the 'ater or the garden longer&G R9 So being in an Ginner gardenG is a 'ay you ha1e of holding their conscious attention& (ou>re ha1ing their conscious attention focused on an internal image . 30a*se4 (o* can do anythin.the onscio*s Mind to Withdraw (o* don5t e+en ha+e to listen to 2y +oice beca*se yo*r *nconscio*s will hear it.nconscio*s F*nctionin-.to do anythin. $9 This sounds li)e a great deal of freedom% but note I ha1e gi1en the suggestion to GtransportG your consciousness to another situation& It can be any place you 'ish& It 'ill probably be associated 'ith 'ater and you can do anything you 'ant% but your consciousness need not be focused here in the therapy room& .yo* want.

it6 yo*5re de2onstratin. $9 They don>t )no'% but 'hen you tell them they ha1e altered their functioning% they can become a'are of it& Their functioning is already altered so they cannot resist or deny it& They ha1e their inner proof& R9 They ha1e proof of an altered state& (ou inform the patient of these things to pro1e the hypnotic state rather than using a challenge& $9 That>s right& I don>t li)e to use the lac) of the s'allo' refle3 as a challenge because they tend to test that one& I>d rather use things they cannot test& R9 "ecause patients tend to s'allo' less during trance% some therapists ha1e used it as a test of trance depth& They 'ill GchallengeG patients by telling them they cannot s'allo'& /uring the initial stages of trance training% ho'e1er% such a challenge might actually arouse some patients& $own-radin. Li2itin.Internal Responses (o* will notice that yo*r conscio*s 2ind is so2ewhat concerned since it keeps fl*tterin. $9 Here I limited the fluttering to the eyelids rather than letting her generaliEe it into belie1ing her 'hole system 'as fluttering or uncertain& R& That slight% rapid% 1ibratory flutter of the eyelids during the initial phase of an induction is fre4uently ta)en as an indication of beginning trance& 0ro+in.an Altered State )*t yo* altered yo*r rate of breathin-.the i22obility that a hypnotic s*b8ect can show.R9 That>s the important use of images9 they bind a person>s conscious attention 'hile you ma)e other 2e&g&% therapeutic5 suggestions directly to their unconscious& $9 0nd it is 1ery important for a person to )no' their unconscious is smarter than they are& There is a greater 'ealth of stored material in the unconscious& Be )no' the unconscious can do things% and it>s important to assure your patient that it can& They ha1e to be 'illing to let their unconscious do things and not depend so much on their conscious mind& This is a great aid to their functioning& So $ou build $our techni)ue around instructions that allow their conscious mind to withdraw -rom the tas& and leave it all u% to the unconscious2 R9 (ou don>t 'ant them to ha1e conscious control but to allo' their unconscious to function smoothly by itself& $9 0nd then the results of that unconscious functioning can become conscious& "ut first they ha1e to get beyond their conscious understanding of 'hat is possible& Eyelid Fl*tter.yo*r eyelids.really i2portant e9cept the acti+ity of yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind6 .$istractions &here is nothin. (o*5+e altered yo*r blood press*re. (o*5+e altered yo*r p*lse. And witho*t knowin.

and it is in these im%lications that .ecti1e feeling of freedom of choice% but actually I hold my sub. $9 Notice ho' I emphasiEe Gyou don>t e1en need&G atients drag along too much% so you emphasiEe all they don>t need so energy can be focused on the tas) at hand& R9 This reinforces your earlier remar)% G(ou don>t e1en ha1e to listen to my 1oice&G It facilitates trance induction 'hen the patient does not ha1e to )no' or do anything& I2plication I can tell yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind that yo* are an e9cellent hypnotic s*b8ect6 and whene+er yo* need to or want to6 yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind will allow yo* to *se it.ect to the tas) at hand through subtle directi1es and implications& For e3ample% in the abo1e I did say% G(ou can go any'here you 'ish%G but then I did define a place9 'ater& R9 So the art of gi1ing suggestions is to gi1e careful direction% but you let the person ha1e a certain illusion of freedom 'ithin the frame'or) you ha1e constructed& $9 Bhen I earlier said% G(our unconscious can try anything it 'ishes%G it sounds as if I 'ere gi1ing freedom% but actually that 'ord GtryG implies the opposite& The 'ord GtryG implies a bloc)& (ou use the 'ord GtryG for your o'n purpose 'hen you 'ant to imply a bloc)& R9 !se of the 'ord GtryG at that point actually bloc)ed or tied up the unconscious until it recei1ed further directi1es from you& $9 Then 'hen I say% G(our conscious isn>t going to do anything of importance%G it implies that your unconscious 'ill do something of importance& R9 0nd the unconscious cannot do anything it 'ishes because you ha1e already tied it up& In sum% this implies that the unconscious is going to do something important% and it>s going to be 'hat you suggest& "ot !nowin-6 "ot $oin"ow physical co2fort e9ists6 b*t yo* don5t e+en need to pay attention to yo*r rela9ation and co2fort. $9 GI can tell your unconsciousG implies + don>t ha1e to con1ince your conscious& R9 In other 'ords% ever$ sentence has im%lications. $9 This is an e3ample of 'hat Dubie calls Gillusory freedom&G The person has a 1ery great sub.ect your distractions on the patient and you don>t e1en suggest there are distractions& "ut if there are distractions this phrase helps the person to do'ngrade them& I2plication and Ill*sory Freedo2 in the $yna2ics of S*--estion and that can be whate+er yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind desires.$9 That do'n grades traffic sounds or any other outside distractions 'ithout emphasiEing that there are outside distractions& They can then apply this do'ngrading to 'hate1er irrele1ant stimuli that might be intruding& R9 (ou don>t pro.

I can direct 2y +oice elsewhere and yo* will know I a2 not speakin. Wo*ld yo* like to awaken now: $9 + cannot as) for permission to do something in trance 'hile she is in trance& 0s)ing for permission belongs to the normal state of a'areness% and 'e must therefore as) 'hile she is a'a)e& (ou must be careful to protect the integrity of the personality and not e3ploit the trance state& R9 That 'ould brea) trust and only arouse the so@called resistance& )ody #rientation on Awakenin. $9 Here I>m setting up a lot of freedom for myself in future 'or)& R9 (ou are also gi1ing suggestions for rapport 'herein she 'ill pay attention only 'hen you are addressing her& Si-ns of &rance $r.fro2 &rance . &he *nconscio*s always protects the conscio*s. &he alteration of the blink refle9. Rossi I think yo* see a lot of beha+ior of -reat interest. I 2i-ht like to6 b*t I did not disc*ss it with her conscio*sly. R9 The slo'ing of the blin) refle3 before the final closing of the eyes and the rela3ation of the facial muscles so the face has a smoother or Gironed outG e3pression are typical indications of trance& Ethical 0rinciple R.yo* to *nderstand anythin. Wo*ld yo* like to -o on now and de2onstrate 2ore pheno2ena: E. &he alteration in facial 2*scles6 the total i22obility.reasonable $9 (ou can ta)e your time% but you are going to do it& That>s the important implication& 0nd they don>t )no' ho' much time% so they ha1e to rely on you& Rapport I can speak to yo* or anyone else I choose6 b*t only when I speak to yo* is it necessary for yo* to listen.the im%ortant message is given& $9 (esL I2plication and &i2e And it can take ti2e its own ti2e lettin. &herefore if I -o on I 2*st first wake her *p and ask her per2ission.yo* -o into a trance helpin.to yo* so yo* will not need to pay any attention.

0heno2enon S..S opens her eyes and stretches a bit. "ow6 is there anythin. R9 This report of a fogging of the 1isual field is another fairly common indication of trance de1elopment& Others may report blurring% tunnel 1ision% alterations in the color of the bac)ground or the siEe and shape of things% etc& Rela9ation and Inner Absorption S.After the tape recorder was t*rned off and the session had for2ally ended6 S 2entions her e9perience of =driftin-= in the early sta-es of trance ind*ction. the stoc)@in@trade% of the creati1e hypnotherapist& The anecdotes and stories that $ric)son tells on the follo'ing pages re1eal him to be an acute obser1er of the regularities of human beha1ior& $ric)son en. It wo*ld ha+e been tedio*s to listen to yo* $r. .< R9 Her rela3ation and inner absorption to the point 'here she no longer made an effort to listen to you are further indications of trance& She 'as also follo'ing your earlier suggestion that she need not listen to your 1oice consciously because her unconscious could pic) up 'hat you 'ere saying& She ob1iously 'as responding on an unconscious le1el since she did end her inner absorption 'hen you told her to a'a)en& #)SER'A&I#" A"$ ERI !S#"5S )ASI A00R#A H Obser1ation is the most important aspect of the early training of the hypnotherapist& For $ric)son this training began in youth and has continued through his life& Obser1ation of the in1ariants and correlations in human beha1ior is the sine )ua non.o)es are based on a sound )no'ledge of 'hat people 'ould do in a gi1en situation& 0s a child 'al)ing through the Bisconsin sno' to school% for e3ample% he delighted in lea1ing home early in the morning so he could set a croo)ed path on the straight roads of the flat plains and later obser1e ho' e1eryone 'ho came after him follo'ed his e3act footsteps& eople did not follo' the straight road they )ne' 'as thereJ they apparently found it easier to follo' the croo)ed path he made until he began to straighten it by cutting out some of the croo)ed loops on his later 'al)s to school& It is the regularities of beha1ior that are of great significance& These regularities are tools he uses to shape hypnotic phenomenon and beha1ior& Gi1en a certain stimulus% it is useful for him to )no' that a certain response 'ill follo'& Or% if he can e1o)e one piece of beha1ior% it is important for him to )no' that another piece of beha1ior is closely related to it and is li)ely to occur& Thus% he can use one stimulus to e1o)e a certain response and then use that response to e1o)e% by association% another specific response& .b*t then I went off onto 2y own thin-. R. #h I en8oyed it6 it was +ery peacef*l. Erickson. I was watchin. I tried to listen in the be-innin.oys humor% and all of this original . Eye1Fo--in. I see6 a percept*al alteration.< "otice the body reorientation when she ca2e back. I 8*st felt like rela9in-.yo* want to tell *s: R& This reorientation to the body at the termination is another cue the therapist can use to recogniEe the patient has been in a trance& The stretching% blin)ing% shifting of body posture% ya'ning% 'etting of lips% smoothing of hair% touching 1arious parts of the body% etc&% are all indications that the patient is reorienting from the trance to the a'a)e state& 0ercept*al Alterations.the point *p there and it -ot fo--y.

ect& The more response attenti1eness% the better the sub.ect& This re4uires that therapists focus on the GprocessG aspect as 'ell as the Gcontent%G of their relation to their patients> beha1ior& Therapists 'ho 'ould become adept in hypnotherapy train themsel1es to obser1e the dynamics of Ga1ailabilityG and Gfollo'ingG in the transference@ countertransference relation& The greater the openness and a1ailability% the greater the follo'ing and capacity for hypnotic response& Bhat helps a particular patient become more open and a1ailable to therapistsI Bhat can therapists do to ma)e themsel1es more open and a1ailable to each patientI Be note that a1ailability and follo'ing comprise a t'o@'ay street& The more sensiti1ely therapists are capable of responding to patients> needs% emotions% and 'orld 1ie'% the more 'ill patients learn to be open and a1ailable to follo'ing the therapeutic suggestions& The more ade4uately therapists relate to their patients in the I@thou e3perience% the more rele1ant and therefore acceptable 'ill their understanding and suggestions be& A& The practical art of trance induction re4uires that therapists learn to obser1e beha1ior and tie suggestions to it& Bhat changes are occurring in facial beha1iorI /oes one obser1e a preliminary 4ui1er of the eyelidsI If so% then it can be suggested that the patient 'ill soon blin) his eyes& Is the blin) refle3 slo'ingI If so% the therapist can note it and suggest it 'ill soon get slo'er until the lids finally close& Bhen it is obser1ed that the patient has .?% +.ect& Be might therefore assume that the more a patient is open to therapist direction and the greater his capacity to be absorbed in 'hat the therapist is saying% the greater his capacity as a hypnotic sub.usting themsel1es in the first minute or t'o to the therapy session to the habitual patterns in their associati1e structure 'hen they tal) about Gproblems&G To 'hat degree can you obser1e ho' a patient>s problem is defined by a Gclosed circuit of associations%G an habitual and in1ariant pattern of associations that the patient does not )no' ho' to brea) out ofI Bhat inter1ention can you ma)e to help the patient brea) outI 2Rossi% +.-Aa5& =& Obser1e to 'hat degree 1arious patients are open and a1ailable to change and capable of follo'ing you and to 'hat degree they are fi3ed% closed% una1ailable for change: and actually e3pect you to follo' them& $ric)son loo)s for Gresponse attenti1enessG 2the degree to 'hich a person is absorbed in 'hat another is saying5 in assessing the degree to 'hich a person 'ould be a capable hypnotic sub.ust e3haled% that is the precise moment to suggest he ta)e a deep breath& Bhen it is obser1ed that body mo1ements are slo'ing% it can be suggested that the patient is becoming immobile and 'ill soon be completely 4uiet and comfortable& Therapists can become so con1ersant 'ith suggestions that they can automatically associate the patient>s manifest beha1ior 'ith further suggestions& They gradually de1elop a flo' of language that permits them to spea) and reflect 'hile carefully studying the patient>s beha1ior to determine 'hat is to be suggested ne3t& One can practice such careful obser1ation in many situations of e1eryday ..The situation is sub.ecti1ely e3perienced as hypnotic 'hen these responses appear to ta)e place 'ithout conscious intention because patients are not a'are of these predictable associations 'ithin themsel1es& atients do not )no' all of the possibilities 'ithin their o'n beha1ioral repertory& Conse4uently% 'hen they e3perience something that they could not ha1e predicted 2although the therapist can% because of his )no'ledge of the patients> beha1ioral associations5% they assume the hypnotherapist someho' caused it& The hypnotherapist did arrange the beha1ioral situation so that a certain response by the patient 'ould naturally follo'& "ut the hypnotherapist 'as able to GcauseG the response only by )no'ing ho' to utiliEe pree3isting structures 'ithin the patient>s beha1ioral matri3& From this it follo's that the more therapists )no' about the la'fulness of beha1ior% the more ade4uately 'ill they be able to e1o)e desired responses in any specific situation& The more therapists are able to observe about the specific regularities of the indi1idual patients% the more 'ill they be able to facilitate therapeutic responses in those indi1iduals& E9ercises in #bser+ation +& #oo) for and carefully study regularities in patients> beha1ior& These regularities can range from the mannerisms and rituals of saying GHelloG and ad.-=a% +.

or theme that is introduced in this first commentary and 'ill be discussed further in practically all the follo'ing sessions& Be belie1e that consciousness% programmed by the typical attitudes and beliefs of modern rationalistic man% is grie1ously limited& It has been estimated that% at best% most people do not utiliEe more than l7 percent of their mental capacity& 8ost of us simply do not )no' ho' to utiliEe our indi1idual capacities& Our educational system has taught us ho' to measure up to certain external criteria of learning only& Be learn our 0 " C>s% ho' to read and 'rite% and similar s)ills& The ade4uacy of our learning is measured by our scores on standardiEed achie1ement tests rather than the degree to 'hich 'e utiliEe our o'n uni4ue neural circuits for our indi1idual goals& Our educational system as yet has little or no means of training and measuring the indi1idual>s ability to utiliEe his o'n uni4ue beha1ioral matri3 and associati1e processes e1en though this internal ability is of the essence in creati1ity and personality de1elopment& Consciousness is thus programmed to meet outer consensual standards of achie1ement% 'hile all that is uni4ue 'ithin the indi1idual remains in abeyance& That is% most of our indi1iduality remains unconscious and un)no'n& $ric)son can say% GIt is 1ery important for people to )no' their unconscious is smarter than they are& There is a greater 'ealth of stored material in the unconscious&G atients ha1e problems because their conscious programming has too se1erely limited their capacities& The solution is to help them brea) through the limitations of their conscious attitudes to free their unconscious potential for problem sol1ing& 0gain and again 'e 'ill find that $ric)son>s approaches to inducing trance and problem sol1ing are usually directed to'ard circum1enting the rigid and learned limitations of the patient>s conscious and habitual attitudes& Be 'ill later demonstrate and discuss means of Gdepotentiating conscious sets%G Gcoping 'ith consciousness%G and the li)e& 0ll these phrases denote the same effort to -ree individuals -rom their learned limitations2 0s $ric)son so clearly states% G(ou build your techni4ue around instructions that allo' their conscious mind to 'ithdra' from the tas)% and lea1e it all up to the unconscious&G To implement this goal of freeing unconscious potentials from the limitations of consciousness% $ric)son has pioneered the indirect approaches to hypnotic suggestion& These approaches are in mar)ed contrast to most pre1ious and current 'or) in hypnosis% 'here direct suggestions are still considered to be the ma.%%ES&I#" Be recently outlined the utili*ation theor$ o.life& eople in audiences and fello' passengers on a bus% plane% or train 'ill be in a range of states from tenseness and alertness to trance& #earn to recogniEe the beha1ioral correlates of such states& In early practice inductions one can learn the art of obser1ing beha1ior% commenting on it% and adding suggestions that 'ill anticipate and further de1elop the beha1ior& In the sections that follo' 'e 'ill gradually introduce the 1arious forms of indirect hypnotic suggestion that can be learned as one gains more e3perience& &HE #"S I#.&ILI>A&I#" &HE#R( #F H(0"#&I S.S A"$ .-<59 Trance is a special state that intensifies the therapeutic relationship and focuses the patients attention .or therapeutic modality& The follo'ing sessions and commentaries 'ill be a gradual introduction to these indirect approaches& So multifaceted and 1ast are the possibilities of these indirect approaches that $ric)son has ne1er been able to organiEe them into a comprehensi1e systemJ in fact% he does not al'ays understand 'hy and ho' they 'or)& Indirect approaches are thus still a 1irgin field% a terra incognita% that some readers 'ill hopefully e3plore and e3tend further in their o'n research and therapeutic practice& &HE .S I" H(0"#SIS LI"I AL $ric)son emphasiEes certain aspects of the relations bet'een the conscious and unconscious and the many 'ays of utiliEing them for therapeutic purposes in his 'or) 'ith clinical hypnosis& This is a ma." #"S I#.h$%notic suggestion as follo's 2F&ric)son and Rossi% +.

.or ob.ects& &&& In brief% it seems probable that if there is a de1elopment of increased suggestibility% it is negligible in e3tent& $ric)son 'as not alone in this finding& In his re1ie' of the history of hypnosis BeitEenhoffer 2+.other %atterns o.AAJ Hilgard% +.<5 because it lent itself easily to the de1elopment of Ghypnotic susceptibility scales%G 'hich 'ere thought necessary for the 4uantitati1e study of hypnotic phenomena& BeitEenhoffer% ho'e1er% has maintained the necessity of e3ploring the concepts of trance and suggestibilit$ as separate issues& For $ric)son% trance and hypnotic suggestion are separate phenomena that may or may not be associated in any gi1en indi1idual at any gi1en moment& "ecause of this $ric)son 2+.ecti1e of this 1olume is to isolate the hypnotic forms of communication $ric)son uses to facilitate suggestion& These h$%notic -orms are communication devices that -acilitate the evocation and utili*ation o..one4s usual conscious sets and belie. %otentials. and natural mental mechanisms in wa$s that are usuall$ ex%erienced as involuntar$ b$ the %atient2 Ordinary% e1eryday% nonhypnotic suggestions are acted upon because 'e ha1e e1aluated them 'ith our usual conscious attitudes and found them to be an acceptable guide for our beha1ior% and 'e carry them out in a 1oluntary manner& Hypnotic suggestion% by contrast% is different in .association and modes o.mental -unctioning2 $ric)son 1ie's the separate issue of hypnotic suggestion as a problem in communication and utiliEation& To facilitate suggestion one must learn ho' to communicate more effecti1ely& 0 ma.-+5 has pointed out that the earliest in1estigators 2such as "ertrand% /espine% and "raid5 did not 1ie' suggestibility as the essential feature of trance& It 'as #iebeault% and especially "ernheim 2+?.A=5 $ric)son found that Ghypersuggestibility 'as not noticedG as a necessary characteristic of trance& His 'or) 'ith A77 sub.A% +.ect to e3perience trance& It 'ill be seen that trance is a highly indi1idualiEed process that can be e3perienced 1ery differently e1en by the same person on separate occasions& For the therapeutic purposes of clinical hypnosis% ho'e1er% 'e 'ill focus our interest on e3ploring and facilitating only one particular aspect of trance& 3e are interested in that thera%eutic as%ect o.<=5 has emphasiEed the difference bet'een Gtrance induction 1ersus trance utiliEation&G In his early 'or) he found it necessary to spend Gfour to eight or e1en more hours in inducing trances and in training the sub.ects to function ade4uately% before attempting hypnotic e3perimentation or therapy&G The eight sessions of $ric)son>s 'or) 'ith /r& S in this 1olume are thus a typical e3ample of training a sub.+% +.<5% 'ho pa1ed the 'ay for 1ie'ing hypersuggestibility as a necessary condition for spea)ing of hypnosis or trance& This may ha1e been accepted by modern e3perimentally oriented in1estigators 2Hull% +.ects trained to go into a deep trance instantly at the snap of a finger 'ould successfully resist 'hen un'illing or more interested in other pro.suggestions2 $ric)son depends upon certain communication de1ices & & & to e1o)e% mobiliEe and mo1e a patient>s associati1e processes and mental s)ills in certain directions to sometimes achie1e certain therapeutic goals& He belie1es that hypnotic suggestion is actually this process of e1o)ing and utili*ing a patient>s o'n mental processes in 'ays that are outside his usual range of intentional or 1oluntary control& The effecti1e hypnotherapist learns to use 'ords% intonations% gestures% and other things that e1o)e the patient>s o'n mental mechanisms and beha1ioral processes& Hypnotic suggestion is not a )ind of 1erbal magic that can be imposed on patients to ma)e them do anything& Hypnotic suggestions are effecti1e only to the degree that they can acti1ate% bloc)% or alter the functioning of natural mental mechanisms and associations already e3isting 'ithin the patient& $ric)son li)es to emphasiEe that hypnotic suggestion can e1o)e and utiliEe potentials that already e3ist 'ithin patients% but it cannot impose something totally alien& Hypersuggestibility is not necessarily a characteristic of therapeutic trance as he uses it& In his first published paper on hypnosis 2+.on a fe' inner realitiesJ trance does not insure the acce%tance o.trance wherein the limitations o.the %atient4s own associations.s$stems are tem%oraril$ altered so that one can be rece%tive to an ex%erience o.ects in1ol1ed in se1eral thousand trances led him to this conclusion9 Far from ma)ing them hypersuggestible% it 'as found necessary to deal 1ery gingerly 'ith them to )eep from losing their cooperation and it 'as often felt that they de1eloped a compensatory negati1ism to'ard the hypnotist to offset any increased suggestibility& Sub..

ect>s personal e3perience by 'ay of a concrete image as illustrated in e3ample + is an effecti1e approach for e1o)ing ideosensory e3perience& The GideaG of 'armth and the image of the sun on the s)in e1o)e personal associations from pre1ious e3periences that generate an actual GsensationG of 'armth on the s)in& In a similar manner% tal)ing about a common life e3perience li)e nodding a head GyesG in e3ample = is an GideaG that tends to e1o)e the actual GmotorG response of . (o* already know how to e9perience pleasant sensations like the war2th of the s*n on yo*r skin.5 and the utiliEation of the patient>s presenting beha1ior and symptoms as an integral part of therapy 2$ric)son% +. C.it. @.their head =yes= or shakin. (o* can easily for-et that drea2 when yo* awaken.<-5J the truism can e1o)e and utiliEe the patient>s o'n repository of life e3perience% associations% and mental mechanisms& The GeneraliEed Reality Orientation 2Shor% +.ISMS .5 usually maintains these sub.<?% +.ect 2BeitEenhoffer% +. We know when yo* are asleep yo*r *nconscio*s can drea2.associations and %otentials within the %atient to im%lement certain thera%eutic goals2 The utiliEation approach to trance induction 2$ric)son% +.<. B. is one in which trance alters habitual attitudes and modes o. ractical e3perience demonstrates that e1o)ing a sub. then.<.&ILI>I"% ME"&AL ME HA"ISMS The simplest form of suggestion is a truism:a simple statement of fact about beha1ior that the patient has e3perienced so often that it cannot be denied& $ric)son fre4uently tal)s about such psychological processes as if he 'ere simply describing ob.ecti1e associations and mental mechanisms in appropriate chec) 'hen 'e are tal)ing in ordinary con1ersation& Bhen attention is fi3ed and focused in trance% ho'e1er% the follo'ing truisms may actually trip off a literal and concrete e3perience of the suggested beha1ior& ?.<b5 are among $ric)son>s original contributions to the field of clinical hypnosis& This utiliEation approach% 'herein each patient>s indi1iduality is carefully studied% facilitated% and utiliEed% is one of the 'ays GclinicalG hypnosis is different from the standardiEed approaches of e3perimental and research hypnosis as it is usually conducted in the laboratory& It is in the clinician>s ability to e1aluate and utiliEe patients> uni4ueness together 'ith the e3igencies of their e1er@changing real@life situation that the most stri)ing hypnotic and therapeutic results are often achie1ed& The utiliEation approaches achie1e their results precisely because they acti1ate and further de1elop 'hat is already 'ithin the patient rather than attempting to impose something from the outside that might be unsuitable for the patient>s indi1iduality& 8ost of the indirect forms of hypnotic suggestion that 'ere pioneered by $ric)son to facilitate his utiliEation approach 'ere de1eloped in clinical practice and field e3periments 'ithout the benefit of detailed analysis or controlled e3perimental 1alidation& In this 1olume% therefore% 'e 'ill begin the process of analyEing a number of these indirect terms of hypnotic suggestion% first to achie1e some understanding of their clinical application% and second% to propose research that 'ill be needed to further e3plore their nature and use& In this chapter 'e 'ill discuss GtruismsG and Gnot doing% not )no'ingG as t'o of the most basic forms of indirect hypnotic suggestion& &R.<<% +. E+eryone has had the e9perience of noddin.it for =no= e+en witho*t A*ite realizin.that the patient is surprised to find that e3perience and beha1ior are altered in a seemingly autonomous mannerJ e3perience seems to be outside one>s usual sense of control and self@ direction& ! success-ul clinical h$%notic ex%erience.-unctioning so that care-ull$ -ormulated h$%notic suggestions can evo&e and utili*e other %atterns o.ecti1e facts to the patient& 0ctually% these 1erbal descriptions can function as indirect forms of hypnotic suggestion 'hen they trip off associated ideomotor and ideosensory processes that already e3ist 'ithin the sub..

to lift .ects but perhaps outside their usual range of control& Therapeutic suggestion helps patients gain access to their o'n associations and abilities to sol1e their o'n problem& &R.head nodding& Such ideomotor and ideosensory processes 'ere early recogniEed as the basis of many hypnotic phenomena 2"ernheim% +?.ustice% begin to e3perience a loss of belief& Instead% $ric)son turns the direct suggestion into a truism by saying% GThe headache is going to lea1e shortly&G It could be a fe' seconds% minutes% hours% or e1en days& In a similar 1ein% the follo'ing suggestions all become truisms because the time factor allo's patients to utiliEe their o'n associations and e3perience to ma)e them true& Sooner or later6 yo*r hand is -oin.<.or whate+er proble2< will disappear as soon as yo*r syste2 is ready for it to lea+e.ect usually cannot deny% as in e3amples A and 6& This% then% is a basic mechanism of hypnotic suggestion9 'e offer simple truths that automatically e1o)e conditioned associations in a particularly 1i1id 'ay& Suggestion is a process of e1o)ing and utiliEing potentials and life e3periences that are already present in sub.-65% for e3ample% can be understood as ideosensory and ideomotor responses that are amplified and reinforced by electronic instrumentation& 8ore cogniti1e processes li)e dreaming and forgetting can be facilitated 'hen suggested by truisms that the a1erage sub.ect to Grela3 and let things happen&G Not doing is thus a basic form of indirect hypnotic suggestion that is of particular 1alue in inducing trance& 8ost people do not )no' that most mental processes are autonomous& They belie1e they thin) by dri1ing and directing their o'n associati1e processes& 0nd to a certain e3tent they do& "ut it comes as a pleasant surprise 'hen they rela3 and find that associations% sensations% perceptions% mo1ements% and mental mechanisms can proceed 4uite on their o'n& This autonomous flo' of undirected e3perience is a simple 'ay of defining trance& Hypnotic suggestion comes into play 'hen the therapist>s directi1es ha1e a significant influence in facilitating the e3pression .<5% and they can be easily measured today 'ith psychophysiological instruments& 8any forms of biofeedbac) 2"ro'n% +. (o*r headache .ISMS . It probably will happen 8*st as soon as yo* are ready.eyes close6 etc.&ILI>I"% &IME One particularly important form of truism is that 'hich incorporates time& Bhen $ric)son ma)es a re4uest for a definite beha1ioral response% he usually tempers it 'ith time& He 'ould ne1er say% G(our headache is gone%G because it might not be% and the patient 'ould% 'ith some . We will allow the *nconscio*s to take as 2*ch ti2e as it needs to let that happen. E9ercises with &r*is2s +& lan ho' truisms utiliEing mental mechanisms and time can be used to facilitate trance induction and an e3perience of any of the classical hypnotic phenomena& =& /o the same for any psychological function 2e&g&% memory% learning ability% time sense% emotional processes5 your patient is interested in e3ploring for therapeutic purposes& A& 8a)e up 1erbal suggestions that can be used to alter body temperature% digestion% respiration% or any other psychophysiological function you ha1e been trained to deal 'ith in your professional 'or)& It might be 'ell first to 'rite do'n these suggestions in a direct form and then con1ert them into truisms utiliEing time and common e1eryday descriptions of natural psychological and physiological processes& 6& lan ho' truisms utiliEing mental mechanisms and time can be used to help you cope 'ith typical clinical problems you ha1e been trained to deal 'ith& "#& $#I"%6 "#& !"#WI"% 0 basic aspect of trance e3perience is allo'ing mental processes to ta)e place by themsel1es& Be as) the sub.

ects realiEe this% $ric)son fre4uently gi1es a preinduction tal) about the conscious and unconscious:or the GfrontG and Gbac)G part of the mind& He emphasiEes ho' the unconscious is usually capable of regulating the body 2breathing% heartbeat% all the physiological processes5 and the mind all by itself& Indeed% people fre4uently ha1e problems because their conscious mind is trying to do something that the unconscious can do better& He tal)s about infancy and childhood 'hen one 'as GnaturalG and happy and did not &now2 0t one time one did not )no' ho' to 'al) or tal) or e1en ma)e sense of 1isual and auditory impressions& One did not )no' that one>s hand belonged to oneself% as 'hen infants are obser1ed to reach for their right hand 'ith their right hand& $ric)son fre4uently introduces puEEles and beguiling tas)s to pro1e ho' amusing it can be 'hen one does not )no'& He 'ill as) if a person )no's 'hether he is right@ or left@thumbed& Fe' people do& He then as)s people to put their hands behind their head and then fold their fingers together& The sub. (o* don5t ha+e to bother tryin. &hey can drea2 and not re2e2ber that drea2.of that autonomous flo' in one direction or another& Bhen one is rela3ed% the parasympathetic system is predominant% and one is physiologically predisposed not to do rather than to ma)e any acti1e effort of doing& "ecause of this it is 1ery easy to accept the follo'ing suggestions for not doing during the initial stages of trance induction& (o* don5t ha+e to talk or 2o+e or 2ake any sort of effort.oined to pay attentionJ in trance 'e are applauded for allo'ing the mind to 'ander 2re1erie% hypnotic dreaming5& In daily affairs 'e are forced to act our ageJ in trance 'e achie1e success simply by allo'ing a comfortable age regression to ta)e place& In normal life 'e continuously e3pend strenuous effort to achie1e 1eridical perceptionsJ in trance 'e allo' sensory and perceptual distortions to ta)e place and can e1en indulge oursel1es in hallucinations& From this point of 1ie' 'e can understand ho' it is indeed much easier and en.oyable to e3perience trance than the e3tensi1e effort that is re4uired to stay normally a'a)eL Thus% $ric)son>s initial direction in trance training is to help the sub.ects can loo) for'ard to trance e3perience as a ne'found freedom from the demands of the 'orld& They really don>t ha1e to )no' or do anythingJ their unconscious can handle it all by itself& To help sub. Not doing is a precondition for most hypnotic e3perience& 8ost hypnotic phenomena can be e3perienced by rela3ing to the point 'here 'e simply gi1e up our habitual patterns of control and self@direction& This is the opposite of the usual situation of e1eryday life% 'here 'e ma)e concentrated efforts to remember& In trance 'e are congratulated for forgetting 2hypnotic amnesia5& In normal li1ing 'e are en. (o* don5t e+en ha+e to hold yo*r eyes open.ects can lose the ability to stand up or to )eep a hand on the thigh& They can lose the ability to focus their eyes and see clearlyJ they can lose the ability to spea)& Ho' often in e1eryday life do 'e say% GI stood there li)e an idiot% unable to say anything or e1en thin) in that situation&G That is an e3ample of the common e1eryday trance 'here for a moment 'e 'ere lost in not doing& Closely related to not doing is not &nowing2 In e1eryday life 'e must continuously e3pend energy and effort to )no'& Ho' pleasant% then% to find a situation 'here 'e can rela3 and do not need to )no'& Bhat a reliefL 8ost sub.ect ha1e a comfortable e3perience in not doing& Fre4uently this can be e3perienced as momentarily losing abilities that are usually performed in an automatic and unthin)ing manner& Sub. 0eople can sleep and not know they are asleep.to listen to 2e beca*se yo*r *nconscio*s can do that and respond all by itself.ects then bring their folded hands to their lap to learn 'hether their left or right thumb is on topJ that is the dominant thumb& $ric)son then emphasiEes ho' the patients> unconscious% their body% )ne' this all their life e1en though their conscious mind did not& Bith many anecdotes% stories% and interesting bits of beha1ior he carefully lays the ground'or) to help patients .

realiEe and 1alue the fact that the unconscious )no's more and that the conscious can help best simply by relying upon the unconscious to do things& This permits sub.ust remain comfortable and 4uiet and not bother 'ith anything&G5 =& Formulate suggestions for not doing and not )no'ing that are appropriate for the induction and maintenance of trance& A& Formulate suggestions for Gnot doingG that 'ill achie1e interesting 2a5 hypnotic phenomena 2catalepsy% anesthesia% age regression% etc&5 and 2b5 psychotherapeutic goals 2coping 'ith phobias% compulsions% habits such as nail biting% smo)ing% o1ereatingJ self understanding% etc&5& .ects to adopt a recepti1e and acceptance set 'herein they become more acutely sensiti1e to their o'n inner processes as 'ell as the suggestions of the therapist& E9ercises with "ot $oin.and "ot !nowin+& ractice changing direct% positi1e suggestions into indirect suggestions of the Gyou don>t ha1e toG form& For e3ample% instead of GRemain 4uietly seated 'ith your eyes closed%G one may say G(ou don>t ha1e to mo1e or e1en bother )eeping your eyes open%G or G(ou can .


. 0ick a spot here on this paper wei-ht.-=5% goal@directed imagining 2"arber% +.for yo* to do6 act*ally for yo*r own ed*cation6 yo*r own trainin-6 yo*r own e9periences6 is to look at a spot there6 .&W# Indirect Ind*ction by Recapit*lation The indirect approach is a basic theme in $ric)son>s 'or) and the source of a great deal of his originality& In this session he re1eals his beliefs about ho' a patient learns to e3perience trance and illustrates many of his indirect approaches to suggestion& The therapist helps the patient learn to e3perience trance by depotentiating conscious sets and by creating a definite demarcation or dissociation bet'een the trance state and the ordinary a'a)e state& One of the ma.ect to recall and recapitulate e3periences on the first session& Such a direct re4uest 'ould only e1o)e a plainti1e% G"ut I don>t )no' ho'&G Instead% in the first sentence he utiliEes her moti1ation for learning and then immediately touches gently but completely on many associations that 'ill automatically e1o)e memories of her pre1ious session and therefore tend to reinduce that trance& )ody #rientation for &rance E.-=5% or communication 2Haley% +.A5& There can be no doubt that $ric)son maintains the traditional 1ie' of trance as a special state 2$ric)son and Rossi% +. $9 Here 'e e3actly reproduce the pre1ious hypnotherapeutic position& She 'ent into a trance the first time 'ith this position% so the position 'ill help her to do the same no'& Reorientation to &rance by Recapit*lation "ow the thin.-65% but it is in his indirect approaches to suggestion that he is most inno1ati1e and nontraditional& In this session $ric)son illustrates 'ith simplicity and seeming casualness a fe' cornerstones of the indirect approach9 the yes set% implication% the double bind% and the use of truisms to align a patient>s associati1e processes for creati1e trance 'or)& He also illustrates indirect approaches for discharging resistance% utiliEing personal moti1ation% and facilitating ne' learning and indi1iduality& He ta)es some initial steps to'ard training /r& S for the e3perience of dissociation% ideomotor signaling% hallucination% amnesia% posthypnotic suggestion% and the separation of conscious and unconscious processes& Be 'itness a simple secret of the effecti1eness of his approach9 he o--ers suggestions in an open@ended manner that admits many possibilities of response as acceptable& Suggestions are offered in such a manner that any response the patient ma)es can be accepted as a 1alid hypnotic phenomenon& These open@ended suggestions are also a means of e3ploring the patient>s response tendencies 2the Gresponse hierarchyG of learning theory and beha1ior therapy5& The therapist can utiliEe these response tendencies to effect therapeutic goals& $ric)son begins this session 'ith an indirect induction by recapitulation& He does not begin by directly as)ing the sub. )oth feet on the floor and yo*r hands on yo*r thi-hs6 elbows at yo*r sides.or contro1ersies in the past fe' decades of research in hypnosis has been bet'een the traditional clinical 1ie' of trance as an altered state that is different and discontinuous from being a'a)e 1ersus the theories of trance as a special form of role playing 2Sarbin and Coe% +.

$r.ecti1e e3perience of entering a trance& $9 (ou al'ays use the patient>s o'n 'ords and e3perience as much as possible for trance induction and suggestion& $irect S*--estion for Ine+itable )eha+ior (o*r eyes can now close6 R9 This direct suggestion for eye closure 'as no' more appropriate since she had that fi3ed% glassy stare at this point& (ou only gi1e direct suggestions 'hen you>re absolutely certain the patient is ready to accept them& $9 It is al'ays safe to suggest beha1ior that is ine1itable in the natural course of things& I2plication and yo* will note that the driftin.anywhere yo* wish6 and try to recall what I said to yo* and keep on thinkin-6 tryin.yo*r eyes open and then per2ittin. $9 "y emphasiEing Gmore rapidlyG you imply that drifting 'ill occur& R9 Implication is thus a safe 'ay of e1o)ing and tal)ing about beha1ior that may or may . Rossi and 2e to talk while yo* listen and then be-innin. &hat there is less and less i2portance to be attached to 2y +oice and that yo* can e9perience pro-ressi+ely 3pa*se4 any kind of sensations yo* wish.can occ*r 2ore rapidly. 30a*se4 R9 This is a fantastic sentenceJ it completely recapitulates the first hypnotherapeutic situation& (ou touch upon many associations to her pre1iously successful hypnotic 'or) and thereby facilitate your current hypnotic induction& (ou also deftly utiliEe her professional moti1ation by touching upon Gfor your o'n education&G Instead of suggesting eye closure directly at this point% you prepare for it indirectly simply by mentioning Gthe unimportance of )eeping your eyes open&G I notice you use the 'ord GdriftG here% 'hich she introduced at the 1ery end last time to describe her sub.to drift away.to recall the for2ation of 2ental i2a-es6 of letters6 n*2bers the *ni2portance of keepin.

other sensations yo* learn to reco-nize cold war2 2*scle tension.ust as you o1ercame difficulties in the past% so you 'ill no'& Li2itin. )*t as yo* contin*ed in school yo* learned to for2 2ental i2a-es of letters and words and pict*res with increasin.Attention and $own-radin. $9 0ll these things are ta)ing place in her body% so I am limiting her attention to herself and do'ngrading all outside distractions& "y mentioning her Ge3periencingG I am referring to her o'n history& I am no' e1o)ing her personal history% and she )no's it and cannot dispute it& &he =(es Set= In yo*r sleep at ni-ht yo* can drea2.Set )ear in 2ind that when yo* first for2ed an i2a-e of the letter =A= it was diffic*lt.ease *ntil finally all yo* had to do was to take a look.ust as you did in the first session& $9 (ou imply that . 30a*se4 R9 (ou>re e1o)ing the early learning set again .not be present& If you simply said% G(ou 'ill no' drift%G that could arouse resistance& $9 For e3ample% if I say% GI don>t )no' 'hat chair you are going to sit in &&&G R9 That implies you 'ill sit do'nJ you are structuring their beha1ior% but so subtly that it>s not li)ely to arouse resistance& $9 0nother e3ample9 Bill you pay by cash or by chec)I R9 "y using the 'ord Gprogressi1elyG you thro' the statement Gyou can e3perienceG into an implication and then you pause to let it ta)e place and the burden for it ta)ing place rests 'ith the patient& $9 0nd I pause 'ith confidence that it 'ill& R9 Further% it is a 1ery safe statement to ma)e because they are certainly e3periencing some sensations& (ou gi1e them permission to e3perience 'hate1er they are e3periencing and then ta)e credit for e1o)ing it& $9 That>s right& Early Learnin.$istractions In the 2atter of e9periencin. In those drea2s yo* can hear .

30a*se4 $9 The mention of GforgettingG tends to e1o)e posthypnotic amnesia 'ithout direct suggestion& R9 The 1erbal naming or description of a neuropsychological mechanism such as forgetting tends to e1o)e it& This seems to be a fundamental method of modern hypnosis& Indirect E+ocation of 0ersonal Moti+ation and "ew Learnin. in itself An e9perience of for-ettinis an e9perience that is not alien to anybody.udo& 0ctually it is a utili*ation techni)ue5 you are utiliEing the person>s characteristic attitudes& $9 That>s right& 0osthypnotic A2nesia And as a part of that e9perience is for-ettinthat drea2 after yo* awaken.yo* see6 yo* 2o+e yo* ha+e any n*2ber of e9periences. R9 These are truisms about dreams& (our mention of GdreamG tends to e1o)e partial aspects of the dream state as contributions to the current trance e3perience& I notice you fre4uently state ob1ious truths as if to e1o)e a yes set& $9 That>s rightL M$ric)son here recounts ho' in his earliest e3periences 'ith hypnosis he disco1ered that he could as) sub. (o* won5t know what so2e of those A*estions are *ntil they are half answered. $9 G(ou>ll ha1e many 4uestionsG implies9 you 'ill 'ant to learn all you can and therefore you 'ill participate fully& R9 (ou>re e1o)ing a learning set again& $9 0nd 1ery forcefully& .ects a doEen or so casual 4uestions and ma)e remar)s that re4uired an ob1ious GyesG ans'er so that positi1e momentum 'as gradually built up until they 'ould finally also agree to enter a trance and then succeed in doing it&N $9 (ou also de1elop a yes set by saying% G(ou 'ouldn>t do such and such%G and they ans'er% G(es% I 'ouldn>t&G R9 For a person 'ho is negati1ely inclined you 'ould emphasiEe all the things they 'ouldn>t do& $9 0nd thereby e1o)e a Gyes&G R9 This is li)e mental .by I2plication "ow with yo*r back-ro*nd yo*5ll ha+e 2any A*estions abo*t 2any thin-s. (o* really don5t know what those A*estions are.

30a*se4 )*t it can also 2ean April fool.ection 'ith that one 'ord Gfool&G (ou>1e crystalliEed and discharged her resistance& $9 /ischarged itL R9 G0pril foolG discharged all the contumacy of the situation& So if resistance 'as building up you>1e discharged it here& (ou>1e discharged it indirectly 'ith a pun& $9 (es% and G0pril foolG also has pleasant associations& $9 "ut this does imply that you are going someplace& be aware of the fact that yo* really don5t know where yo* are -oin.ection has to go on that one 'ord& R9 I see& (ou>1e pic)ed up her re.R9 "y mentioning her Gbac)groundG as a professional psychologist you e1o)e her professional pride and personal moti1ation& $9 That>s rightL 0nd 'ithout boldly identifying 'hat you>re doing& R9 (es& (ou did not say% G"ecause you are a psychologist you are going to be interested in this&G (ou simply said% G'ith your bac)ground%G and thereby e1o)ed the best of her personal pride in herself as a professional& Indirect E+ocation of "ew LearninAnd so2eti2es the answers see2 to be one thinand t*rn o*t to be another.to -o.to -o6 En-a-in.Resistance &he word April 2eans a childD it 2eans a 2onth. R9 The implication here is that ne' learning 'ill ta)e place9 ne' ans'ers to change the mental sets or mental habits that may be the source of a personal problem& (ou are structuring a learning set for therapeutic change& $9 (es% ne' and different learnings for psychotherapeutic change& Bithout saying GNo' I>m going to cram do'n your throat some ne' understanding&G Indirectly $ischar-in. R9 No' you do a charming thing& (ou )no' that S has a young daughter named 0pril% and you tal) about her here& BhyI $9 She can say% G#et>s not drag my child into this&G No' notice my emphasis on G0pril -ool26 0ll her re.Moti+ation with 0atient1 entered E9perience It all belon-s to yo*. $9 If it all belongs to you% you 'ant to ta)e charge of it% don>t youI R9 The burden is placed on her for carrying out the e3perienceJ she is to be the source . And so in yo*r e9periences b*t yo* are -oin.

state. 0rotection and Flow fro2 the . $9 (ou can>t share a thing unless you>1e got it& R9 (ou imply there 'ill be something to share& (ou again gi1e the illusion of freedom 'hen you say% G0nd it can be shared in any 'ay you decide%G but the hidden directi1es are 2+5 there 'ill be something to share and 2=5 she 'ill share it& E+okinthat in the trance state o*ra-e and Self1E9ploration And one of the nicest thin-s abo*t hypnosis is yo* can dare to look at and think and see and feel thin-s that yo* wo*ldn5t dare in the ordinary wakin.that drea2 as lon.as yo*r *nconscio*s tho*-ht necessary6 or as lon.of her o'n e3perience& $9 0nd because it belongs to her she wants it& R9 So you>re again engaging her personal pride and moti1ating her& $9 That>s right& Hidden $irecti+es by I2plication And it can be shared in any way that yo* decide.Mental Mechanis2s. $9 She has all the control& R9 She has all the protection she needs& She need not fear% her unconscious mind 'ill ta)e care of her& Is that rightI $9 RightL R9 (ou>re again 1erbally describing a scientific truism or natural mental mechanism that 'ill by association tend to set that mechanism into operation& (ou earlier e1o)ed GforgettingG in this 'ay and no' self@protection as a means of deeply reassuring her& .yo* in yo*r drea2s6 per2ittin. )*t yo* can know that in this hypnotic state yo* ha+e all the protection of yo*r own *nconscio*s6 which has been protectin. $9 I>m telling her that she has a lot more courage than she )no's% and there 'ill be more to become a'are of than she )no's& R9 Bhich of course is a scientific truism again9 there is much more in our memory ban)s and associati1e structures than 'e are usually a'are of in the normal conscious state& (ou use this truism here to e1o)e a set for self@e3ploration& &r*is2s E+okin.yo* to drea2 what yo* wish6 when yo* wish6 and keepin.as yo*r conscio*s 2ind tho*-ht wo*ld be desirable.nconscio*s And it is hard for any person to think that he can be afraid of his own tho*-hts.

$9 In other 'ords% you don>t ha1e to feel you must do it instantly& R9 This is an important principle in administering suggestions& Bhen you don>t )no' 'hether her unconscious is ready to carry out a particular suggestion% you allo' her an indefinite time period to carry it out& 0llo'ing indefinite time for suggestions is thus a fail@safe de1ice& If the suggestion is not carried out immediately% it>s not registered as a failure& The suggestion remains in a latent condition until it can be carried out& M$ric)son no' tells a case history 'herein a patient called him up +. R9 Is this again putting the conscious mind under the control or protection of the unconsciousI $9 (es& 0nd it emphasiEes that the unconscious can gi1e to the conscious& R9 0gain opening up a set for self@e3ploration% for things to flo' into consciousness& I>m seeing this more and more9 you>re again utiliEing a natural psychological mechanism% in this case the unconscious gi1ing to the conscious% for therapeutic purposes here and no'& Facilitatin. 30a*se4 $9 Bho is importantI She isL Bhen you stop to thin) about it% nobody does )no' his capacities& R9 So again you>re utiliEing a scientific truismJ in this case you>re setting her up to enhance her latent potentials in any possible 'ay& $9 That>s right& Allowin.&i2e for S*--estions And yo* ha+e to disco+er these capacities in whate+er slow way yo* wish.Latent 0otentials "ow the i2portant achie+e2ent for yo* is to realize that e+erybody does not know his capacities.$epotentiatin- onscio*sness )*t yo*r conscio*s 2ind will keep it only with the consent of yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind. entral Role And one of the thin-s I want yo* to disco+er is R9 0gain dismissing the conscious mind in fa1or of the unconscious& $9 0nd I>m also saying% GI>m not the important person% you are&G . years after the termination of therapy to tell him of a ne' de1elopment in her life that 'as directly related to something he had told her in trance&N 0atient5s yo* don5t need to listen to 2e.

= 30a*se4 .R9 I see% again emphasiEing the central role of the patient& The patient tends to thin) the therapist is the important person& $9 He isn>tL R9 atients )eep pulling at the therapist for the cure% the magic% L& the change% rather than loo)ing at themsel1es as the change agent& (ou are continually putting the responsibility for change bac) on the patient& $9 On to them al'aysL Words E+okin.else at the sa2e ti2e.therapy han-e and $e+elop2ent co2es in and tells yo* one story that is belie+ed f*lly at the conscio*s le+el and in non+erbal lan-*a-e can -i+e yo* a story that is entirely different. R9 0gain a therapeutic truism% but 'hy are you presenting itI $9 I>m telling them% G(ou really don>t )no' 'hat>s 'rong 'ith you&G (ou tell them that so they 'on>t thin)% GI )no' e1erything about my problem% my illness&G R9 (ou>re de1eloping a learning set again for something ne' to come in& (ou>re trying to open up their horiEon% their e3perience& That>s 'hat the cure is going to be& (ou say the unconscious is going to ha1e a ne' opportunity for e3pressing itself& $9 Too often the conscious beha1ior )eeps you too busy so you depri1e the unconscious of an opportunity to e3press itself& It>s another scientific truism& R9 0nd so stated here it opens up the 'ay for change and inner de1elopment& Indirect S*--estions for Head Ideo2otor Si-nalinWe learned to nod o*r heads for =yes= to shake o*r heads for =no.ust as you step up and do'n from a curb 'ithout thin)ing about it& R9 (ou actually are e1o)ing this psychological mechanism of listening on an unconscious level simply by describing it 1erbally& This is rather profound 'hen you stop to thin) of it9 you are using 'ords to describe certain psychological mechanisms that you 'ant to happen& (our 1erbal description e1o)es the psychological mechanism described& $9 It does& FacilitatinA person seekin. 30a*se4 $9 0 scientific truism% . And the *nconscio*s 2ind has had little opport*nity to -i+e reco-nition to its own ways of *nderstandin-.Mental Mechanis2s (o*r *nconscio*s 2ind can listen to 2e witho*t yo*r knowled-e and also deal with so2ethin.

S be-ins to nod her head +ery slowly.< $9 $mphasiEing she is going to do something& R9 The fact that she does begin the ver$ slow.and Recall "ot only are yo* to learn positi+e thin-s b*t yo* need to learn ne-ati+e thin-s.see2s +ery hard for so2e people.= &o for-et so2ethin.$9 That is a fact and you pause to let them reflect on the factual nature of that statement& They ha1e a chance to recogniEe that you are really spea)ing the truth& R9 This is actually your 'ay of introducing her to ideomotor signaling& (ou don>t tell her to nod and sha)e her head for GyesG and Gno&G (ou simply mention the possibility of non1erbal communication and let her o'n indi1iduality decide ho' and 'hen& Facilitatin. re%etitive head nodding characteristic of an autonomous ideomotor response may indicate that she is accepting your suggestion to rely on her unconscious mind& #pen1Ended S*--estions. A ca+e people of the So*th Seas recently disco+ered ha+e their own ways of non+erbal co22*nication where the c*es are 2*ch sli-hter than we ha+e. .the Acceptance of S*--estions And yo*r willin-ness to rely *pon yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind to do anythin. $9 (es& No' each of us is an indi1idual& R9 I see% that is the implication in describing these ca1e people 'ith Gtheir o'n 'aysG of communication& (ou are implying there is a place for her indi1iduality% and you>re e1o)ing it thereby& $9 (es% e1o)ing it thereby& R9 "ecause that in fact is the problem 'ith patients9 many of their symptoms and so@ called mental problems are due to a suppression of their indi1iduality& The cure is to let that indi1iduality come out and flo'er in all its particular genius& $9 That>s right& That>s 'hat you need to do% and that is 'hy they are seeing you& Ideo2otor Si-nalin. For-ettin. . 30a*se4 #ne of the ne-ati+e thin-s yo* need onscio*sly yo* can say to yo*rself6 =&his I will re2e2ber.that can be of interest or +al*e to yo* is 2ost i2portant. And yet if they wo*ld look into their history6 to learn is that of for-ettin-.Indi+id*ality )*t that is not necessarily tr*e of all people.

said.= And they will all listen with -reat interest6 and yo* t*rn to lea+e the classroo2 and yo* will see the st*dents lean toward each other and say6 What day: What ho*r: )*ildin-: (o* know they heard it6 and they for-ot it i22ediately.< .that yo* know a certain na2e doin. In teachin.S appears to renew her slow head noddin.to for-et not only ideas b*t non+erbal perfor2ances. 30a*se4 R9 Here you again tal) about forgetting and gi1e common e3amples of forgetting in e1eryday life to facilitate the possibility of e1o)ing forgetting in the form of posthypnotic amnesia& She continues her 1ery slo'% slight% and repetiti1e head nodding throughout your 'ords here& /oes that mean she is accepting your ideas and 'ill act upon themI In this case 'ill she forget and e3perience an amnesiaI $9 0t some le1el she is responding 'ith recognition or acceptance of 'hat I am saying& "ut I don>t )no' ho' she 'ill act on it yet& R9 (ou can offer this loosely structured net'or) of associations about forgetting% and it may or may not actually trip off forgetting mechanisms in her o'n mind& (ou do not impose suggestions or commands% you simply o--er 1erbal associations that her indi1iduality may or may not utiliEe& Trance does not ensure the acceptance of suggestions 2$ric)son and Rossi% +. And yo* sho*ld en8oy learnin.at this point in apparent reco-nition or acceptance of what is bein.that ser+es 2any -ood p*rposes.EE.they can for-et as easily. 0*rposely for-ettin.as yo* did as a child when yo* decided yo* liked a different na2e and perhaps for a half day yo* entertained that yo*r na2e was $arlene or Ann Mar-aret .st*dents in 2edical school yo* tell the2 2ost i2pressi+ely6 =&he e9a2ination will be held in s*ch and s*ch a roo2 at s*ch and s*ch a ti2e and in )*ildinand will be-in at @.-<5J it is simply a modality 'herein the patient>s mental processes ha1e an opportunity to interact in a more spontaneous and autonomous manner 'ith the therapist& 0t this early stage of trance training you are simply e3ploring ho' her indi1iduality 'ill respond to suggestions you offer in an open@ ended manner& &he Apposition of #pposites &hat is a facility in beha+in.

Losin.nconscio*s "ow there are so2e different ways in which the 2ind can f*nction in which the *nconscio*s can 8oin with the conscio*s6 2any different ways in which the *nconscio*s can a+oid the conscio*s 2ind witho*t the conscio*s 2ind 8*st recei+ed a -ift. (o* can for-et where yo* are.$9 This is a 1ery common game among children and it reminds her of a forgotten game& R9 Gi1ing her yet another e3ample of a forgotten e3perience& This is a 'ay of pro1ing you can forget& $9 "ut they 'ill recall the forgotten memory of their e3perience 'ith the game& R9 They 'ill do the opposite of forgetting 'hen they recallJ they then pro1e they ha1e forgotten& $9 0nd at the same time they are 1erifying the 1alidity of 'hat I ha1e been saying& R9 0nd it is possible you may ha1e elicited a forgotten memory& So you ha1e done t'o things that are the opposite of one another& (ou ha1e facilitated forgetting and you ha1e facilitated recall& (ou are .to disco+er that yo* can lose an ar26 a le-6 an entire 2o2ent.that it is .u3taposing mental mechanisms that are usually 1ery delicately balanced9 forgetting and recall& They are delicately balanced in our neurophysiology% and you delicately balance them here for therapeutic purposes& Be 'ill call this the apposition of opposites 'herein you attempt to balance opponent mental processes& This careful balance is another means by 'hich you gi1e her indi1iduality a chance to e3press itself& A2nesia and $issociation. 30a*se4 R9 0nother set of e3amples of ho' forgetting can ta)e place by dissociation& $9 0nd e1erybody has that e3perience& R9 (es& (ou 'ould ne1er ta)e a chance and say something that e1eryone doesn>t al'ays ha1e& (ou spea) in truisms for complete acceptance& eople ha1e to accept 'hat you say because it is all true& (ou then pause to let them assimilate your message& $9 0nd I>m e1o)ing memories onscio*s and .Abilities It5s a +ery re2arkable thin. 30a*se4 R9 0 series of truisms about the relations bet'een conscious and unconscious here& (ou continually use these truisms to 2+5 establish that you are a reliable source of the truth and 2=5 to e1o)e certain mental mechanisms and modes of functioning& Bhen these truisms do trip off the described psychological mechanisms 2for e3ample% the knowin.

who that child is.unconscious releasing a forgotten memory to the conscious5% you also thereby establish the 1alidity and 1alue of trance in a 1ery safe 'ay& In therapeutic 'or) you ne1er use direct challenges to pro1e the trance& $9 That>s right& R9 This is a much more effecti1e and interesting 'ay of establishing the 1alidity of trance% and you are less li)ely to arouse resistance& Facilitatin. a whole lot of thin-s that yo* 30a*se4 $9 This implies9 $ou do ha1e an important purpose in going into a trance& It is not 'hat I can do but 'hat $ou. the patient% can do& (ou emphasiEe all the things the patient can do& R9 (ou are using implication to initiate a process of inner e3ploration that may facilitate the recognition of potentials she did not )no' she had& And they are so 2any 2ore than yo* drea2ed of. E+okin. 30a*se4 R9 This may be e1o)ing early memories or an age regression% but 'ith the safe distancing de1ice of G'ondering 'ho that child is&G (ou do not precipitate the patient into an actual e3perience of reli1ing the past since that might be traumatic at this early stage of therapy& $9 (ou do not elicit the common response% G"ut I can>t be a child&G "ut they can 'onder 'ho the child is& Bhile they 'onder they can say% GI can be that child&G R9 (ou spea) of it in the conte3t of G(ou can dream of yourself as a small child&G Is that actually e1o)ing mechanisms of dream formationI $9 (es% and using them in another 'ay& R9 So again you are utiliEing a natural neuropsychological mechanism by e1o)ing it 1erbally& $9 0nd 'hen you say% G(ou can dream%G it implies you can also do it any other 'ay you 'ant to& R9 (ou did not say% G(ou 'ill dream of yourself&G That 'ould be limiting it to dreams only& (ou say G(ou can dreamG and imply% G"ut you could fantasiEe it% tal) to yourself about it% or 'hate1er&G $9 (ou can do it any 'ay you 'ish% but you 'ill do it& Ratifyin.Latent 0otentials by I2plication &he +ery co2ple9ity of 2ental f*nctioninyo* can -o into a trance to find o*t can do.Early E9perience (o* can drea2 of yo*rself as a s2all child6 wonderin.A-e Re-ression .

.< $9 $1eryone does thisJ a truism again& R9 "y discussing this diso'ning of abilities you are actually setting the stage for facilitating processes of dissociationI $9 (ou only obliterate 'hen there is that ability& "y acti1ely illustrating it% you pro1e it is there& Since it is there 'e 'ill use it& R9 (ou are e1o)ing the obliteration mechanism in the unconsciousI $9 (es% but only temporarily to let her )no' it is there& R9 Oh% are you implying that the unconscious has obliterated a lot of things but it can also bring them for'ard 'hen it 'ants to I $9 (es& R9 So you are setting her up for possible memory recall of anything the unconscious has obliterated& $9 That>s right& Only she does not )no' 'hat you are doing& R9 (ou are spea)ing directly to her unconscious here& $9 0nd using her o'n gro'th and e3perience% that>s all your tal)ing about& I2plication E+en in $irect S*--estion .so with an adeA*ate *nderstandin.*p.ntil finally yo* are able to reco-nize who that child is who is -rowin. .of the fact that an obliteration has been effected.a fairly co2ple9 clinical e9a2ple of how the *nconscio*s can obliterate a 2e2ory.And yo* can watch that child -row older6 week by week6 2onth by 2onth6 year by year.Abilities +ia $issociation E+ery person has abilities not known to the self6 abilities discredited by the self.S5s head appears to nod +ery sli-htly. If there is an ability that the *nconscio*s wants to disown6 it can e9a2ine that ability6 e9a2ine it +ery f*lly6 +ery co2pletely6 and when it desires6 obliterate that ability b*t doin.< R9 (ou are no' ratifying the regression by ha1ing her 'atch herself gro' up& $9 (es% if she 'atches herself gro' up% that implies and ratifies the fact that she e3perienced herself as a child& Facilitatin. .Here Erickson spends abo*t ?F 2in*tes -i+in.

+is*ally so2eti2es yo* want to start it by keepin."ow I a2 tryin.they are closed.in a trance with yo*r eyes wide open. 30a*se4 $9 0nyone absentmindedly loo)ing out the 'indo' during a lecture is e3periencing trance 'ith eyes 'ide open& (ou are obli1ious to the e3ternal lecture and your surroundings as you tune into inner realities& $1eryone has had that e3perience& R9 (ou are defining trance in this 'ay9 not paying attention to your immediate surroundings% being off someplace else mentally& $9 Trance is a common e3perience& 0 football fan 'atching a game on TV is a'a)e to the game but is not a'a)e to his body sitting in the chair or his 'ife calling him to dinner& Awakenin. . 30a*se4 &here is no set ti2e for yo* to learn to re2ain into trances with yo*r eyes wide open.ust a psychotic thing& She can see it in her mind>s eye& R9 (ou are redefining hallucination as something that can be seen in the mind>s eye 'ith one>s eyes closed& (ou>re ma)ing it a safe and easy thing they can do& $9 It may loo) li)e a challenge% but it isn>t one& (ou may Gstart it by )eeping your eyes closedG implies that it doesn>t ma)e a damn bit of difference 'hether your eyes are open or shut& R9 Then you thro' in the safety phrase% GThere is no set time&G It can happen no' or ne3t 'ee)& $9 In the final pause you e3ude confidence& &rance as o22on E9perience (o* ha+e already had so2e e9periences of bein. 30a*se4 $9 Here she is beginning to realiEe that a hallucination is not .yo*r eyes closed and knowin. R9 (ou ma)e such a direct statement here& I>m shoc)ed& $9 GI am trying%G and since you feel )indly to'ard me this implies9 you 'ill help me& R9 Indirectly placing the essential burden on her again& So e1en 'hen you ma)e a direct statement% you may be implying other things% and the really important suggestion is contained in that implication& Hall*cination &rainin"ow in hall*cinatin.as a reati+e #ption "ow6 we5ll shift o+er to another part of yo*r learnin-.to 2ap o*t so2e thin-s yo* can learn.

ects 'ho 'ill Gobey direct commands%G but the hypnotherapist 'ho must 'or) 'ith all patients must carefully study 'hat natural tendencies the indi1idual patient has that can be funneled into therapeutically useful posthypnotic beha1iors& E9plorin. . 30a*se4 $9 Here I>m gi1ing the possibility of posthypnotic suggestion& R9 No' this is a 1ery important aspect of your techni4ue& (ou gi1e possibilities for posthypnotic beha1ior and you 'onder yourself 'hich of these 'ill be fulfilled& (ou ha1e no 'ay of )no'ing 'hich 'ill be realiEed% but 'hen they are% you can ta)e credit for them& $9 (ou ta)e credit only 'hen you are gi1en credit& R9 (ou .of o*rsel+es is +ery co2plicated.back fro2 @E to ?.(o* can awaken fro2 the trance at will6 awaken by co*ntin.ust smile 'hen they fulfill a posthypnotic suggestion% and they )no' you>1e had a hand in it% 'hich you ha1e& $9 "ut not to the e3tent that they thin)& R9 So throughout the induction you may gi1e many possibilities of posthypnotic beha1ior but not in a bold 'ay% as + once did in my early 'or) 'hen I told a sub. 30a*se4 R9 Bith the follo'ing sentence this forms a double dissociation double bind& $9 (es& (ou are ma)ing it possible for the sub.Identity For2ation #*r *nderstandin. R9 (ou seemed fairly tentati1e as you ga1e these a'a)ening instructions& (ou thus ga1e her a creati1e option to a'a)en at this time& "ut if she 'as absorbed in interesting and important 'or) at that moment% there 'as an implication that she could continue for a 'hile yet& This ensures that a'a)ening 'ill be a pleasant e3perience rather than a rude interruption& &he $o*ble $issociation $o*ble )ind. $issociation &rainin(o* can as a person awaken6 b*t yo* do not need to awaken as a body.ect to comprehend the idea of a dissociation bet'een the mind and the body& 0ossibilities of 0osthypnotic S*--estion (o* can waken when yo*r body awakes b*t witho*t a reco-nition of yo*r body.ect that he 'ould Gcasually touch the ashtray after the trance 'as terminated&G Bhen he a'a)ened% he said he remembered my posthypnotic suggestion but he Gdid not feel li)e carrying it out&G He came bac) the ne3t session saying he had been preoccupied all 'ee) 'ith 'hy he had not touched the ashtray& Ob1iously he 'as influenced by the suggestion% but I presented it so directly that it aroused resistance and actually precipitated a conflict bet'een touching and not touching and the 4uestion G'hyG that bothered him all 'ee)& It may be dramatic for the purposes of the stage hypnotist to select sub.

the %rowth of Identity In the final sta-e it is learnin.A child first learns6 I lo+e 2e6 30a*se4 and then proceeds one day6 I lo+e 2y brother6 2y father6 2y sister6 b*t what the child is sayin-D I lo+e the 2e in yo*. &he 2e in yo*. Facilitatin.in yo*r happiness I will find 2y happiness6 30a*se4 and that is the separation of the identity of one person fro2 the identity of the other. 30a*se4 And that5s all the child does lo+e. $9 GIn your happiness I 'ill find my happiness&G $1eryone 'ants to gi1e and find happiness& Their happiness right no' in the trance 'ill be some accomplishment& R9 I see% you>re actually moti1ating her to accomplish something for 'hich she 'ill be happy& (ou do e1erything you can to create an atmosphere of positi1e moti1ation and re'ard in trance e3perience& "y interspersing this positi1e feeling 'ithin the general conte3t of e3ploring her identity% you also may be associating a re'ard 'ith the de1elopment and separation of personal identity& (ou are indirectly facilitating the gro'th of her identity& . 30a*se4 As the child pro-resses6 30a*se4 the child now learns to lo+e yo*r bea*ty6 yo*r -race6 intelli-ence6 b*t that is his perception of the yo*. 30a*se4 R9 Here the focus is on the person>s identity and ho' it de1elopedI $9 (ou>re e1o)ing% GI am me% I am doing this% I>m going to )eep on doing this&G R9 (ou>re focusing on the 'or) to be done by her in tranceI $9 (es& R9 "y this general description of identity formation you are offering a series of truisms that may help )eep her focused on her o'n indi1idual inner 'or)& (ou also may be helping her e3plore important facets of the de1elopment of her o'n identity& 0ositi+e Moti+ation and Reward in &rance.

30a*se4 (o* ha+e had yo*r first e9perience of a A*ick withdrawal. 30a*se4 At the present ti2e yo* ha+e a partially conscio*s and partially *nconscio*s *nderstandin-6 and we don5t know where to place the e2phasis.Spontaneo*s Awakenin.< R9 (ou did not )no' she 'as going to open her eyes at this pointI $9 No& R9 (et you ga1e her the option earlier of counting from =7 to + to a'a)en& (our open@ ended manner ga1e her the creati1e option of a'a)ening 'hen she felt ready to& (ou structured an a'a)ening% yet you ga1e her the freedom of 'hen e1en if it 'as incon1enient for you& $9 That>s right& (ou gi1e them the freedom to a'a)en at the 'rong time for you& Then they are in the mood to continue for you& R9 There is a gi1e and ta)e in your relationship 'ith patients& Makin. 30a*se4 R9 No' that she>s a'a)ened% 'e enter that important period of ratifying the trance& Her 4uestion% G8eIG implies she is not completely oriented yet& It ta)es most people a moment or t'o to a'a)en from trance& That is another indicator of a genuine trance e3perience& $9 (ou 'ill Gseparate your understandingsG implies9 you ha1e got understandings of t'o 1arieties% conscious and unconscious& R9 0nd you are going to do more 'or) on them as time goes on& $9 That>s right& Str*ct*rin.S*b8ect spontaneo*sly opens her eyes and reorients to her body.in therapy that is so i2portant. (es6 what happened to yo*: 30a*se4 (o* wait and don5t disc*ss it beca*se what yo*5re -oin.in a %i+e1and1&ake Relationship .&rance Safe.to do is separate yo*r *nderstandin-s and clarify those and indi+id*alize the2.Fra2es of Reference for &here is one thin.nconscio*s E. 30a*se4 When yo* to*ch *pon another person5s e2otions6 30a*se4 linical InA*iry yo* always to*ch tender places6 and they don5t know where those tender places are. 30a*se4 . "ow6 what5s happened to yo*: S. Separatin. Me: E.onscio*s fro2 .

0atterns E.Maybe yo* were tryin. R9 Here you soften any possible negati1e implications of her a'a)ening by generaliEing about tender places and emotions in therapy& (ou pro1ide a frame of reference for tal)ing about tender emotions& (ou a1oid direct 4uestioning about such tender spots since that tends to arouse resistance and at best only elicits an ans'er that is hedged by all sorts of conscious inhibitions and limitations& "y simply pro1iding her 'ith a gentle frame of reference% on the other hand% you>re gi1ing her an opportunity to say something that>s important if she 'ants toJ you>re pro1iding her 'ith an opportunity for gro'th that is automatically appropriate for 'hate1er le1el she is at% since she can choose to say 'hate1er she 'ants 'ithin the frame you>1e pro1ided& $9 I>m as)ing for 'hat she may be thin)ing 'ithout being blunt and putting her on the spot& R9 (es% your statement about 'ithdra'ing pro1ides a frame that may enable her to say something about 'hate1er she might ha1e e3perienced as negati1e& Her statement that she did not )no' she 'as 'ithdra'ing indicates she feels her a'a)ening 'as a natural and satisfying termination rather than an abrupt 'ithdra'al or escape from something unpleasant in trance& $istraction to Maintain Separation )etween &rance and Wakin. E. Well6 I ha+e tho*-ht abo*t it6 b*t I drea2ed abo*t it too.abo*t her and her children: S.BE.to find why yo* were withdrawinor what yo* were withdrawin.back to when I was ?G. (o* say that yo* didn5t know yo* were withdrawin. I tho*-ht it was abo*t C.April5s children and there were fo*r kids that were cli2bin. I didn5t know I was.aro*nd a banyan tree. Where was April when yo* were thinkin. I think the first ti2e I went ahead in ti2e to abo*t CE years of a-e and we were +isitin. )y the way6 what ti2e do yo* think it is: S. (es. E. .&rance Safe S. Where was she: I don5t know where she wasH it see2ed as if she was off doinso2ethin-. She was -oin.fro2. (es6 I li+ed in the f*t*re. S.to be there soon. R. (o* went into the f*t*re: S. $oes it feel a half1ho*r has passed: R9 Bere you trying to distract us by thro'ing in that 4uestionI $9 (es& It 'as a distraction& (ou don>t 'ant too much self@analysis immediately& 0 person freshly out of the trance is still lingering close to it% and unconscious )no'ledge is easily a1ailable& (ou don>t )no' if that should be used yet& So you distract them& R9 (ou 'ant to ma)e a definite separation bet'een trance and 'a)ing beha1ior& (ou don>t 'ant the in@bet'een state that blurs the distinction& $9 (ou do not 'ant to blur that distinction& Makin. Well6 it5s kind of hard to 8*d-e beca*se I was flashin. R.front hypnosis: S.

E. &o -et a real hall*cination is an *nreality6 and what is 2ore *nreal than April5s fo*r children: S.E. R9 Here she gi1es an e3cellent description of some of the sub.4 Well6 when I first looked at it6 it looked like seaweed6 b*t I was i2a-inin. E. $9 The implication of this% of course% is that S did 'ant to ha1e four children herself 2this 'as later 1erified as true5% and she is no' pro.ecting it into a fantasy of the future 'hen she can play 'ith her daughter 0pril>s four children& "ut she does not )no' I )no' this% she does not )no' it herself& Her unconscious )no's a lot she does not )no'& In not promptly analyEing this and telling her about it% I>1e also let her )no' it is safe to fantasiEe and pro. I*st so2e ti2e in the f*t*re.ect herself in this 'ay& R9 (es& (ou>1e made the trance e3perience safe for her& (ou did not learn anything from her trance that is going to frighten or traumatiEe her life& (ou ma)e the trance a safe and pleasant e3perience& $9 0nd she can trust me& R9 So 'e go on tal)ing about the trance in an intellectual 'ay that>s safe& 2$ric)son gi1es an e3ample of a patient 'ho once slapped him across the face because she 'as not yet ready to tal) consciously about trance e1ents she 'as still partly associated 'ith in the first moments of a'a)ening&5 S*b8ecti+e E9perience of &rance. )*t yo* 2entioned so2ethin.ecti1e e3perience of all the sensory modalities& This is the basis of using rela3ation and hypnosis for pain and similar problems& Her internal imagery 'ith eyes closed 'as a symbolic approach to'ard e3periencing 1isual hallucinations 'ith eyes open& This 'as her first response to your earlier suggestions about hallucinating 1isually& $9 0nd a 1ery effecti1e one& She is 1ery sophisticated 'ith terminology:more so than she realiEed:and she betrayed that fact by seeing 0pril>s children& .abo*t hall*cinations.ecti1e e3periences of trance& $specially note'orthy is her comment to the effect that 'hen she 'as rela3ed% your 1oice already became Gpretty distant&G In rela3ation% then% 'e automatically diminish the sub.alon. Where was that place: What was that place: S. She 8*st had these -irls playin.thro*-h the tree. "o.to do with that 3referrin. &hey were c*te little -irls cli2bin.to pay attention to yo*r +oice6 b*t yo*r +oice had already -otten pretty distant beca*se ? felt pretty rela9ed. What is the approach so2e people 2ake toward acti+e hall*cination: S. I*st abo*t then I saw a -reat heart6 and it had different layers. I don5t know if it had so2ethin. $o yo* know what yo* 8*st said: S.in the ocean.I was 8*st swi22in.aro*nd a banyan tree. First Step to 'is*al Hall*cinations E.abo*t not ha+in. (es.to the irre-*lar -reen1tinted -lass she had *sed for an eye fi9ation point. A while before6 yo* said so2ethin. Well6 it was like a drea2 in that respect. 30a*se4 I -*ess I52 8*st skippin.aro*nd now.

In the trance it5s harder to think: S.that she is sophisticated.another identity. Let 2e ask what yo* 2ean by =sophisticated. (es 30a*se4 S. She knows what hall*cination is. (o* saw all that: So this was yo*r first approach to hall*cinatory e9perience. She accepted 2y abstract and sophisticated concept =hall*cination= and *sed it to see an *nreality pro8ected into the f*t*re. How lon.that she is approachin. "ow6 I52 tryin. E. It was kind of hard to think6 flashin. I *sed the na2e A2y for a while in hi-h school beca*se we were all *sin. . 3S contin*es to reco*nt other 2e2ories of her teen years that she to*ched *pon in trance. R.hall*cinatory beha+ior. R. Another thin.different na2es. R9 I can see 'e 'ere both 1ery 4uic) to reinforce her first step to'ard hallucinations 'ith 1ery supporti1e remar)s here& It is also fascinating to see ho' she spontaneously oriented herself into the future 'ithout any suggestion from you& I suppose this is ho' most hypnotic phenomena 'ere disco1ered& Someone does something interesting spontaneously% and then an alert in1estigator tries to e1o)e it in others& &rance haracteristics S.si-ns that I had hit on a definition of identity.back and ass*2in.the First Sta-es of 'is*al Hall*cinations R. E.aro*nd in that state.abo*t awakeninby co*ntin.flashed into 2y 2ind when $r. Erickson 2entioned -oin. #h well6 I think yo* said so2ethin.= E. When yo* 2entioned Ann Mar-aret6 that A2y identity flashed in 2y 2ind. R.*p. &hat5s f*nny.4 E. At a co2pletely sophisticated le+el. And +ery6 +ery real approach6 and the approach of so2eone who is sophisticated witho*t knowin.had it been since yo* tho*-ht abo*t A2y: S. And witho*t knowin.to think better. R9 Such spontaneous comments as these about ho' hard it is to thin) in trance suggest that trance 2at least as she e3perienced it5 is an altered state characteriEed by less control o1er cogniti1e processes& Trance is a gi1ing up of controls o1er internal processes as 'ell as e3ternal beha1ior& Thus processes of cognition% imagery% and emotion are e3perienced as flo'ing by themsel1es in an in1oluntary manner& 0'a)ening is a process of reasserting control o1er thin)ing 2as she e3presses so 'ell here5 and beha1ior 2body reorientation5& Mo+e2ents and Identity E.back fro2 @E or so2ethin-6 and I did it b*t then I didn5t know if I was ri-ht in wakin.R9 Seeing 0pril>s children is in the 1isual modality% the modality of 1isual hallucinations& $9 (es& Reinforcin. Abo*t @E years. (o* were -i+in.

s*ally a patient in a trance re2ains i22obile. Erickson. I also noticed her fin-ers were 2o+in. .nconscio*s Selection of Hypnotic E9perience S.flashes of identity of yo*rself as a child6 2aybe flashes of yo*r identity as yo* -rew6 flashes of yo*r identity as an adolescent6 and then a +ery stron- . (o* were ha+in.at a certain point. What were the si-ns: E. Mo+e2ents in her 2*scles here and there6 especially in the thi-hs. R.has psychodyna2ic 2eanin-. When yo* see her fin-er 2o+e6 yo* try to connect it with what yo* ha+e been sayin-: E. (es. R9 0fter this session S casually mentioned to me that she had recently 'itnessed a demonstration of finger signaling& She felt that e1en though you did not suggest the possibility of finger signaling to her% the finger mo1ements I noticed 'ere her initial efforts at finger signaling& She 'anted to e3perience finger signaling because she 'as fascinated 'ith it 'hen she had pre1iously 'itnessed it& She therefore used this trance as an opportunity to e3perience something she 'as interested in 'ithout e1en telling you about it& She said she 'as surprised and delighted 'hen she noticed that her fingers mo1ed all by themsel1es& It is a curious dissociation9 she 'anted to e3perience finger signaling and yet she did it in an entirely spontaneous and autonomous manner& Of course% her finger signaling could also be a generaliEation from your earlier suggestions for head signaling& #pen1Ended S*--estions. R.to take place and yo* *nderstood this as a show of reco-nition or identity with what yo* were sayin-. I5d like to ha+e yo* say 2ore abo*t this6 $r. E. Abo*t the si-ns yo* were pickin*p on her.her hands restin. . (es.= )*t her awakenin. I see6 that5s why yo* were watchin. R.on her thi-hs. (o* saw those twitches startin.those 2*scles.R. (o* were watchin. When yo* see her 2o+e6 yo* i22ediately try to connect the 2o+e2ent with the words yo* ha+e been *sin-. What did they 2ean6 if I wasn5t aware of the2: E.ect long enough% they 'ill gradually tell you e1erything 'ithout your e1en as)ing& R9 Sensing that S 'as caught up in her identity by obser1ing the mo1ements in her muscles and fingers:did that moti1ate you to suggest termination by counting bac)'ard from =7 to +I $9 I )ne' she 'as going to 'a)e up in a direct relationship to the identification 'ith maturity& Spontaneo*s Fin-er Si-nalinE. A 2ore nai+e hypnotherapist6 a be-inner like 2yself6 2i-ht think6 =#h she is 8*st wakin. R9 (ou mentioned that 'hen a patient>s identity is touched% they sho' certain body mo1ements& Ho' 'ould you suggest a beginning hypnotherapist train himself to deal 'ith thisI Bould you 'a)e up a patient 'hen he begins sho'ing such mo1ements and as) about them or simply as) 'hile the patient is in tranceI $9 Bhen you continue 'ith one sub.*p.

ect a series of =7 or A7 4uestions all of 'hich 'ould elicit an ob1ious ans'er of Gyes&G 0ll sorts of simple and boring 4uestions such as the follo'ing could be used& Are yo* li+in..ect de1elops a Gyes setG and also becomes a bit bored 'ith the situation& 0t this point the student finally as)ed again if the sub.ect 'ho adamantly refused to accept the possibility that he could e3perience trance& The student% acting on a creati1e hunch% then simply proceeded to as) the resistant sub.M.ust 'hat e3perience is most appropriate at that time& &HE =(ES SE&= The Gyes setG is another basic hypnotic form for coping 'ith the limitations of a patient>s rigid and negati1istic conscious attitudes& 8uch initial effort in e1ery trance induction is to e1o)e a set or frame'or) of associations that 'ill facilitate the 'or) that is to be accomplished& In the first session% for e3ample% he e1o)ed the Gearly learning setG as an analog of the ne' learning situation that hypnosis represented for /r& S& Cust as she successfully learned her 0"C>s% so she 'ould successfully learn to e3perience trance& Thus% the early learning set could itself be understood as a Gyes setG ser1ing as a frame'or) to orient her to the trance 'or) at hand& One of $ric)son>s fa1orite anecdotes is about a beginning student 'ho disco1ered the usefulness of the Gyes setG in hypnotic induction& The student found himself confronted by a hostile sub.ect then ac4uiesced simply because of the Gyes setG and his desire to escape the dull circumstance of simply saying GyesG to ob1ious 4uestions& E9ercises with the =(es Set= +& Be belie1e the Gyes setG is closely related to the concept of rapport% 'hich has traditionally been regarded as a basic feature of the therapist@patient relationship in hypnosis& It is the essence of $ric)son>s approach to the GresistantG patient 'ho is usually unable to control his o'n antagonistic% defensi1e% and self@defeating beha1ior& $ric)son 2+. R9 So in this presentation% /r& $ric)son% you allo'ed her many possibilities& (ou used a buc)shot approach 'hich allo'ed her unconscious to select .: Are yo* seated in that chair: Bithout realiEing it the sub.identification of yo*rself as a wo2an.65 illustrates as follo's9 erhaps this can be illustrated by the some'hat e3treme e3ample of a ne' patient 'hose opening statement as he entered the office characteriEed all psychiatrists as being best described by a commonly used 1ulgarity& The immediate reply 'as made% G(ou undoubtedly ha1e a damn good reason for saying that and even more26 The italiciEed 'ords 'ere not recogniEed by the patient as a direct intentional suggestion to be more communicati1e% but they 'ere most effecti1e& Bith much profanity and obscenity% 'ith bitterness and resentment% and 'ith contempt and hostility he related his unfortunate% unsuccessful% repeated% and often prolonged futile efforts to secure psychotherapy& Bhen he paused% the simple comment 'as made casually% GBell% you must ha1e had a hell of a good reason to see) therapy from me&G 2This 'as a definition of his 1isit unrecogniEed by him&5 lan ho' you can learn to recogniEe% share% and utiliEe a patient>s o'n 'ords and frames of reference to facilitate the transformation of Gseemingly uncooperati1e forms of beha1ior into good rapport% a feeling of being understood% and an attitude of hopeful e3pectancy of successfully achie1ing the goals being sought&G .ect 'ould li)e to e3perience trance& The sub.ust 'hat it 'anted to e3perience& (ou offered suggestions in an open@ended manner& $9 (es% you phrase your suggestions in such a manner that the patient>s o'n unconscious can select .at 9 address: $o yo* work at 9: Is today &*esday: Is it ?E.EE A.

0ny implication stated in the logical Gif& & &thenG form can be a useful 'ay of structuring a suggestion& The introductory Gif phrase states a condition that is acceptable or easily accomplished by the patient so that a Gyes setG is created for the suggestion that follo's in the concluding GthenG phrase& #b+io*sly6 yo* are not -oin. The most ob1ious implication is that one 'ill go into trance after one is comfortable& The 1ery process of getting comfortable% ho'e1er% also e1o)es many unconscious ad.ustments of rela3ation and not doing that are also important for initiating trance e3perience& &he +ery co2ple9ity of 2ental f*nctionin-6 0 truism& yo* -o into a trance to find o*t 0 phrase 'hich implies that the patient does ha1e an important purpose in going into a trance& a whole lot of thin-s yo* can do. 3pa*se4 The pause implies that the patient>s unconscious may ma)e a search to find some of these indi1idual things she 'as pre1iously una'are of& It is important in formulating psychological implications to realiEe that the therapist only pro1ides a stimulusJ the hypnotic aspect of psychological implications is created on an unconscious le1el by the listener& The most effecti1e aspect of any suggestion is that 'hich stirs the listener>s o'n associations and mental processes into automatic action& It is this autonomous acti1ity of the listener>s o'n associations and mental processes that creates hypnotic e3perience& .0S( H#L#%I AL IM0LI A&I#" 0n understanding of ho' $ric)son uses implication 'ill pro1ide us 'ith the clearest model of his indirect approach to hypnotic suggestion& Since his use of GimplicationG may in1ol1e something more than the typical dictionary definition of the term% 'e 'ill assume that he may be de1eloping a special form of Gpsychological implicationG in his 'or)& For $ric)son% psychological implication is a )ey that automatically turns the tumblers of a patient>s associati1e processes into predictable patterns 'ithout a'areness of ho' it happened& The implied thought or response seems to come up autonomously 'ithin patients% as if it 'ere their o'n inner response rather than a suggestion initiated by the therapist& sychological implication is thus a 'ay of structuring and directing patients> associati1e processes 'hen they cannot do it for themsel1es& The therapeutic use of this approach is ob1ious& If patients ha1e problems because of the limitations of their ability to utiliEe their o'n resources@% then implications are a 'ay of bypassing these limitations& If yo* sit down6 then yo* can -o into trance. This implies that it is not 'hat the therapist can do but 'hat the patient can do that is important& And there are so 2any 2ore than yo* drea2ed of.into a trance6 nowJ GNo'G lasts only for a short 'hileJ the implication is that you 'ill go into a trance as soon as Gno'G is o1er& ertainly yo*r ar2 won5t be n*2b before I co*nt to fi+e. Implies it 'ill be numb after a count of fi1e& In e1ery psychological implication there is a direction initially structured by the therapist and a response created by the patient& In the abo1e 'e are initially structuring the implications that 'ill direct the patient>s associations and beha1ior in predictable directions& $3actly 'hen the patient 'ill go into trance or ho' numbness 'ill be created% ho'e1er% are responses mediated on an unconscious le1el by the patient& Consider the follo'ing e3amples9 )efore yo* -o into trance6 yo* o*-ht to be co2fortable.

oyed 'hodunit fiction for the same purpose& Study recordings of your o'n therapy sessions% particularly initial inter1ie's% and e3plore the possible implications of each of the patient>s remar)s& Then study the implications of your o'n& Ho' many are actually therapeuticI =& Study recordings of hypnotic inductions% particularly your o'n& #earn to recogniEe the implications that are present in your 1oice dynamics 2such as intonations and pauses5 as 'ell as the content of your 'ords& A& Carefully construct sentences that 2a5 state a general psychological truth that 2b5 by implication initiates an inner search that 'ill 2c5 e1o)e and mobiliEe the listener>s o'n memories% associations% ideomotor and ideosensory responses% and so on& 6& Carefully 'rite out hypnotic inductions formulating a series of psychological implications that can facilitate trance and each of the classical hypnotic phenomena& &HERA0E.unior authors& He dragged out old protocols% some of them =< years old or more% and ga1e the .)LE )I"$S The concept of the double bind has been used in many 'ays& Be use the terms GbindG and Gdouble bindG in a ver$ s%ecial and limited sense to describe forms of suggestion that offer patients the possibility of structuring their beha1ior in a therapeutic direction& 0 bind offers a free choice of t'o or more comparable alternati1es:that is% 'hiche1er choice is made leads beha1ior in a desired direction& Therapeutic binds are tactful presentations of the possible alternate forms of constructi1e beha1ior that are a1ailable to the patient in a gi1en situation& The patient is gi1en free% 1oluntary choice bet'een themJ the patient usually feels bound% ho'e1er% to accept one alternati1e& Double binds. by contrast% offer possibilities of beha1ior that are outside the patient>s usual range of conscious choice and control& Since the original formulation of the double bind 2"ateson% Cac)son% Haley% and Bea)land% +.unior authors the e3ercise of reading the first page or t'o and then% by implication and inference% predict 'hat 'as to follo'& 0nother set of e3ercises 'as to study the first s)etch of a character by /ostoe1s)i or Thomas 8ann and by implication infer 'hat the character>s fate 'ould be in the no1el& For a period of his life $ric)son en. The rebellious teenager 'as in no mood to accept ad1ice from a doctor% and% in truth% $ric)son really did not )no' ho' his beha1ior 'as going to change& "y openly admitting that he did not )no'% $ric)son disarmed the lad>s resistance so he could momentarily e3perience an acce%tance set2 $ric)son then managed to insert one implication in that moment of acceptance9 G(our beha1ior 'ill change&G The boy 'as no' left 'ith the idea of changeJ his o'n associations and life e3perience 'ould ha1e to create e3actly ho' that change 'as going to ta)e place& E9ercises in 0sycholo-ical I2plication +& $3ercises in implication and clinical inference 'ere $ric)son>s first approach in training the .<.There are% to be sure% crude and mostly ineffecti1e uses of implication in e1eryday life% 'here the spea)er in a 1ery ob1ious manner attempts to cast negati1e implications or aspersions on the listener& In such crude usage the implication is ob1iously created entirely by the spea)er& In our use of psychological implication% ho'e1er% 'e mean something 4uite different& In the psychological climate of the therapeutic encounter the patient is understood to be the center of focus& $1ery psychological truth is consciously or unconsciously recei1ed by the patient for its possible application to himself& sychological implication thus becomes a 1aluable indirect approach for e1o)ing and utiliEing a patient>s o'n associations to deal 'ith his o'n problem& This 'as 'ell illustrated 'hen a colleague referred a rebellious teenager to $ric)son& He listened 4uietly to the lad>s story and then initiated an important therapeutic de1elopment 'ith one simple statement& I don5t know how yo*r beha+ior will chan-e.5 as a hypothesis about the nature and .&I )I"$S A"$ $#.

ect le1el of communication 'hile the comment 2=5 is on a higher le1el of abstraction% 'hich is usually called a secondary or metale1el of communication 2a metacommunication5& 0 peculiar situation arises 'hen 'hat is stated in a primary communication is restructured or cast into another frame of reference in the metacommunication& In re4uesting an ideomotor response such as hand le1itation% for e3ample% 'e 2+5 as) patients to let their hand lift but 2=5 to e3perience it as lifting in an in1oluntary manner& In re4uesting an ideosensory response 'e may 2+5 as) patients to e3perience a hallucinatory sensation of 'armth% but 2=5 it is usually understood that such an e3perience is outside patients> normal range of self@control& Therefore% patients must allo' the 'armth to de1elop on another% more in1oluntary le1el& Be ha1e many 'ays of saying or implying to patients that 2+5 something 'ill happen% but 2=5 you 'on>t do it 'ith conscious intent% your unconscious 'ill do it& Be call this the conscious@unconscious double bind9 since consciousness cannot do it% the unconscious must do it on an in1oluntary le1el& Conscious intentionality and one>s usual mental sets are placed in a bind that tends to depotentiate their acti1ityJ unconscious potentials no' ha1e an opportunity to intrude& The conscious@unconscious double bind is the essential basis of many of the therapeutic double binds discussed in the follo'ing sections& In actual practice the metacommunication that comments on the primary message% may ta)e place 'ithout 'ords9 one may comment 'ith a doubting tone of 1oice% a gesture or body mo1ement% subtle social cues and conte3ts& Hidden implications or unconscious assumptions may also function as a metacommunication binding or 4ualifying 'hat is said on the ordinary con1ersational le1el& "ecause of this the patient is usually not a'are that conflicting messages are being recei1ed& The conflict is fre4uently enough to disrupt the patient>s usual modes of functioning% ho'e1er% so that more unconscious and in1oluntary processes are acti1ated& Ideally% our therapeutic double binds are mild 4uandaries that pro1ide the patient 'ith an opportunity for gro'th& These 4uandries are indirect hypnotic forms insofar as they tend to bloc) or disrupt the patient>s habitual attitudes and frames of reference so that choice is not easily made on a conscious% 1oluntary le1el& In this sense a double bind may be operati1e 'hene1er one>s usual frames of reference cannot cope and one is forced to another le1el of functioning& "ateson 2+..etiology of communication in schiEophrenia% a number of authors ha1e sought to utiliEe the concept of the double bind to understand and facilitate psychotherapy and hypnosis 2Haley% +.-% +.-6J $ric)son and Rossi% +.AJ BatEla'ic) et al&% +.-<5& Since 'e use the term in a 1ery special and limited sense% 'e 'ill present only an outline of ho' 'e conceptualiEe the double bind for an understanding of therapeutic trance and hypnotic suggestion& The double bind arises out of the possibility of communicating on more than one le1el& Be can 2+5 say something and 2=5 simultaneously comment on 'hat 'e are saying& Be may describe our primary message 2+5 as being on an ob.-<5 has commented that this other le1el can be Ga higher le1el of abstraction 'hich may be more 'ise% more psychotic% more humorous% more religious% etc&G Be simply add that this other le1el can also be more autonomous or in1oluntary in its functioningJ that is% outside the person>s usual range of self@direction and @control& Thus 'e find that the therapeutic double bind can lead one to e3perience those altered states 'e characteriEe as trance so that pre1iously unrealiEed potentials may become manifest& In actual practice there is an infinite range of situations that may or may not function as binds or double binds& Bhat is or is not a bind or double bind 'ill depend 1ery much on ho' it is recei1ed by the listener& Bhat is a bind or double bind for one person may not be one for another& In the follo'ing sections% therefore% 'e 'ill describe a number of formulations that may or many not lead a particular patient to e3perience a bind or double bind& These formulations are GapproachesG to hypnotic e3perienceJ they cannot be regarded as techni4ues that in1ariably produce the same response in e1eryone& Humans are too comple3 and indi1idual differences are simply too great to e3pect that the same 'ords or situation 'ill produce the same effect in e1eryone& Bell@trained hypnotherapists ha1e a1ailable many possible approaches to hypnotic e3perience& They offer them one after another to the patient and carefully e1aluate 'hich actually lead to the desired result& In clinical practice 'e can only determine 'hat 'as or 'as not a therapeutic bind or double bind in retrospect by studying the patient>s response& The follo'ing formulations% therefore% offer only the ..

ects% 'ho need to use their consciousness to maintain some control in the hypnotic situation& Consider these e3amples9 Will yo*r ri-ht hand or yo*r left be-in to feel li-ht first: #r will they both feel that li-htness at the sa2e ti2e: Will yo*r ri-ht hand 2o+e or lift or shift to the side or press down first: #r will it be yo*r left hand: $o yo* be-in to e9perience a n*2bness in the fin-ers or the back of the hand first: What part of yo*r body be-ins to feel 2ost co2fortable 3war26 cool6 hea+y6 etc.ects e3perience such phenomena for the first time% they are usually surprised and a bit delighted& Such phenomena are e3periential proof that they can learn to de1elop latent potentials and altered modes of functioning for further therapeutic 'or)& @.ect a Gfree choiceG among comparable alternati1es& 0ny choice% ho'e1er% facilitates an approach to'ard a desired response& To facilitate the acceptance of the trance situation a great number of possibilities e3ist% such as the follo'ing9 Wo*ld yo* like to e9perience a li-ht6 2edi*26 or deep trance: Wo*ld yo* like to -o into trance sittin.possibility of therapeutic binds or double binds that may structure desired beha1ior& I.ecti1e e3perience% one is focused in'ard in a manner that can lead easily to an e3perience of trance and hypnotic phenomena& This 4uestion approach is also particularly suitable for those sub.ects 'ho respond to the initial phase of trance induction 'ith hyperalertness% an3iety% or tension& The 4uestion allo's them to utiliEe their conscious focus to facilitate the recognition of the suggested phenomena& The 4uestion double bind is thus 1ery useful for GresistantG sub. &he )ind and $o*ble )ind 7*estion "inds are easily formed by 4uestions that gi1e the sub. &he &i2e )ind and $o*ble )ind Time is an e3cellent dimension for formulating binding 4uestions and situations& $o yo* want to enter trance now or in a few 2in*tes: Wo*ld yo* like to -o into trance A*ickly or slowly: .down: Wo*ld yo* like to ha+e yo*r hands on yo*r thi-hs or on the ar2s of the chair when yo* -o into trance: Be could designate these 4uestions as binds because 'hile they do structure a trance situation% they can easily be ans'ered by most people 'ith their usual conscious sets& For some people% ho'e1er% the second e3ample could function as a double bind if it is found that they do% in fact% go into a trance 'hen they sit or lie do'n in response to the 4uestion& The follo'ing 4uestions% by contrast% are more typically double binds because they cannot be ans'ered 'ith one>s usual conscious sets& One must usually rela3 and allo' more autonomous or unconscious functions to fulfill them& Such double bind 4uestions are of particular interest for facilitating $ric)son>s e3periential approach to hypnotic phenomena& "y turning attention to one>s sub.4: These 4uestions may function as double binds because a hypnotic suggestion in the form of an ideomotor or ideosensory response is being facilitated no matter 'hich alternati1e is e3perienced& Bhen nai1e sub.*p or lyin.

ects usually e3perience Gpsychomotor retardation&G There is a lag bet'een the time 'hen a suggestion is gi1en and 'hen the sub.of war2th de+elops in yo*r hand.ect e3perience trance& If yo*r *nconscio*s wants yo* to enter trance6 yo*r ri-ht hand will lift. And they don5t see2 to know that yo* will nat*rally A*it bitin. Is that anesthesia proceedin.ects the first t'o 4uestions may actually e1o)e the initial e3periences of tranceJ for them the conte3t of the hypnotherapeutic situation and the therapist>s attitude of e3pectation that they 'ill go into trance may function as metacommunications that acti1ate autonomous processes leading them into trance e3perience& /ouble binds utiliEing time to e1o)e responses on a more autonomous le1el may be structured as follo's9 0lease let 2e know when that feelin. 0ll of these 4uestions and situations utiliEing time contain a strong psychological implication that the desired response 'ill ta)e place& 8ost hypnotic responses ta)e time& In trance sub. (o* don5t e+en ha+e to listen to 2e beca*se yo*r *nconscio*s is here and can hear what it needs to to respond in 8*st the ri-ht way. And they really don5t know thatJ So when they tell yo* to stop bitin.yo*r nails. #therwise yo*r left hand will lift.nconscio*s $o*ble )ind $ric)son fre4uently gi1es a preinduction tal) about the differences bet'een the functioning of the conscious mind and the unconscious mind& This prepares the patient for double binds that rest upon the fact that 'e cannot consciously control our unconscious& The conscious@unconscious double bind bloc)s the patient>s usual 1oluntary modes of beha1ior so that responses must be mediated on a more autonomous or unconscious le1el& 0ny response to the follo'ing situations% for e3ample% re4uires that the sub.A*ickly or slowly: &ake all the ti2e yo* need to really learn how to e9perience that 3any ideo2otor or ideosensory response4 in that special trance ti2e where e+ery 2o2ent in trance is eA*i+alent to ho*rs6 days6 or e+en weeks of re-*lar ti2e.Will yo* be ready to -et o+er that habit this week or the ne9t: These 4uestions can be ans'ered 'ith one>s usual frames of reference and may therefore be classified as binds that simply focus attention in the direction of a desired response& Bhate1er the patient>s ans'er% ho'e1er% they are being bound to ma)e the therapeutic response:either no' or later& Bith some sub. &he onscio*s1.yo*r nails 8*st before yo*5re se+en years old. &hey don5t see2 to know that yo*5re 8*st a si91year1old boy.yo*r nails6 8*st i-nore the2J Of course% Cimmy did not )no' that $ric)son )ne' that he 'ould be se1en in a fe' months& $ric)son>s 'ords% uttered 'ith sincere con1iction and in a confidential tone implying that he 'as ta)ing Cimmy into secret confidence% 'ere enough to double bind Cimmy into gi1ing up nail biting 'ithin t'o months in a 'ay that the boy could not consciously understand& He could not understand% for e3ample% ho' his pleasure in being permitted to ignore his parent>s irritating demands that he stop biting his nails actually reinforced the double bind that acti1ated his o'n internal resources to create a 'ay of gi1ing up nail biting on his o'n& 0s it turned out% Cimmy 'as later able to brag that he 4uit a 'hole month before he 'as se1en years old& B.yo*6 Ii22y6 to A*it bitin.ect is finally able to carry it out& The time bind capitaliEes on this time lag and ma)es it an integral part of the hypnotic response& 0 charming e3ample of the possibility of a therapeutic double bind utiliEing time 'as offered to a si3@year@old boy by $ric)son& I know yo*r father and 2other ha+e been askin. .

If the reader studies the conte3t of these remar)s% it 'ill be found that they are usually directed to'ard freeing the patient>s capacity for functioning on an unconscious le1el to e3plore the many response potentials that ha1e been e3cluded by consciousness& #earning to e3perience trance and the response potentials that are a1ailable in trance is thus directly related to the patient>s ability to let go of the directing and limiting functions of his usual frames of reference& $ric)son demonstrates an important approach to separating conscious . And that5s beca*se the conscio*s 2ind does for-et.that it has 8*st recei+ed a -ift.ect& In general% all the double bind approaches are e3cellent means for helping the so@ called resistant patient bypass or resol1e the erroneous ideas and the limitations of his belief system that ha1e been impeding hypnotic responsi1eness and therapeutic change& $ric)son introduced a series of interrelated double binds in this session that 'ere all directed to'ard depotentiating conscious sets by emphasiEing the potency of the unconscious o1er consciousness& Consider the follo'ing9 )*t yo*r conscio*s 2ind will keep it only with the consent of yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind.a-e re-ression6 catalepsy6 etc.<.*nconscio*s< lan-*a-e can -i+e yo* a story that is entirely different.that can be of interest or +al*e to yo* as 2ost i2portant. And when will the *nconscio*s 2ake all those +al*able learnin-s a+ailable to yo*r conscio*s 2ind: Will it be in a drea2: $*rin. (o*r *nconscio*s 2ind can listen to 2e witho*t yo*r knowled-e.I2plyin.it wo*ld be well to -i+e the *nconscio*s that opport*nity now. A person seekin.And it really doesn5t 2atter what yo*r conscio*s 2ind does beca*se yo*r *nconscio*s a*to2atically will do 8*st what it needs to in order to achie+e that anesthesia . Many different ways in which the *nconscio*s can a+oid the conscio*s 2ind witho*t the conscio*s 2ind knowin. And the *nconscio*s 2ind has had little opport*nity to -i+e reco-nition to its own ways of *nderstandin-. "ow there are 2any different ways in which the 2ind can f*nction in which the *nconscio*s can 8oin with the conscio*s. (o* don5t need to listen to 2e.< And yo*r willin-ness to rely *pon yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind to do anythin.the day: Will it co2e A*ickly or slowly: &oday: &o2orrow: In this series of double binds the therapist is using an open@ended approach& The therapist gi1es a number of truisms about psychological functioning% any one of 'hich 'ill help to sol1e the patient>s problem& The 1alue of this open@ended approach is that it gi1es the patient>s unconscious the freedom to 'or) in 'hate1er 'ay is most suitable for its o'n uni4ue patterns of functioning& This open@ended approach% together 'ith the conscious@unconscious double bind% is also the essence of one of $ric)son>s approaches to resistant patients& Bhen combined 'ith ideomotor signaling 2as 'ill be described in a later section5 to indicate 'hen the unconscious has made a satisfactory response or ans'ered a 4uestion% the conscious@unconscious double bind becomes a reliable 'ay of e1o)ing hypnotic or in1oluntary responses in a manner that is usually acceptable to e1en the most resistant% frightened% or misinformed sub. (o*5+e said that yo*r conscio*s 2ind is *ncertain and conf*sed. And yet we know the *nconscio*s does ha+e access to so 2any 2e2ories and i2a-es and e9periences that it can 2ake a+ailable to the conscio*s 2ind so yo* can sol+e that proble2. .therapy conies in and tells yo* one story that is belie+ed f*lly at the conscio*s le+el and in non+erbal .

ects 'ho are .ects> conscious mind and thus depotentiate their habitual sets% biases% and learned limitations& !nder these circumstances the field is cleared for the possibility of creati1e processes to e3press themsel1es in a more autonomous and unconscious manner& Be )no' from studies in neuropsychology 2#uria% +.ects about their e3perience as being destructi1e of the uni4ue aspects of the first stages of learning ho' to e3perience trance& Such immediate 4uestioning blurs the still delicate distinction bet'een trance and 'a)ing states in sub.ust as they must learn to recogniEe any other altered state 2due to alcohol% drugs% to3emias% psychosis% etc&5& It is 'ell established that the process of obser1ation fre4uently interferes 'ith the obser1ed process& This is particularly true for psychology in general and hypnosis in particular& 8a)ing in.ust learning ho' to let themsel1es e3perience trance& The e3perimenter>s immediate 4uestions un'ittingly build associati1e bridges bet'een the contents of the trance and the a'a)e state& These associative bridges actuall$ destro$ the ex%erience o.-A5 that the secondary and tertiary association areas of the parieto@temporo@occipital conte3t are capable of synthesiEing and mediating the same psychological function in many .ect>s indi1iduality to e3press itself in 'ays that are surprising e1en to the sub. &he $o*ble1$issociation $o*ble )ind $ric)son introduces another more comple3 double bind in this session to facilitate dissociation& Note the subtle interloc)ing of the follo'ing suggestions for dissociation that seem to co1er all possibilities of response% 'hile at the same time introducing the possibility of certain posthypnotic responses& (o* can as a person awaken b*t yo* do not need to awaken as a body. In the first half of this statement a'a)ening as a person is dissociated from a'a)ening as a body& In the second half a'a)ening as a person and body are dissociated from a recognition of the body& "ecause of this 'e may call this type of statement a double@ dissociation double bind& So comple3 is the total effect of this suggestion that it is not immediately ob1ious .from unconscious processes at the end of this session& He typically distracts patients for at least t'o to fi1e minutes after the formal termination of trance because% unless a patient has been trained other'ise% it usually ta)es that long to fully separate trance and 'a)ing states& The distraction period allo's the associati1e connections to trance e1ents to be bro)en& "eing so bro)en% trance e1ents tend to remain amnesic& This also helps ma)e a recogniEable demarcation bet'een trance and 'a)efulness& This recogniEable demarcation thus automatically ratifies the fact that the trance 'as Greal&G Be 1ie' the typical e3perimental approach to hypnosis 'here the in1estigator administers a standard scale of direct suggestions and then immediately 4uestions sub. 30a*se4 (o* can awaken when yo*r body awakes b*t witho*t a reco-nition of yo*r body.ect& /ouble@dissociation double binds tend to confuse sub.udicious direct obser1ations usually interferes 'ith the trance phenomenon being in1estigated& C.ust 'hat response possibilities are being suggested& The actual response possibilities are as follo's9 a2 (ou can as a person a'a)en% but you do not need to a'a)en as a body& b2 (ou can as a person a'a)en% but you do not need to a'a)en as a body and recogniEe your body& c2 (ou can as a person a'a)en% and you can as a body a'a)en% but 'ithout a recognition of your body& Hypnotic forms such as the double@dissociation double bind ha1e an e3citing potential for ex%loring an individual4s res%onse abilities as 'ell as mediating suggestions& 0s 'ith open@ ended suggestions% double@dissociation double binds permit a certain amount of free choice that enables a sub.trance as an altered state that is discontinuous -rom the ordinar$ awa&e state2 It is an odd but sadly true fact that consciousness usually does not recogniEe 'hen it is in an altered stateJ people must learn to recogniEe the delicate and nascent e3perience of de1eloping trance .

Formulations such as the abo1e for automatic 'riting 'ith or 'ithout either a recognition of its meaning or that one has 'ritten it are not as arbitrary as they may seem& Studies of the secondary Eones of the occipital corte3 and optico@gnostic functions 2#uria% +.-A5 illustrate that each of the abo1e possibilities can occur naturally in the form of agnosias 'hen there are specific organic disturbances to brain tissues& $ach of these agnosias is possible only because a discrete mental mechanism for normal functioning has been disturbed 'hen it appears& The agnosias are thus tags for identifying discrete mental mechanisms& 0 so@called suggestion in the form of a double@dissociation double bind may be utiliEing these same natural mental mechanisms& Be hypothesiEe that these mental mechanisms can be turned on or off in trance e1en though they are usually autonomous in their functioning 'hen a person is normally a'a)e& From this point of 1ie' 'e can conceptualiEe GsuggestionG as something more than 1erbal magic& 0de4uately formulated hypnotic forms actually may be utiliEing natural processes of cortical functioning that are characteristic of the secondary and tertiary Eones of cerebral organiEation& These processes are synthetic and integrati1e in their functioning and are responsible for processes of perception% e3perience% recognition% and )no'ing& Constructing hypnotic forms that can either bloc) or facilitate these discrete mechanisms of the secondary and tertiary Eones thus has the potential for 1astly e3tending our understanding of cerebral functioning& This may be the neuropsychological basis for using hypnotic forms for altering human beha1ior and greatly e3panding all forms of human e3perience& F. A %eneral Hypothesis Abo*t E+okin.ect to e3ercise and utiliEe the incredible potentials of these association areas in 'ays that are entirely ne' and outside the range of the sub.ect>s pre1ious e3perience& !nderstood in this manner% the double@dissociation double bind can be e3plored as a means of enhancing creati1ity rather than simply programming suggestions& Other e3amples illustrating possibilities of the double@dissociation double bind are as follo's9 (o* can write that 2aterial witho*t knowin.what it is then yo* can -o back and disco+er yo* know what it is witho*t knowin.Hypnotic 0heno2ena Hypnotic forms such as the double@dissociation double bind also suggest a more general hypothesis about the means by 'hich traditional hypnotic phenomena can be e1o)ed by dissociation% pro1iding another hint about ho' ne' hypnotic phenomena can be de1eloped& Be may hypothesiEe that in general a hypnotic phenomenon ta)es place simply by dissociating any beha1ior from its usual associational conte3t& In our pre1ious e3ample $ric)son demonstrated ho' a'a)ening as a body can be dissociated and separated from its usual associational conte3t of a'a)ening as a person& Bhen he demonstrates ho' not recogniEing one>s body can be effected by dissociating the ability to see 2or recogniEe one>s body5 from its usual associational conte3t 'ith a'a)ening as a person% he is actually demonstrating ho' a negati1e hallucination can be e1o)ed by a process of dissociation& In a similar manner the traditional hypnotic phenomena of catalepsy can be e1o)ed by dissociating the ability to mo1e a part of the body from its usual associational conte3t of a'a)eningJ anesthesia by dissociating the ability to feelJ amnesia by dissociating the ability to rememberJ and so on& The classical hypnotic phenomena of age regression% automatic 'riting% hallucinations and time distortion can all be understood as GnormalG aspects of beha1ior that ta)e place in an autonomous or hypnotic manner simply by separating them from their usual associational conte3ts& It is no' an e3ercise for the therapist>s ingenuity to locate those associational conte3ts from 'hich any of these traditional beha1iors can be dissociated to e1o)e hypnotic phenomena in any particular patient& Be can naturally e3pect that there 'ill be indi1idual differences in the strength 'ith 'hich these 1arious beha1iors are .different 'ays& Hypnotic forms such as the double@dissociation bind may enable the sub.yo*5+e done it.

ectsJ that he 'as afraid to face the audience and to smile at themJ that he dared not loo) at or listen to the 'riterJ that he could not sit in one of the chairsJ that he 'ould ha1e to put his hands behind him instead of resting them on his thighsJ that he dared not e3perience hand le1itationJ that he 'as afraid to close his eyesJ that he had .-<5& 8y first 'ell@remembered intentional use of the double bind occurred in early boyhood& One 'inter day 'ith the 'eather belo' Eero% my father led a calf out of the barn to the 'ater trough& 0fter the calf had satisfied his thirst% they turned bac) to the barn but at the door'ay the calf stubbornly braced its feet and% despite my father>s desperate pulling on the halter% he could not budge the animal& I 'as outside playing in the sno' and% obser1ing the impasse% began laughing heartily& 8y father challenged me to pull the calf into the barn& RecogniEing the situation as one of unreasoning stubborn resistance on the part of the calf% + decided to let the calf ha1e full opportunity to resist since that 'as 'hat it apparently 'ished to do& 0ccordingly I presented the calf 'ith a double bind by seiEing it by the tail and pulling it a'ay from the barn 'hile my father continued to pull it in'ard& The calf promptly chose to resist the 'ea)er of the t'o forces and dragged me into the barn& sychiatric patients are often resistant and 'ithhold 1ital information indefinitely& Bhen I obser1e this I emphatically admonish them that they are not to re1eal that information this 'ee)% in fact% + am insistent that they 'ithhold it until the latter part of ne3t 'ee)& In the intensity of their sub. &he Re+erse Set $o*ble )ind $ric)son learned something about the re1erse set double bind as a boy on the farm& He recounts the e1ents as follo's9 2$ric)son and Rossi& +.ect both to resist and to yieldL eople 'ith problems are% in fact% usually caught bet'een conflicting impulses& They are caught in ambi1alence bet'een resisting and yielding to 1arious impulses and trends 'ithin themsel1es& 0n effecti1e approach to resol1ing this dilemma is to allo' both the resistance and the yielding to be e3pressed& It does not ma)e sense from a rational point of 1ie':but it does ma)e sense from an emotional point of 1ie':to free and e3press all the impulses that 'ere pre1iously loc)ed in mutual contradiction& 0 clear e3ample of $ric)son>s use of the re1erse set to cope 'ith contradictory% defiant% negati1istic% and resistant beha1ior 'as reported as an illustration of his utiliEation of the sub.attached to different associational conte3ts in different sub..ects sitting on the platformJ that he had to ta)e a seat in the bac) of the auditoriumJ that he had to lea1e the auditoriumJ that he did not dare to come up on the platformJ that he 'as afraid to sha)e hands in a friendly fashion 'ith the 'riterJ that he did not dare to remain silent4.ect>s o'n beha1ior to initiate trance 2$ric)son% +.ect in such a 'ay that a re1erse set is establishedJ the sub..ects& The therapist>s tas) is to determine 'hich beha1iors can be most easily dissociated from 'hich conte3ts in 'hich patients& Bhene1er a beha1ior is successfully dissociated from its usual conte3t% 'e ha1e e1o)ed a hypnotic phenomenon& 0s the therapist de1elops a facility for this approach% there 'ill be room for e1o)ing entirely ne' effects that ha1e not yet been reported in the literature& 0n infinite number of hypnotic phenomena can be e1o)ed for the purposes of basic research and therapy& G.ecti1e desire to resist% they fail to e1aluate ade4uately my admonitionJ they do not recogniEe it as a double bind re)uiring them both to resist and to $ield2 If the intensity of their sub.5& The first step is to carefully challenge the sub.ect is pro1o)ed to do the e3act opposite of 'hat $ric)son says& He then gradually introduces a series of suggestions the re1erse of 'hich 'ill lead the sub.ect to e3perience trance& The 'riter>s utterances 'ere carefully 'orded to elicit either 1erbally or by action an emphatic contradiction from the hec)ler% 'ho 'as told that he had to remain silentJ that he could not spea) again% that he did not dare to stand upJ that he could not again charge fraudJ that he dared not 'al) o1er to the aisle or up to the front of the auditoriumJ that he had to do 'hate1er the 'riter demandedJ that he had to sit do'nJ that he had to return to his original seatJ that he 'as afraid of the 'riterJ that he dared not ris) being hypnotiEedJ that he 'as a noisy co'ardJ that he 'as afraid to loo) at the 1olunteer sub. that he 'as afraid to 'al) o1er to one of the chairs on the platform for 1olunteer sub.ecti1e resistance is sufficiently great they may ta)e ad1antage of the double bind to disclose the resistant material 'ithout further delay& They thereby achie1e their purpose of both communication and resistance& atients rarely recogniEe the double bind 'hen used on them% but they often comment on the ease they find in communicating and handling their feelings of resistance& The re1erse set double bind permits the sub.

has been used repeatedly in 1arious modifications% especially 'ith defiant% resisti1e patients% particularly the GincorrigibleG . en-orced b$ %unishments or signals that threaten survival2 <& ! tertiar$ negative in1unction %rohibiting the victim -rom esca%ing the The $ric)son Theraputic /ouble "ind Two or more %ersons5 !sually patient and therapist are ensconced in a positi1e relationship& One or more -orms5 of the double bind are offered until one is found that 'or)s& ! %rimar$ %ositive in1unction5 GI agree that you should continue doing such and such&G ! secondar$ %ositive suggestion at the more abstract level that -acilitates a creative interaction between the %rimar$ :conscious.amas on in the bathroom76 In such a non se4uitur double bind there is a similarity in the content of the alternati1es offered e1en though there is no logical connection& One could get 1ertigo trying to figure out the sense of such a proposition& $1en though it is impossible to figure out% one tends to go along 'ith it 'hen it is e3pressed in a confident and con1incing manner& L.EE or L. trans-erence. that binds the %atient to his . ontrastin.?F: Of course the child chooses the lesser of the t'o e1ils and agrees to go to bed at ?9+<& If there is any further difficulty% $ric)son might employ an illogical but con1incing double bind such as9 G/o you 'ish to ta)e a bath before going to bed% or 'ould you rather put your pa. and li&e the -irst. and metacommunication :unconscious.to remain a'a)eJ that he 'as afraid to go into a tranceJ that he had to hurry off the platformJ that he could not remain and go into a tranceJ that he could not e1en de1elop a light tranceJ that he dared not go into a deep trance% etc& The student disputed by 'ord or action e1ery step of the procedure 'ith considerable ease until he 'as forced into silence& Bith his dissents then limited to action alone% and caught in his o'n pattern of contradiction of the 'riter% it became relati1ely easy to induce a somnabulistic trance state& He 'as then employed as the demonstration sub.-=5 in the genesis of schiEophrenia offers an interesting study of similarities and contrasts2 Be may list them side by side for comparison& The "ateson SchiEogenic /ouble "ind +& Two or more %ersons5 The child G1ictimG is usually ensnared by mother or a combination of parents and siblings =& (e%eated ex%erience of the same double bind rather than one simple traumatic e1ent& A& ! %rimar$ negative in1unction5 G/o not do so@and@so or I 'ill punish you&G 6& ! secondar$ in1unction con-licting with the -irst at a more abstract 8meta9 level. &he "on SeA*it*r $o*ble )ind $ric)son uses non se4uiturs or illogic as double binds& Non se4uiturs and illogic tend to bind% immobiliEe or disrupt a person>s conscious sets so that choice and beha1ior tend to be mediated on a more in1oluntary le1el& To the child 'ho does not 'ant to go to bed he might first employ a time bind9 Wo*ld yo* rather -o to sleep at L.ect for the lecture most effecti1ely& The ne3t 'ee)end% he sought out the 'riter% ga1e an account of his e3tensi1e personal unhappiness and unpopularity and re4uested psychotherapy& In this he progressed 'ith phenomenal rapidity and success& This techni4ue% in part or in toto.2 ! tertiar$ %ositive understanding :ra%%ort.the &herape*tic and Schizo-enic $o*ble )ind The relation bet'een $ric)son>s therapeutic use of the double bind and the studies of it by "ateson et al& 2+.u1enile delin4uent& Its significance lies in the utiliEation of the patient>s ambi1alences and the opportunity such an approach affords the patient to achie1e successfully contradictory goals% 'ith the feeling that these deri1ed out of the une3pected but ade4uate use of his o'n beha1ior& This need to meet fully the demands of the patient% ho'e1er manifested% ought ne1er to be minimiEed& K.

the$ are not a%%ro%riate2 $ric)son has stated% GBhile I put the patient into a double bind they also sense% unconsciously% that I 'ill ne1er% ne1er hold them to it& They )no' I 'ill yield anytime& I 'ill then put them in another double bind in some other situation to see if they can put it to constructi1e use because it meets their needs more ade4uately&G For $ric)son% then% the double bind is a useful de1ice that o--ers a patient possibilities for constructi1e change& If one double bind does not fit% he 'ill try another and another until he finds one that does& M.nconscio*s and Metaco22*nication Throughout this discussion of the 1arieties of double bind the reader may ha1e noted the ease 'ith 'hich 'e could use the terms GunconsciousG and GmetacommunicationG in the same place& These terms may in fact be in the process of becoming interchangeable& This suggests 'e may be 'itnessing a fundamental change in our 'orld 1ie' of depth psychology 'hereby 'e are de1eloping a ne' and more efficient nomenclature& hilosophers ha1e ne1er li)ed the term GunconsciousG% it 'as the academic and philosophical re. or abstract level.. which is outside the victim4s control and -rom which there is no esca%e2 BatEla'ic)% "ea1in% and Cac)son 2+.-5 ha1e illustrated the therapeutic application of the double binds closely modeled on "ateson>s formulation 'herein the patient is bound to a course of beha1ior change 'ith no means of escape& Such double binds are admittedly difficult to formulate% ho'e1er& $ric)son>s double binds% by contrast% appear to be looser in their formulation on the primary message le1el but more comple3 in utiliEing many aspects of the patient>s unconscious dynamics simultaneously on the metacommunicati1e le1el& $ric)son>s therapeutic double binds al'ays emphasiEe %ositive agreement on the level ometacommunication while o--ering %ossibilities that can be re-used on the %rimar$ message level i. &he .-ield2 .& Finally% the complete set of ingredients is no longer necessary 'hen the 1ictim has learned to percei1e his uni1erse in double bind patterns& thera%eutic tas& but leaves him -ree to leave ihe chooses2 The %atient leaves thera%$ when his behavior change -rees him -rom trans-erence and the evo&ed double binds2 It may be noted in summary that the schiEogenic double bind uses negative in1unctions that are en-orced at the metalevel.ection of this term that impeded the early acceptance of Freud>s psychoanalysis& The use of the term GunconsciousG still di1ides academic and e3perimentally oriented psychologists from clinicians as 'ell as doctors in physical medicine from psychiatry& The term GmetacommunicationG% ho'e1er% 'as de1eloped 'ithin a mathematicological frame'or)% and as such% it fits in 'ith the 'orld 1ie' of the research scientist as 'ell as the clinician& It may 'ell be that 'e are on the threshold of a ne' Oeitgeist 'herein 'e 'ill re1ise the terms of depth psychology to ma)e for a better fit 'ith current conceptions in mathematics% cybernetics% and systems theory& E9ercises with $o*ble )inds +& Construct your o'n original list of a 1ariety of double binds 'ith a positi1e metacommunication to do the follo'ing9 a& structure a trance situation b& structure each of the classical hypnotic phenomena c& ratify trance d& structure therapeutic alternati1es for a 1ariety of clinical problems 2e&g&% phobias% compulsions% depression% an3iety% habit problems5& e& structure correcti1e action in 1arious emergency situations f& structure learning% creati1e imagination% and problem sol1ing g& structure relations bet'een the conscious and unconscious h& de1ise e3perimental situations to test 'hich of your original double binds are most effecti1e =& $3plore the dynamics of double binds 'ith negati1e metacommunications that engender the follo'ing9 .

.-=5& =& Bhen in doubt about 'here a patient is in trance or 'hat can be e3perienced% formulate suggestions in an open@ended manner that admits any &ind of response as ade4uate& A& Bhen in doubt about a patient>s readiness to e3perience a particular phenomenon% .6 paper on his techni4ue 'ith resistant patients% for e3ample% $ric)son manages to effect a dissociation bet'een the conscious and unconscious 'hile defining practically any possible response on the conscious le1el as a 1alid hypnotic phenomenon& In part it runs as follo's9 GNo' 'hen you came into this room you brought into it both of your minds% that is% the front of your mind and the bac) of your mind&G 2GConscious mindG and Gunconscious mindG can be used% depending upon the educational le1el% and thus a second intimation is gi1en of dissociation&5 GNo'% I really don>t care if you listen to me 'ith your conscious mind% because it doesn4t understand $our %roblem any'ay or you 'ouldn>t be here% so . want to do is to tal& to $our unconscious mind and it will listen to me because it is 'ithin hearing distance e1en i. 1ust want to tal& to $our unconscious mind because it>s here and close enough to hear me so you can let your conscious mind listen to the street noises or the planes o1erhead or the typing in the ne3t room& Or you can thin) about any thoughts that come to your conscious mind% systematic thoughts% random thoughts because all .a& competiti1e situations b& e3ploiti1e situations 2economic% social% etc&5 A& Bhat e3perimental situations can you de1ise to e3plore the relation bet'een double binds and such sociological catastrophes as 'ars and depressions and such psychological problems as neurosis% psychosis% and phobiasI #0E"1E"$E$ S.$our conscious mind does get bored 2boredom leads to disinterest% distraction% e1en sleep5&G In these fe' sentences the reader can obser1e not only ho' these suggestions admit and define practically anything the conscious mind can do as a 1alid hypnotic response% but also $ric)son>s simultaneous use of truisms% dissociation% implication% double binds% and finally e1en an approach to depotentiating consciousness 'ith boredom& This open@ended approach of simultaneously using many possible means of effecting trance and suggestions is highly characteristic of $ric)son>s style& Be 'ill study many illustrations of this open@ended approach in each of the follo'ing sessions& E9ercises with #pen1Ended S*--estions +& "egin the practice of formulating suggestions in an open@ended manner that admits and defines any possible responses as acceptable& This is particularly important in the induction of trance% 'here both the therapist>s and patient>s fears of failure are most pronounced& Formulating induction suggestions in an open@ended manner allo's both parties to rela3& 0 premium is placed on e3ploration and on a con1ergence of e3pectations in the patient and therapist that greatly facilitates rapport and therapeutic progress& 2Sacerdote% +.ust 'hat e3perience is most appropriate at that time&G Ho' different this is from the older authoritarian approaches that belabor the patient 'ith highly specific direct commands and suggestionsL "y offering suggestions in such manner% he achie1es three important goals92l5 There is no possibility of a patient failing on a suggestion since all responses are defined as admissible hypnotic phenomenaJ 2=5 patients> response abilities 2the Gresponse hierarchyG5 are e3plored to pro1ide clues as to 'hat beha1iors are a1ailable for the achie1ement of therapeutic goalsJ 2A5 since anything the patients do is defined as an ade4uate hypnotic response% they cannot resist or 'ithdra' from the situation& Bhate1er they do tends to propel them further into the hypnotic situation of follo'ing suggestions& In his +.%%ES&I#"S $ric)son ends the commentary to this session 'ith an important admission& He fre4uently uses a buc)shot approach that offers the patient many possibilities of response in an open@ended mannerJ thus% the patient>s o'n unconscious can select .

Bhile open@ended suggestions are useful in e3ploring a patient>s response potentials% the suggestions that co1er all possibilities of a class of responses are more useful 'hen 'e 'ish to funnel a patient>s responses in one definite direction& To mo1e a sub.formulate open@ended suggestions that admit any degree of that response as ade4uate& It 'ill be useful for the beginning hypnotherapist to )no' and learn to recogniEe all possible degrees or increments of response for all the classical hypnotic phenomena& 6& #earn to formulate therapeutic suggestions in an open@ended manner that admits no possibility of failure& S.or shadows: And when will the shadows be-in to arran-e the2sel+es into definite for2s: 30a*se4 Will yo*r eyes be open or closed: 30a*se4 It will be interestin.ust about any possibility of a response in altered 1isual perception as a successful and interesting e3perience& It helps patient and therapist e3plore 'hat response potentials for altered perception are a1ailable to the patient at this particular time and place& E9ercises in Responses o+erin.and where it is not.happenin.%%ES&I#"S #'ERI"% ALL 0#SSI)ILI&IES #F A LASS #F RES0#"SES Closely related to open@ended suggestions% but opposite in direction% are suggestions that are carefully formulated to co1er all possibilities of a class of responses& Bhile open@ ended suggestions accept any response as 1alid% suggestions co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses usually restrict the patient to a narro' range of acceptable possibilities& The open@ended suggestion admits an essay of any possible response that allo's the patient>s originality to become manifest& Suggestions co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses restrict the patient to a relati1ely narro' range of choices 'ithin 'hich he can respond& $ric)son 2+. I*st where it 2ay tin-le or be n*2b or not feel anythin. 30a*se4 And how will that haziness de+elop: Will there be a fo.at all.<=5 illustrates this approach in his hand le1itation techni4ue of induction as follo's9 Shortly yo*r ri-ht hand6 or it 2ay be yo*r left hand6 will be-in to lift *p6 or it 2ay press down6 or it 2ay not 2o+e at all6 b*t we will wait to see 8*st what happens.so2ethin.to find o*t whether it will be hazy or fo--y or bl*rred. #r will thin-s be *n*s*ally bri-ht6 sharp6 and clear when yo* open yo*r eyes: Will there be an alteration of the color back-ro*nd: Will so2e thin-s be *n*s*ally clear and other thin-s not seen at all: (o* can wonder and wait co2fortably as that de+elops.is not whether yo*r hand lifts *p or presses down or 8*st re2ains stillH rather6 it is yo*r ability to sense f*lly whate+er feelin-s 2ay de+elop in yo*r hand. Maybe the th*2b will be first6 or yo* 2ay feel so2ethin. Bhen the patient indicates there are areas 'here the arm is numb or 'ithout sensation% the therapist can then proceed 'ith e3ploratory 4uestions that allo' the anesthesia to spread to the desired area& To e3plore the possibility of alterations in 1isual perception and for positi1e or negati1e hallucinations one could proceed some'hat as follo's9 And now or in a few 2o2ents when yo*r *nconscio*s is ready there 2ay be a blankness or a haziness in yo*r +is*al field. This series of suggestions admits .in yo*r little fin-er6 b*t the really i2portant thin.ect in the direction of e3periencing anesthesia% for e3ample% one could proceed 'ith suggestions co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses some'hat as follo's9 "ow yo* can notice 8*st where that ar2 is feelin.All 0ossibilities of a lass of .

and $our unconscious mind will have to thin& through that )uestion and to decide.the index -inger. and it will have to thin& either a $es or a no answer2 .the head. 1ust how it will answer26 20ll of this e3planation is essentially a series of suggestions so 'orded that responsi1e ideomotor beha1ior is made contingent upon an ine1itable occurrence% namely% that the sub.+& lan ho' you could formulate suggestions co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses to funnel the patient>s responsi1ity to'ard the e3perience of each of the classical hypnotic phenomena& 2$ric)son pro1ides an unusually clear e3ample of this 'ith time distortion in the ne3t chapter&5 =& It can be interesting to practice suggestions co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses in common e1eryday situations such as dining% recreation% shopping and so on& Suggestions outlining the possibilities of the what.6c5 has outlined a complete introduction to ideomotor signaling for facilitating trance induction% trance deepening% and communication in trance 'ith the follo'ing 'ords& The italics are placed by $ric)son to ma)e clear to the reader 'here indirect suggestions are being made& The reader should be able to recogniEe 'here conscious@unconscious double binds are being formulated& GSomething e1erybody )no's is that people can communicate 1erbally MGtal) by 'ordsG if 'arranted by lo' educational or intelligence le1elN or by sign language& The commonest sign language% of course% is 'hen you nod $our head $es or no2 0nybody can do that& One can signal >come> 'ith the forefinger% or 'a1e >bye@bye> 'ith the hand& The Finger signal in a 'ay means >(es% come here%> and 'a1ing the hand means really >No% don>t stay&> In other 'ords one can use the head% the finger or the hand to mean either yes or no& Be all do it& So can $ou2 Sometimes 'hen 'e listen to a person 'e may be nodding or sha&ing the head not &nowing it in either agreement or disagreement& .t could be b$ a nod or a sha&e o.=7s and +..ect 6will have to thin&6 and 6to decide6 'ithout there being an actual re4uest for ideomotor responses& The implication only is there% and implications are difficult to resist&5 Be belie1e that for such ideomotor signaling to be truly autonomous and unconscious% patients should be in trance or distracted in one 'ay or another so they 'ill not ha1e an opportunity to obser1e their o'n mo1ements& "ecause of this $ric)son fre4uently prefers to loo) for automatic head nodding or sha)ing 'here patients are least li)ely to obser1e themsel1es& It is surprising ho' often patients 'ill nod or sha)e their heads to contradict their o'n 1erbal statements e1en 'ithout any formal instruction about ideomotor signaling& Fre4uently it is a ver$ slow and slight but persistent head nodding or sha)ing that distinguishes the mo1ements as coming from an unconscious le1el& These slo'% abbre1iated mo1ements should be distinguished from larger and more ra%id head mo1ements that are more consciously used as a 'ay of emphasiEing 'hat is being said 1erbally& Be prefer to utiliEe a patient>s o'n natural means of ideomotor signaling 'hene1er possible& Bhate1er natural and automatic mo1ements a patient ma)es in ordinary con1ersation can be studied for their metacommunicati1e 1alue& "esides the more ob1ious head and hand mo1ements% eye blin)ing 2slo' or rapid5% body shifting% leg mo1ements% arm position . a li-ting o.. where and when of such acti1ities can enhance freedom of choice for your partner& I$E#M#&#R SI%"ALI"% Ideomotor signaling may be the most useful hypnotic form disco1ered 'ithin the past half@century& $ric)son 2+.t would be 1ust as eas$ to do it with the -inger or the hand2 No' I 'ould li)e to as) your unconscious mind a 4uestion that can be ans'ered 'ith a simple yes or no& It>s a 4uestion that onl$ $our unconscious mind can answer2 Neither your conscious mind nor my conscious mind% nor% for that matter% e1en my unconscious mind )no's the ans'er& Onl$ $our unconscious mind &nows 'hich answer can be communicated.A7s& $ric)son 2+. or a -inger movement. let us say% the right inde3 finger for the yes ans'er% the left inde3 for a no since that is usually the case for the right@handed person and 1ice 1ersa for the left@handed person& Or the right hand could li-t or the le-t hand could li-t2 But onl$ $our unconscious mind &nows 'hat the ans'er 'ill be 'hen I as) for that yes or no ans'er& 0nd not e1en your unconscious mind 'ill )no'% 'hen the 4uestion is as)ed% 'hether it will answer with a head movement. a-ter it has -ormulated its own answer.+5 has re1ie'ed the series of disco1eries that led him from the use of automatic 'riting to his de1elopment of hand le1itation and finally ideomotor signaling during the +.

2e&g&% crossed o1er one another as a GdefenseG5% lip 'etting% s'allo'ing% facial cues such as fro'ning and tensions around the mouth and .a' can be studied for their commentary on 'hat is being said 1erbally& Since $ric)son>s introduction of ideomotor signaling other in1estigators 2#e Cron% +.th century 2/rayton% +?..5% mediumistic phenomena such as table turning and the Oui.<6J Chee) and #e Cron% +.ects% perhaps those 'ho are already e3periencing trance 'ithout realiEing it 2the Gcommon e1eryday tranceG 'herein one>s attention is fi3ed and focused so that the surrounding reality is ignored% such as 'hen one is absorbed in listening to an interesting spea)er% 'atching a mo1ie% reading a boo)5% the ideomotor mo1ements come autonomously entirely as a surprise& These sub.ects tend to e3perience ideosensor$ responses before the actual ideomotor mo1ement& They 'ill GfeelG an itch% pric)liness% 'armth% or some other sensation in the finger before it mo1es& 0n uncritical 1ie' of ideomotor signaling ta)es such mo1ements as the Gtrue response of the unconscious&G This is particularly the case 'hen patients say one thing 1erbally but contradict themsel1es 'ith ideomotor signals& 0lthough there is much clinical e3perience to suggest that such contradictions are important clues about conflicts that the patient may not be a'are of% there is to date no controlled e3perimental research that confirms this 1ie'& "ecause of this it is better at this stage of our understanding to 1ie' ideomotor signals simply as another response system that must be studied and chec)ed:.ects comment that it is easier to mo1e a finger or hand or nod a head in trance than to tal)& It tends to ratify the reality of their trance as an altered state 'hen they realiEe their ideomotor signals are autonomous9 they are e3perienced as ta)ing place spontaneously 'ithout ma)ing any conscious effort to mo1e& In practice there are many possible relations bet'een a'areness% 1olition and ideomotor signals& Initially many sub.-+J Scheflen% +.?5 ha1e e3plored its usefulness in facilitating a 1ariety of hypnotic phenomena& 0 most important aspect of sound hypnotic 'or) is to )no' 'here the sub.i board 2"ram'ell% +.ust as any other 1erbal or non1erbal form of communication must be& Ideomotor signals are particularly interesting in trance 'or) because they are a system of communication that is compatible 'ith the autonomous aspects of trance e3perience& E9ercises With Ideo2otor Si-nalin+& Study the historical aspects of ideomotor signaling in the form of the thought reading e3periments of the +.<-5% etc& 8uch of the so@called occult and psi phenomena may be understood as in1oluntary muscular mo1ements and ideomotor and ideosensory responses that are unconsciously sent and recei1ed& =& Study all 1arieties of apparently in1oluntary muscular mo1ements as forms of ideomotor signaling in e1eryday life& Notice ho' people 'ill unconsciously nod or sha)e their heads and mo1e their lips% hands% and fingers 'hen engaged in internal dialogue& #earn to read facesJ learn to recogniEe the minute facial mo1ements that indicate changes in mood and feeling& Study body posture and mo1ements as non1erbal forms of communication 2"ird'histell% +.ects are reluctant to spea) in trance% and 'hen they do so their usual patterns of 'a)ing associations and beha1ior may be aroused% thus tending to suppress the autonomous aspects of trance e3perience& Ideomotor signaling appears to be a response system that can function more autonomously than speech& 0s such% ideomotor signaling is a more con1enient form of communicating during trance& Sub.ect is at all times& 8any sub.ects realiEe they G)no'G or can GfeelG 'hat mo1ement 'ill ta)e place before it does& "ecause of this they are not certain 'hether the ideomotor mo1ement 'as truly autonomous or 'hether they actually helped it& Bith deepening e3perience of trance there is less a'areness of the mo1ements% and they are accepted as being more truly autonomous& Bith other sub.=+5% the Che1reul pendulum 2BeitEenhoffer% +.<=% +..-65& A& lan ho' you can introduce ideomotor signaling as a natural form of autonomous communication during trance in 'ays that can fit the indi1iduality of each patient& .ects are fascinated 'ith them and 'onder 'hat responses 'ill be gi1en& The ideomotor mo1ement ob1iously comes before they G)no'G 'hat the ans'er 'ill be& Other sub.

6& #earn to formulate suggestions so that the patient 'ill gi1e ideomotor signals 'hen an internal response 2e3periencing 'armth% anesthesia% hallucinations% etc&5 has been e3perienced& Ideomotor signals can be combined 'ith the implied directi1e 2see Chapter <5 to set up a communication system that can greatly facilitate trance training and the e3perience of all the classical hypnotic phenomena& <& lan and carry out carefully controlled clinical and e3perimental situations to e1aluate the reliability and 1alidity of ideomotor and ideosensory signaling&


&he Handshake Ind*ction
$ric)son continues his indirect approaches in this session 'ith the addition of his non1erbal handsha)e induction& 0 ma;or problem in helping /r& S learn to e3perience trance is to loosen the highly intellectualiEed and rigidly structured reality orientation she has constructed in her many years of formal education& The non1erbal techni4ues 2$ric)son% +,.6a5 are particularly suitable for this tas) since they distract and promote the confusion that $ric)son no' ac)no'ledges as a basic process in his approaches to induction& /r& S immediately e3periences catalepsy% the fogging phenomenon% restricted a'areness and comfort 'hich are among the classical indicators of trance& "y the end of this session she is re1ie'ing and possibly reco1ering forgotten memoriesJ surprisingly% she is also beginning to e3perience a spontaneous anesthesia that 'as not suggested& $ric)son li)es to point out that it is in the spontaneous e3perience of such classical phenomena 2along 'ith other psycho@physiological indicators such as diminished pulse% and respiration5 that can be ta)en as the most 1alid criteria for the reality of trance as an altered state& This session brought to the fore t'o potent indirect approaches that 'ere not identified earlier9 conditional suggestions and compound suggestions& $ric)son had been using them all along% of course% but this is the first time the Rossies ha1e noticed them& 0lso noticed for the first time 'as his routine reliance on the ratification of trance phenomena as an indirect means of reinforcing suggestions& $ric)son>s use of the term GratificationG is similar but not identical to the term GreinforcementG in psychological theory& Ratification refers specifically to the patient>s belief system& To ratify something means to confirm 2reinforceI5 that something has occurred& Specifically% in hypnotic 'or) $ric)son uses the 'ord GratifyG 'ith regard to hypnotic phenomenon he 'ants patients to e3perience and belie1e they are e3periencing& To ratify the trance is to help patients realiEe and belie1e they did e3perience trance& To ratify the regression means that patients 'ill later ac)no'ledge that they did indeed e3perience a regression&

onf*sion in the $yna2ics of &rance ind*ction
E, "ow silently6 2entally6 co*nt backwards fro2 @E to ?. (o* can be-in the co*nt6 now. ;Erickson shakes hands with S b*t lin-ers before releasin- her hand. %rad*ally6 and with see2in- hesitation6 he alternately applies and releases press*re with his fin-ers on different parts of her hand. S is not e+en s*re when he finally disen-a-es his hand. Her hand is left in a cataleptic position in 2idair. $*rin- this handshake Erickson looks toward her face b*t foc*ses on the wall behind her. She looks at his face and see2in-ly tries to capt*re his -aze or note whether or not he is act*ally lookin- at her. She see2s a bit disconcerted by his faraway -aze.< $9 Her disconcerted feeling is a mi3ture of her imperfect touch 'ith reality& It is her intellectual a'areness that something has happened and her puEElement about 'hat did happen& She is not really comfortable about itJ she is trying to resol1e it and is e3periencing difficulty in resol1ing it& That is a sophisticated sub;ect>s reaction& R9 That is an intellectually sophisticated sub;ect>s reaction to trance inductionI $9 (es& That is a 1ery common reaction&

onf*sion in &rance Ind*ction
E, $o yo* think yo*5re awake: ;Said witho*t alterin- his faraway -aze past her.<

R9 No' you as) this 4uestion that is so characteristic of you% G/o you thin) you are a'a)eIG BhyI $9 It means% GThere is a good possibility that you are asleep and don>t )no' it&G R9 That>s the implication& $9 It arouses strong doubts in them% and it ma)es them 1ery uncertain& If a stranger comes up to you and says% G/o you )no' meIG it ma)es you 4uestion and search through this memory and that& R9 So it puts the person in perple3ity& $9 (es% perple3ity% and it emphasiEes the conditional trance& It gi1es body to the trance& R9 I see& It begins to reinforce the trance% 'hich her disconcerted feeling indicated 'as already beginning& The handsha)e induction 'herein she is not sure 'hen you remo1e your hand% then% begins a process of puEElement about 'hat is real and not real& The dynamics of this induction is essentially a )ind o- con-usion techni)ue2 E5 (es% it is a confusion techni4ue& ,n all m$ techni)ues. almost all. there is a con-usion2 It is a confusion 'ithin them&

S, I ne+er really know6 ;la*-hs<

onte9ts as Metaco22*nications

R9 This immediate response reaffirms and ratifies the beginning trance& $9 Bhen she says% GI ne1er%G she un'ittingly attaches it to all other conte3ts 'ith you& Only she doesn>t )no' she is doing that& Bhen you Gdon>t )no'%G you are admitting you 'ant to )no' and you are 'illing to let the other person direct you& R9 I belie1e this is a 1ery important point you are ma)ing& Bhen she says% GI ne1er really )no'G M'ith youN% it may seem li)e a simple casual statement% but you belie1e it is an e3act statement of her relation to you e1en though she herself does not realiEe the significance of her statement& 0ctually she is ma)ing a metacommunicationJ she is communicating about her communication to you& 8ost metacommunications are made unconsciously 2"ateson% +,-=5&

Fo--in- 0heno2enon
I a2. I -*ess D I52 a little fo--ed *p. 30a*se4 $9 The fogging is a dimming of reality&

$o*ble )ind 7*estion I2plyin- Altered State
E, $o yo* really think yo*5re awake: $9 8y as)ing the 4uestion also implies9 you>re different% you are in a different state no'& "ut she doesn>t )no' I>m implying that& R9 The doubt you ha1e in your 1oice 'hen you as) this 4uestion turns in into a double bind9 if she ans'ers GyesG she is ac)no'ledging only that she thought she 'as a'a)e but must no' reconsider in the light of your doubtJ if she ans'ers GnoG she admits she 'as not a'a)e& (ou are again catapulting her into trance 'ithout her )no'ing 'hy& It is these unobserved maneu1ers on your part that are so effecti1e in inducing trance and facilitating the acceptance of suggestions& They are effecti1e because they structure conte3ts 2metacommunications5 and initiate associations in a manner that circum1ents patients> conscious sets and all their usual ob;ections% biases% and limitations&

Str*ct*rin- Self1S*--estions
S, "o. ;la*-hs< I52 really co2fortable. 30a*se4 ;Erickson contin*es to look toward her b*t foc*ses beyond.N S, (o*5re starin- ;la*-hs<. $9 Her statement about comfort is a 'ay of reassuring herself% you ha1e to be altered in some 'ay to ha1e a reason for tal)ing about your comfort& It also implies she is going to stay in that state and intensify it& That is 'hat you are a1oiding saying to the sub;ect but get the sub;ect to say themsel1es& R9 GI>m comfortable and I>m going to stay here and get more and more comfortable%G 'hich means going more and more into trance& It is characteristic of your approach that you structure circumstances so the patient ma)es the appropriate self@suggestions rather than you ma)ing a direct suggestion and ris)ing the attendant possibility that the patient might re;ect it& It is much more effecti1e if you can structure their associati1e processes 'ithout their a'areness that you are doing it& $9 That>s right& There is no need to say% Gyou are going in deeper and deeper&G

o2fort as

haracteristic of &rance

R9 No'% ;ust as catalepsy% or Gstopped 1ision%G is a characteristic of trance% 'ould you say that comfort is a characteristic of tranceI $9 (es% because you said you>re comfortable% you are going to ma)e e1en the uncomfortable chair comfortable& That re4uires cooperati1e acti1ity on your part& R9 So 'e can say that comfort and 'anting to ma)e yourself comfortable are characteristic of trance& $9 (es& Since it is a'fully uncomfortable to lose reality% you ha1e to replace that reality 'ith another& R9 That other reality is 6com-ort26 $9 That is correct& R9 She also laughs at that point& $9 The laugh is a defensi1e reaction% and you don>t ha1e to defend yourself unless there is a threat& R9 Bhich is the loss of GouterG reality&

E9periencin- a Li2ited Awareness
I feel kind of f*nny since 2y left eye 2*scle kind of winks closed. $9 Here she is only able to muster up enough a'areness about one eye& R9 She is not cogniEant of the fact that her a'areness is actually limited to her left eye at this point It is from ;ust such apparently innocuous remar)s that you ma)e important inferences about the patient>s consciousness&

Str*ct*rin- E9pectancy to Facilitate Hypnotic Responsi+eness
E, ;&o $r. Rossi b*t witho*t alterin- the faraway -aze past S.< "otice the silent waitin-6

S*b8ect plays absent12indedly with her dress and to*ches the back of one hand with the other.nconscio*s It is +ery i2portant for her to de+elop a specific hall*cination .trance by lookin.the patient disco+er how she can enter the trance.for her to do is act*ally to de+elop an hall*cination of6 let *s say6 a specific landscape. $9 (ou can>t wait for something 'ithout )no'ing it is going to happen& R9 (our 'aiting has the hidden implication that trance 'ill happen& It is only an implication but it actually structures beha1ior 'ithout the patient being a'are of it& (ou ha1e structured an e3pectancy in her that may initiate her into a response attentati1eness to any minimal changes in herself that can be the first signs of a ne' hypnotic e3perience& &rance Indicators in as*al )eha+ior . #ne that she has not seen pre+io*sly. R9 Bhy the remar) about a landscape she has not seen pre1iouslyI $9 I could see she 'as searching through her memory% but to ha1e her ma)e something I 'ould li)e to turn her in on herself still more& "y naming the specifics of birds and trees I focus her attention more closely and more narro'ly& I can direct her attention 'ithout saying e3actly ho'& R9 I>1e had difficulty in my beginning 'or) 'ith hypnosis in )no'ing .< (o* notice how occasionally she feels herself or she dra-s herself o*t of the de+elopin. )*t a landscape she wo*ld like. 30a*se4 "ow6 who knows what she wo*ld p*t in a landscape: )irds6 trees6 b*shes6 rocks. onscio*s and . (o* are lettin. So far as the patient knows yo* are not press*rin-6 yo*5re waitin-.ust 'here the patient is& That>s because I>1e not learned to put her in some definite place as you do& This is 'hat you meant 'hen you mentioned that you hold a patient firmly to her tas)& Relatinand to retain it and be able to describe it.o+er at yo*: $9 She plays 'ith her dress% but e1en that is not real enough no'% so she goes to touching her hand& R9 This touching of herself is a stereotyped effort to reestablish the reality that is no' being rapidly dissociated& 0ctually% it is an indication of self@absorption and a restricted a'areness of anything outside herself& That% of course% is a 'ay of defining trance e3perience& Hall*cination &rainin"ow the ne9t thin.the e9pectancy in her.

And now yo* can re-ress and enter into that. So S can be a little -irl happily playinso2ethin.30a*se4 $9 It is 1ery important that she do something specific here& It is important that she does something% something Gspecific&G 0nd for hea1ens sa)e% 'hat is itI R9 Oh% I see% you are readying her for 'or) no'& She thin)s% GI>1e got some important 'or) to do& O)ay% but 'hat is itIG $9 That>s right& 8a)ing her increasingly more interested in the 'or) she 'ill no' do& R9 Is there a parado3 hereI In the induction the purpose 'as to dissociate her conscious mind so it 'ould not interfere% yet here you are instructing it& 0re you focusing the conscious on the unconsciousI $9 No% the conscious mind is to gi1e full cooperation to the unconscious& (ou>re feeding it to the unconscious& R9 (ou ha1e gathered up all her conscious a'areness and are gi1ing its energy to the unconsciousI $9 (es& 2$ric)son no' describes one of his current cases% 'here the patient>s conscious mind is not yet ready to handle certain insights that are being formulated in the unconscious& The patient is producing symbolic dra'ings and 'ritings that his conscious mind cannot yet understand&5 &rance Learnin. And there will be no 2e2ory of the inter+enin.to R.a hall*cination related to the past: A scene of S as a little -irl en8oyin.a-o for-ot. He appears to be talkin.lon. And I want S to be-in that scene6 feelin-6 sensin-6 thinkinas that sit*ation was years a-o. 30a*se4 .she lon. 30a*se4 And I wo*ld like that scene to co2e into bein-6 be real.< What happens in creatin. &he s*b8ect sits A*ietly6 apparently -oin.by Association .years since then.for-otten.Here Erickson -i+es a detailed @E12in*te case history of a for2er patient who painted a landscape he saw in hypnotic trance and the rele+ance of this landscape for his personal dyna2ics.deeper into trance.so2ethin.

R9 (ou gi1e these case histories 'hile the patient is in a trance so they can learn by associationJ they learn to identify 1icariously 'ith that case history% and they tend to do similar things& $9 (es& She had some age regression there in 'hich she had some fantasies of her childhood and some of the 'ishes of her adult life and some of its realities& &herapist5s 'oice in 0atient5s Inner E9perience In 2y +oice yo* can hear the whisperin.At this ti2e S5s children were act*ally playin.o*tside the office in Erickson5s backyard so we inside co*ld hear their la*-hter and the faint h*bb*b of their +oices<..for-otten now re2e2bered. R9 Here you merge your 1oice 'ith her inner e3perience& $9 That>s right& Ho' do you merge your 1oice 'ith a patient>s inner e3perienceI (ou use 'ords that ordinary life has taught you9 Gthe 'hispering 'ind&G Be ha1e all had 'hispering e3periences& R9 So that puts you into associati1e contact 'ith something 'hispering and close& $9 0nd close5 $9 I>m not as)ing her to do anything she doesn>t 'ant to& It could be a friend% relati1e% anyone )no'n& Reco+erin. &i2e $istortion (o* will in d*e co*rse say so2ethinLon. 30a*se4 A +ery happy 2e2ory.wind6 the r*stle of lea+es. 30a*se4 And then 2y +oice beco2es that of so2e nei-hbor6 ad*lt friend6 relati+e6 so2eone known.rapidly $9 Bhen is Gin due courseGI R9 It could be any time& $9 That>s right& R9 (ou are trying to lift a specific amnesia hereI (ou>re ma)ing an effort to ha1e her reco1er forgotten memoriesI .For-otten Me2ories. And then the ne9t year yo* will re2e2ber6 and the year after that6 and the year after that6 and ti2e is passin.

$9 $1ery 'omen has a past in 'hich she 'anted to meet a stranger& R9 (ou are pic)ing up a specific moti1ation there& $9 "ut you ha1e not defined it% you are still letting her ma)e her o'n definition of it& R9 (ou are tapping into a 1ery intimate channel of her mind% not . $9 (ou>re as)ing the patient to progress from time 0 to " and C& That ratifies that the years of 0 through C 'ere real& So in a 'ay you are ratifying the regression& . And when yo* 2eet that stran-er6 yo* will tell hi2 abo*t the bea*tif*l landscape.A-e Re-ression and yo* are -rowin30a*se4 beco2in.the 0atient.a bi.ust a banal or general reality& It is a general reality you )no' e1ery 'oman has had% and yet each 'oman has a specific e3perience 'ith a stranger& (ou>re safe in suggesting a general category% a stranger% but it 'ill elicit a specific memory in e1ery 'oman& $9 There is a general problem for the beginning therapist here& (ou start patients in a train of association% but they drift along their o'n currents of thought and fre4uently lea1e the therapist stranded far bac)& Then the patient gets furious because the therapist tries to barge in:in the 'rong 'ay& He hasn>t used 'ords that allo' him to accompany the patient& To do this% we use words that have both a general and a ver$ s%eci-ic %ersonal signi-icance2 $1ery 'oman 'ants to meet a stranger in her girlhood% teenage years% her early adult life& That stranger 'ho 'ould e1entually become someone 1ery specific% her lo1er% her husband& R9 These 'ords 'ith both a general meaning and specific personal significance allo' you to focus and accompany patients into 1ery personal associations e1en though you may not )no' e3actly 'hat they are e3periencing& Ratifyin. Words with %eneral and Specific Si-nificance And so2eday yo* will 2eet so2e stran-er and yo* will be able to tell hi2 abo*t it.A-e Re-ression And now in pro-ression co2e thro*-h the years *ntil yo* reach #ctober ?MK@.and Acco2panyin. $9 This ratifies the regression because she can only be big no' if she 'as little earlier& R9 $1en if it 'as only for a fraction of a second% a mere flash of an early memory% she is no' ratifying it% no matter ho' much or ho' little there 'as& Foc*sin.$9 (es& R9 Bith that last phrase you are adding the possibility of time distortionI $9 (es& Ratifyin.-irl.

It isn5t necessary to re2e2ber -oin. $o yo* think yo* can -o into a trance this 2ornin-: S.ust employed failed& $9 $3cept it did not really fail& : She is . . (eah6 I -*ess I co*ld. $o yo* think yo* can -o in a trance this 2ornin-: S. R9 Bhen she as)s% G/o I thin) I can againIG it means that she realiEes she 'as .into a trance.She reorients to her body by stretchin. .h6 yeah6 I -*ess I did. . H*22: S.ust in a trance& Therefore% your posthypnotic suggestion that she forget that hypnosis 'as .ust GrealiEingG the trance& (ou can realiEe there 'as a yesterday but not e3actly 'hat you did yesterday& R9 0mnesia may be present for many things you did yesterday e1en though you realiEe there 'as a yesterday& So the general category of trance e3perience is recalled% but not necessarily the specific contents& She is follo'ing your suggestion 1ery literally 'hen you said in the last section% that she could% 6reali*e hypnosis 'as employed& & & you 'ill not remember going into a trance&G There is a subtle but 1ery real difference bet'een GrealiEingG and Gremembering&G (ou do not bother testing the amnesia at this .2.ontin-ent S*--estion And when yo* -et there when yo* -et to the ri-ht date 30a*se4 yo* will aro*se with f*ll 2e2ory.< E.a bit6 to*chin.into a trance. R9 Bhen you ma)e arousing from the trance contingent upon reaching the current date% you are again ratifying that she must ha1e been in the past to progress to the present to 'a)e up& In general you try to associate your suggestions 'ith any ine1itable beha1ior that is about to occur& One of your fa1orite e3amples is% G/on>t enter trance 2suggested beha1ior5 until you sit all the 'ay do'n in that chairG 2ine1itable as the patient approaches the chair5& $1ery mother has said GShut the door 2suggested beha1ior5 on your 'ay outG 2ine1itable as Cohnny approaches the door5& $issociation $o*ble )ind for A2nesia (o* will realize hypnosis was e2ployed6 yo* will not re2e2ber -oin.her face6 etc. $o I think I can a-ain: E. 30a*se4 R9 This appears to be a simple dissociation double bind to facilitate an amnesia& (ou dissociate the memory of going into trance from its normal conte3t of G(ou 'ill realiEe hypnosis 'as employed&G (ou then reinforce the dissociation by remar)ing% GIt is not necessary to remember going into a trance&G 0osthypnotic S*--estion for A2nesia S. H*22: E.

. E. E. Are yo* awake yet: R9 Bhy are you as)ing all these specific 4uestions hereI $9 (ou as) specific 4uestions in therapy 'hen you don>t )no' 'here the patient>s problem is& I>m e3ploring I>m opening up many different aspects& R9 I see& erhaps there 'as an emotional problem associated 'ith this memory& $9 (es& If there is a problem here% some of these 4uestions may gi1e her an opportunity to tal) about it& "ut here she . E. How tall were yo*: S. In Maine: S. (eah6 and 2y *ncle6 a lobster fisher2an6 told 2e to -et *p at F the ne9t 2ornin.in Maine6 by the ocean6 lookin. I -*ess I went back to that scene when I was ?@ years old. How did yo* -o into a trance this 2ornin-: S. What5s the =or so2ethin-=: S.to -o o*t on the beach with hi2. (es6 yo* took 2y hand and looked at 2e. )ein.point because she is still so close to the trance that she could build associati1e bridges to it and thus destroy the possibility of fulfilling your suggestion for amnesia& $9 That>s right& 7*estions to Locate 0roble2s E. E. E.ust treats them as straightfor'ard 4uestions& A2nesia by $istraction S. E. All ri-ht6 now what has happened to yo* this 2ornin-: S. Well yo* took 2y hand or so2ethin-. Why did yo* say yo*r *ncle: S.at the starfish and thin-s. Well6 I ne+er know what yo* are doin-. #h6 he didn5t talk 2*ch. Is that the best description yo* can -i+e: $9 "y as)ing her these 4uestions I>m also facilitating amnesia& R9 Ho'I (ou mean as)ing her ho' she 'ent into trance is a distraction or an unimportant detail that is going to help her forget 'hat actually happened in tranceI $9 (es& It>s a distraction& Bhen she is so 1ague as to say Gor something%G it indicates her memory is being contracted& R9 Bhen she says% GI ne1er )no' 'hat you are doing%G she is admitting the success of your confusion approach and the 'ay it limits her conscious a'areness& Fo--in.la*-hs< I6 I think so6 yes.and went with hi2. What 2e2ories co2e to 2ind: S. I did wake *p the ne9t 2ornin. E. fi+e1one or fi+e1two. I -*ess I re2e2bered it.0heno2enon . E. How do yo* 2ean6 yo* went back: S. E.

so I looked at the top of yo*r hair.S a-ain points o*t the irre-*larly c*t -lass piece on Erickson5s desk which he freA*ently *ses a fi9ation point for ind*cin.. E.-5& Bhat is the meaning of such foggingI $9 Fog comes in 'hen you get a'ay from e3ternal reality& It is a 'ay of occluding reality& It ma)es you feel all alone .*p. &hen it started fo--in.ust before the 1isions& (ou ha1e described it as a characteristic of the 'hite bac)ground sub.hypnosis. I was lookin. $issociation by I2plication E. Well6 it kind of -ets fo--y. 30a*se4 It be-ins to A*i+er and 2o+e *p toward yo*r face.at yo* b*t -ot e2barrassed lookin. What ti2e is it: S. It5s clo*dy or fo--y6 not A*ite in foc*s.S5s ar2 does be-in to le+itate to her face. "ow direct yo*r attention to yo*r ri-ht hand. I52 not fa2iliar with that. . $o yo* think yo*5re awake yet: S. E9plain that fo--in-. .. (es6 I think so. . R9 This report of fogging 'as a classical sign of hypnosis in the older literature and I>1e recently learned that gypsies characteristically see fog or clouds in their crystal balls . It was distorted for a 2in*te. It is ?E of ??6 b*t it did see2 lon-er. R9 She has been a'a)e and no' you begin to cast doubt upon her a'a)e state 'ith this double bind 4uestion& $9 That>s right& R9 The GdistantG feeling she immediately describes is% of course% the first indication that another trance is beginning& $9 Going into trance is li)e Ggoing a'ayG because you are going distant from e3ternal reality& Hand Le+itation Ind*ction.of the ocean.ust as you feel alone 'hen you 'al) out on a foggy day& $o*ble )ind 7*estion to Initiate Indirect &rance Ind*ction E. Like yo* co*ld see in that -lass.. (es I a2. (o* can5t concentrate on a point any lon-er111111&hat 2i-ht ha+e bro*-ht back that scene beca*se that looks like the fo. 30a*se4 (o*r ri-ht hand 2ay ha+e a tendency to 2o+e *pward. E.nfort*nately6 I 8*st looked.S.< .ects apparently e3perience 'hen they ha1e Gstopped 1isionG in deep trance 2$ric)son% +..< &hin-s are distorted and elon-ated. S. Well6 I feel sli-htly distant b*t I feel basically awake I think6 I don5t know. Like it5s distant6 like by the ocean it -ets fo--y.

of not bein.ecti1e e3perience may be as she holds her hand by her face& This allo's her to utiliEe 'hate1er sub.pa*se as S5s hand le+itates to her face. $9 (ou see& she is loo)ing at a hand2 Bhere is the rest of herI R9 The implication is that she has lost the rest of her body& So this is effecting a dissociation% and a dissociation is a characteristic of trance& So as soon as this begins to ta)e place% you>1e got a trance& $9 "ut you are not laboriously saying% GCease to see the rest of your body&G R9 Bhich 'ould only arouse the typical response% GI can>tG& (ou gi1e suggestions for dissociation by implication& S*--estions o+erin. . I5d like to ha+e yo* interested in disco+erin.All 0ossibilities of a lass of Responses.S*b8ecti+e E9periences (o*r ar2 will feel entirely co2fortable6 at ease6 or it 2ay lose all feelin-6 or it 2ay de+elop a wooden feelin-6 a feelin.D the nat*re and character of itD beca*se e+erybody handles the sit*ation sli-htly differently.30a*se4 When yo*r hand to*ches yo*r face6 yo* can take a deep breath6 and -o deeply asleep6 and be *nable to lower yo*r hand. I2plication and Indirect S*--estion for E9plorin.has happened to yo*r left hand6 and that will re2ain6 and when yo* awaken yo* will ha+e lost all control of yo*r ri-ht ar26 30a*se4 And I want yo* to be c*rio*s abo*t that dissociation of yo*r ri-ht ar2.yo*r way of handlin.yo*r ar2.H*2an 0otentials #f co*rse so2ethin.that ar2.ecti1e e3perience to support it& (ou substitute an interesting piece of self@ e3ploration for 'hat might other'ise be a boring or tedious tas)& atalepsy. . .tilizin.ecti1e means she has to implement your suggestion& (ou facilitate a direct suggestion% as Gbe unable to lo'er your hand%G by co1ering 2or appearing to co1er5 all possibilities of sub.< R9 Here you gi1e her many possible options about 'hat her sub.

ecti1e process by 'hich she immobiliEes her arm that 'ill re1eal 'hether she has a latent talent for anesthesia 2Git may loose all feelingG5% comfort% rigidity% ideosensory responses 2G'ooden feelingG5% or 'hate1er& 0osthypnotic S*--estion ontin-ent on Awakenin- And I can co*nt backward fro2 @E to ? in any way I wish. She reaches *p with her left hand and r*bs the back of her ri-ht hand. R9 (ou fre4uently associate a'a)ening 'ith a posthypnotic suggestion& This is another form of contingent suggestion in 'hich the ine1itable beha1ior of a'a)ening is made contingent on the posthypnotic suggestion that Gyour arm 'on>t Ma'a)enN& 0osthypnotic Anal-esia fro2 &wo M*t*ally Reinforcin. At the co*nt of one yo* will awaken6 b*t yo*r ar2 won5t. Why did yo* r*b it: S. R9 /id you notice something happening to her left hand% or 'as that an indirect suggestionI $9 I>m really telling her% G#et something happen to your left hand&G The implication is that it 'ill imitate the right hand& The implication is also present that she doesn>t )no' 'hat>s happened to her left hand& R9 This indirect 'ay of gi1ing suggestions deepens trance& $9 It al'ays deepens trance& S offers me the handicap of intellectual desire to )eep her )no'ledge a1ailable for use 'ith her o'n patients& R9 That>s a handicap because you>d rather not ha1e her consciousness so acti1e& (ou 'ould rather see ho' her indi1idual differences are manifest in a spontaneous manner& $9 She>s got to find out her differences and she can>t dispute them& R9 This is fascinatingL (ou use implication as an indirect form of suggestion to set beha1ior in motion that 'ill help her e3plore her o'n indi1idual differences in dealing 'ith the situation& (ou are really not manipulating and controlling her& Rather% you are o--ering suggestions in such a 'ay that her o'n uni4ue response potentials become manifest in a manner that can be surprising and informati1e to both of you& $1en 'hile immobiliEing her arm in 'hat might appear to be a con1entional catalepsy% you are actually lea1ing room for the e3ploration of human potentials& It is actually the sub.ust ga1e% G0t the count of one you 'ill a'a)en but your arm 'on>t&G This is an e3cellent e3ample of ho' you can . R9 It is easy to miss this GnumbnessG or analgesia that is unobtrusi1ely indicated by the casual 'ay she rubs the bac) of her hand& (our 4uestion about it brings the admission that it is actually numb& She is thus follo'ing a 1ery casual suggestion for a possible analgesia you administered earlier in your Gsuggestions co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses&G This posthypnotic analgesia is also a conse4uence of the dissociation implied in the a'a)ening suggestions you . )eca*se it feels n*2b. .< E.la*-hs as she notices her ri-ht hand i22obile by her face. 30a*se4 @E6 ?F6 ?E6 F6 C6 B6 @6 ?. H*22.30a*se4 (o*r ar2 will re2ain i22obile.S*--estions S.

.administer t'o or more mutually reinforcing suggestions to reinforce one process& 7*estions for Indirect &rance Ind*ction E.< R9 This is a compound suggestion that is 1ery typical of your style& The truism in the first part% GIt>s going to happen%G opens a yes set that tends to facilitate acceptance of your strongly directi1e suggestion in the second part% G(ou>ll ha1e no control o1er 'hat happens&G The casual 'ay you said this 'as so disarming that at the time I did not e1en recogniEe that you 'ere ma)ing a strong suggestion for dissociation& .stiffer in a 2idair pose< E.ect>s conscious 1olition5% and dissociation% of course% is a ma. Ri-ht ar2 is still stiff. . . . S.ect to Gdo this% do that&G So many therapists tell their patients ho' to thin) and ho' to feel& That is a'fully 'rong& R9 It is more effecti1e to induce the trance in a 'ay the patient can ta)e credit for& S*rprise to Reinforce &rance E.It was -rad*ally beco2ine+ident that her left hand was beco2in.is happenin.to happen.2e anythin. "ow what5s happenin. It takes yo* by s*rprise: S.a bit stiff and i22obile. S.&o R< (o* 2ay ha+e an idea of what5s happenin-.to happen6 and yo*5ll ha+e no control o+er what happens."otices how left hand is -ettin. E.< R9 She is apparently a'a)e at this point% but 'hen you as) this 4uestion% is it indirectly inducing another tranceI $9 (es& R9 This seems to be an e3cellent 'ay of inducing a trance in an indirect manner so that S does not e1en recogniEe a trance is being induced& (ou simply as) an innocent 4uestion about 'hat>s happening to her left arm& In response she cannot help but focus her attention on that arm& (our 4uestion is actually an implied suggestion that something 'ill happen% and 'hen something does happen 2'hether its a mo1ement% an a'areness of a sensation% or 'hate1er5% that something announces the beginning of a dissociation 2because it appears to happen by itself 'ithout the sub.i22obile. So2ethin.abo*t it6 so I don5t know what5s -oin.or feature of trance e3perience& $9 0nd the sub.to yo*r left ar2: S. It5s -oin.ect ta)es credit for it& (ou>re not telling the sub.la*-hs as she notices her left hand -ettin. $9 This 4uestion is also a statement& R9 (ou reinforce GsurpriseG and by implication a state of confusion% so you: $9 reinforce the tranceL o2po*nd S*--estion for $issociation E.to yo*r left hand. It does feel a bit tin-ly. I don5t re2e2ber yo*r tellin.

Well6 its 2o+in. 30a*se4 (o* see what has happened.$issociation an yo* fi-*re it o*t: . 30a*se4 "ow what do yo* s*ppose is the ne9t thin.to that hand. "ow try to disco+er what is happenin. Well6 it feels a little stran-e6 like 2y hand feels it is fallin. E. S.a little n*2b too. First there was e9tre2e 2obility in the entire left ar26 and then less at the elbow6 and then finally -rowin.aro*nd is a for2 of resistance at this ti2e. Well6 it feels a little n*2b.else is happenin-.a little too.atalepsy and Anal-esia S.i22obility down to the wrist6 and then finally the fin-ers.&o Rossi< Act*ally6 of co*rse6 its 2o+in. 30a*se4 R9 (our suggestion that she 'ill ha1e Gno control o1er 'hat happensG initiates a process of confusion and finally a catalepsy and an associated anesthesia& $9 The aside 2to R5 at the end is actually an indirect suggestion that something is happening& R9 I see& (our remar)s to me are actually indirect suggestions to her& atalepsy as a Se-2entation 0heno2enon (o* can disco+er what5s happenin.asleep or so2ethin-.yo* will do: $9 atients all ha1e their o'n patterns of e3periencing hypnotic phenomenon in a segmental manner& It is not important that she )no's ho' she does it% but this sort of description allo's me to stay 'ith her& Staying 'ith your patient is so important& R9 So this 'as an indirect trance induction by simply suggesting that something 'as happening to her left arm& Bhat you found happening 'as a gradually spreading immobility 2catalepsy5 and numbness 2anesthesia&5 These responses are a highly indi1idual matter% and much of the s)ill of the therapist is in disco1ering their spontaneous manifestation& Ha1ing established those hypnotic phenomena% you end by as)ing another 4uestion% G'hat do you suppose is the ne3t thing you 'ill doIG That 4uestion sets the stage for another open@ended e3ploration of 'hate1er other hypnotic phenomena she may be ready to e3perience& 7*estion Initiatin. . S. E. I52 not s*re 2yself6 b*t 2y left hand is -ettin.to yo*r ar2 thro*-h yo*r elbow and then thro*-h yo*r wrist. So yo*r ar2 -ot fi9ed bit by bit. E. So2ethin.so yo* can define what is happenin.

Fine. $9 If she>s got to Gfigure it out%G that affirms that something is happening& R9 She responds to your 4uestion 'ith further dissociation indicated by the GoddG feeling& R9 These t'o statements catapult her into trance by fostering doubt about her mental state& $9 (es& ontin-ent S*--estion S.&o R< And no 2atter what the trance state is6 when they ha+e had their eyes open6 yo* ha+e the2 close their eyes first and then open the2 to awaken. 3&o S4 #f co*rse6 yo* are aware that yo* are not f*lly awake.4 $9 (ou ha1e them close their eyes because there is a 'hole lifetime of e3perience of ha1ing their eyes closed before they a'a)en& R9 0gain you utiliEe a habitual built@in mechanism for your o'n purpose& Bhat e3periences ha1e you had hereI Has anyone e1er left your office in tranceI Ho' long ha1e you )ept people in tranceI $9 eople ha1e gone out of the office and then 'al)ed bac) in and said% G(ou>d better a'a)en me&G 2/r& $ric)son no' recounts a fe' instances 'here he allo'ed especially . And how do yo* feel now: S.S. 3S awakens and reorients to her body by stretchin.4 E. I feel a little odd at this point E. &ired: S. E. &hen yo*r eyes will sh*t. E.tired. . 30a*se4 R9 This is another contingent suggestion9 you associate your suggested beha1ior 2Gyour eyes 'ill shutG5 'ith an ine1itable beha1ior that is about to occur 2putting her arm do'n5& (our suggestion rides piggybac) on the patient>s o'n moti1ation& (ou utiliEe her 'ish to do one thing to ha1e her accept another suggestion that 'ill maintain trance& &rance &er2ination and Ratification I want yo*r ar2s to be +ery co2fortable6 and then yo* can awaken co2fortably6 and yo* can awaken only after yo* open yo*r eyes.a bit6 to*chin. "ow while awake6 hold yo*r ar2 *p in that sa2e awkward position and see how tired it -ets. "o6 fine. (o* 3R4 are probably aware of what5s -oin.her skirt. Wo*ld it be all ri-ht if I p*t 2y ar2 down: E. &hat co2es fro2 a lifeti2e of e9perience. 3S holds her ar2 *p and soon acknowled-es that it is -ettin.to happen.her face6 pattinher hair6 ad8*stin.

&I#" R9 (ou said earlier that in almost all your induction techni4ues% confusion is something that brea)s up their reality orientation& It brea)s their tie to normal a'a)enessI $9 (es& (ou )no'% ordinarily% 'hat is 'hat about yourself and the other person& Bhen confused% you suddenly become concerned about 'ho you are and the other person seems to be fading& R9 Confusion is an opening 'edge to tranceI $9 (es& If you are uncertain about yourself% you can>t be certain about anything else& R9 0ctually they are getting a lot of their reality sense from you and if you thro' doubt into themI $9 It spills o1er into their doubt about all reality& If you are uncertain about something% you tend to a1oid it& R9 I seeL They start 'ithdra'ing from reality if they are uncertain about it& $9 That>s rightL They don>t )no' 'hat it MrealityN is& R9 If you then add to that the suggestion of a pleasant inner reality% they>d rather go to it& $9 0nything is better than that state of doubt& R9 $specially if you are up in front of an audience 'ith e1eryone loo)ing at you& $9 (ou 'ant to get out of that situation% but there is no place e3cept trance& R9 That is 'hy hypnosis 'or)s so 'ell in front of an audience& That is 'here the stage hypnotist gets a lot of his le1erage& $9 (es& He merely capitaliEes on that% and he ma)es it deliberately unpleasant by his aggressi1e manner and the 1arious tric)s he employs& They 'ill do anything to escape from that& 2$ric)son gi1es e3amples of ho' he created unpleasant situations to catapult patients into trance& Some of these are outlined in Rossi>s +.ect% 'ays of ma)ing them ha1e doubts about themsel1es& $9 They begin to 'onder but they don>t )no' 'hat they are 'ondering about& That is 1ery confusingL R9 $1en in something as simple as eye fi3ation9 you focus on that spot% but if you )eep focusing on that spot% sooner or later your eyes are going to get tired% you are going to get blurred 1ision& 0ll these things induce confusion& $9 That>s right& R9 So confusion really is at the basis of all induction techni4uesI $9 It is the basis of all good techni4ues& Cust as in something as simple as closing the eyes& 8ost 'or)ers in hypnosis do not )no' that as the sub.ects to remain in trance for as long as they re4uired to sol1e a particular problem:in one case for t'o 'ee)s& They 'ould go about their normal e1eryday acti1ity 'ithout anyone detecting their trance state& The purpose of the trance 'as to enable them to continuously 'or) out some inner problem&5 R9 (ou ratify the trance by ha1ing her G'hile a'a)e% hold your arm up in that same a')'ard position and see ho' tired it gets&G This% of course% is an instruction that contains a strong suggestion that her hand 'ill get tired& Since the hand gets tired more rapidly 'hen a'a)e% that ratifies she must ha1e been in a trance earlier& #"F.ect closes the eyes% the sub.competent hypnotic sub.ust closing his eyes& R9 There are many things happening 'hen 'e close our eyes% many realities 'e must gi1e up& $9 In focusing on a spot you automatically cut do'n on peripheral 1ision& Then the spot .-A paper% G sychological Shoc)s and Creati1e 8oments in sychotherapy&G5 R9 So this confusion is the basis of many of your non1erbal pantomime techni4ues% 'ould you sayI $9 That>s right& R9 It is the basis of staring or loo)ing through the sub.ect& These are all 'ays of disconcerting the sub.ect is cutting off the 1isual field and is really losing something but he doesn>t )no' 'hat he is losing& He thin)s he is .SI#" I" &HE $("AMI S #F &RA" E I"$.

ect>s attention follo's that% you shift to a touch 'ith your middle finger and then again to the thumb& This arousal of attention is merely an arousal 'ithout constituting a stimulus for a response& The sub.ust enough 1ague sensation to attract the attention& 0s the sub..ect>s hand% it 'ould remain fi3ed in a cataleptic position or 'ould )eep mo1ing in any direction he initiated& He used this approach as a test to assess hypnotic susceptibility and as an induction procedure& The prere4uisites for a successful handsha)e induction are a 'illingness on the part of the sub.ect to tra1erse% re1ie'% organiEe& R9 So can 'e ma)e a summary statement that the basis of good hypnotic induction is confusionI $9 Confusion about the surrounding reality 'hich in ordinary life is al'ays clear& If the surrounding reality becomes unclear% they 'ant it cleared up by being told something 2e&g&% I don>t )no' 'here I am in this city9 'here am II I don>t recogniEe this place9 'hat is itI5& R9 That automatically tends to promote a regression% incidently& It associates them to the time 'hen they 'ere children and as)ed such 4uestions& $9 That>s rightL 0nd you are not demanding it% but you are eliciting a recepti1e attitude% and your most innocent 4uestion can be interpreted by them& If you )no' ho' to as) 4uestions% you as) them in such a fashion that they 'ill pic) out the thing you 'ant& R9 So confusion is the most basic phenomenon of inductionI $9 Be>ll call it9 The dimming of outer reality& Bhen outer reality becomes dimmed% you get confused& R9 So 'e can summariEe the dynamics of induction 'ith a flo' diagram9 +& /imming of outer Reality =& Confusion A& Recepti1ity for Clarifying Suggestions 6& Trance Bor) roper $("AMI S #F &HE HA"$SHA!E I"$.ect>s hand 'ith the middle finger : . &I#" The handsha)e induction is one of the most fascinating and effecti1e procedures de1eloped by $ric)son for initiating trance& It is essentially a surprise that interrupts a sub.ect to be approached% an appropriate situation% and the suitability of the situation for a continuation of the e3perience& 0n edited 1ersion of his outline of the 'hole process and some 1ariations is as follo's& &he Handshake Ind*ction .gets larger as it occupies all the field of 1ision& (ou )no' a spot can>t get larger% yet it doesL R9 So that is again distorting reality and thro'ing them into confusion& $9 They don>t )no' 'hat to do& So then the therapist can tell them 'hat to do& He lays out the ground for the sub.ect>s habitual frame'or) to initiate a momentary confusion& 0 recepti1ity for clarifying suggestions is thus initiated 'ith an e3pectancy for further stimuli and direction& In a letter to BeitEenhoffer in +.nitiation5 Bhen I begin by sha)ing hands% I do so normally& The Ghypnotic touchG then begins 'hen I let loose& The letting loose becomes transformed from a firm grip into a gentle touch by the thumb% a lingering dra'ing a'ay of the little finger% a faint brushing of the sub.ect gi1es attention to the touch of your thumb% you shift to a touch 'ith your little finger& 0s your sub.ect>s 'ithdra'al from the handsha)e is arrested by this attention arousal% 'hich establishes a 'aiting set% an e3pectancy& .+ $ric)son described his approach to the handsha)e induction as a means of initiating catalepsy& Bhen he released the sub.

ect ma)es no response to my efforts 'ith his right hand and the situation loo)s hopelessI If he is not loo)ing at my face% my slo'% gentle out@of@)eeping@'ith@the@situation mo1ements 2remember9 out@of@)eeping5 compel him to loo) at my face& I freeEe my e3pression% refocus my gaEe% and by slo' head mo1ements direct his gaEe to his left hand to'ard 'hich my right hand is slo'ly% apparently purposelessly mo1ing& 0s my right hand touches his left 'ith a slight% gentle% up'ard mo1ement% my left hand 'ith 1ery gentle firmness% .ects and indicati1e of the fact that their attention 'as so focused and fi3ated on the peculiar hand stimuli that they 'ere momentarily entranced so they did not hear 'hat 'as said& tili*ation5 0ny utiliEation leads to increasing trance depth& 0ll utiliEation should proceed as a continuation or e3tension of the initial procedure& 8uch can be done non1erbally& For e3ample% if any sub.ust staring blan)ly% you can use your left hand to touch their ele1ated right hand from abo1e or the side:so long as you merely gi1e the suggestion of do'n'ard mo1ement& Occasionally a do'n'ard nudge or push is re4uired& If a strong push or nudge is re4uired% chec) for anesthesia& There are se1eral colleagues 'ho 'on>t sha)e hands 'ith me% unless I reassure them first% because they de1eloped a profound glo1e anaesthesia 'hen I used this procedure on them& I shoo) hands 'ith them% loo)ed them in the eyes% slo'ly yet rapidly immobiliEed my facial e3pression% and then focused my eyes on a spot far behind them& I then slo'ly and imperceptibly remo1ed my hand from theirs and slo'ly mo1ed to one side out of their direct line of 1ision& I ha1e had it described 1ariously% but the follo'ing is one of the most graphic& GI had heard about you and I 'anted to meet you and you loo)ed so interested and you shoo) hands so 'armly& 0ll of a sudden my arm 'as gone and your face changed and got so far a'ay& Then the left side of your head began to disappear% and I could see only the right side of your face until that slo'ly 1anished also&G 0t that moment the sub.ect does not )no' e3actly 'hen:and the sub.ust a little 'hile for the e3perience&G (ou gi1e that ele1ated right hand 2no' cataleptic in the handsha)e position5 the suggestion of a do'n'ard mo1ement 'ith a light touch& 0t the same time% 'ith your other hand% you gi1e a gentle touch indicating an up'ard mo1ement for the sub.ects to )no' 'hat you are doing% you simply distract their attention% usually by some appropriate remar)% and casually terminate& Sometimes they remar)% GBhat did you sayI I got absentminded there for a moment and 'asn>t paying attention to anything&G This is slightly distressing to the sub.ect>s left hand& Then you ha1e his left hand lifting% right hand lo'ering& Bhen right hand reaches the lap% it 'ill stop& The up'ard course of the left hand may stop or it may continue& I am li)ely to gi1e it another touch and direct it to'ard the face so that some part 'ill touch one eye& That effects eye closure and is 1ery effecti1e in inducing a deep trance 'ithout a single 'ord ha1ing been spo)en& There are other non1erbal suggestions& For e3ample% 'hat if my sub.ust loo)ing blan)ly at me% I may slo'ly shift my gaEe do'n'ard% causing them to loo) at their hand% 'hich I touch as if to say% G#oo) at this spot&G This intensifies the trance state& Then% 'hether the sub.ust said to )eep it that 'ay .Then almost% but not 4uite simultaneously 2to ensure separate neural recognition5% you touch the undersurface of the hand 2'rist5 so gently that it barely suggests an up'ard push& This is follo'ed by a similar utterly slight do'n'ard touch% and then I se1er contact so gently that the sub.ects are loo)ing at you or at their hand or .ect>s eyes 'ere fi3ed straight ahead% so that 'hen I mo1ed to the left out of his line of 1ision% the left side of my face GdisappearedG first and then the right side also& G(our face slo'ly came bac)% you came close and smiled and said you 'ould li)e to use me Saturday afternoon& Then I noticed my hand and as)ed you about it because I couldn>t feel my 'hole arm& (ou .ust barely enough% presses do'n on his right hand for a moment until it mo1es& Thus% I confirm and reaffirm the do'n'ard mo1ement of his right hand% a suggestion he accepts along 'ith the tactile suggestion of left hand le1itation& This up'ard mo1ement is augmented by the facts that he has been breathing in time 'ith me and that my right hand gi1es his left hand that up'ard .ects are .ect>s hand is left going neither up nor do'n% but cataleptic& Sometimes I gi1e a lateral and medial touch so that the hand is e1en more rigidly cataleptic& Termination5 If you don>t 'ant your sub.

ects may then e3perience an anesthesia% a lacuna in 1ision or audition% a time distortion% a de.ects> cognition has no 'ay of e1aluating themJ the sub.ects might rapidly 'ithdra' their hand and end the situation& Sub.ect>s attention is& Initially the sub.ect by the degree recepti1ity to your hesitation& The sub.-75 had described and analyEed a similar procedure for inducing catalepsy in a non@1erbal manner& .ect>s attention and inner in1ol1ement so that trance de1elopsI Ob1iously a certain amount of dedication and patience are re4uired to de1elop such s)ill& It is much more than a matter of simply sha)ing hands in a certain 'ay& Sha)ing hands is simply a conte3t in 'hich $ric)son ma)es contact 'ith a person& He then utiliEes this conte3t to fi3 attention in'ard and so set the situation for the possible de1elopment of trance& 0s he sha)es hands% $ric)son is himself fully focused on 'here the sub.ects> attention is on a con1entional social encounter& Then% 'ith the une3pected touches as their hand is released% there is a momentary confusion and their attention is rapidly focused on his hand& 0t this point GresistantG sub.ect>s attention is further di1ided in trying to attend to you& The final stage is learning to add the directing touches as non@1erbal stimuli for immobility 2catalepsy5 or mo1ement 2hand le1itation5& Sacerdote 2+.ect>s face to GreadG the non1erbal responses 2e&g&% confusion% e3pectancy5 to your hesitation& 0s your e3perience de1elops% e1en at this le1el you 'ill begin to recogniEe 'ho may be a good sub.ect is momentarily confused& (ou can then practice letting go of the rest of the hand so gently that the sub.touch at the moment 'hen he is beginning an inspiration& This is further reinforced by 'hate1er peripheral 1ision he has that notes the up'ard mo1ement of my body as I inhale and as I slo'ly lift my body and head up and bac)'ard% 'hen I gi1e his left hand that up'ard touch&G $ric)son>s description of his handsha)e induction is a bit breathta)ing to the beginner& Ho' does one )eep all of that in mindI Ho' does one de1elop such a gentle touch and such s)illI 0bo1e all% ho' does one learn to utiliEe 'hate1er happens in the situation as a means of further focusing the sub.ects ha1e been gi1en a rapid series of non1erbal cues to )eep their hand fi3ed in one position 2see last paragraph of the initiation5% but they are not a'are of it& Their hand responds to the directing touches for immobility% but they do not )no' 'hy& It is simply a case of an automatic response on a )inesthetic le1el that initially defies conscious analysis because the sub.ects ha1e had no pre1ious e3perience 'ith it& The directing touches for mo1ement are responded to on the same le1el 'ith a similar gap in a'areness and understanding& The sub.ect does not recogniEe 'hen the release too) place% the hand remaining momentarily suspended in midair& (ou can sometimes heighten this effect by spea)ing 1ery softly so the sub.ects find themsel1es responding in an unusual 'ay 'ithout )no'ing 'hy& Their attention is no' directed in'ard in an intense search for an ans'er or for some orientation& This inner direction and search is the basic nature of Gtrance&G Sub.a 1u% a sense of disorientation or 1ertigo% and so on& 0t this moment the sub.ects may become so preoccupied in their inner search that the usual sensory@perceptual processes of our normal reality orientation are momentarily suspended& The sub.ects 'ho are ready to e3perience trance 'ill be curious about 'hat is happening& Their attention is fi3ed and they remain open and ready for further directing stimuli& The directing touches are so gentle and unusual that sub.ect 'ho Gstays 'ith youG and allo's you to set the pace of the handsha)e is e1idently more sensiti1e and responsi1e than the person 'ho rushes off& The ne3t step might be only to release the hand half'ay% so the sub.ects are open for further 1erbal or non1erbal suggestions that can intensify the inner search 2trance5 in one direction or another& E9ercises in the "on+erbal Approaches +& The )eys to learning non1erbal approaches to trance induction are obser1ation% patience% and learning one step at a time& One can begin learning the handsha)e induction by de1eloping a habit of carefully obser1ing a person>s eyes and face as you are sha)ing hands 'ith them in a normal 'ay& The ne3t stage might be to practice releasing the hand a bit slo'er then usual& Then learn ho' to definitely hesitate in releasing the hand% carefully 'atching the sub.

I*st look at one spot and I52 -oin. R9 In this e3ample the therapist has control o1er his o'n beha1ior 2GI>m going to tal) to youG5% and by simply tal)ing he can actually reinforce the suggestion% G#oo) at one spot&G E. &here5s nothin. and R9 The con. &he 0aradi-2s of Acceptance Set6 Reinforce2ent6 or Sy2bolic Lo-ic 0 surprisingly simple aspect of $ric)son>s approach is his use of compound suggestions& The compound suggestion in its simplest form is made up of t'o statements connected 'ith an GandG or a slight pause& One statement is typically an ob1ious truism that initiates an accepting or Gyes setG% the other statement is the suggestion proper& In this session% for e3ample% 'hen /r& S 'as beginning to feel her arm getting stiff% immobile% and Gtingly%G $ric)son reinforced the tendency to'ard dissociation 'ith a compound suggestion9 E.that is really i2portant e9cept the acti+ity of the *nconscio*s 2ind .=& Bhat other non@1erbal touch situations of e1eryday life can you learn to utiliEe to fi3 and focus attention in'ard to initiate tranceI #M0#. and R9 The con. It is -oin. see how tired it -ets.to talk to yo*.to happen R9 This is the first statement of an ob1ious truism since it is in fact happening as /r& S herself demonstrates and describes& E."$ S. R9 The second statement contains the suggestion proper that 'ill reinforce her current e3perience of dissociation& 0 much more comple3 compound suggestion 'ith many implications is in the last statement $ric)son ma)es in this session& E. R9 The suggestion proper& Naturally she 4uic)ly ac)no'ledges that her arm is tired% thus ratifying that the trance condition 'as different from the a'a)e state& This also contains the implication that one can do different things in trance& Other e3amples of compound statements are as follo's& E. hold yo*r ar2 in that sa2e awkward position R9 The 'ord GholdG implies she must ma)e an effort% and Ga')'ardG implies it 'ill be difficult& This strongly sets up the li)elihood that the suggestion proper% 'hich follo's% 'ill actually happen& E. (o*5ll ha+e no control o+er what happens.uncti1e GandG associates the follo'ing suggestion 'ith the pre1ious truisms 2that she is a'a)e and can hold her arm in that a')'ard position5& E.%%ES&I#"S I.uncti1e GandG connects the t'o statements& E. "ow while awake R9 This strongly indicates that trance has terminated and reinforces her state of a'a)eness& Since she really )no's trance has terminated% this is also a truism that opens her for 'hat follo's& E.

and that can be whate+er yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind desires. R9 The importance of unconscious acti1ity is suggested and then reinforced by an ob1ious truism of its independent acti1ity& E.ect&G R.it yo* art de2onstratin. (o* can contin*e en8oyin.rela9in. We know the *nconscio*s can drea2 and yo* can easily for-et that drea2.to share6 and yo* can let the rest re2ain within the *nconscio*s where it can contin*e its constr*cti+e work.-<5& 0 fe' e3amples are as follo's& .co2fortably for a few 2o2ents and after yo* awaken yo* can relate one or two thin-s yo* are willin."$ S&A&EME"&S @. Witho*t knowin. R9 0fter an initial period of trance induction% 'hen a sub.=5& If it is found that the reinforcement form 2'herein the truism follo's the suggestion5 is more effecti1e% then it 'ould appear that the classical la's of learning theory are more appropriate for our understanding of compound statements in hypnosis& If it is found that the acceptance set form 2'herein the truism precedes the suggestion5 is more effecti1e% then it 'ould be e1idence that positi1e e3pectancy% deemed so important by $ric)son% is in fact the more significant factor in hypnotic suggestion& #M0#.. (o* ha+e altered yo*r rate of breathin-6 yo*r p*lse6 and yo*r blood press*re. R9 This indirect suggestion to dream is itself a scientific truism& It is further reinforced by the truism that one can forget a dream& 8erely mentioning% G(ou can easily forget%G is also an indirect suggestion for amnesia& E. &he 0aradi-2 of Shock and reati+e Mo2ents 0nother pro1ocati1e and interesting form of compound suggestion utiliEes a model of shoc) and its resultant creati1e moment 2Rossi% +.ect is in fact 1ery 4uiet% this statement about altered body functioning is a truism opening a yes or acceptance set that permits the therapist to indirectly suggest Gyou are &&& a good hypnotic sub. R9 0t the end of a satisfactory hypnotherapeutic session the re'ard of Grela3ing comfortG tends to reinforce all that happened pre1iously 'hile opening an acceptance set for the posthypnotic suggestion to both recall and forget& G(ou can let the rest remain in the unconsciousG is an indirect suggestion for amnesia% permitting the unconscious to continue therapy on its o'n% free from the limiting and biasing influence of both the therapist>s and patient>s conscious sets& It is clear from these e3amples that compound statements consist of t'o parts9 +& 0 truism consisting of an acceptable fact that can establish an acceptance set for the suggestion or reinforce it& If the truism has moti1ating properties for the patient% it is e1en more effecti1e& =& 0 suggestion proper that can appear before or after the truism& Bhen the truism comes before the suggestion in a compound statement% it initiates a yes or acceptance set for the suggestion that follo's& Bhen the truism follo's the suggestion in a compound statement% the truism is in a position to function as a reinforcer of the suggestion& 0s can be seen from the abo1e e3amples% $ric)son uses both forms& It 'ill be a matter of future research to determine if both forms are e4ually effecti1e& If they are% it 'ould indicate that the commutati1e la' 2'herein the positions of the truism and suggestion may be re1ersed5% so common in symbolic logic% may also apply to our usage of compound statements& This 'ould imply that these hypnotic forms follo' the types of la's found in symbolic logic 2Henle% +.-A5% during 'hich an unconscious search is initiated 'ithin the patient>s associati1e processes& 2$ric)son and Rossi% +.the i22obility that a -ood hypnotic s*b8ect can show.

R9 $ric)son initiated hypnosis 'ith an attracti1e but rigid 'oman 'ith this casually offered statement that is subtly shoc)ing because of the se3ual implications of Guntangle your legs&G The pause allo's the shoc) to set in and initiate a creati1e moment 'ith its rapid array of indistinct% confusing% and half@formulated 4uestions 'hich e1o)e a high le1el of added unconscious acti1ity searching for the GcorrectG implication& The second half% Guntangle your hands%G ma)es the abo1e se3 shoc) retroacti1ely acceptable& The se3ual allusion is no' rationaliEed as something that 'as not really intended& The shoc) effect% ho'e1er% remains in force on an unconscious le1el& 8entioning GuntangleG a second time no' shunts the high le1el of mental acti1ity initiated by the se3 shoc) into other associati1e net'or)s and path'ays to GuntangleG and open more e3ploratory sets on many le1els& E. R9 GSecretsG is another shoc) 'ord% initiating a creati1e moment 'ithin the safety of trance& The pause allo's the shoc) and inner search for highly emotional memories to be acti1ated& The potentially disturbing memories are then made relati1ely safe by no' defining the situation as a Gpri1ateG and Gob. Secrets6 feelin-s6 beha+ior6 etc.E. R& There can be a shoc) reaction to the 'ord G'hispering%G 'hich% of course% has many implications on many le1els 2secrets% se3% etc&5& The pause allo's the shoc) and a creati1e moment to initiate a high le1el of unconscious search& The G'ind in the 'oodsG then ma)es the abo1e innocuous 'hile de1eloping a poetic mood for allegorical 'or) e1ocati1e of daydream% fantasy% and other trance@oriented acti1ity& E.ecti1eG e1aluation& 0nother pause allo's this safe in1estigation to proceed& Further positi1e reinforcement is then added 'ith the final phrase assuring that this acti1ity 'ill Ghelp 'ith the problem at hand&G In these e3amples a pause is the critical element% allo'ing a creati1e moment to de1elop in response to the first shoc) portion of the compound statement& This first shoc) portion of the hypnotic suggestion is ob1iously most useful for initiating a high le1el of mental acti1ity and search that can then be discharged into the associati1e net'or)s opened by the second portion& In effect% then% this form of suggestion allo's one to initiate a high le1el of mental acti1ity and then focus it in a predetermined manner on a problem area& E9ercises in o2po*nd S*--estions +& In this section 'e ha1e introduced an approach for analysing compound suggestions& It can be seen that much fundamental research needs to be done to determine 'hether compound statements function according to the paradigms of acceptance set% learning theory% or symbolic logic 2or all threeL5& The researcher can e3plore these 4uestions by designing and e3ecuting controlled studies to study the relati1e effecti1eness of these paradigms& The clinically oriented reader can e3plore this 4uestion by constructing both . yo* wo*ld rather not talk abo*t 30a*se4 can be e9a2ined pri+ately and ob8ecti+ely in yo*r own 2ind in yo*r own trance 30a*se4 for help with the proble2 at hand. I can listen to the whisperin30a*se4 of the wind in the woods. "ow the first step6 of co*rse6 is to *ntan-le yo*r le-s 30a*se4 and *ntan-le yo*r hands.

there with yo*r eyes closed. As the rest of yo*r body 2aintains that i22obility so characteristic of a -ood hypnotic s*b8ect6 yo*r ri-ht hand will 2o+e the pencil across the pa-e6 writina*to2atically so2ethin.%%ES&I#"S A"$ ASS# IA&I#"AL "E&W#R!S 0nother form of compound suggestion is used 'hen $ric)son arranges conditions such that a patient>s normal flo' of 1oluntary responses is made contingent on the e3ecution of a hypnotic suggestion 2the GcontingentG suggestion5& 0 hypnotic response that may be lo' in a patient>s beha1ioral hierarchy is associated 'ith a pattern of responses high on the patient>s beha1ioral repertory and usually already in the process of ta)ing place& atients find that the momentum of ongoing beha1ior is too difficult to stop so they simply add the hypnotic suggestion as an acceptable conditional for the completion of the pattern of beha1ior that is already begun and pressing for completion& The contingent suggestion simply Ghitchhi)esG onto patients> ongoing flo' of beha1ior& Responses that are ine1itable and most li)ely to occur are made contingent on the e3ecution of the hypnotic response& $ric)son thus interlaces his suggestions into the patient>s natural flo' of responses in a 'ay that causes hardy a ripple of demur& The simplest form of contingent suggestion may be mother>s in.bother yo*. (o* will find yo*rself beco2in.unction% 6Shut the door on your 'ay outLG as Cohnny is running out the door& The already occurring flo' of beha1ior% Gon your 'ay outG is made contingent upon Gshut the door%G since the mother is actually implying% G(ou can>t go out unless you shut the door&G Other e3amples used to systematically deepen trance are as follo's9 (o*r eyes will -et tired and close all by the2sel+es as yo* contin*e lookin.2ore rela9ed and co2fortable as yo* contin*e sittin.co2fort yo* reco-nize yo* don5t ha+e to 2o+e6 talk6 or let anythin. As yo* feel that deepenin.ect he 'as inducing trance in for the first time as 'ell as in pri1ate practice 'ith patients 'ho 'ere 'ell trained in trance& 0s the .at that spot.yo* wo*ld like to e9perience in trance.types of compound suggestions for use in 'or)shop practice to facilitate the acceptance of suggestions& It may be found that some clinicians are more effecti1e 'ith one form or another as a function of their personal style of 1erbaliEation% 1oice dynamics% and other characteristics& =& Re1ie' tape recordings of therapy sessions to study the natural compounds in the patient>s and therapist>s speech& 0s a patient describes a personal problem% study his compounds to gain insights into the association patterns that gi1e rise to comple3es% symptoms% and so on& 0s the therapist tal)s to a patient% 'hat patterns of ideation and beha1ior are being consciously or unconsciously reinforced by the natural compounds in his speechI A& Construct hypnotic inductions designed to associate suggestions 'ith truisms that are particularly acceptable to indi1idual patients& lan ho' the 1arious hypnotic phenomena can also be associated 'ith such truisms in compound statements that are easy to accept& #"&I"%E"& S. 0ssociating suggestions in such interloc)ing chains creates a net'or) of mutually reinforcing directi1es that gradually form a ne' self@consistent inner reality called Gtrance&G It is the construction of such interloc)ing net'or)s of associations that gi1es GbodyG or substance to trance as an altered state of consciousness 'ith its o'n guideposts% rules% and Greality&G 0 more comple3 form of contingent suggestion is in the e3ample $ric)son has used on numerous occasions in front of large groups 'ith a sub.

person approached his chair $ric)son 'ould say9 G/on>t enter trance until you sit all the 'ay do'n in that chair% there&G $on5t enter trance $9 !se of the negati1e G/on>tG to disarm possible resistance against the suggestion to Genter trance&G *ntil $9 0 form of the contingent that no' reintroduces the possibility of trance in 'hat may be a form acceptable to the patient& yo* sit all the way down R9 0s part of the ongoing flo' of ine1itable beha1ior% this establishes a GyesG or accepting set for the preceding& in that chair. E. S. . R9 This is a contingent suggestion 'here Gcome all the 'ay upG is hitchhi)ed onto her ongoing beha1ior of coming out from behind the pillar& S. R9 This compound statement introduces the agreeable 'ord G1olunteerG and ma)es e1eryone a potential 1olunteer& &he one I5d like to pick is the pretty -irl wearin.As she steps forward< )*t I don5t want to. "ow6 notice that yo* tho*-ht yo* didn5t want to.behind the pillar. I like +ol*nteers and I also like to pick 2y +ol*nteers. All the way fro2 olorado Sprin-s 2y h*sband *r-ed 2e to act as a s*b8ect.the white hat who keeps hidin. While yo* contin*e to co2e forward please6 don5t -o into a trance *ntil yo* sit all . $9 GThereG implies that if they do sit in that chair% they are accepting the choice of going into trance& It is understood that there are other chairs they can sit in and not go into trance& This comple3 contingent suggestion thus follo's this general paradigm9 0 negati1e @P a suggestion @P a contingent @P ongoing flo' of beha1ior& 0 classical e3ample of an associational net'or) built up of interloc)ing chains of contingent suggestions that led to a dramatic e3perience of 1isual hallucinations% amnesia% and posthypnotic suggestion 'as $ric)son>s approach to inducing trance in a GresistantG member of an audience& On one occasion% for e3ample% a dentist urged his 'ife to 1olunteer as a demonstration sub. E. I told hi2 I didn5t want to. R9 0n acceptable directi1e that puts another immediate positi1e 1alence on all the preceding& there. $9 The implication of this remar) is to place her not 'anting to 1olunteer into the past 'ith Gthought you didn>t 'ant to&G This phrase is also a double bind because it contains another implication9 Gthought you don>t 'ant toG on a conscious le1el can imply that you really 'anted to on an unconscious le1el& And now that yo*5+e co2e o*t entirely fro2 behind that pillar6 yo* 2i-ht as well co2e all the way to the platfor2.ect so she could learn to e3perience trance& She adamantly refused and e1en tried to hide in her seat behind a pillar in the auditorium& $ric)son spied her and proceeded as follo's9 E.

R9 & & &to shift her into the possibility of Gyou are going into trance&G &he closer yo* -et6 the 2ore yo* can reco-nize the co2fort of -oin. R9 The classic contingent suggestion described earlier& All the way down6 . R9 In a curious 'ay this implies that e1ery mo1ement from Colorado Springs 'as an ine3orable mo1ement to'ard her current trance e3perience& This deepens the significance of her trance by gi1ing it a long history& (o* knew yo* did not want to -o into a trance.said as she is in the process of sittin.unction 'ith the pre1ious sentence this implies she is going into trance the closer she gets to the chair& and yo* are be-innin.into a trance. R9 0nother contingent suggestion to 'hich is added the positi1e moti1ation of Gcomfort&G )*t don5t -o all the way in *ntil yo* sit all the way down in the chair.the way down in this chair. .to reco-nize yo* don5t care R9 G"eginningG initiates a process of inner search that no' utiliEes her negati1e Gdon>t careG attitude & & & whether or not yo* are -oin.into trance.Lookin.at a blank wall< I -et so 2*ch pleas*re watchin. (o* knew yo* wo*ld prefer so2ethinelse.else.those skiers thro*-h 2y kitchen window.closer to that chair $9 In con. $9 0nother contingent suggestion utiliEing the negati1e Gdon>tG to permit a recognition and e3pression of her negati1e attitude 'hile yet defusing it& As yo* are on the platfor26 yo* know yo* are not in a deep trance6 $9 0 truism and a reassurance that she is not in dee% trance& This implies she may be in light or moderate trance& b*t yo* are -ettin. As yo* think it o+er R9 0 series of three truisms leading up to the follo'ing suggestion& there is so2ethin.down< R9 This is a t'o@le1el communicationJ it is a statement 'ith double meaning92l5 Sit Gall the 'ay do'nG and 2=5 Go Gall the 'ay do'nG into trance& Her beha1ior of sitting do'n means she is accepting the statement on le1el +% but as she sits she is also 'ithout realiEing it accepting the suggestion to go into trance on le1el =& $9 I associated e1ery one of her for'ard mo1ements 'ith the de1elopment of another fraction of trance by interloc)ing e1ery piece of ongoing beha1ior 'ith another easily acceptable suggestion& (o* are all the way down in the chair all the way fro2 olorado Sprin-s. . R9 0 suggestion proper that again puts her on an inner search& So why don5t yo* look at it: R9 0n open@ended 4uestion focusing her attention& This is also an indirect suggestion 2G#oo) atG5 for the possible e3perience of a 1isual hallucination& 30a*se4 S.

< (es6 she washes the dishes while watchin. I*st look thereJ . .for childbirth. #h6 they are skiin-J . (o* wo*ld really like to know6 wo*ldn5t yo*: R9 This marshals the memory@traces of her trance e3perience so they are ready to enter consciousness& S. R9 This is a posthypnotic suggestion that allo's her the possibility of bringing up her o'n 'ishes and needs regarding future hypnotic 'or)& It 'ould be both unethical and highly destructi1e of the possibility of future trance 'or) to introduce specific suggestions about hypnotic training for childbirth 'ithout first getting her re4uest for it 'hen she is a'a)e& S. I think yo* 2i-ht like to incl*de hypnosis in yo*r f*t*re.the wish that he wo*ld initiate her into hypnotic trainin.&he h*sband then sends a 2essa-e *p to Erickson e9pressin.< E.< R9 Her strong moti1ation is here utiliEed by pro1iding a channel for e3periencing those memory traces consciously in the form of a 1isual hallucination 'ith her eyes open% staring at that same 'all& Trance 'as reinduced by a surprise approach that allo'ed the memory traces to discharge in hallucinatory form& .As Erickson looks and points 2eanin-f*lly at the blank wall she was lookin. I certainly wo*ldJ E. R9 She adds the music that also belongs to her e3perience& The easiest 'ay to enable hallucinatory beha1ior is to e1o)e the patient>s o'n associations rather than an arbitrary item& H.At this point the h*sband stands *p in the a*dience and says the followin-. &hat is the easiest way to wash the dishes. R9 This is an open@ended suggestion that gi1es her ne' options for future beha1ior& S*ppose yo* ask 2e abo*t it after yo* are awake.< I told 2y h*sband I wo*ld not +ol*nteer as a hypnotic s*b8ectJ I was hidin.She contin*es acti+ely hall*cinatin.the skiers co2e down the 2o*ntainside by o*r kitchen window. What else enhances it: R9 0nother open@ended 4uestion that allo's her to bring in more personally enhancing associations& S. What did I do in trance: R9 Implying an amnesia& E. .R9 She responds literally to the abo1e and G'atches those s)iersG 'ith the GpleasureG $ric)son has suggested a 'hile bac)& E. Isn5t it re2arkable how co2fortable yo* feel: R9 0 4uestion that is a truism 2comfort is characteristic of trance5 e1o)es positi1e feelings to depotentiate her reacti1e anger& S. I always keep the hi1fi on while I watch the skiers.at when she first hall*cinated. E.the skiers6 describintheir 2o+e2ents.< S. .She awakens and looks aro*nd the platfor2.behind that pillar and now I52 here:J I 2*st ha+e been in a trance.

3S 2entions that she probably saw skiers and a-ain repeated all the details abo*t the skiers as if she had not disc*ssed the2 before.. .ects outside of one>s s)in 'ould be re4uired& If one performs this tas) mentally% ho'e1er% one is interacting entirely 'ithin one>s o'n mind 'ith memories of sensory stimuli% perceptual patterns% )inesthetic cues% etc& This inner focus and utiliEation of one>s o'n mental programs is the essence of trance e3perience& To put sub. She then -oes on to wonder alo*d if she 2i-ht not ha+e a *se for hypnosis in the f*t*re.L&I0LE &AS!S A"$ SERIAL S. S. Well6 yo* are 2arried.665 is of particular 1alue for studying his method of formulating associational net'or)s& The formulation of such associational net'or)s may be the clearest illustration of the construction of hypnotic realities& M..S is then reawakened with an a2nesia for this second trance.%%ES&I#"S 0s 'e ha1e seen% it is fre4uently more effecti1e to offer t'o or more hypnotic suggestions rather than one& Often the momentum of doing one easy tas) 'ill help a more difficult one along:as is the case 'ith contingent suggestions& 0 series or chain of interloc)ing suggestions is another effecti1e method for structuring a pattern of beha1ior& The performance of one item ser1es as a cue and stimulus for the ne3t& $ric)son fre4uently used such series during the early years of his learning and e3perimentation 'ith hypnotic realities& He 'ould ha1e e3perimental sub.ects in a laboratory imagine and Gmentally go through the process step by step and in correct orderG of reaching for an imaginary piece of fruit on an imaginary table 2$ric)son% +.< E.ects on any sort of mental tas) re4uiring a series of steps utiliEing their o'n internal programs% therefore% is another 1aluable hypnotic form& . Well6 I intend to ha+e children. (ears later she +ery s*ccessf*lly did so.4 R9 She is no' follo'ing the posthypnotic suggestion about the possibility of including hypnosis in her future& E. What do yo* s*ppose6 when yo* first ca2e *p to the platfor26 yo* did in that trance: S.65& If one 'ere actually to reach out and pic) up a piece of real fruit% a series of stimulus@response interactions 'ith the real ob.S then disc*sses the possibility of *tilizinhypnosis in childbirth.< R9 The association about marriage naturally e1o)es a connection bet'een marriage: childbirth:hypnosis& E9ercises with ontin-ent S*--estions +& The 1alue of obser1ing regularities in patients> beha1ior 'hich 'as emphasiEed in chapter +% 'ill no' be apparent& The effecti1eness of contingent suggestions depends in great part on their being appropriately timed and associated 'ith regular patterns of ongoing beha1ior& The more a patient is Gloc)ed intoG a certain pattern of beha1ior% the more po'erful a 1ehicle 'ill it be for the appropriately hitchhi)ed suggestion& Formulate both simple and comple3 contingent suggestions that you could associate 'ith any fairly automatic ongoing patterns of e1eryday beha1ior you>1e obser1ed in indi1idual patients& This can be as simple as encouraging a patient to continue any ongoing pattern of associations or beha1ior& Gradually learn ho' to add modifying suggestions and finally suggestions to structure further therapeutic responses& =& lan ho' you could utiliEe simple and comple3 contingent suggestions for facilitating psychotherapeutic responses& A& Construct associational net'or)s that 'ill facilitate hypnotic induction as 'ell as any particular hypnotic phenomenon& $ric)son>s 'or) on the construction of artificial comple3es and e3perimental neurosis 2$ric)son% +.

ect is )ept busy 'ith t'o or more tas)s& Bhile 2+5 loo)ing at that spot the sub.ect 'ould then proffer his o'n pac)% and 2A5 /r& / absentmindedly 'ould forget to return the cigarettes% 'hereupon the sub.ect simply floats along on a natural chain of beha1ioral e1ents that are already more or less built in& 0fter a'a)ening the sub.ect is en.ect>s o'n natural beha1ioral patterns& .ect 'ithin a concentrated inner focus& The fi3ing and focusing of attention in'ard on an imaginary tas) is thus an indirect means of inducing trance& This inner trance@inducing focus is easily accomplished by ha1ing sub."ecause of this $ric)son fre4uently gi1es serial% multiple% or compound tas)s .ect 'ould 2+5 notice /r& / searching 1ainly through his poc)ets for a pac)age of cigarettes% and 2=5 the sub.ect is 1ery familiar 'ith& These re4uire little or no conscious effort and thus are not li)ely to interfere 'ith the still fragile nature of early trance e3perience& E9ercises with M*ltiple &asks and Serial S*--estions +& Formulate hypnotic inductions 'herein the sub.5 is particularly effecti1e because this series of suggestions about cigarettes is a naturalistic one in the sense that it utiliEes typical patterns of beha1ior and moti1ation common to all cigarette smo)ers& The sub.ust as he ma)es compound statements& His fa1orite 'ord appears to be Gand&G G0ndG allo's him to connect suggestions into series so that they mutually reinforce each other% 'hile at the same time maintaining the sub.A.oined to 2=5 notice 'hate1er sensations de1elop in the eyelids& Bhile 2+5 'atching the hand le1itating 2=5 the unconscious can marshal all the associations and memories needed to sol1e a problem& =& Formulate multiple tas)s that are to be carried out on t'o le1els% the conscious and unconscious% so that double binds become operati1e& A& Formulate serial suggestions that lead step by step to the e3perience of dissociation and each of the classical hypnotic phenomena& 6& Formulate serial suggestions and associational net'or)s that can facilitate posthypnotic beha1ior by utiliEing the sub.ect 'ould feel 1ery eager to reco1er them because he had no others& The naturalistic or Gbuilt@inG aspect of this series of suggestions capitaliEes on the automatic and partially unconscious manner 'ith 'hich habitual beha1ioral patterns are carried out& The early stages of trance training are greatly facilitated by utiliEing beha1ioral patterns that the sub.ects re1ie' a series of early memories% 1isualiEing a series of scenes or a mo1ie 2for 1isual types5% listening to inner music 2especially for those 'ith music training5% and so on& This is the basis for the fantasy and 1isualiEation approaches to inducing trance 2the Ghouse@ tree@personG or Gblac)boardG 1isualiEations% etc&5 0 chain of casual% naturalistic suggestions forming an associational net'or) is particularly effecti1e for facilitating posthypnotic beha1ior& The follo'ing e3ample from one of $ric)son>s early seminars 2$ric)son% +.


Erickson6 was in+ited to 8oin R and S for this session.< $9 In tal)ing about S here I am actually gi1ing her indirect suggestions& I here note many of the criteria of beginning trance as soon as she manifests them in a seemingly spontaneous manner& R9 This is one of your fa1orite approaches to indirect suggestion9 you say things to an audience or tal) about another person>s e3perience as a 'ay of initiating trains of .ect is to gi1e the no1ice an opportunity to obser1e a more e3perienced sub.0a*se of BE sec.R M*t*al &rance Ind*ction One of $ric)son>s fa1orite methods of training a hypnotic sub.ects 2a hospitaliEed mental patient5 =77 hours to get to the point that he 'as able to do something more than .to look at her.ecti1e feelings of distanceJ patient>s inner reality and rapport% patient>s change in 1oice 4uality and learning to spea) in trance& The need for careful and continual obser1ation of the patient is further emphasiEed 'hen $ric)son outlines the significance of pulsations that can be obser1ed in different parts of the patient>s body& He is particularly careful to note indications of distress in the patient>s beha1ior& There are 1arious subtle approaches to ma)ing in4uiries about this distress that 'ill safeguard the integrity of the patient>s inner balance bet'een conscious and unconscious )no'ing& Of particular significance in this session is the clarification of $ric)son>s 1ie' of trance as an acti1e state of unconscious learning& He points out that it too) one of his sub.< R9 Bhat is the function of surprise in your 'or)I $9 The function of surprise is this& The patient comes to you 'ith a certain mental set% and they e3pect you to get into that set& If you surprise them% they let loose of their mental set and you can frame another mental set for them& R9 (ou>re dislodging the erroneous conscious sets that are gi1ing them problems& $9 (es& That>s also 'hat you do 'ith confusion techni4ue& Indirect S*--estion E. H6 a hi-hly e9perienced hypnotic s*b8ect c*rrently in therapy with $r. .ects interact in such a 'ay that they facilitate each others> e3perience of trance& In this session $ric)son begins by pointing out many of the psycho@physiological indications of beginning trance& He then has an opportunity to discuss a number of other outstanding characteristics of trance9 patient>s sub.R and H< to obser+e her blink refle9. "ow I52 8*st -oin.ect in trance& "ut on this occasion $ric)son does something more9 he orchestrates a mutual trance induction 'here t'o sub.As a s*rprise6 $r. as all three watch S. I want both of yo* .F#.ust sit there& (et the patient is not e3pected to direct himself consciously% as is usually the case 'hen one is a'a)e& The learning is not of the intellectual sort that is practiced in school& The momentum for this mental acti1ity is to come from the unconscious& It proceeds autonomously and is e3periential rather than intellectual learning& $ric)son points out that most of /r& S>s learning has been of the intellectual sort% but in hypnotic 'or) she can learn best by letting go and e3periencing& #earning spontaneously through one>s o'n inner e3perience is then described as another 'ay of deepening trance& S*rprise to Loosen Mental Sets .

)e-innin. &here5s a loss of refle9es.of the heart rate.ect 'ith cooperati1e sub. $9 $1erything I say about S is also a suggestion to H% but he did not )no' it& $1ery suggestion I made to S elicits some understanding in H% and that understanding re4uires that he act it out for himself to some degree& R9 That is the basic principle of ideomotor acti1ity in hypnosis& (ou utiliEe it here to initiate an hypnotic induction in H 'ithout his being a'are of it& 2$ric)son here describes his typical procedure of demonstrating hypnosis 'ith se1eral nai1e sub.of blood press*re. .less and less i2portant.o*t of facial 2*scles.to drift ri-ht into a deep trance state. She5s aware that I a2 speakin. And she5s be-innin. Also a slowin. Maybe as a distant so*nd which she does not feel a need to hear.herself fro2 this reality to -o into a different reality where R5s reality and H5s reality is chan-ed and 2ine is beco2in. Alon. "ow there is a sli-ht chan-e in rhyth2.ects% demonstrating the 1arious phenomenon until the resistant sub.abo*t her to yo*.ect 'ould soon e3hibit a Gloo) of surpriseG as he began to feel influenced and $ric)son 'ould reinforce this by remar)ing ho' GinterestingG and GcharmingG the feelings 'ere& Very often those 'ho 'ere initially afraid 'ould go all the more deeply into trance once they got around their fear 'ith this approach&5 0atient5s Reality and Rapport And she5s re2o+in. And 2y +oice: I don5t know e9actly how she hears it.ect 'as influenced by the hypnotic GatmosphereG all around him& The resistant sub.ects in front of an audience& He 'ould surround a resistant sub.associations in the patient that may e1entually culminate in hypnotic responsi1eness& It is an indirect form of ideomotor or ideosensory suggestion& Ideo2otor Acti+ity in Indirect Ind*ction. &here5s an alteration in the breathin-. &here5s also a lowerin.&rance riteria &here was a sli-ht A*i+er of her eyelids. I a2 close eno*-h to her for her to hear 2e.with that A*i+er is an ironin.

ri-ht now6 S: S.of yo*r state of awareness to *s: $9 eople ha1e a lifetime of learning that tal)ing in your sleep is socially unacceptable& It>s surprising ho' many people fear they 'ill betray themsel1es by spea)ing in their sleep or trance& R9 So you ha1e to gi1e patients special instruction and reassurance about their ability to spea) in trance& 0nd you do that simply by as)ing ho' they are feeling& $9 I>1e already used 'ords li)e GcomfortG and Gfine%G so 'hen she uses the 'ord Gfine%G I also )no' she is follo'ing my suggestions to feel comfort& 'oice 7*ality in Hypnosis S.ects simply by changing the locus of his 1oice by bobbing and 'ea1ing up and do'n and bac) and forth% mimic)ing the changing locus a 1oice 'ould ha1e on a ship in rough 'aters&5 Learnin.ect 'ould get the idea that he 'as al'ays in rapport 'ith them% no matter 'here he 'as actually located&5 Bhen I mo1ed a'ay I>d say% GNo matter 'here I am I 'ill al'ays be here&G eople don>t )no' ho' much they )no' about the locus of a 1oice 2$ric)son% +.+ery softly as if +ery far away< fine. She co2es in and is told to try to h*sh *p S5s children6 who are playin.Fro2 that loss or chan-e in body 2otility6 yo* can follow it6 it can tell yo* so2ethin.thro*-h her 2ind.-AN about ho' he actually produced seasic)ness in hypnotic sub. 3Re2ote a*to2aton like +oice. .< $9 To separate her from our reality 2the tripart reality shared by $% R% and H5 helps deepen the trance by focusing her in on her o'n reality& R9 I seeL If the hypnotherapist is interrupted in the middle of a session and has to spea) to a mailman or plumber 'ho )noc)ed on the door% it can deepen the patient>s trance reality because they are e3cluded and left alone 'ith their o'n internal reality& $9 I disco1ered the hard 'ay& art of my early e3perience 'as in sub.abo*t the character and ideation that5s -oin.4 3pa*se4 R9 To 'hat do you attribute the automaton li)e or fara'ay 4uality of her 1oiceI . I can hear yo*.Mrs.to Speak in &rance R. Erickson was called. R.-A5& R9 It>s all unconscious learning& $9 (es& 2$ric)son here refers to a manuscript he 'as 'riting M$ric)son% +.ect in one room and another in another room% and they 'ould a'a)en 'hen I left the room& I disco1ered I had to lea1e them in a certain 'ay% so they 'ould maintain their trance state& I had to assure them they 'ere not being deserted& They could rely upon me to return to themJ I 'as only temporarily absent& 0t first I told them that 1erbally% and later I learned ho' to use non1erbal cues& R9 #i)e 'hatI $9 GI>m here% you are hereG 2$ric)son demonstrates ho' by repeating this formula in different positions throughout the room the sub. an yo* describe anythin. How are yo* feelin.ects al'ays a'a)ening% and I had a lot of difficulty& I>d ha1e one sub. H*222 .lo*dly o*tside the office.

.it.it to see if I wo*ld -et o*t of this state.< R. What5s yo*r state of awareness ri-ht now: S.M*ch la*-hter. R.-=a5& $9 (es& $epotentiatin- onscio*s . "ow I ha+e the ri-ht to be as st*pid as possible. .awake.< R. How did yo* e9perience that ticklin-: S.0ersonal +oice as if she is nearly awake. Erickson ca2e in and she stepped on 2y toe6 b*t it did not h*rt.E+en 2ore la*-hter all aro*nd.ects% they 'ill recogniEe the trance& Feelin. F*lly awake: $9 She has this a'a)ening reaction because I had not gi1en her any specific instructions to disregard all e3traneous stimuli 'hile in trance& (ou need to )no' that any alien stimulus can enter into the trance situation% and you need to learn to deal 'ith it& 8rs& $ric)son may be in a deep trance 'hen the phone rings% and she may ans'er it 'hile remaining in trance& If it>s an unfamiliar 1oice on the phone% she 'ill 'a)e right up% but if she )no's 'ho it is% she may remain in trance altering her 1oice so the person 'ill not notice she is in trance& "ut if the other person is one of my hypnotic sub.2e. 30a*se4 $9 That feeling of GdistanceG is a sign of trance& Nobody has really e3plained that sense of being distant& R9 Ho' 'ould you e3plain itI R9 $1ery spea)er in front of an audience has a sense that the audience is 'ith me or not 'ith meJ they are distant from me& R9 The feeling of distance then is due to feeling the lac) of a shared@'orld@in@common 2Rossi% +.nderstandin- E.la*-hs<(o*5re ticklin. &here can be pro-ressi+e *nderstandin.< I know Mrs. .Act*ally the 2icrophone cord inad+ertently was bobbin.of $istance in &rance S.she can do that work. . #h6 I52 co2in.< . It isn5t reA*isite for 2e to *nderstand all.$9 It>s due to a different muscle tone& Her face is ironed out% there is greater plasticity and rela3ation of all the muscles% including those controlling 1oice& E9traneo*s Sti2*li in &rance . #h6 I52 back b*t sli-htly distant.a-ainst her knee as R was ad8*stin. I tho*-ht 2aybe yo* were doin.on yo*r part6 on H5s part6 on the others5 part. &hat was A*ite by accident6 it was the 2icrophone cord. S has had the opport*nity of disco+erin.

30a*se4 And H need not be fri-htened abo*t hate or fri-htened of the word. 30a*se4 R9 "y saying that you Gha1e the right to be as stupid as possibleG you are ma)ing an e3aggerated and humorous suggestion about ho' little you need to understand consciously& This implies that S and H need not use consciousness at this point either& #ater they can de1elop their conscious understanding% but for no' let the unconscious handle things& (ou then address a fe' therapeutically rele1ant 'ords to H about being GfrightenedG and so on& 'oice &one as a And R and S ha+e co2e to 8oin *s this ti2e.the na2e pre+io*sly assi-ned to H5s personality while in hypnosis<6 for R6 for S. R9 (ou apparently felt from non1erbal clues that H needed some reassurance at this point so you simply tal) about the pragmatic aspect of this . R9 Bhen you do e3tensi1e 'or) 'ith some patients% as you ha1e 'ith H% you sometimes gi1e them another name in trance& BhyI 2$ric)son gi1es many e3amples from e1eryday life 'here one person:lo1er% mate% parent% or child:may gi1e another person a pet name to e1o)e a particular mood or aspect of their relationship& 0 child 'ill say GFatherG or G/adG or G/addyG on different occasions to constellate different aspects of the relationship 'ith father& In trance the patient may e3perience a particular ego state that the therapist 'ants to label 'ith a special name so he can help the patient return to it later&5 Rapport in M*t*al Hypnosis . lo+e.beco2es 2ore of a fi9ed stare.oint session& (ou then emphasiEe that it 'ould be to e1eryone>s mutual ad1antage to be together& $9 (es& Notice I use a different tone of 1oice for GyourG 'hen referring to H and a different direction of 1oice& R9 These 1oice cues are automatically and correctly interpreted by S and H% so they al'ays )no' 'hen you are referring to each e1en though you use the impersonal pronoun& #ther "a2es in &rance )eca*se I co*ld effect an interplay that wo*ld be e9tre2ely +al*able for yo*6 for Herbie . (o*5re terrified of new *nderstandin-s of those words.H had been watchin. &hey called to find o*t if they co*ld co2e6 *e and I knew it wo*ld be to their ad+anta-e and to yo*r ad+anta-e 3H4 to ha+e the2 here.S +ery caref*lly6 pres*2ably to st*dy her state of awareness. S see2s to notice this6 and they silently and deeply look into each other5s eyes . At the 2o2ent Herbie is 2entioned6 howe+er6 his watchin.

A2orpho*s thin-s6 a2orpho*s e2otions6 relationships6 and identities. S5s eyelids finally fl*tter and close6 and then H5s eyes close also.H< too ha+e 2ade a new disco+ery.in a fi9ed6 *nblinkin.of &rance and Words "ow both of yo* want profo*nd trances with hall*cinations of the real and of the *nreal and the or-anization of a2orpho*s thin-s. 30a*se4 .2anner.S and H alternately blink.< R can watch S and yo* 3H4 can disco+er certain thin-s.them can have their own trance with its own individual meaning -or each2 For H as a patient it is important to e3perience his diffuse emotions as part of his therapy& For S as a therapist in training it is important to learn to recogniEe amorphous emotions and relationships she 'ill later be called upon to cope 'ith professionally& .< And S has 2ade a new disco+ery6 b*t then yo* . 30a*se4 R9 (ou arrange a hypnotic atmosphere 'here both are sitting 4uietly in rapt attention and thus gradually de1eloping a light trance& No' as they loo) at each other they automatically mimic each other>s hypnotic beha1ior 2e&g&% the staring and eye blin)ing5 and thereby go deeper into trance& $9 (es& 0t this point H>s distance 'as much greater than S>s& R9 (ou mean he 'as further into tranceI $9 He 'as further a'ay& H tended to go into a reality that included himself and me but e3cluding S and you& R9 So here you 'ere trying to bring S and me into his inner reality more& "ut ho' could you tell he 'as tending to e3clude S and meI Bas he turning a'ay from us and orienting bodily to'ard youI $9 0 person could be loo)ing right at you% yet you )no' they are not paying attention to you 'ithout their e1en )no'ing they are not paying attention& R9 (es% they 'ill ha1e that fara'ay loo) in their eyes& $9 "ut can you define that Gfara'ay loo)G in precise termsI R9 That 'ould be difficult& Then you are saying that this comes 'ith e3perience& "y no' it is almost an unconscious intuiti1e )no'ledge on your part& $9 (es& &he 0ersonal Meanin. 30a*se4 $9 "y saying 6both of you 'ant profound trances%G I>m here beginning to effect a separation bet'een them& R9 (ou>re saying that to each of them as separate peopleI $9 (es& Each o.

It can be +ery sharp only 2o2entarily e+en tho*-h it lasts all day. (o* know when yo*5+e had those e9periences.lect*re of an ho*r5s d*ration 2ay see2 like it has barely be-*n when the ho*r is o+er. "ow yo*5re -oin.to apply the2 to yo*rsel+es . A pleasin. 30a*se4 &hose few seconds can be e9panded into years. #r in a borin.twin-e.intensity. It can be condensed6 it can be e9panded6 so yo* can re+iew a lifeti2e history in a few seconds ti2e. )oth of yo* want to learn how to e9pand ti2e6 e9pand awareness6 and both of yo* need to know that there is s*ch a thin.All 0ossible Responses And when yo* spend ti2e6 ti2e can be of +aryin. )oth of yo* ha+e had that e9perience in the past. For both of yo* it5s a 2atter of yo*r ed*cation 30a*se4 in dealin. Also a few days can be condensed into a 2o2ent.with patients that yo* can take a patient5s pain and teach a patient to e9perience all of the pain as a 2o2entary passin.as a contraction of ti2e6 feelin-6 pain6 e2otion.R9 The same 'ords 'ill ha1e different meanings for different people& This corresponds to your fre4uent use of certain 'ords that 'ill ha1e different meanings at different le1els 'ithin the same personality& &i2e $istortion.lect*re the chair be-ins to h*rt6 and yo* -et tired6 and yo* wonder when the ho*r will be *p. S*--estin.

of yo*rself and yo*r *nderstandin. Monkey see6 2onkey do which is a way of *nderstandinchildrenH they see6 they do. As far as R is concerned he has learned that the pro9i2ity of one hypnotic s*b8ect to another does the sa2e thin.ects are certain to ha1e e3perienced5 to induce a Gyes setG to enhance the plausibility and acceptability of your suggestions& &rance as a State of Acti+e .as is e9pressed in folk lan-*a-e.in a way that helps yo*r *nderstandin.of others.H6 in t*rn repeated what H did6 and she went into a trance. 30a*se4 And H saw S do so2ethin.nconscio*s LearninAnd yo* both realize thoro*-hly that the hypnotic state is not really ind*ced by 2e b*t by yo*rsel+es.to yo*H ti2e will 8*st pass . And S6 in watchin. so that it is almost impossible for the suggestion to fail& Bhate1er the patient e3periences has been co1ered by your inclusi1e suggestion and can thus be counted as a success& $9 0gain here the matter of education 'ill be ta)en in a different 'ay by each of them& 0nd so on for much of this material& R9 (ou use common e1eryday truisms 2that both of these 'ell@educated sub. 30a*se4 $9 Time distortion 'ill be useful to both of them here in their different conte3ts& R9 (ou suggest all possible types of time distortion 2condensation and e3pansion5 that may operate to 'hate1er degree the patient finds himself using& (ou are thus follo'ing your basic techni)ue o.with her eyelids6 and then he repeated it.suggesting all %ossible res%onses. &hen H went into a trance also. 30a*se4 &here is no i2portance in 2y talkin.

ect passi1ely recei1ed therapeutic suggestions& $9 "y being told 'hat to do and 'hen to do it& R9 "ut your approach is fre4uently the opposite of that& (ou .ust sit there& S has been a student% a scholar& She learns intellectually% but she doesn>t )no' ho' to learn something e3perientially& I>1e got to e3plain to her that she is to learn by e3perience& .ect& R9 re1iously hypnosis 'as thought of as a state 'here the sub.ust let the sub.to yo*rsel+es.ust hopping around& "ut that is not the state you are loo)ing for& $9 It too) one of my sub. 30a*se4 R9 Here you are putting the responsibility for trance learning on the sub.ects so they 'ill not be passi1ely dependent on the hypnotherapist& $9 (es& Bhen they )no' they are doing it% they )no' they can alter their o'n beha1ior& R9 So that>s an important 'ay of reducing the magic and moti1ating them further in the direction of therapeutic self change& The therapist pro1ides the patient 'ith a setting and opportunity to do creati1e 'or)& Trance is actuall$ an active %rocess wherein the unconscious is active but not directed b$ the conscious mind2 Is that rightI $9 That>s right& R9 This is one of your important contributions to modern hypnosis9 getting a'ay from the automaton concept of the hypnotic state to conceptualiEe h$%nosis as a state over$ active inner learning that ta&es %lace autonomousl$2 Is that rightI $9 (es& R9 In a trance state you ha1e released the unconscious to do its o'n 'or) 'ithout interference from consciousness& $9 0nd to do it in accord 'ith the e3perimental learning of the sub.ust loo)ing& R9 That>s characteristic of many sub.the2.that yo* are de+elopin. And S realizes that also.ects I>m learning to 'or) 'ith& They are . (o* are de+elopin.and I can do as I wish.ect get into a trance state 'here he can do his o'n inner 'or)& Acti+e Learnin.ects =77 hours to learn& He 'ould .ust to sit there passi1ely& Could this be some of the difficulty S is e3periencingI She doesn>t ha1e the idea yet of doing her o'n inner 'or)% she is being too passi1e& $9 She tells us she>s been s)ipping around% . H now realizes his tre2endo*s response to the +is*al sti2*li S -a+e hi2.yo*r own psycholo-ical techniA*es of psychotherapy witho*t knowin.in &rance "ow each of yo* is learnin. 30a*se4 R9 Here% for e3ample% you are instructing them to do their o'n inner learning% their o'n inner 'or) for themsel1es& They are not .so2ethinpertainin.

0*lsations E.< I think I will let H awaken first.in S5s face<. "ow I52 -oin.silently6 .&rance &hro*-h Spontaneo*s Learnin. R9 /o you 'ant to comment on the pulsationsI $9 In 'atching the face in the trance state there are 1arious places you can note the pulsation& It isn>t necessary for you to use your fingers on the 'rist& !se your eyes on the patient>s an)le% nec)% temple& Batch the changing pulsations& Often fluctuations can tell you things& (ou learn to correlate pulsations 'ith muscle tonus& (ou can suddenly realiEe that increased pulsations means there e3ists a greater tonicity in muscles& (ou can>t really see the muscle tonicity de1elop until it de1elops to a certain degree but from more rapid pulses you )no' the muscle is tighter& No' a slo'er pulse brings about a lessening of tonicity& "ody beha1ior in all parts of the body should be under your obser1ation& &rance $istress. )e-in to co*nt now. He talks to R abo*t certain 2an*scripts on his desk which they are workin. 30a*se4 . .lO@Eth at each co*nt. "ow H6 take yo*r ti2e6 co*nt backwards fro2 @E to ?6 awakenin.to R< "otice that p*lsation .H awakens and reorients his body.on to-ether.< "ow S6 I want yo* to be-in co*ntin. Indirect 7*estionin$9 (ou also loo) for signs of perspiration% pallor% changes in facial e3pression% any signs of distress& (ou>re careful at such times& R9 Bhen you note those distress signals you become 1ery careful about 'hat you are saying& It could be traumatic& $9 That>s right& R9 So e1en 'hile a person is in trance you are careful about 'hat might filter into their conscious mind& $9 (ou don>t push at such times& R9 Ho' about 'hen trance has terminatedI /o you 4uestion them about their trance distress thenI $9 Only in the most general terms& 2$ric)son no' gi1es a demonstration of ho' he 'ill gently imitate the head mo1ements a patient made in trance 'hile saying% GHo' about here% there% up% do'n% from this to that%G etc&5 R9 If it>s safe for the conscious mind to deal 'ith the material% consciousness 'ill pic) up your most general hints& If it is not safe% it 'ill not understand 'hat you>re getting at& $eepenin.#bser+in.to talk to R so yo* need not pay any attention.E co2pletely i-nores H and S for abo*t ?E 2in*tes.

to s*rprise yo*. What happens after that is -oin.ect goes through all the possible surprises% 'hat can surprise themI .to lift yo*r hand in the air.ect 'ill ha1e no control:and that% of course% facilitates autonomous functioning& The 'ord GsurpriseG is thus a conditioned cue for most people to gi1e up control and to be curious about the pleasant thing that is going to happen to them& E.ects 'hen you lea1e them to their o'n de1ices& $9 (es& R9 "ut S has been getting irritated 'ith you because she may not )no' ho' to deepen the trance by herself& $9 It>s not something you learn to do consciously% it happens spontaneouslyJ you only )no' later that it happened& 2$ric)son here gi1es other e3amples of spontaneous unconscious beha1ior such as putting more salt on your food on a hot day 'ithout realiEing it& Bhen people% e1en young children% mo1e to a 'armer climate% they learn this spontaneously on an unconscious le1el&5 R9 This again emphasiEes that therapeutic trance is a state of acti1e learning that ta)es place autonomously 'ithout conscious inter1ention& &HE S. 30a*se4 .ures up many associations of pleasant childhood e3periences and surprise parties and gifts& The ego is usually recepti1e to a surprise& 0 surprise al'ays implies that the sub.< R9 It>s rather remar)able they both too) the same amount of time to a'a)en& $9 (ou see% 'hen you>re 'or)ing 'ith sub.She awakens and reorients her body.R0RISE $ric)son fre4uently utiliEes GsurpriseG to sha)e people out of their habitual patterns of association in an effort to facilitate their natural patterns of unconscious creati1ity& The problem 'ith offering direct suggestions is that unless they are carefully integrated 'ith the patient>s inner e3perience% they may interfere 'ith the autonomous and creati1e aspect of trance e3perience& If trance is a focus of a fe' inner realities that mo1e by themsel1es% then the therapist>s direct suggestion may come as an intrusion on that autonomous inner flo'& The direct suggestion might inad1ertently acti1ate the patient>s conscious intention to try to do something on a 1oluntary le1el& "y as)ing patients simply to G'ait for a surprise%G on the other hand% 'e are allo'ing them to remain in 4uiescence 'hile unconscious processes gradually mobiliEe a truly autonomous response& GSurpriseG is an agreeable 'ord to most people& It con. #r wo*ld yo* like to ha+e it as a s*rprise: "ow or later: R9 That 4uestion actually implies a pleasant e3perience 'ill happen& To that surprise is added another about time& Shortly I52 -oin. $9 Bhen the sub.ects% you let them ha1e an opportunity to e3perience their trance state 'ithout necessarily gi1ing them anything to do& (ou lea1e them to their o'n de1ices& It deepens the trance& They become more a'are of 'hat they can do& They become more facile in their capacities& R9 It becomes a period of free learning for the sub.2entally fro2 @E to ? and be-in to co*nt now.

ect a surprise slap on the thigh so she can e3perience the further surprise of a caudal analgesia& 0nother e3ample of the surprise 'as related by $ric)son as he discussed his permissi1e approach in allo'ing patients to e3press their o'n 1ariations to a hand le1itation approach& GThe therapist>s attitude should be completely permissi1e so a patient can respond in any 'ay to hand le1itation:e1en by pushing do'n harder and harder& I>m thin)ing of a certain college student 'ho did that& 0fter he did that long enough I said% >It>s rather interesting:at least it is to me& + thin) it 'ill be up to you 'hen $ou discover that $ou can4t sto% %ushing down24 He thought he 'as resisting& The idea that he couldn>t stop too) him completely by surprise and it 'as a full@gro'n idea 'hen it hit him& That 'ould be something he 'ould be interested in& He 'ould be surprisedL He couldn>t be surprised unless he couldn>t stop pushing do'n& Not being able to stop pushing do'n 'as made contingent upon the idea of interest and a surprise& He found to his surprise that he couldn>t stop pushing do'n and he as)ed% >Bhat happenedI> I said% >0t least your arms ha1e gone into a trance& Can you stand upI> Can heI That simple 4uestion elaborated >0t least your arms ha1e gone into a trance%> and e3tended it to his feet& Of course% he couldn>t stand up& There 'as only one conclusion to reach9 his body 'as in a trance because he no longer had control o1er it& That apparently 'as 'hat he 'anted:to regard hypnosis as a condition in 'hich you ha1e no control o1er yourself&G The shoc) and surprise this student e3perienced must ha1e been all the more upsetting since he ob1iously had a high in1estment in not follo'ing suggestions% as is indicated by his pushing his hand do'n 'hen it 'as suggested that it le1itate& In this case $ric)son states% GNot being able to stop pushing do'n 'as made contingent upon the idea of interest and surprise&G $ric)son did% in fact% succeed in e1o)ing interest% shoc)% and surprise 'ith his pro1ocati1e statement% GIt>s rather interesting:at least it is to me& I thin) it 'ill be to you 'hen $ou discover that $ou can4t sto% %ushing down26 He e1o)ed a shoc) and surprise that momentarily suspended the student>s belief system& In that precise moment he added the suggestion% G(ou disco1er that you can>t stop pushing do'n&G E9ercises with S*rprise +& Surprise has a number of possible functions in hypnotic 'or)& a2 0 shoc) and surprise can momentarily depotentiate an indi1idual>s habitual mental sets so that perception and understanding may be spontaneously reorganiEed in a ne' 'ay& b2 0n anticipation of a pleasant surprise has moti1ating properties and lea1es the indi1idual open% a'are% e3pectant of something& That something can be either a ne' insight from 'ithin or an important suggestion from the therapist& c2 The anticipation of a pleasant surprise allo's the ego to rela3 so that more .R9 0n unusual thing& $9 0nd 'hat unusual thing is thereI The hand could stay there and the sub.ect )no's 'hat she can do& The surprise about not being able to stand up comes as a shoc) that tends to depotentiate her usual conscious sets and facilitate the immobility of the lo'er body& This surprise is thus another classical e3ample of not doing& The dra'n@out emphasis on the 'ord Gn& & &o& & &'G e1o)es a curiosity response from the sub. R9 The first part of this statement is a truism9 the sub.. w. o ....ect cannot put it do'n& (o* are pretty well aware of all the thin-s yo* can do6 b*t the 2ost s*rprisine9perience yo* can ha+e is to disco+er that yo* can5t stand *p6 n .ect then begins to mo1e the top part of her body to test the suggestion but lea1es the bottom part from the 'aist do'n immobile& Fre4uently the therapist can gi1e the sub.ect% 'ho says to herself9 GBhat does that meanI Is anything happeningI Bhat has happenedIG These 4uestions allo' an opening and time for the autonomous process of immobility to de1elop& The typical sub.

autonomous processes can function in a 'ay compatible 'ith trance& lan ho' you could utiliEe the abo1e characteristics of surprise to enhance an e3perience of each of the classical hypnotic phenomena& =& To learn something about a person>s fundamental 'orld 1ie' and habitual frames of reference% as) about their most Gsurprising life e3perience&G 0nd 'hat 'ould be the most surprising thing that could happen to themI A& Once you understand something about a person>s 'orld 1ie'% plan ho' you could say or do a simple and innocent thing that is a bit outside that 'orld 1ie' so the person is shoc)ed and surprised& Of course% tact and good taste are re4uired for such ad1entures& Bith e3perience you can learn to elicit a double@ta)e and a laugh from people as they spontaneously reorganiEe their perceptions andFor accept a suggestion you offer them at that critical moment of surprise 'hen there is a momentary suspension of their habitual sets and patterns of understanding& This )ind of approach is used by professional comedians and some s)illful orators& &HE #"F.RI"% A00R#A H 0 ma.or theme reiterated again and again in the most surprising conte3ts by $ric)son is that the patient Gdoes not )no'G 'hat is happening& Of course% consciousness is at all times limited& Consciousness focuses on this or that% e1er shifting from moment to moment& 0t any gi1en moment it can only be focused on a limited range of information& $ric)son utiliEes this limitation by continually introducing changes in areas outside that momentary focus of consciousness& If he can be sure that the patient>s consciousness is focused in area 0% then he 'ill introduce a change in area "& Bhen the patient>s consciousness returns to refocus on "% the patient is in for a surprise9 an une3pected change has been introduced& This surprise thro's off patients> usual reality sense% they become confused% and they reach for and accept any suggestions that the therapist can introduce to restructure the lost reality& In chapter One 'e discussed ho' $ric)son did not find hypersuggestibility characteristic of trance 2$ric)son% +.A=5& Be can no' more clearly understand 'hat he meant& !nder the shoc) and surprise of many of the older authoritarian approaches to hypnotic induction% it is ob1ious ho' the confusion@need@for@restructuring mechanism operated so automatically that it appeared as if the patient 'as hypersuggestible in trance& This so@called hypersuggestibility% ho'e1er% is actually the automatic acceptance of any acceptable restructuring that 'ill end the intolerable confusion that has been effected by the hypnotic induction or any means of unstructuring the ego>s usual frames of reference& The basic process re4uired for the acceptance of suggestions by the confusion@ restructuring approach% then% is as follo's& CONF!SION due to shoc)% stress% uncertainty% etc& !NSTR!CT!RING of usual frames of reference R$STR!CT!RING needed R$C$ TIVIT( to therapeutic suggestions The reader can understand the abo1e as inter1ening steps bet'een stages t'o and three of the flo' diagram presented in the pre1ious chapter on Confusion in the /ynamics of Trance Induction& 0cceptance of the therapist>s suggestions 'ill be in direct proportion to 2+5 the optimal degree of unstructuring and 2=5 the appropriateness of the therapist>s suggestions for restructuring a particular patient in a therapeutic manner& Bhat people can accept as restructuring is 1ery much a function of their therapeutic needs and goals& .SI#"1RES&R. &.

" #"S I#.-Ab5:for e3ample% to unsettle a patient>s problem so the patient 'ill grasp therapeutic suggestions to restructure a no' sha)en sense of reality& 0 rather dramatic e3ample of $ric)son>s use of confusion@restructuring in induction is in the situation 'here a nurse reluctantly came to the front of an audience to ser1e as a demonstration sub.S LEAR"I"% $ric)son ma)es it clear that therapeutic trance is a state of acti1e learning on an unconscious le1elJ that is% learning 'ithout the inter1ention of conscious purpose and design& Trance e3perience may be li)ened to that of the dream 'herein mental e1ents usually proceed autonomously& There may be a 4uestion here as to 'hether this is true learning 2in the sense of an ac4uisition of ne' responses5 or merely automatic beha1ior on an unconscious le1el& The proof of ne' learning must al'ays lie in the results9 /oes the patient actually e1idence ne' response capacities as a result of his hypnotic e3perienceI $ric)son continually emphasiEes learning 'ithout a'areness& In this induction section% .ect& 0s she approached $ric)son he confused her as to 'hich chair she should sit in by une3pectedly directing her alternately from one chair to another& 2He directed her non1erbally to one chair 'hile 1erbally indicating another&5 Bhen she 'as thoroughly perple3ed% he finally said% GGo into a trance as you sit all the 'ay do'n%G and simultaneously indicated clearly 'hich chair she should sit in& Such approaches are ob1iously only suitable for therapists 'ith 4uic) 'its and some practical e3perience& There are% ho'e1er% many types of confusion@need@for@restructuring situations in e1eryday life and psychotherapy that can be creati1ely utiliEed by any therapist& The momentary confusion of a loud noise or une3pected e1ent% for e3ample% produces a momentary gap in understanding that re4uires an e3planatory suggestion& $ric)son is continually playful in the 'ay he introduces puEEles and oddities in the therapy situation that confound the mind so it 'ill be recepti1e to suggestion& He 'ill as) someone a beguilingly simple mathematical 4uestion% or drag out some fascinating esoterica from a "elie1e@It@or@ Not article& "y such simple means he confounds the usual limiting sets of consciousness and a'a)ens a need for e3planation and restructuring& 0 GyesG or accepting set is established% and the patient is grateful for anything ne' the therapist can then introduce& Readers 'ill ha1e to determine for themsel1es the degree to 'hich these 1arious le1els of confusion@restructuring can be used comfortably in their o'n therapeutic practice& 0 simple a'areness of the confusion@restructuring process can be of immense 1alue regardless of ho' the therapist feels about purposely pro1o)ing confusion& 8ost patients bring in enough confusion of their o'n 'hich they 'ant therapy to resol1eL Rather than 1ie'ing such confusions negati1ely as indicators of pathology or problems% ho'e1er% the therapist can loo) upon them as opportunities to help patients restructure their 'orld& E9ercises in onf*sion and Restr*ct*rin- +& Surprise% confusion% and restructuring are all intimately related processes& To learn to utiliEe them creati1ely in therapy re4uires a certain fle3ibility in the therapist>s 'orld 1ie'& Creati1ely oriented therapists 'ill therefore see) out life e3periences that 'ill enable them to continually brea) out of the limitations of his o'n habitual frame'or) 2Rossi% +.-=aJ Rossi% +.&I &RA" E AS A S&A&E #F A &I'E .-A5& #earn to recogniEe in these complaints the outlines of 'hat is changing in a patient>s 'orld 1ie' and ho' that change can be facilitated in a gro'th@enhancing manner& &HERA0E.-=b5& =& !ncertainty% ambi1alence% and confusion are typical complaints of people 'ho come to therapy& These are fre4uently treated as symptoms the therapist is supposed to remo1e& Be can no' understand ho' they are actually a preliminary stage for the possible creati1e change and gro'th of the personality 2Rossi% +.$ric)son uses this basic method of confusion@restructuring in therapy as 'ell as in inducing hypnosis and facilitating the acceptance of suggestions& He has described many instances 'here he uses shoc) 2Rossi% +.

.for e3ample% he says to /rs& H and S% G(ou are de1eloping your o'n psychological techni4ues of psychotherapy 'ithout )no'ing that you are de1eloping them&G He clearly belie1es that such learning can ta)e place more effecti1ely and creati1ely in an altered state% 'hen many of the usual biases and preconceptions of the patient>s conscious frame of reference are not acti1e& Therapeutic trance is thus a condition 'herein the usual biases and distractions of consciousness are minimiEed% so that ne' learning can ta)e place most efficiently& This 1ie' is entirely consistent 'ith 'hat is )no'n about the creati1e process in general 2Rossi% +.?% +..<=5% 'herein it is recogniEed that consciousness is only a recei1ing station for the ne' combinations of the creati1e process that actually ta)e place on an unconscious le1el& It is also consistent 'ith the early hypnotherapeutic approaches of #iebeault% "ernheim% and "raid 2Tintero'% +.75 'herein he belie1es e1erything mental can be accomplished on a conscious and 1oluntary le1el& Such 1oluntary efforts fre4uently get in the 'ay of natural healing processes& To cope 'ith these misguided conscious efforts% $ric)son de1eloped indirect approaches such as confusion and restructuring as a means of confounding patients> conscious limitations so their unconscious has an opportunity to create ne' solutions& .-75% 'ho 'ould sometimes place patients in a healing trance for a short time and then G'a)eG them up 'ithout any further direct suggestions about e3actly ho' the therapy 'as to ta)e place& The Ghealing atmosphereG pro1ided by such early 'or)ers together 'ith the belief system of their times functioned as indirect and non1erbal suggestions to set in motion creati1e% autonomous processes 'ithin their patients that could effect a Gcure&G 8odern =7th@century man is handicapped% ho'e1er% by a materialistic% and o1errationalistic belief system that tends to do'ngrade the functioning of these autonomous therapeutic processes& 8odern man has an unfortunate hubris of consciousness 2Cung% +.-=aJ Ghiselin% +.

ect& Such sub.ect% 8rs& #&% to demonstrate hypnotic responsi1eness so that /r& S can learn by association& $ric)son begins 'ith a surprise9 he as)s /r& S to perform her first hypnotic induction on another person& She does this surprisingly 'ell in a 'ay that is original 'hile still utiliEing a number of basic principles of hypnotic induction& The significance of this surprise re4uest is that it pre1ented /r& S from rehearsing ahead of timeJ it forced /r& S to rely on her intuition and the unconscious learning she has ac4uired thus far in her personal e3periencing of trance& $ric)son encouraged her to learn to use e3periential rather than intellectual )no'ledge& In this session $ric)son returns to the theme of unconscious learning as a basic issue in doing genuine trance 'or)& He comments that /r& S still Gdoesn>t 4uite trust her unconscious mind to do all the learning necessary&G He clearly means that during trance the patient is learning 'ithout the usual mode of ego consciousness& Consciousness is not necessary for learning& Indeed% $ric)son prefers learning to ta)e place 'ithout the biasing inter1ention of consciousness& In e3perimental psychology it has been demonstrated that learning can indeed ta)e place 'ithout a'areness 2e&g&% the so@called latent learning5& Such learning 'ithout a'areness is $ric)son>s preferred 'ay of 'or)ing 'ith patients in trance& $ric)son has commented on the fact that much of 'hat passes for hypnosis in the e3perimental literature% 'here a short induction of a fe' minutes> duration is follo'ed by standardiEed suggestions 2that do not ta)e into account or meaningfully utiliEe patients> indi1idual differences5% is actually a mi3ture 'herein the patient uses conscious 1olition mi3ed 'ith unconscious learning& This reliance on conscious 1olition and direction is the mar) of an inade4uately trained hypnotic sub.ect 'ith 'hom he has 'or)ed before% to be present& In a surprise mo1e he as)s S to hypnotiEe #& This is the first occasion on 'hich $ric)son is able to obser1e 'or) 'ith hypnosis as an operator& S begins by addressing her suggestions to the sub. .)y Association In this session $ric)son again uses a more accomplished sub. 30a*se4 Either by a lake or ri+er6 8*st so2e place yo* like. lose yo*r eyes6 rela96 and i2a-ine yo*rself in a fantasy spot which yo* liked +ery 2*ch.ust no' beginning to appreciate the comple3ity and 1astly unrealiEed potential for using language to effect therapeutic goals& In this session $ric)son re4uested 8rs& #% an e3cellent hypnotherapeutic sub.FI'E &rance Learnin. 30a*se4 .S*b8ect does take a deep breath at this point.ect& A S*ccessf*l 0ractice Ind*ction S.2ore and 2ore co2fortable.ects 'ill 4uic)ly reach a limit in the degree to 'hich they can e3perience genuine hypnotic phenomena because their conscious sets and learned limitations interfere 'ith the efficient functioning of unconscious mechanisms& T'o indirect approaches to utiliEing such unconscious mechanisms are clarified in this session9 the implied directi1e and 4uestions% These approaches ha1e been de1eloped by $ric)son and others in clinical hypnosis& It 'ill be fascinating and important to study the parameters of these approaches 'ith more controlled laboratory studies as 'ell as further field and clinical in1estigations& Be are . &ake a deep breath and rela9.< (o* start feelin. 30a*se4 (o* 2ana-e to -et 2ore and 2ore rela9ed.

$9 Gi1en 'hat goes .ect is not obeying li)e an automation& She 'ill here simply agree that she does indeed li)e this place and feel S respects her& R9 So again S is doing 1ery 'ell here& She initiates an e3perience of rela3ation and comfort in a place 8rs& # li)es& She then announces that 8rs& # G'ill find this 'orld & & & you>ll li)e 1ery much&G This is actually a hypnotic tautology9 S sets up a pleasant e3perience and then says it is a pleasant e3perience& 8rs& #% immersed as she is in the e3perience% ho'e1er% does not recogniEe the tautologyJ she simply feels comfortable and respected as 'ell since S is seemingly so correct in describing her inner e3perience& I2plication and Indirect S*--estion .!.ecti1e GdeepG is a suggestion that is facilitated by being associated 'ith an ine1itable response9 the patient 'ill ha1e to breathe& R9 So this 'as an e3cellent progression of suggestions that S used here9 $9 (es& "ut those suggestions ta)e 8rs& # far a'ay from this room& They ta)e her to some specific memory% but S doesn>t )no' 'hich& R9 That>s the problem& 0 really e3perienced operator 'ould )no' e3actly 'here the patient 'as being placed unless a general e3ploration 'as 'anted& Hypnotic &a*tolo-y (o*5ll find this world yo*r +ery own world that yo*5ll like +ery 2*ch.< &hat5s ri-ht.= .ecti1e you 'ant% in this case a Gdeep breath&G The ad. #. L5s ri-ht forefin-er. 30a*se4 #kay.6 yo* can do that now. (o* can concentrate on =yes.+ery peacef*l and co2fortable6 yo* can concentrate on =yes= and yo* 2ay notice that fin-er float *p.< And when yo* are feelin. Let5s try a few si-nals6 #kay: 30a*se4 Let this be the =yes= fin-er ri-ht here.ust some place you li)e&G GTa)e a deep breath%G is a 1ery safe suggestion because any patient has to breathe& R9 (es% so S is safe in going along 'ith 'hat 8rs& # is naturally doing& $9 0nd you can add any ad.ust stating an ob1ious fact& The sub. $9 G(ou can concentrate%G is a statement of fact% it is not a command& If I say% G(ou can%G it implies% Gyou can do that or something else&G It is not a direct order& It is an inoffensi1e 'ay of directing& R9 So 'hether S realiEes it or not% she has been learning something in her personal hypnotic 'or) 'ith you9 she>s learned ho' to use implication and indirect suggestions& .S taps Mrs.0a*se as one of Mrs.$9 GImagine yourself in a fantasy spot%G ma)es it 1ery personal& G$ither by a la)e or a ri1er%G no' introduces reality& It becomes the patient>s reality 'hen she adds G.ust before% 'hy shouldn>t she li)e this 'orld 1ery muchI (ou>re not telling her to li)e it% you>re . L5s fin-ers le+itates.

Mrs. Erickson then *ndertakes to hypnotize Mrs.+ery lo*dly in the back-ro*nd6 b*t Mrs.< (o* can 2ake yo*r own co*nt fro2 ? to @E. I wo*ld like to ha+e yo* do today what yo* did yesterday. &here are ti2es when yo* really need this serene feelin-. . $9 (es& GTimes 'hen you really need&G Bhat timesI (ou>re naturally going to ha1e some memories of some times& So this is her o'n e3ploration& She 'ill e3plore% but S has not told her to e3plore& R9 So again in a 1ery indirect and innocuous 'ay S has sent 8rs& # on an e3ploratory trip& $9 Self@e3ploratory and yet not for the purpose of see)ing names% etc&% but for see)ing serenity& R9 It seems that S has been learning something about the indirect approach to suggestion in her 'or) 'ith you& Erickson Ind*ction by Recapit*lation E.Abilities= Rather than $irect and yo* learned the other day o22ands . 30a*se4 #.0a*se.to find that each ti2e that yo* 2ay want to spend a few 2in*tes by yo*rself6 rela9in-6 feelin. .+ery co2fortable and serene6 that yo* can -o back to this feelin-6 yo* can p*t yo*rself into this world anyti2e that yo* like. L awakens6 stretches6 reorients to her body.!. "ow yo* know that today5s a chan-e and -o +ery deeply into a trance6 R9 In this simple introductory statement you are recapitulating pre1ious successful hypnotic 'or)% and you>re thereby reacti1ating associations that 'ill facilitate your present hypnotic 'or)& R& Bhy did you tal) of GchangeG hereI $9 The baby crying out there 'as not present 'hen I 'or)ed 'ith 8rs& # pre1iously& Therefore she had better change herself so that she could accommodate this ne' stimuli 'ithout being disturbed& R9 Bithout telling her directly that she supposed to ignore her baby today& $9 I ga1e her enough credit to )no' 'hat I meant by Gchange&G R9 If you had said directly% GIgnore your baby>s crying%G she 'ould certainly ha1e resisted& $9 Bhat 'oman 'ouldn>tI =Losin. L.Mrs. L5s si91week1old baby be-ins cryin. A -eneral con+ersation takes place for abo*t fi+e 2in*tes. L pays no heed.6 now6 anyti2e that yo* wo*ld like to co2e back and 8oin *s6 yo* can 8*st take a deep breath6 stretch.Indirect Instr*ction (o* are -oin.

My +oice. (o* don5t need to know. 30a*se4 $9 The patient>s common reaction here is% GIt 'ill not mo1e up to my faceLG "ut they 'ill be doing something% and Gno matter 'hatG they do they 'ind up touching their face& There is an e1er@continuing threat& For e3ample% GTry harderLG No matter ho' hard they try to )eep their eyes open% you )no' they 'ill close sooner or later& R9 This is the logic o. . And soon yo* won5t e+en know whether yo*r eyes are open or closed.ust emphasiEe a natural beha1ior since 'e all can lose the ability to stand at one time or other& It>s relati1ely easy to lose an ability& In trance it is much easier not to do something rather than ma)ing all the effort to do something& $9 That>s one thing people don>t )no' about themsel1es& They don>t )no' they can lose the ability to stand up& They don>t )no' they can lose the ability to spea)& (et is happens all the time% as 'hen they remar)%G I stood there li)e an idiot unable to say anything in that situation& I didn>t )no'% enough to say anythingLG S*--estions as Ine+itable )eha+ior beca*se no 2atter what yo* do it will 2o+e *p toward yo*r face.Mrs.man$ induction suggestions5 3hat the o%erator sa$s is alwa$s a -oregone conclusion2 Sub.< (o* can ha+e the e9perience of bein. L5s hand does be-in to le+itate s2oothly toward her face.ects do not realiEe that the resistance they are attempting is impossible% and they then attribute their failure to resist as gi1ing in to the operator>s po'er of suggestions& $9 0nother e3ample 'ould be% G(ou don>t )no' 'hen you>re going to change your rate of breathing&G R9 Sooner or later e1eryone 'ill change their breathing rate& (ou thereby also de1elop a set for GchangeG 'hich is so important for therapy% and at the same time you depotentiate consciousness by saying% G(ou don>t )no'&G . And now yo*r hand is st*ck to yo*r face.nconscio*s !nowled-e I wo*ld like yo* to learn that no 2atter what any person belie+es6 . 30a*se4 (o* can -o back to ol*2bia. "ow yo* can lose the ability to keep yo*r ri-ht hand on yo*r thi-h R9 (ou don>t command her% G(ou 'ill not be able to stand upL >(ou .how yo* co*ld lose the ability to stand *p.all alone with only a +oice.

30a*se4 In the de+elop2ent of the h*2an beinlearnin. (o*r 2ind has that knowled-e6 and yo* don5t e+en need .fro2 infancy on6 yo* acA*ired knowled-e6 b*t yo* co*ld not keep all that knowled-e in the fore-ro*nd of yo*r 2ind. When yo* ha+e a need for rela9ation6 yo* can ha+e it. And wonder what Mrs. 30a*se4 In the co*rse of li+in. Iones5 na2e is 30a*se4 while yo* are shakin.hands with Mrs. S2ith. When yo* need to feel co2fort6 yo* can feel co2fort. 30a*se4 It is a co22on e9perience. When bein.introd*ced6 yo* shake hands and -o on to the ne9t person.in the *nconscio*s beca2e a+ailable in any ti2e of need. R9 Here again you are emphasiEing the importance of the unconscious at the e3pense of the conscious& $9 (es& R9 In referring to the ac4uisition of )no'ledge from infancy and the potential a1ailability of such )no'ledge% you are ma)ing an effort to acti1ate association path'ays to unconscious learning and )no'ledge that can be utiliEed in dealing 'ith current problems& (ou closely associate this suggestion 'ith the ordinary ones for comfort and rela3ation that ha1e been successful 'ith S& This association of a ne' suggestion 'ith one that has been pre1iously successful tends to facilitate the ne' suggestion& Hypers*--estibility as an Artifact And 2any ti2es in the past yo* ha+e been able to hear so2ethinand to for-et it i22ediately.yo*r belief6 yo*r *nconscio*s belief6 yo*r *nconscio*s knowled-e6 is all that co*nts.

30a*se4 (o* don5t e+en need to know yo*r na2e. R9 This is a subtle form of directi1e 'here you don>t actually tell her to do something% but you assume something 'ill be done& (ou then only gi1e her the option of signaling 'hen it is done& The gi1ing of the signal 'hen it is done actually seems to ha1e both moti1ating and reinforcing properties on the implied directi1e& $9 0 parallel 'ith ordinary beha1ior is 'hen you eat or drin) until you are satisfied& <ou will &now 'hen the eating and drin)ing are done& .2ore. (o* don5t e+en need to know when or where yo* 2et6 for when the occasion arises6 yo*r *nconscio*s will s*pply that knowled-e.to know that yo* ha+e it. 30a*se4 I wo*ld like to ha+e yo* co*nt backward fro2 @E to ?6 and be-in the co*nt ri-ht now. 30a*se4 Months later yo* can 2eet Mrs.A=% ossible /etrimental $ffects of $3perimental HypnosisN you e1en say of your e3perience 'ith thousands of trances that Ghypersuggestibility 'as not noticed&G Is it possible you don>t belie1e that hypersuggestibility is characteristic of tranceI (ou substitute the gradual elicitation of natural mental and beha1ioral mechanisms by 1erbal and non1erbal associations for the so@called phenomenon of hypersuggestibility of trance& Hypersuggestibility is actually an artifactI $9 (es& It>s .ust called hypersuggestibility& R9 "ut it>s really natural mental and beha1ioral mechanisms the operator has succeeded in leading a patient into& The art of hypnosis is the s)ill 'ith 'hich the therapist succeeds in e1o)ing these natural mechanisms for a specific therapeutic purpose& &he I2plied $irecti+e As soon as yo* know only yo* and I6 or yo* and 2y +oice are here6 yo*r ri-ht hand will descend to yo*r thi-h .0a*se as her hand be-ins to descend< here is only here6 nothin. Iones on the street and spontaneo*sly call her by her na2e.ti2e a-o yo* are 2e6 and 2e was e+erythin-. R9 Here you begin to elicit forgetting mechanisms by leading her into association path'ays 'here forgetting is li)ely to occur& This is 1ery typical of youJ you rarely gi1e direct suggestions& In one of your early papers M+. As yo* learned a lon.

< &ell *s what yo* think we5+e e9perienced.R9 /o you agree that Gthe implied directi1eG is a good name for thisI $9 (es& I>m not telling her to ignore the presence of others in the room& No one can do that& "ut you can limit your a'areness& Be all ha1e had e3tensi1e training in limiting our a'areness& R9 Be can limit our a'areness to a boo)% a mo1ie% etc& 0ctually that is another 'ay of describing concentration9 the mind focuses on one limited area and omits e1erything else& &rance as Altered State . $o yo* hear yo*r da*-hter: L. &herefore she is still in trance.< L.+ery lo*dly. R9 "ecause she did not reorient to her body 'e )no' she 'as still in trance e1en though she opened her eyes& $9 The fact that she still is GcomfortableG and does not 'ant to bother helping her crying daughter also 1erifies the trance state& There is something lac)ing there in the total a'areness of the self and the situation& R9 Sho'ing that she is in an altered state& $9 0n altered state% and she )no's itL 0 person in trance doesn>t feel certain things that are appropriate& R9 So this helps us to understand trance as an altered state& $9 (es& Her 1erbal statement means9 I )no' the baby should be attended to% but I don>t feel li)e itJ the momentum does not e3ist to lead me to the effort to attend to her& R9 In trance the moti1ating properties of stimuli are lostI $9 There is a limitation of 'hat 'ould normally be spontaneous beha1ior& . E. (es.to learn beca*se it will teach yo* ob8ecti+ity6 which will enable yo* to do ri-ht thin-s at the ri-ht ti2e in the ri-ht way.Mrs. 0a*se. E. (es. E. We were talkin. How do yo* feel abo*t that: L. So2ewhat6 b*t I don5t want to help her ri-ht now. $oes it distress yo*: L. A little e9ercise by yo*r da*-hter is -ood for her.and we were +ery co2fortable. &hat5s an odd feelin-6 isn5t it: L. It5s a nice thin. L opens her eyes b*t does not reorient to her body. Mrs. . E. L5s baby contin*es cryin. o2fortable. E.

E. Who else: L. And what is -oin.2e: . E.else: L. (es. )eca*se then I know what is -oin. (es. And how are yo* seein. How do yo* feel abo*t bein. (o* are.on: Are yo* en8oyin.else: L. R9 Her response of not )no'ing 'ho else is here is actually a negati1e hallucinationJ she is apparently una'are that S and I are seated right ne3t to her% 'ell 'ithin her range of 1ision& So here she has lost the ability to be a'are of our presence% 'hich you earlier suggested to her in the form of the implied directi1e& Literalis2 to E+al*ate &rance E. &hat5s ri-ht6 yo* don5t. I like this better. E. E. E.&rance E.at 2e. I don5t know. What a2 I doin-: L. "o. Lookin. (es. E. Who is here: L.on. E. Anythin. &alkin-. "o. &hat5s a nice so*nd6 isn5t it: L.in a trance with yo*r eyes wide open: L.R9 There is a limitation of the ego>s e3ecuti1e function of relating appropriately to the outside 'orld& They do not relate to the outside 'orld e3cept through the therapist& $o*ble )ind 7*estion for Ratifyin.yo*rself: L. Is yo*r da*-hter5s +oice here: L. (o* really think yo* are awake6 don5t yo*: L. E. 30a*se4 R9 (ou are affirming the trance 'ith this double bind 4uestionI $9 (es& I>m pro1ing the trance e3ists& "e-ati+e 'is*al Hall*cination E. Anythin. E.

(es. E.ects determined not to go into a trance e1en though they 1olunteered& I let them e3press their resistance% and then I tell them to hypnotiEe someone else& Bhen they hypnotiEe someone else they start 'anting the hypnotic trance to de1elop& . What else do yo* see: L. E. o*nt to @E6 S. L. 30a*se4 E. an yo* look and not see: L. E. She is rela9ed6 her hands are on her le-s. And we can be all alone here. With 2y eyes.nconscio*s LearninLook at S. Resistance and . What else do yo* notice: L. What chan-e do yo* notice in her: L. I don5t know.L. 30a*se4 E. &ake a deep breath at the co*nt of @E. R9 Bhy do you ha1e 8rs& # in trance no' hypnotiEe SI $9 I>1e had sub. &hat book.&rance. R9 osing a suggestion indirectly in the form of a 4uestion carries less ris) of failure& If they cannot accomplish the suggestion they simply say GnoG and nothing is lost& Be don>t )no' if she actually did e3perience a negati1e hallucination of not seeing here since you did not test it& Indirectly Moti+atin. E. And to take a deep breath at the co*nt of @E. R9 The literalism of these responses 2Gtal)ing%G Gloo)ing at me%G G'ith my eyesG5 is a classical indication of deep trance& (ou might appear to be ha1ing a casual con1ersation% but you are actually ma)ing a careful e1aluation of her mental state& 7*estions as S*--estions E. L. &ell S to co*nt to @E. 30a*se4 #r so2eone na2ed S can 8oin *s. $o yo* think she knows her hands are there: L. She breathes slower6 her head lowers6 her eyes are closed.

. And in so2e way I want yo* to see so2eone who is so2eone between yo* and 2e who2 yo* ha+en5t seen in 2any years.ect hereI $9 Oh% yes& Her resistance isn>t to'ard me or to'ard learning& She 1ust doesn4t )uite trust her unconscious mind to do all the learning necessar$& R9 Her conscious mind )eeps coming in during her trance efforts& $9 To ma)e sure& R9 This is a typical problem many intellectually trained professional people 'ill ha1e in e3periencing trance and learning on an unconscious le1el& "ot !nowin-. Iohn. L opens her eyes and st*dies R +ery caref*lly6 and then with a sli-htly incred*lo*s look She be-ins to talk with R6 who -rad*ally ass*2es the role of Iohn which she -i+es hi2.R9 So you>1e changed their set from resisting trance to 'anting trance by ma)ing them an operator& $9 They no' 'ant a trance% but it>s not been defined necessarily as trance in another& R9 This is an interesting e3ample of ho' you indirectly enhance moti1ation for trance e3perience& 0t some unconscious or pre1erbal le1el an indi1idual does not distinguish bet'een G'anting a tranceG for oneself or another& Banting a trance for someone else 'ill% by association% e1o)e partial aspects of trance in oneself and therefore enhance the possibility that one 'ill more easily e3perience a trance if gi1en an opportunity at that time& (ou 'ere treating S as a resistant sub. . (o* don5t need to know where yo*r hands are.Established LearninE. S doesn5t need to know where hers are.ect& 0ositi+e 'is*al Hall*cination E.< L.R was act*ally seated between E and S. 30a*se4 R9 Here again you use not )no'ing9 G(ou don>t need to )no' 'here your hands are&G (ou don>t try to directly suggest% GHa1e no a'areness of your hands&G (ou simply point out that she need not )no' 'here they are& This utiliEes that e1eryday mental mechanism 'here 'e don>t actually ha1e to )no' 'here our hands are such as 'hen 'e 'atch TV or a mo1ie% for e3ample& $9 Bhen dri1ing a car you don>t al'ays ha1e to ha1e your foot on the bra)e& (ou don>t need your best dress today& There are a lot of don>ts in life& R9 (ou )eep emphasiEing all those Gdon>tsG and things you don>t needJ it>s a means of rela3ing the directing and controlling functions of the patient>s ego& $9 "y using established learning patterns& R9 So instead of gi1ing direct suggestions% you use established learning patterns that are already present in the sub.J .tilizin. Mrs.

7*estions in $epotentiatin- onscio*sness E. He went back ho2eJ . . Where are yo* li+in. Where wo*ld yo* e9pect: L. Hi. L and R playin. How ha+e yo* been doin-: R. 0retty -ood. L. Who is Iohn: L.the role of Iohn. "ow speak to hi2.< R9 (ou ne1er did positi1e 1isual hallucinatory 'or) 'ith 8rs& # before& /id you )no' she 'as going to respond so 'ell to itI $9 She is a 1ery good sub.Hall*cinations Why did Iohn 8*st lea+eJ He did6 yo* know.E. He is a friend fro2 colle-e. L. I left.now: R. 0*erto Rico: R. R. Are yo* still in the Air Force: R. Hi. L. "ow listen to what I say caref*lly and really *nderstand what I say. L. E. L.ect& She is a 1ery gentle% soft personality% simple and uncomplicated& Such a personality does not feel insecure 'hen you offer them something& R9 (ou don>t command or apparently e1en suggest9 $ou o--er and thus utiliEe her o'n inner needs and moti1ation& (ou>1e also built up your successful suggestion 'ith her by first e1o)ing a series of easier phenomena& (ou had her remain undisturbed by her crying child% lose the ability to stand% engage in hand le1itation% forgetting and negati1e 1isual hallucination before you felt sure enough to attempt a positi1e 1isual hallucination& This positi1e hallucination may be actually more in the nature of an illusion since she is actually seeing me and distorting my image to fit the image of her friend Cohn& resumably the ne3t step 'ould be a genuine 1isual hallucination of seeing something out there in space 'ithout any reality props& $o*btin.A -eneral set of A*estions and answers now takes place between Mrs. (es. $9 G/o you reall$ understandIG means Gdistrust your conscious understanding&G R9 (ou>re thro'ing doubt on the conscious mind again e1en though you seem to be saying the opposite& $9 That>s rightL G/o you reall$ understandLG implies a strong doubt& To say% G0nd you 'ill reall$ understandG means the same as Gyou don>t really understand&G It has the same meaning either 'ay you state it% positi1ely or negati1ely& 7*estions Ratifyin.

0layin. (es. L now looks at the seat of the chair still occ*pied by R.to -o: L.Mrs. L. )on8o*r . E. What kind of chair was he sittin. E. Lookin. "o.hi2: L.at the seat as she is s*--ests that she is now not seein. She now looks at Rossi5s face as she speaks to hi2. A -reen chair. E.ust lea1eIG rather than simply tell her to erase the 'hole e3perience and run the ris) of her denying that it e1er happened in the first place& 0ctually% I>1e notices that all 4uestions ha1e a hypnotic effect insofar as they fi3ate and focus attention& Is this 'hy you as) so many 4uestionsI $9 The patient needs help% and he does not )no' 'here to loo)% so I>d better focus his loo)ing 'ith a 4uestion& .ust had an hallucinatory e3perience& $9 (es& He can>t lea1e unless he has been here& R9 0t the same time you>re telling her to ma)e him disappear& $9 (es& "ut you>re ma)ing her affirm he 'as here& R9 (ou as)% GBhy did Cohn .tilizin. Was he willin.to hi2 earlier when she pro8ected Iohn on hi2.< E.Mrs.at the seat is in 2arked contrast to the way she looked at his face when she was talkin.0atient Moti+ation for 'is*al Hall*cinations E. Her lookin. #n a chair.ti2e: L. E. E. A few 2in*tes a-o. )ill L.on: L.R sittin. (es.there. L. &ell 2e when yo* think he left. $id yo* en8oy seein. (es. an yo* look o+er in the direction of the place where he was sittin-J .< R.to -o: L. Is there anyone else yo* wo*ld like to see that yo* ha+en5t seen for a lon. $9 I>m emphasiEing Cohn 'as here& He had to be here in order to lea1e& R9 So you>re ratifying the fact that she has .the role of )ill< Let5s speak En-lish today. E. Why was he willin. .E. Who: L. L be-ins to speak French to an hall*cinated friend6 )ill6 who is now pro8ected on Rossi. He wasn5t needed any2ore. Where was he sittin-J L. .

R9 "y as)ing this 4uestion about 'ho she 'ould li)e to see% you>re utiliEing her internal memory ban)s and moti1ation to facilitate a hallucinatory e3perience& I2possible S*--estions Aro*se $isco2fort and Resistance R. What 2akes yo* think so: L.< R9 (ou solicit her careful attention to prepare her for the subtle indirect suggestion that is to follo'& "y using the future tense here you imply that #>s husband has not yet proposed& This reorients her to the past before she 'as married& So you>1e effected an age regression 'ithout any direct suggestion for it& $9 (es& 0nd here again 'hen I say% GBhat ma)es you thin) soIG Str*ct*red A2nesia E. Listen to the2 +ery caref*lly and *nderstand the2. He lo+es 2e. lose yo*r eyes6 . (o*r French is r*sty6 L.is fine6 L. E.< L. 30a*se4 . He *nderstands6 he knows one or two words of En-lish. How co2e this person says so2e En-lish words: L. L describes so2e of her h*sband5s feelin-s for her as she e9perienced the2 before they were 2arried. 30a*se4 I want yo* to feel +ery pleased within yo*rself6 wo*ld yo*: R9 Since it did not fit her internal understanding of "ill% my suggestion that "ill could ha1e learned $nglish had no effect& $1en though she is e3periencing deep trance% an ob1iously impossible suggestion does not 'or)& It arouses discomfort and resistance& Suggestions must match the patient>s internal needs and patterns of learning and moti1ation to be effecti1e& $9 (es% this difficulty is a good e3ample of that& R9 (ou 'ere 4uic) to reassure her 'hen she sho'ed uneasiness about the inconsistency of her friend "ill )no'ing $nglish& Indirect A-e Re-ression "ow listen to 2y words +ery caref*lly.A is Mrs. on+ersation wherein an a-e1re-ressed Mrs. L frowns do*btf*lly and appears *neasy. 'ery6 +ery fine.Mrs.< E. E. . $o yo* think A will propose: . E+erythin. (es. L5s h*sband of 2any years. How co2e: Is it not possible for 2e to ha+e learned En-lish: L. "o.

R9 Bhy do you do this counting re1ersal as you>re 'a)ing her upI $9 (ou ta)e them by surprise& They thin) you>1e made a mista)e& 0nd then they find as you count up to'ard =7 they are follo'ing the instruction to go deeper and deeper into trance& (ou re1erse it do'n'ard again% and no' they )no' from personal e3perience that they 'ere deeper& They 'ere lighter in trance and then deeper& R9 (ou>re pro1ing the efficiency of counting to 1ary trance depth& $9 (es& I>1e had patients tell me Gthat 'as an a'ful . "o. She looks like she5s asleep. What is S doin-: L. R so I will ha+e a different e9perience. E. R9 "y reorienting her to the time before 'e began trance 'or)% you are effecting a possible amnesia for the trance 'or) that . (es. I52 not s*re what we are -oin.ecti1e proof of trance:not mine& S*ccessf*l 0osthypnotic S*--estion E.to awaken yo*6 and when I awaken yo*6 it will see2 to yo* as if yo* had 8*st sat down and were waitin. Are yo* ready to be-in work: L. Fine.er) pro1es and ratifies the trance& $9 That>s their sub.to start the co*nt o*ntin. . I don5t know why the tape recorder.Re+ersal now. I s*ppose yo* want 2e to work with $r. What do yo* think we will do: L.for 2e to be-in.ust too) place 2$ric)son and Rossi% +.-65& S*rprise for Ratifyin. @E6 ?M6 ?L6 ?K6 ?G6 ?F6 ?C6 ?B6 ?@6 ??6 ?E6 M6 L6 M6 ?E ??6 ?@6 ?B6 ?C6 ?F6 ?G6 ?F6 ?C6 ?B6 ?@6 ??6 ?E6 M6 L6 K6 G6 F6 C6 B6 30a*se4 @6 30a*se4 ? How do yo* feel: L. E.er) 'hen you re1ersed the count&G R9 That . E.to do. #kay. (o* don5t: L.and shortly I a2 -oin. Is that all ri-ht: L.&rance by "ow I a2 -oin.

Ha+e yo* or I bored her that 2*ch: L. (es.Her hand be-ins to lift.nconscio*s E. .ncertainty . E.Her hand be-ins to lift 2ore rapidly. 0ositi+ely. "o.E. Ha+e yo* e+er seen a disp*te between the conscio*s and *nconscio*s 2ind: "ow watch yo*r ri-ht hand.S 2akes 2otions as if to awaken< E. E. E. L does not recall that she has been in a trance state.to Ill*strate a onflict )etween . .to yo* of which yo* are *naware: L.ust accepting a helpful push& Ideo2otor Si-nalin. 'ery far away. I do*bt it. If I ha+e done a -reat deal with yo* this 2ornin-6 yo*r ri-ht hand will lift. How 2*ch: . onscio*s and E. Ha+e we done anythin.S now -oes deeper into a trance while Erickson en-a-es Mrs. Are yo* s*re now: L.< . Is she asleep: L.&o S< %o far away: S.< R9 S 'as seemingly about to 'a)e up here& $9 (ou use a direct authoritati1e suggestion in this situation 'here you see a patient in an uncertain state& Bhen she is uncertain% you help her by ta)ing o1er firmly& Cust as 'hen a child is uncertain about something% you say% GI>ll tell you 'hen to go &&&& Now76 That>s the same sort of thing& That is acceptable as help since patients ha1e a long history of ha1ing accepted help in such circumstances& R9 /irect authoritati1e suggestion 'or)s and helps 'hen patients are uncertain% sitting on the fence& They are not really follo'ing a suggestion% they are .< "ow6 ha+e I done a -reat deal with yo* this 2ornin-: L. E. Erickson now proceeds with Mrs. L and R in a cas*al con+ersation wherein it is learned that Mrs. R9 The fact that # is successful in follo'ing this posthypnotic suggestion 'hich S in part failed last session indicates that # is more accomplished in trance learning& 0llo'ing S to 'itness this 'hile she is in the trance state ma)es it more li)ely that she 'ill do it in the future& $irect A*thoritati+e Help for . Is her sleep stoppin-: E. . A little. L as follows. (es.

What: L. Rossi. $9 Here you>re teaching people by this conflict that their unconscious can do something that they did not )no' about& She herself is furnishing that e1idence& R9 So you>re pro1ing the e3istence of the unconscious to her& $9 In the presence of her conscious mind& (ou demonstrate that the conscious can thin) one 'ay and the unconscious another& (ou>re going to ha1e a chance to see and pro1e 'ithin yourself that they thin) differently& R9 This is a highly important e3perience for patients to ha1e9 a demonstration of the e3istence of the unconscious& They 'ould thereby tend to become more amenable to respecting and learning to relate to their unconscious& The therapist can then use ideomotor signaling to detect and monitor any sort of psychodynamic conflict in this 'ay& There is a great need for clinically oriented research to de1elop ne' 'ays of .L. E. I*st a while a-o. S. E. E. Why: L. I don5t know how to 2eas*re.*p. E. o*ld yo* tell 2e 2ore: L. My hand. When: L. $o I know anythin. E. (es. Ha+e yo* for-otten what I did with yo*: onscio*sly for-otten: L.abo*t it. $id yo* see anybody here in the office today: L. E. an yo* tell 2e 2ore than before: L.abo*t yo* that I didn5t know before: L. What is yo*r hand doin-: L. Anybody else: L. (es. (o* know abo*t so2e of 2y friends. E. $r. (o* know that I went to &*nisia.there. E. E. E. I think yo* did 2ore with 2e than I tho*-ht. I think 2aybe. What: L. Stayin. )efore I went to check the baby. $o yo* belie+e yo*rself or yo*r hand: L. I think it is -oin. We were 8*st talkin. E. 30a*se4 E.

ust taught them it>s possible to go into a trance 'ithout )no'ing it& R9 That>s a fantastic 'ay of circum1enting consciousness& $9 (es& R9 (ou re1i1ify the trance by tal)ing of trance e1ents& Then you slip in the double bind 4uestion% G/o you )no' you are in a trance right no'IG 0n ans'er of GyesG means she )no's% an ans'er of GnoG means she does not &now she 'as in trance& "oth ans'ers imply an ac)no'ledgment of being in trance% only the )no'ledge of it 'as in 4uestion& This reinforces trance further% so she recogniEes that trance happened 'ithout her . (o* can en8oy *sin.0re+io*s &rance Associations E. Anybody else: L. E.222. $o yo* know yo* are in a trance ri-ht now: L. "o. (o* saw hi2: L. . Spontaneo*s Ind*ction by E+okin.yo*r abilities R9 She 'as a'a)eJ 'hy 'as she going bac) into trance about hereI $9 That>s a thing you ha1e to 'atch for& I noticed here that her face began to iron out and that there 'as more of a fi3ed% unblin)ing stare and a lessening of body mobility as she tal)ed& Trance tends to be revivi-ied when $ou review an$ h$%notic %henomenon that has occurred in the sub1ects2 They begin to reli1e 'hat they are tal)ing about and begin to ree3perience the trance% sometimes 'ith and sometimes 'ithout their )no'ledge& So then you say% G(ou don>t )no' you are in a tranceIG 0nd they don>t )no'& So you>1e . Iohn. E. (o* really can -o into a trance effecti+ely.using ideomotor signaling and to e1aluate its 1alidity in different situations& $9 Cust as 'hen you demonstrate to patients their moti1ation about stopping smo)ing& (ou as) them to put a fe' coins in a large bottle e1ery time they 'ould ha1e lit up& 0 4uarter or t'o 'hen they 'ould ha1e bought a carton& retty soon the people 'ho really 'ant to 4uit see all that money piling up& That further moti1ates them to 4uit and sa1e all that money& It also pro1es to them that they do 'ant to 4uit& That is their proof& 0nd 'hen they fail to pile up the coins% that also is their proof that they don>t 'ant to 4uit& R9 I see in this the possibility of a ne' therapeutic techni4ue9 $3ternaliEing internal processes and moti1ations so patients can relate to their inner dynamics in a concrete and easily comprehensible 'ay& Bhat patients do e3ternally 'ith the coins can be a reflection of 'hat they do 'ithin themsel1es& The coins 2or 'hate1er other e3ternal gauge you attach to internal process re4uiring change5 function as a cogniti1e feedbac) de1ice altering the internal dynamics& Ideomotor signaling appears to be an especially fine 'ay of getting an assessment of internal processes and moti1ations because the autonomous aspect of the ideomotor mo1ement is so con1incing to the person 'ho is e3periencing it& In this e3ample 8rs& # actually belie1es the ideomotor mo1ement of her hand more than her o'n conscious ideation& $o*ble )ind 7*estion. E.

.S*--estions With &r*is2s A process that yo* don5t know yo* ha+e b*t abilities that are in yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind.. A-reed: @E6 ?M6 ?L6 ?F6 ?@6 ?E6 M6 L6 5. 30a*se4 R9 Here again you reinforce the idea that she has more ability than she belie1es& (ou>re al'ays building up the unconscious and the greater potentialities that people actually ha1e 'hile depotentiating their conscious mind 'ith its limited beliefs about 'hat can be accomplished& (ou allo' a brief pause for that message to sin) in% but then% before she can debate the matter% you immediately follo' up 'ith a self@e1ident truism about her eyes being open& The ob1ious truth of this must e1o)e a GyesG 'ithin her that may no' in part reinforce the pre1ious suggestion about her unconscious abilities& (ou li)e to use statements of ob1ious truth to reinforce a pre1ious suggestion& In your interspersal techni4ue 2$ric)son% +..consciousness )no'ing e3actly 'hy& This demonstrates ho' little the conscious mind really )no's& That is a 1ery important learning because it enables her to recogniEe the 1alue of e3ploring her unconscious and its capacities% 'hich are greater than her conscious mind belie1es& $9 That>s right& Facilitatin. Reinforcin. B6 @6 ?6 .b5 you use a series of ob1ious truths to surround and thus reinforce e1ery suggestion& 0osthypnotic S*--estion as yo* won5t be able to bend yo*r le-s onditional S*--estion E. I a2 now -oin.so it won5t -et dark. 30a*se4 (o*r eyes are wide open and ad8*stin.nconscio*s 0otentials.to awaken yo* and I want yo* to be +ery s*rprised $9 I>ll ta)e credit for a'a)ening her% but she ta)es credit for going into trance& R9 (ou>re using the conditional suggestion format for this posthypnotic suggestion& The suggestion 2Gyou 'on>t be able to bend your legsG5 is paired 'ith an ine1itable occurrence 2GI am no' going to a'a)en youG5 Set6 Mental Fl*96 and reati+ity and yo* won5t6 will yo*: 30a*se4 (o* will see the2 b*t yo* won5t be able to feel the2 after I awaken yo*.

Any ti2e yo* need to yo* will be in f*ll possession of yo*r abilities. My le-s aren5t awake. $o yo* *nderstand that: $9 She has a master>s degree and yet she uses this . How does that 2ake yo* feel when yo*r le-s don5t work: PL.<=5 you said% 6Dee% h$%nosis is that level o.h$%nosis that %ermits the sub1ect to -unction ade)uatel$ and directl$ at an unconscious level oawareness without inter-erence b$ the conscious mind62 . "o 30a*se4 E. E. 'ery li2ited. (o* can also *se the2 any ti2e it is necessary. And yo* can do that with any part of yo*r body any ti2e it is necessary. Awkward. %eneralizin. &hey don5t work.u1enile language here& Hypnotic sub. How do yo* really feel: 30a*se4 $9 These shifts from the negati1e 2'on>t5 to the positi1e 2'ill5 and sometimes the shifts from positi1e to negati1e are )eeping the patient in a constant state of mo1ement& (ou change the mind this 'ay and bac)& R9 Bhat>s the 1alue of )eeping that constant mo1ementI $9 (ou don>t let the patients get a set& 0 mental set they can stay 'ith& R9 Bhy notI $9 (ou don>t 'ant them 'ith their mental set& R9 (ou )eep them in mo1ement so they 'ill ha1e to grasp onto your mental setI $9 (es% the mental set you 'ant to 'or) 'ith& (ou )eep them in flu3 so you can constantly orient them& "ut you aren>t telling them% GI 'ant you to pay attention to this one thing&G "ot $oin-. E. How does that 2ake yo* feel: L. It doesn5t distress yo*6 does it: 30a*se4 E.Are yo* ready to check on yo*r da*-hter now: L.S*ccessf*l 0osthypnotic S*--estion L.n a simple and subtle 'ay you then generaliEe this successful posthypnotic suggestion on her legs to include any .ects do regress to simpler forms of thin)ing% feeling% and beha1ior& Simpler% more youthful% less complicated forms& R9 There is e1en more to this posthypnotic suggestion of not being able to stand9 you are emphasiEing not doing as a basic mode of hypnotic e3perience& (ou are gi1ing her an e3perience in the basic notion that in trance it is not the ego or the patient>s usual 'a)ing patterns that accomplish the hypnotic suggestion& In your paper on deep hypnosis 2$ric)son% +. E.

and &rance.her le-s6 etc. R9 She is still in a trance because she is no' carrying out your earlier posthypnotic suggestion% G(ou 'on>t be able to bend your legs&G (ou ha1e described 2$ric)son and $ric)son% +.6+5 ho' carrying out a posthypnotic suggestion reinduces a momentary trance that can be utiliEed to reestablish another trance& This illustrates the care one must occasionally ta)e to a'a)en a sub. R9 0re you confirming she is no' a'a)e as 'ell as ratifying the trance by as)ing her 'hat different feelings she has on a'a)eningI $9 (es& Bhen you thin) about things% your body ma)es many ideomotor mo1ements& Bhen children 'atch a mo1ie% it>s particularly ob1ious ho' they mo1e about% thrusting this 'ay and that% acting out the scene they are 'atching& Here 8rs& # is saying% GI can do 'hat I 'ant% 'hat my conscious mind is thin)ing about& In trance I could thin) about things but I really didn>t feel li)e doing anything about&G In ordinary 'a)ing state you start thin)ing about scratching your head and you immediately get subliminal mo1ements in your fingers to do it& "ut in trance you can thin) about it 'ithout subliminal mo1ements& .abo*t. I can do what I want6 what 2y conscio*s 2ind is thinkin. &hat5s ri-ht.ect 'hen posthypnotic suggestions are used& (ou noticed at this point that e1en though you 'ent through a formal Ga'a)eningG procedure by counting bac)'ard to one% she did not go through the typical a'a)ening mo1ements of stretching and so on to reorient to her body& Therefore% she may not be really a'a)e& This is confirmed 'hen she ac)no'ledges the posthypnotic suggestion 'ith her statement about her legs not being a'a)e& (ou therefore as) the double bind 4uestion about 'hether she Gthin)sG she is a'a)e& 0ny ans'er 2yes or no5 can imply she is still in trance& She readily admits she is still in trance% so you simply go about rea'a)ening her again . "o.< Ratifyin.else yo* wo*ld like to add: L. Ideo2otor Mo+e2ents and $issociation What is the different feelin. E.her hands a bit6 read8*stin.= "ow6 one. E.Awakenin. )efore6 I co*ld think abo*t thin-s b*t I didn5t really feel like doin.L now reorients to her body by 2o+in.yo* ha+e now: 30a*se4 L. lose yo*r eyes6 and now this ti2e yo* can awaken when I say6 =one.abo*t it. &hat5s ri-ht.other part of her body& (ou can greatly e3pand the area of any successful suggestion by this simple phenomenon of generali*ation2 It>s a basic principle of learning theory as 'ell as hypnosis& 0osthypnotic S*--estion and the Reind*ction of &rance $o yo* think yo* are wide awake: L.anythin. Well6 when I a2 in a trance6 I a2 2*ch 2ore rela9ed6 feelin-6 sort of -ood6 e9cept when I52 in a really deep trance6 like I tend to lose the sense of balance a lot and I feel sli-htly awkward. Anythin.

$9 If she can>t thin) about 'al)ing and do it in the ordinary 'ay 2in the a'a)e state5% she loses her balance& 2$ric)son demonstrates ho' he cannot really thin) about mo1ing his paralyEed right arm 'ithout mo1ing his left arm% 'hich is not paralyEed&5 I can>t get any minimal mo1ements in the right hand% so I can>t e1en feel ho' I 'ould mo1e it if I could& "ody feelings complement the thought of lifting the hand& No' 8rs& # has lost her sense of balance because she lost her body feeling in trance& R9 She lost the sensory feedbac) the muscles gi1e the mind% so she loses her sense of balance& $9 That>s rightL "ut if you instruct the person to ha1e those mo1ements% he can& Bhen training a rifle team% I sa' to it that they had certain types of subliminal body mo1ements that 'ere conducti1e to accurate shooting& Bhen a shot@putter got stuc) on the shot@put at <? feet% I pointed out that his muscles did not )no' the difference bet'een <? feet and <? feet and one@si3teenth of an inch& Roger "annister bro)e the four@minute mile by reducing four minutes to =67 seconds because here +F+777 of a second counts& R9 This is all due to altering body feedbac)% altering the ideomotor connections& So you can actually enhance physical abilities by brea)ing through conscious bias about limitations& $9 (es% unrecogniEed conscious bias& R9 erhaps this is the secret of enhancing abilities in hypnosis9 brea)ing through the conscious bias of 'hat our limitations are& $9 (es& eople say% G"ut I al'ays eat cereal for brea)fastL "ut 'e al'ays ha1e chic)en on . It is nice to be cold when yo* are war2. It 2akes 2e feel dry.for 2e. E. It5s allri-ht to feel that way6 b*t yo* don5t ha+e to be off balance. It is nice to feel war2 when yo* are cold.ust sees& R9 So there is a dissociation bet'een ideation and that motor beha1ior in trance& That>s 'hy people are so 4uiet in trance& 0nd that body stillness can be ta)en as a reliable indicator of trance& $9 (es& Facilitatin- reati+ity6 Enhance2ent of Abilities E. (o* can feel any way yo* want to6 b*t yo* don5t ha+e to be any way that yo* don5t want to be.R9 In the ordinary 'a)ing state ideomotor mo1ements are acted out% in trance they are notI $9 (es& R9 "ut ho' about finger signaling and hand le1itation 'here you are using ideomotor mo1ements to initiate or deepen tranceI $9 That is 'here the operator is using ideomotor mo1ements in a special fashion& (ou see a child 'atching a mo1ie go through all the actions of 'hat he is 'atching& "ut if you put him in a trance to hallucinate the same mo1ie% he 'ill 'atch it 'ithout body mo1ements& He . $escribe that feelin. How is it when yo* feel wet all o+er: L.

(o* can be dry now. 30a*se4 o22on Sets and )iases R9 She has been a'a)e up to this point% but no' she>s going bac) into trance in a seemingly spontaneous manner here since she says GI>m comfortable&G BhyI $9 "ecause I ha1e remo1ed biases& R9 ReallyI (ou ha1e remo1ed biases and conscious sets so she automatically slips into tranceI $9 "iases are a part of our conscious li1ing& R9 They )eep us consciousI Bould you go as far as thatI $9 They are not . It5s kind of coldDno6 I52 co2fortable6 b*t cold. 30a*se4 I want yo* to ha+e a certain feelinand a contrary knowled-e. I want yo* to feel naked.to do so2ethin-. "ow I a2 -oin.Sunday&G These are all conscious biases& (ou can broaden your acti1ity% ho'e1er% if you recogniEe the bias& $3perimentalists in hypnosis ought to )no' about the unlimited number of biases that e1erybody builds up& R9 These biases are bede1iling their e3periments% they are part of the source of indi1idual differences% etc& $9 eople 'ho accomplish a great many things are people 'ho ha1e freed themsel1es from biases& These are the creati1e people& R9 (ou can define creati1ity as freedom from the biases of the past& If you can brea) out of the sets of your forefathers% you can e3perience originality& $9 It>s simply a conscious bias 'hen people say they don>t li)e cold& Sometimes it>s good to feel cold:especially 'hen you>re too 'arm& R9 So you>re brea)ing through her conscious biases here and ma)ing her a more fle3ible person 'ith these instructions& Then she pic)s up your idea of fle3ibility 'hen she ans'ers% GIt ma)es me feel dry%G to your 4uery about 'et& $9 (es& Ind*ction of &rance by Re2o+inL. All ri-ht. I want yo* to feel naked fro2 the waist *p e+en tho*-h yo* know (o* are dressed fro2 the waist *p.ust biases% they are part of the 'ay 'e e3perience the 'orld& R9 They are so much a part of the ground of our e1eryday e3perience that if 'e are depri1ed of them% 'e suddenly lose our conscious orientation& 0nd that results in trance& So by simply remo1ing people>s biases and preconceptions% they tend to go into trance& I find that so hard to belie1eL $9 (ou ha1e gi1en them a ne' )ind of freedom in the trance state& Bith a fe' simple . E.

(es. E.ect tal) about trance e1ents and feelings% he slips bac) into trance& That>s 'hat Cay Haley means 'hen he says I ta)e a person in and out of trance 'ithout a'areness of it& 7*estions to Ratify Hypnotic 0heno2ena. "o. It 2akes yo* *nco2fortable6 doesn5t it: L.< $o yo* want 2e to look at yo*: L. It is a deli-htf*l thin. E.Mrs. &he I2plied $irecti+e $o yo* want R to look at yo*: L.to be able to *se yo*r 2ind conscio*sly .nconscio*s E. $9 To ans'er that 4uestion she has got to feel na)ed& R9 So you are ratifying the hypnotic phenomenon of feeling na)ed& That>s another e3ample of the im%lied directive by as)ing a 4uestion that re4uires a hypnotic e3perience to ha1e occurredL $9 That>s rightL R9 (ou )no' these things are so subtle that I actually feel a bit diEEy% a bit not 4uite all here% in my effort to understand these things& I feel as if I>m in hypnosis right no'& It>s so hard to understand these things& I guess my old mental sets are brea)ing and my effort to grasp this ne' understanding ma)es me feel a little 'ooEyL $9 She co1ers her breasts 'ith her arms here& So I dodge all the difficulties of directing her to being nude by simply as)ing that 4uestion& R9 (ou dodge all the doubts she might ha1e had about 'hether or not she really felt na)ed% etc& $9 I made it a -ait accom%li by as)ing that 4uestion& R9 (ou use that -ait accom%li a lot by the careful use of 4uestions& $9 That>s right& ontradictions.'ords you restore a sense of freedom% and that belongs to the trance state& They then begin to feel that freedom& R9 Freedom from conscious bias is characteristic of the trance state& Can 'e then call this an indirect reinduction of trance by remo1ing biasesI $9 Bhen you use the 'ord GbiasG it is so easily misunderstood& It is actually a common set2 R9 Remo1ing a common set is 'hat reinduces tranceI $9 (es& 0nother e3ample is that 'hen you ha1e a sub. I -*ess so. &here is a contradiction6 isn5t there: L. . onscio*s and . L now co+ers her breasts with her ar2s crossed o+er the2. "o.

$epotentatin.A few personal and identifyin. Are yo* willin.the Li2itin. R9 (ou>re careful to get her permission here and gi1e her a preparatory set for ne' 'or)& I notice you al'ays do this 'hen you introduce something ne'& #% in a manner that is all too typical% gi1es e3pression to one of the 'ays her conscious bias limits her ability to remember& (ou seiEe upon that self@limitation and see) to brea) through it& Ideo2otor Si-nalin.30a*se4 and *nconscio*sly.sentences are o2itted here.nconscio*s 0otentials.to Facilitate . Early Me2ory Recall E.< E.to do that: L.Sets of onscio*sness If yo*r *nconscio*s thinks yo* ha+e a far better 2e2ory of yo*r childhood than yo* think6 . L5s hand does lift. E.< $9 Bhat is the contradictionI She is getting nude for me 2obeying the hypnotic suggestion5% but she doesn>t 'ant me to loo) at her& She doesn>t really get 'hat I mean 'hen she ans'ers% GI guess so&G R9 Since she doesn>t understand% you>re again )eeping her off balance& $9 I also discharge any great% discomfort by letting her )no' it>s GdelightfulG to be contradictory insofar as you>re able Gto use your mind consciously and unconsciouslyG 'hile it allo's her to continue to be nude& R9 (ou let her be comfortable 'ith the contradiction and at the same time reinforce her being nude& (ou ha1e her all tied up% she cannot mo1e any 'hich 'ay but 'hat you suggest& $9 The pause bet'een Gconsciously and unconsciouslyG effects a separation bet'een conscious and unconscious& It>s delightful to use the conscious mind9 to )no' you are na)ed& (ou used your unconscious mind to become na)ed& R9 So you let consciousness do something and unconsciousness do something% and they both cooperate in the tas) you>re assigning& $9 That>s right& She 'ants to be clothed& That>s a conscious thing& She puts her arms o1er her breasts9 that>s a conscious thing& "ut she is nude9 that nude feeling is from her unconscious% she got nude unconsciously& R9 She got nude unconsciously through a feeling process rather than figuring it out 'ith conscious logic& Feelings come from our unconscious& $9 (es& )reakin.&hro*-h Self1Li2itations. (o* ha+e a better 2e2ory of yo*r childhood than yo* know abo*t. R wo*ld like to do so2ethinwhich in+ol+es so2e rather co2plicated 2ental pheno2ena. #kay6 e9cept I don5t ha+e a -ood 2e2ory of 2y childhood.Mrs. . . I52 -lad yo* said that.

30a*se4 And really watch that child -row *p 30a*se4 and notice the chan-es in her. 30a*se4 It5s a little -irl. &here are -oin. I wo*ld like to ha+e yo* cl*tch that child6 hold her and hold her.to be 2any chan-es6 2any conflictin. L6 close yo*r eyes. 30a*se4 I wo*ld like to ha+e yo* be p*zzled by so2ethinthat yo* can see. (es.ideas6 belie+in-6 *nbelie+in-6 so2e thin-s that can5t be shared with stran-ers6 . E. I need so2e infor2ation first.she sho*ldn5t be doin-6 2aybe she has dirty hands or a dirty face. I wo*ld like to ha+e yo* be p*zzled by so2ethin.back at yo*r childhood: E.so2ethin. All ri-ht. $id yo*r father ha+e a -arden when yo* were +ery yo*n-: L. Maybe she is doin.$o yo* 2ind lookin. She is a nice little -irl.that yo* can see on the other side of a -arden. R9 Her hand lifting demonstrates the difference bet'een her conscious and limited 1ie' of herself and her unconscious>s 1aster degree of potentiality& In an indirect 'ay you are also depotentiating her conscious sets and assumptions by ma)ing a contradiction e1ident9 a contradiction bet'een her consciously e3pressed opinion and her arm le1itation that implies a contrary opinion from the unconscious& 0gain you are demonstrating ho' to precipitate a contradiction or conflict bet'een conscious and unconscious to )eep patients off balance% in a state of creati1e flu3% 'here they are more able to sha)e free of their limiting sets to do more creati1e 'or) 'ith themsel1es& (our suggestions that she be GpuEEledG introduces a set for con-usion that also 'ill help her brea) through her conscious limitations& %eneralizin.Specific and 0ersonal Me2ories I wo*ld like to ha+e yo* watch her -row *p.S*--estions E+okin.

R9 (ou no' embar) on a series of 1ery general suggestions that could apply to anyone% yet they e1o)e highly specific and personal memories& $9 In real life% as one gro's up through puberty% one naturally goes through periods of great uncertainty9 belie1ing and unbelie1ing& GSome things that can>t be shared 'ith strangersG guides her into 1ery personal feelings and e3periences 'ithout my telling her to ha1e a personal e3perience& &rance $epth.L.a different feelin.abo*t her body. 30a*se4 Look at her with interest and appreciation6 and yo* can know anythinyo* wish abo*t her6 b*t yo* will only tell those thin-s to 2e that yo* can share with stran-ers.nconscio*s $riftin. .and I want that little -irl to -row *p6 and after a while yo* will notice that that little -irl is really L. So be interested in watchin. 30a*se4 R9 This type of forgetting is a means of depotentiating consciousness further in trance& She is encouraged to drift along on more autonomous and unconscious fantasy currents until she again catches herself% until the obser1er function of the ego again chec)s in% as it ine1itably 'ill& I 'onder if this natural alternation bet'een unconscious drifting 1ersus obser1ing and in part controlling is responsible for the alternation in trance depth that ta)es place spontaneously in hypnosisI &he 0*berty 0ro-ra2 "otice that she is -ettin. 30a*se4 "otice that at ti2es that -irl thinks to herself6 Is this really 2e: "otice that at ti2es yo* look at that -irl yo* can see yo*rself6 that really isn5t 2e6 b*t yes6 it is6 b*t it isn5t6 b*t it is. Ha+e a +ery deli-htf*l ti2e 30a*se4 .'ers*s the #bser+er F*nction "otice at ti2es yo* for-et that -irl is L 30a*se4 and then yo* s*ddenly realize yes6 it is.

L.to share so2e of that knowled-e with 2e6 and pick o*t certain definite thin-s that yo* can share with stran-ers6 b*t only those that can be shared with stran-ers. &he I2plied $irecti+e and 0osthypnotic S*--estions And when yo* ha+e co2pleted6 really lookin. R9 It>s interesting ho' you ma)e a'a)ening contingent upon completing that inner tas)& That>s a form of the im%lied directive that includes a posthypnotic suggestion to tell only 'hat she is 'illing to share& $9 That>s right& R9 (ou )no' she>s going to ha1e to a'a)en sometime% and she might e1en be eager to .After a 2in*te or so L awakens and stretches her ar2s. . R9 This is an e3ample of your routine use of time distortion interpolated in a place 'here it 'ill ob1iously facilitate the 'or) at hand& (ou then protect her by emphasiEing that she 'ill share only certain things she can share 'ith strangers& $9 There is another indirect association to puberty9 'omanhood opening up li)e a flo'er& Awakenin.$9 Bhen a girl begins to de1elop breasts or pubic hair% she goes through such feeling9 It is me but it isn>t& R9 So 'ithout her being a'are of it% you>re guiding her into a ree3periencing of puberty feelings& &i2e $istortion in Life Re+iew and ti2e is so lon-6 30a*se4 no 2atter how short the watch says ti2e is6 it is really lon-. 30a*se4 (o* ha+e seen 2o+ies of flowers openinand in the sa2e way yo* look at that little -irl -rowin. 30a*se4 And since yo* are -oin.that Reinforces Inner Work.*p fro2 a little b*d till f*ll1bloo2 rose. Hi.to share. Hi6 L.< E.at her6 yo* will awaken and tell *s only those thin-s that yo* are willin.

to co*nt to three and then awaken feelin. She had awakened herself by sayin.a'a)e & She 'ill thus do the inner 'or) so she can 'a)e up& Bhen she finally does actually a'a)en% that tends to reinforce the fact that inner 'or) has been done& $9 (es% it>s her admission that the inner 'or) has been done& 0'a)ening her in this manner compels her to do it% but I ha1en>t 1erbally said% GNo' you do thatLG She does not recogniEe that I ha1e compelled her& &rance &er2ination and A2nesia .2ood abo*t the whole proced*re. $9 This cheery GHiG on a'a)ening is because GHiG belongs to the 'orld of consciousness& I>m thereby telling her to be 'ide a'a)e and forget all about that unconscious acti1ity& R9 "y so dismissing it you>re effecting an amnesia e3cept for those things you said she could share& $9 (es% I>m causing an amnesia by implying Gthat>s all o1er and done 'ith& No' let>s go on to something else&G &HE IM0LIE$ $IRE &I'E The Gimplied directi1eG is a label 'e are proposing for a fairly common type of indirect suggestion that is in current use in clinical hypnosis 2Chee) and #eCron% +.all the attention6 and she 8*st felt like awakenin.refreshed and alert6= and she did e9actly that. She is 2*ch too polite to co2plain to Erickson6 b*t she is in a A*ietly do*btf*l and A*estionin.?5& The implied directi1e usually has three parts9 2+5 a time@binding introduction% 2=5 the implied 2or assumed5 suggestion% and 2A5 a beha1ioral response to signal 'hen the implied suggestion has been accomplished& Be may thus analyEe an implied directi1e from this session as follo's9 As soon as yo* know 2+5 0 time binding introduction that focuses the patient on the suggestion to follo' only yo* or I6 or only yo* and 2y +oice are here 2=5 The implied 2or assumed5 suggestion yo*r ri-ht hand will descend to yo*r thi-h. After abo*t ?E 2in*tes of this cas*al reco*ntin-6 S6 who had been in a trance of her own6 spontaneo*sly awakens herself.As L awakens6 Erickson -reets her with a cheery =Hi= and then enco*ra-es her to reco*nt so2e of her early e9periences that she reco+ered while in the trance state.. 2A5 The beha1ioral response signaling that the suggestion has been accomplished& 0n implied directi1e fre4uently used by Rossi to end a hypnotherapeutic session is as follo's9 As soon as yo*r *nconscio*s knows 2+5 0 time@binding introduction that facilitates dissociation and reliance on the unconscious& it can a-ain ret*rn to this state co2fortably and easily to do constr*cti+e work the ne9t ti2e we are to-ether6 .silently to herself6 =I a2 -oin.to 8oin *s. #n A*estionin-6 it is learned that S felt a little bit bored6 perhaps a bit resentf*l that L had been -ettin.

ect>s a1ailable mental resources 2e&g&% stored memories% sensory and 1erbal associational patterns% 1arious forms of pre1ious learning% etc&5 are marshalled to'ard a creati1e state of learning and problem sol1ing& Since recent e3periments in the neurophysiology of learning suggest that ne' proteins are actually synthesiEed in the appropriate brain cells during learning 2Rossi% +. =& Consciousness is gi1en a signal enabling it to recogniEe 'hen any beha1ior changes are being made in the desired direction of response& In biofeedbac) this is accomplished by an electronic transducer that measures the response 2blood pressure% body temperature% alpha 'a1es% or muscle tension in the abo1e e3amples5 and ma)es any change in this response e1ident on a meter that allo's the sub.feelin. War2 yo*r ri-ht hand and cool yo*r left. $ecrease the 2*scle tension in yo*r forehead. Increase the alpha of yo*r ri-ht corte9.-Aa5% 'e may speculate that the implied directi1e facilitates the internal synthesis of ne' protein structures that could function as the biological basis of ne' beha1ior and phenomenological e3perience in the patient& The implied directi1e is particularly interesting because of its similarity to the techni4ue of biofeedbac)& In most forms of biofeedbac) an electronic de1ice is used to signal 'hen an internal response has been accomplished& Bith the implied directi1e the patient>s o'n o1ert and autonomous beha1ioral response is used to signal 'hen the internal response has been accomplished& The formal similarities bet'een them may be listed as follo's9 +& Consciousness is gi1en a tas) it does not )no' ho' to accomplish by itself& Raise 3or lower4 yo*r blood press*re ?E points.ect% fre4uently 'ithout conscious a'areness and usually not remembered after trance& Therapist and patient only )no' it is completed 'hen the re4uested automatic response 2e&g&% finger signaling% head nodding% a'a)ening from trance5 ta)es place% signaling the end of the internal state of learning& The implied directi1e is thus a 'ay of facilitating an intense state of internal learning or problem sol1ing& Be may suppose that all of a sub.2=5 The implied suggestion for easy reentry to trance phrased in a therapeutically moti1ating manner& yo* will find yo*rself awakenin.ects to monitor their o'n beha1ior& In the implied directi1e% by contrast% the patient>s o'n unconscious system ser1es as the transducer indicating 'hen the desired internal response 2blood pressure change% body temperature% etc&5 has been made and translates it into an o1ert beha1ior signal that consciousness can recogniEe& The ad1antages of the implied directi1e o1er biofeedbac) are ob1ious& The latter is a fairly cumbersome techni4ue that re4uires sophisticated and e3pensi1e electronic e4uipment& It is limited to those responses that can actually be measured& "y contrast% the implied directi1e re4uires no e4uipment and is limited only by the ingenuity and imagination of both therapist and patient& 0lthough no comparati1e studies ha1e been made as yet% one might e3pect that the electronic e4uipment of biofeedbac) might ensure a greater reliability of .refreshed and alert 2A5 The beha1ioral response signaling that the abo1e suggestion has been accomplished& Bhen the beha1ioral response signaling the accomplishment is an ine1itable response that the patient 'ants to happen 2as in the abo1e e3amples5% 'e ha1e a situation 'here the beha1ioral response also has moti1ating properties for the accomplishment of the suggestion& The beha1ioral response signaling the accomplishment of the suggestion ta)es place on an in1oluntary or unconscious le1el& Thus the unconscious that carries out the suggestion also signals 'hen it is accomplished& The implied directi1e engenders a co1ert state of internal learning& It is co1ert because no one can tell it is occurring since it is a series of responses ta)ing place entirely 'ithin the sub.

%%ES& A"$ REI"F#R E One of the most surprising aspects of approach is his use of 4uestions to focus attention% to suggest indirectly% and to reinforce all at the same time& Huestions seem so innocent in e1eryday life& Bhen other people 4uestion us% it is fre4uently from their o'n need% and the 4uestion implies that 'e )no' something and are 4uite fine to be helping them& Huestions as)ing for help% directions% ad1ice% and so on are all of this category and are most useful for focusing attention& 0nother useful category of 4uestions concerns abilities9 Can 'e do such and suchI This ability 4uestion fre4uently has strongly moti1ating properties from many years of effort in childhood% adolescence% and young adulthood to meet a de1elopmental challenge successfully9 GI>ll try% and I bet I canLG These ability 4uestions are therefore useful in moti1ating patients pro1ided they are not o1er'helming in their demand& Be must ta)e care because 4uestions can also be piercing and destructi1e% as 'hen they are e3perienced as the merciless stings of an e3amination situation or in4uisition& Recent research 2Sternberg% +.S6 S.ects to try to open their eyes or unclasp their hands 'hen they had been gi1en suggestions that they could not do so& If the sub.ect and therapist that a desired response is indeed ta)ing place& The therapist can no' learn to de1ise implied directi1es as indicators of any stage in the de1elopment and accomplishment of suggestions re4uiring internal responses 2memories% feelings% sensations% etc&5 not other'ise open to the therapist>s obser1ation& 7.-<J She1rin% +.ects 'ere not able to open their eyes% then they passed the challenge and the 1alidity of trance 'as established& The implied directi1e accomplishes the same purposes in a much more constructi1e and permissi1e manner& It lea1es the locus of control 'ithin the patient% 'here it belongs% rather than fostering the illusion of the therapist>s control& It is thus a 1aluable indicator for both sub.ecti1ely repeatable mannerI =& /e1ise implied directi1es that 'ill facilitate the e3perience of all the ma.or hypnotic phenomenon& A& /e1ise implied directi1es that 'ill facilitate the internal learning of therapeutically useful goals 2e&g&% freeing the unconscious from the limitations of a particular patient>s ego programming to find a ne' solution for a problem5& 6& Since the implied directi1e includes an in1oluntary signal that a suggestion has been accomplished% it can be used in place of GchallengesG to test the effecti1eness of trance 'or)& In the older% classical approaches to trance training the operators GtestedG and Gpro1edG the depth and 1alidity of trance and the strength of their suggestions by GchallengingG sub.control than is possible 'ith the implied directi1e& For this% indeed% is the ma.-<5 indicates that 'hen 4uestioned% the human brain continues an e3hausti1e search throughout its entire memory system on an unconscious le1el e1en after it has found an ans'er that is satisfactory on a conscious le1el& .or problem in utiliEing any method of hypnosis9 the relati1e reliability of response bet'een different indi1iduals and 'ithin the same indi1idual on different occasions& It may 'ell be that this reliability problem can be dealt 'ith in part by utiliEing this analogy 'ith biofeedbac)& The reliability of biofeedbac) is due to the reliability of the signaling system pro1ided by the electronic instrumentation& Hypnotic procedures can be made more reliable by ha1ing patients remember and report e3periential and beha1ioral changes that initiate or accompany the desired hypnotic response& These changes may then function as signals to reinstate the hypnotic response on another occasion& In this case hypnosis and biofeedbac) share another common aim9 to establish a connection bet'een a conscious thought or beha1ior and a pre1iously non1oluntary response& E9ercises with the I2plied $irecti+e +& The implied directi1e has e1ol1ed in clinical practice% but there is no research data that has e3perimentally 1alidated its usefulness& Can the reader de1ise implied directi1es that can be 1alidated e3perimentally in a controlled and ob.ES&I#"S &HA& F# .

oy not )no'ing 'here he is&G The use of the negati1e 6not )no'ingG is a further source of con-usion that is fre4uently too difficult to figure out% so the patient goes along& G/o you en1o$6 indirectly suggests pleasure and is thus reinforcing& It is e1ident from these analyses that 'e are only beginning to ma)e a beginning in our understanding of language in general and 4uestions in particular& The hypnotherapist 'ould .ust go along 'ith it and Gen.oyI (ou do not )no' 'here you areI It is so difficult to ans'er such a double 4uestion that the patient 'ould fre4uently rather .6+5& This acti1ation of unconscious resources is the 1ery essence of the indirect approach% 'herein 'e see) to acti1ate and utiliEe a patient>s unrecogniEed potentials to e1o)e hypnotic phenomena and therapeutic responses& 0s usual demonstrates and indirect approach e1en in his use of 4uestions% 'hich typically structure the patient>s internal associations by implication& Huestions are fre4uently implied directi1es& They are often used to depotentiate conscious sets so the patient 'ill be more open to ne' response possibilities& #et us analyEe a fe' e3amples of $ric)son>s 4uestions& It 'ill be found that it is almost impossible to neatly classify these 4uestions because e1en the simplest are 1ery comple3 in their implications and effects& Which hand is li-hter: Focuses attention on hands& .A?J +.ndirectl$ suggests one 'ill be lighter and may le1itate& (ein-orces lightness and possible le1itation as an ade4uate response& It is an im%lied directive insofar as it re4uires a hypnotic response to be ans'ered ade4uately& .llusor$ choice and double bind are also operati1e because one is being bound into ma)ing a hypnotic response 'hiche1er hand feels lightest& This 4uestion indirectly de%otentiates consciousness because it is no unusual that the GnormalG and habitual frame'or)s of ego consciousness cannot cope 'ith it% so the patient must 'ait for an unconscious or autonomous response& Why did Iohn 8*st lea+e: This 4uestion in the conte3t of this session 'here 8rs& # 'as hallucinating Cohn ser1es primarily as an indirect suggestion to cease hallucinating& It 'or)s by im%lication and re-ocuses attention& $o yo* want $r.where yo* are: This is an indirect.The mind apparently scans A7 items per second e1en 'hen the person is una'are that the search is continuing to ta)e place& The results of such searches on an unconscious le1el are e1ident from many familiar e3periences of e1eryday life& Ho' often do 'e forget a name or an item only to ha1e it pop up all by itself only a fe' moments later% after our conscious mind has gone onto something elseI Ho' often are 'e consciously satisfied 'ith a solution only to ha1e fresh doubts and perhaps a better ans'er come up autonomously a short 'hile laterI The fact that such unconscious search and cognition are carried out in response to 4uestions e1en after the conscious mind is apparently satisfied and other'ise occupied is a 1erification of $ric)son>s early research supporting the then contro1ersial 1ie' that the mind could be simultaneously acti1e on t'o entirely separate and independent tas)s: one on a conscious le1el and another on an unconscious le1el 2$ric)son% +. Rossi to look at yo*: In the conte3t of this session 'here 8rs& # is hallucinating herself as na)ed from the 'aist up% this 4uestion strongly rati-ies the hallucinatory e3perience 'ith an im%lied directive that she sho' some response to being na)ed in front of a relati1e stranger 2she co1ered her breasts 'ith her arms5& $o yo* en8oy 3pa*se4 not knowin. com%ound suggestion that gains its potency from many sources& It is compound because it as)s t'o 4uestions at the same time9 /o you en.

-J BatEla'ic) Bea)land% and Fisch% +.A5 and the process Gheteroacti1e hyper@suggestibilityG 2Hull% +. And yo* don5t know how 2*ch of that n*2bness yo* wo*ld like to 2aintain after yo* awaken6 do yo*: $ach of these 4uestions e1o)es associati1e responses to different aspects of trance e3perience 'ithin the patient& The effect of the first three is to reintegrate pre1ious trance e3periences as 'ell as heightening patients moti1ation for their current e3perience& Huestions 6 and < help patients assess their current status and help ma)e the transition from a'a)edness to trance& Huestions . How soon will yo*r trance deepen: K.complete this transition and set up a signaling system so that patients can let the therapist )no' 'hen a trance of sufficient depth has been achie1ed& Huestions ?% ..will it take yo* to -o into that trance: B. What kind of trance wo*ld yo* like to e9perience: @. (o* will let 2e know when it is deep eno*-h6 will yo* not: L.A?J BatEla'ic)% "ea1in% and Cac)son% +. How will yo* know yo* are be-innin. and .-65& E9ercises with 7*estions for Analysis +& erform a similar analysis on the follo'ing 4uestions as 'ell as all others you find interesting in the inductions of this 1olume& Wo*ld yo* like to enter trance now or later: Where does yo*r body e9perience its -reatest co2fort: an yo* say6 =so2ethin-:= 2Note the use of this 4uestion as a test of literalism&5 $o yo* really *nderstand: 2The 1ocal emphasis is on Greally&G5 an yo* en8oy rela9in.ects to reach into their o'n associati1e matri3 to unco1er useful responses that 2A5 can be structured into ne' beha1ior patterns& $ric)son fre4uently induces trance and carries out an entire hypnotherapeutic session 'ith a series of 4uestions& ?. What wo*ld yo* now like to e9perience in this trance as it contin*es to deepen: #r wo*ld yo* like it as a s*rprise: Sooner or later: M. How 2*ch of a trance do yo* feel yo* are in already: G. &I#" One of the most useful forms of suggestion is the 4uestion that 2+5 fi3es and focuses attention 'hile 2=5 helping sub..AA5 'hereby .to e9perience trance: C.% and +7 are all 1ariations that can be used to e3plore the e1ocation of 1irtually any hypnotic phenomena or posthypnotic response& Huestions are thus a fail@safe approach to trance e3perience& The 4uestion% more than any other hypnotic form% appears automatically to e1o)e partial aspects of the phenomena in 4uestion so that they may be e3presses as a possible hypnotic response& &HE FRA%ME"&AR( $E'EL#0ME"& #F &RA" E Be feel it is better to induce a trance by fragments than by demanding the 'hole all at once& The 4uestioning approach allo's patients to e3perience trance by degrees& It also allo's the therapist to continually monitor the process and )no' 'here the patient is all the time& It is similar but not identical 'ith Vogt>s fractionation techni4ue 2BeitEenhoffer% +.4: ?E.to re2e2ber: an yo*r *nconscio*s deal with that proble2: $o yo* feel co2fortable not knowin. Will yo* let yo*r hand 3fin-er6 head4 2o+e when it feels war2 3cold6 n*2b6 etc. "ow do yo* really think yo* are still f*lly awake: F.do 'ell to ma)e as thorough as possible a study of that branch of semiotics )no'n as pragmatics% the relation bet'een signs and the users of signs 28orris% +.<-J Droger% +.ES&I#"S F#R I"$IRE & &RA" E I"$. How lon.who I a2: 7.and not ha+in.

ects tas)s in introspection and imagination and then as) for their sub.ect>s attention and associati1e processes in such a manner that an e3perience of each of the classical hypnotic phenomena 'ill be facilitated& A& Formulate a series of 4uestions that 'ill focus a patient>s memories and associations in a manner that 'ill facilitate a therapeutic response& 6& The 4uestion approach to trance induction is 1ery similar to the introspecti1e approaches that are utiliEed in many di1erse schools of psychotherapy& The acti1e imagination of C& G& Cung 2Cung% +.-=5 are the sub.SI#"6 ME"&AL FL.<5% and the dialogues of the gestalt approach 2 erles% +..ects as)ed to perform a tas) in introspection under'ent beha1ioral and sub.ecti1e e3periences that 'ere similar to those they had 'hen they 'ent through a classical hypnotic induction& It 'ould be instructi1e to the beginner in hypnosis to gi1e sub..tilizin./6 A"$ REA&I'I&( R9 (ou )eep patients constantly in flu3% slightly off balance% so they 'ill continually grasp onto 'hate1er orientation you pro1ideI $9 (es& R9 That is one of the creati1e states 'ithin hypnosisJ that state of constant flu3 'herein the patient grasps the orientations you pro1ide& $9 That>s right& .-=5% the meditation methods of 0ssagioli>s psychosynthesis 20ssagioli% +.-75& $E0#&E"&IA&I"% #"S I#.7*estions as S*--estions +& Brite out a complete induction using only 4uestion for the follo'ing approaches to trance9 a2 Hand le1itation b2 $ye fi3ation c2 Rela3ation d2 0ny other fa1orite approach such as 1isualiEation% etc& =& Formulate series of 4uestions that 'ill focus a sub.5 all focus the indi1idual>s attention on inner realities& Thus% they are trance inducing% e1en though their originators usually do not recogniEe it& Such methods may be considered indirect approaches to trance e1en though they are not labeled as hypnosis& The essential identity bet'een periods of introspection and trance 'as demonstrated by $ric)son in his early research 'ith Clar) #& Hull 2$ric)son% +.ecti1e comparisons of these inner e3periences 'ith those of a classical hypnotic induction& Bhat similarities are noted in their outer beha1iorI The relation bet'een such introspection@imagination approaches to trance and imagination 2Sheehan% +..S ME"&AL SE&S.AJ Rossi% +.ect of much current research 2Hilgard% +.. #"F.follo'ing one suggestion tends to increase the probability of follo'ing another& R9 Bhy is it better to induce a trance by fragmentsI $9 (ou induce a small fragment of the trance and then another& Then you can connect those t'o& R9 /ifferent fragments of trance are de1eloped by 4uestions that function as 'a)ing suggestionsI $ach 'a)ing suggestion that is accepted adds another fragment of tranceI $9 (es% and then you relate them together& First you de1elop a catalepsy of the arm& Then you add9 G0nd the numbness% do you notice thatI G0nd you can>t mo1e your eyes from your handI G0ll you can see is your handI G0nd all unimportant sounds ha1e dropped outIG R9 These 4uestions successi1ely build the trance by adding a possible e3perience of analgesia or anesthesia% immobility of the eyes and head and a negati1e 1isual and auditory hallucination for unimportant bac)ground details& E9ercises ..65% 'hen he found that groups of sub.

R9 This is in contrast to the situation 'here you allo' patients to remain 4uiet by themsel1es in a trance 2$ric)son% +. .or tool for brea)ing rigid mental sets and initiating a creati1e process& 0n entirely spontaneous e3ample of this process occurred in the commentary of this session% 'here Rossi admits to feeling G'ooEyG trying to brea) through his o'n mental limitations to understand 'hat $ric)son 'as trying to teach& This feeling actually occurred many times& The brea)ing of Rossi>s habitual frames of reference together 'ith the comple3ity 'hich 'hich $ric)son e3presses himself 'as sometimes enough to induce a hypnotic atmosphere& The comple3ity of $ric)son>s thought% it should be noted% 'as not due to its abstract nature% but to his habitual use of indirection% 4uestions% and implications that continually turn o1er a listener>s associati1e processes in 'ays that are e3perienced as unusual and perhaps not self@directed 2and therefore hypnotic5& 8any of the 1erbal forms that $ric)son uses to initiate confusion to brea) through a patient>s erroneous conscious sets are already familiar to us9 the use of pro1ocati1e 4uestions% implications% double binds% the surprise% not doing and not )no'ing& 0t the simplest le1el $ric)son softly and insistently reiterates all the things a patient does not need to do or )no'& He is actually telling the patient>s consciousness that it can relin4uish its usual control and direction and permit unconscious and autonomous processes to ta)e o1er& The 'hole process of trance induction is designed to rela3 these habitual sets of consciousness& The trance deepens% and patients are able to brea) out of the learned limitations of their usual mode of consciousness to the degree that they gi1e up 'hat they )no'& "ot !nowin-6 "ot $oin(o* don5t need to listen6 yo*r *nconscio*s can respond on its own.<<5 to 'or) out their o'n solution to a problem in their o'n 'ay& $9 Bhen a person goes into a trance% you bounce him around and )eep him 'hirling and then you tell him to 'or) 4uietly on that problem& (ou ha1e first detached him from his conscious mental sets& (ou ha1e bro)en the connections that might ha1e been stopping him from 'or)ing on his problem& That is a 1ery important thing& R9 (ou brea) their habitual mental sets and the conscious biases that pre1ented them from sol1ing a problem and then orient them to'ard creati1e inner 'or)& $9 eople al'ays ha1e that tendency to put off 'or)ing on a problem to tomorro'& "ut you ma)e tomorro' today by brea)ing those conscious sets and )eeping them in a state of flu3& R9 That is part and parcel of the confusion and the surprise techni4ues as 'ell& 0ll these approaches depotentiate the limitations of conscious sets& In this con1ersation $ric)son clearly e3presses a ma.or aspect of his 'or) in facilitating problem sol1ing and creati1ity& $arlier in the third session 'e sa' that a flo' diagram of trance induction 'ent as follo's9 /I88ING OF O!T$R R$0#IT( CONF!SION R$C$ TIVIT( TO C#0RIF(ING S!GG$STIONS TR0NC$ BORD RO $R In this section $ric)son elaborates further on the significance of confusion& Confusion 2Gyou bounce him around and )eep him 'hirlingG5 is used to detach people from their Gconscious mental sets&G (ou ha1e bro)en the connections that might ha1e been stopping them from 'or)ing on their problem& 0 patient is a patient because of erroneous mental sets and limited frames of reference& $ric)son continually see)s to brea) through these rigid limitations to initiate a state of mental flu3 that may release the patient>s creati1e potential& Thus% confusion becomes a ma.

5& The use of the negati1e% therefore% tends to depotentiate .ect>s need for a negati1e to balance the positi1e Gyou 'illG that comes . different shades of meaning from Gabsolute noG to agreeable ac4uiescence& 0 fe' e3amples are as follo's& Won5t yo*: Bhen e3pressed 'ith a doubting tone of 1oice% this has a negati1e meaning:G(ou 'on>t&G It is used only 'hen you don>t 'ant a sub.or whate+er<. I wo*ld like yo* to learn that no 2atter what any person belie+es6 yo*r belief6 yo*r *nconscio*s belief6 yo*r *nconscio*s knowled-e6 is all that co*nts. (o* can lose the ability to lift yo*r ri-ht hand fro2 yo*r thi-h. (o* don5t know when yo* are -oin.. different 'ays to e3press +.ust before itJ this sentence is thus e3ample of his apposition of opposites& Research has indicated that it is much more difficult to comprehend negati1e formulations 2/onaldson% +.or whate+er< are.&o a restless patient< (o* don5t know e9actly when yo* will feel a need to 2o+e a-ain.ect to do something& (o* will6 will yo* not: This is a use of a negati1e 'ord9 GnotIG is turned into a positi1e by being enunciated 'ith a 4uestioning inflection& $ric)son feels this phrase meets a sub. In the co*rse of li+in. And will it be s*rprisinwhen yo* find yo* cannot stand *p: &he "e-ati+e $ric)son has studied the use of the negati1e in great detail& He admired an actor 'ho could say GnoG in +.(o* don5t need to know .whate+er< for when the occasion arises6 yo*r *nconscio*s will s*pply that knowled-e.<. . (o* don5t need to know where yo*r hands .to chan-e yo*r rate of breathin.fro2 infancy on6 yo* acA*ired knowled-e6 b*t yo* co*ld not keep all that knowled-e in the fore-ro*nd of yo*r 2ind.Abilities $ric)son li)es to phrase suggestions in the form of #osing 0bilities because it is easy to e3perience% it is compatible 'ith the basic nature of trance% and it is a rather impressi1e demonstration of trance as an altered state& #osing abilities tends to depotentiate one>s usual e1eryday reality orientation and thus ma)e one more recepti1e to altered modes of e3periencing& It will be interestin. Note from the induction section ho' these last t'o suggestions lead up to $ric)son>s suggestion for forgetting& Closely related to not doing and not )no'ing are the related hypnotic forms of #osing 0bilities% The Negati1e% /oubt% Contradictions% and The 0pposition of Opposites& Be 'ill no' ta)e up each of these in turn& Losin.to e9perience that 2o2ent when yo* can no lon-er hold yo*r eyelids open.

consciousness& In trance% 'hen one 'ould rather Gnot doG it is easier .-<5 belie1es the effecti1eness of such formulations is due to their containing an implied suggestion to do the e3act opposite of 'hat is purportedly suggested& $o*bt The use of doubt is a subtle process that $ric)son fre4uently con1eys 'ith a doubting tone of 1oice on )ey 'ords 2placed in italics in the e3amples belo'5& $ric)son usually capitaliEes on the minimal and perhaps unrecogniEed doubt already e3perienced by a patient& His statement about this doubt is thus as much a truism as a suggestion& Bhate1er the doubt% it does place the person in a less stable position and thus propels one into a search for more structure and certainty& $ric)son% of course% then pro1ides therapeutic suggestions that 'ill help restructure the patient in a satisfactory manner& $o yo* really *nderstand: means% Gdistrust your conscious understandingG& And yo* will really *nderstand means the same as% G(ou don>t really understandG& $o yo* think yo* are wide awake: implies% G(ou are not a'a)e&G (o* are A*ite certain of yo*rself now6 are yo*: implies% G(ou are not&G ontradictions Re1ealing contradictions 'ithin patients> minds demonstrates the inade4uacy of their usual beliefs and prepares the 'ay for a positi1e attitude to'ard an e3perience 'ith therapeutic trance& $ric)son ma)es something of a game of this as he helps a patient to realiEe contradictions bet'een thought and feeling and% of course% bet'een the conscious and unconscious& He fre4uently uses ideomotor mo1ements as a proof of these .ust try and do not go into trance&G The sub.ust to go along 'ith a suggestion than try to figure out all its implications& $ric)son also belie1es that the use of the negati1e is another 'ay of maintaining psychological balance and compensation as 'e 'ill discuss later in the a%%osition oo%%osites2 The use of the negati1e also enables the therapist to proffer a negati1e onto 'hich a patient>s resistance may be discharged and displaced& The use of negati1es may thus be regarded as another approach to dealing 'ith the GresistantG patient& The use of negation 'ith such patients actually utiliEes their o'n negati1ity in a manner that can discharge its destructi1e aspects and redirect it into constructi1e channels& &he "e-ati+e for Re+erse S*--estion 0nother basic use of the negati1e is for indirect or re1erse suggestion& On one occasion a patient insisted that he 'ould not a'a)en& $ric)son accepted that% 'hile admitting it 'ould be incon1enient since he had other patients to see that day& Then 'ith utter sincerity $ric)son mentioned that he hoped the patient 'ould not ha1e to go to the bathroom% since that 'ould a'a)en him& Of course% the patient soon found that he did ha1e an ine3plicable need to use the bathroom and thus had to a'a)en& 0nother re1erse suggestion might ha1e been% GFine% you can try to stay in trance and do not a'a)en&G The 'ord Gtry%G said 'ith a subtly doubting tone together 'ith the implied effort it 'ill re4uire not to a'a)en% has the net effect of actually a'a)ening the sub.ect& In the re1erse situation% 'hen 'e 'ant to enhance the possibility of trance% 'e might say% GTry to stay a'a)e% .ect usually resists trance heroically for a fe' minutes till he is e3hausted from the implied effort and falls by default into trance& These effects of negati1e suggestion 'ere early described by "audouin 2+.<-5 has described this la' of re1erse effortG as a pseudo@la'& There is actually no clinical or e3perimental data that indicates there is an intrinsic and necessary relation bet'een Gtrying to resistG and a Gcompulsion to carry it out&G BeitEenhoffer 2+.=75 as the la' of re1erse effort9 the more one tries to resist a suggestion% the stronger he feels compelled to carry it out& BeitEenhoffer 2+.

ect out of e4uilibrium so there 'ill de1elop 'ithin the sub. This .-65 has discussed ho' the Gbalance bet'een opponent systemsG is a basic neurological mechanism that is built in the 1ery structure of the ner1ous system& Bhat 'e are labeling as the Gapposition of oppositesG may be a means of utiliEing this fundamental neurological process to facilitate hypnotic responsi1eness& In this case $ric)son 'as apparently balancing the opponent systems of remembering and forgetting 'ithout the patient ma)ing a conscious effort to do either& 0nother apparent balancing of these opposites that is actually a double bind is as follo's9 (o* can for-et to re2e2ber or re2e2ber to for-et. As yo* 2ake that ti-ht fist6 the lower part of yo*r body can rela9.a*to2atically. .u3taposition of lifting and lightness 'ith hea1yness utiliEes the balance bet'een opponent systems in another 'ay& If 'e emphasiEe lightness and le1itation% then 'e are shifting the sub. As yo*r hand beco2es war2er6 yo*r forehead can beco2e cooler.ect a countertendency to balance and oppose the lightness 'ith hea1iness& This natural countertendency could e1entually defeat the le1itation suggestions& If 'e utiliEe this natural countertendency to hea1yness by suggesting another response 'here it can be useful 2eyelids hea1y5% ho'e1er% 'e are actually utiliEing the balance bet'een opponent processes in a 'ay that 'ill facilitate t'o hypnotic suggestions& It is a 'ay of offering multiple tas)s that can reinforce each other& Other e3amples of the planned use of such apposition is as follo's& (o* can re2ain co2fortable i22obile *ntil the *r-e to 2o+e takes yo*r hand across the pa-e writin. (o* 2ay either see an *ne9pected i2a-e in the crystal ball or not see the ball at all.u3taposition% or apposition% of opposites& This seems to be a basic element in his confusion techni4ues% but it also may be a means of utiliEing another natural mental mechanism to facilitate hypnotic responsi1eness& In the second Session $ric)son illustrated the careful balancing% or apposition% of the opposite processes of remembering and forgetting& Dinsbourne 2+.feelin-6 tho*-hts6 or whate+er the patient has do*bts abo*t<6 yo*r hand will lift.contradictions& Thus% 'hen a patient protests that an important memory is not a1ailable% $ric)son may establish a con1incing contradiction% as follo's9 If yo*r *nconscio*s thinks yo* ha+e a better 2e2ory . Other modalities for the apposition of opposites are in lightness and hea1iness% 'armth and coolness% rela3ation and tension% etc& As yo*r hand lifts6 yo*r eyelids will feel hea+y. $ric)son can thus fre4uently utiliEe the obsessi1e% ambi1alent% and doubting aspects of a patient>s ideation in a creati1e manner& The obsessi1e@compulsi1e personality can be understood as one laden 'ith contradictions bet'een the conscious and unconscious& These contradictions can be e3plored to establish rapport and cooperation bet'een the 1arious tendencies 'ithin the personality& Apposition of #pposites 0nother of $ric)son>s indirect forms of hypnotic suggestion is his penchant for the close . Bhen the hand does lift autonomously% it tends to con1ince the patient that 'ith further hypnotic 'or) the memory may soon become a1ailable& Bhen a patient doubts 'hether trance has been e3perienced% $ric)son 'ill use ideomotor mo1ements to establish it& (o*r conscio*s 2ind 2ay do*bt6 b*t if yo*r *nconscio*s knows yo* ha+e e9perienced trance6 it will let yo*r head nod slowly in the affir2ati+e.

E9ercises with the Apposition of #pposites +& Formulate suggestions utiliEing the apposition of opposites 'armth and coolness% tension and rela3ation% anesthesia and hypersensiti1ity to touch& 0n interesting use of the latter for a refractory case of dental anesthesia is described by $ric)son 2+.<?5& 0fter a number of unsuccessful efforts by others $ric)son 'as able to facilitate an effecti1e oral anesthesia for dental 'or) by first suggesting that the patient>s left hand 'ould become hypersensiti1e to all stimuli and needed to be carefully protected at all times& This 'as in )eeping 'ith the patient>s fi3ed belief that dental 'or) 'as al'ays associated 'ith hypersensiti1ity& $ric)son simply displaced that hypersensiti1ity from the mouth to the hand& $ric)son comments% GBhen this rigid understanding 'as met% dental anesthesia could be achie1ed% in a fashion analogous to the rela3ation of one muscle permitting the contraction of another&G =& ConceptualiEe other opponent processes in the sensory% perceptual% and cogniti1e realms that can be used to facilitate hypnotic responsi1eness& A& Formulate apposition of opposites that could be utiliEed to facilitate all the classical hypnotic phenomena& .


Hypnotic LearninThe relations bet'een the conscious and unconscious and $ric)son>s means of dealing 'ith them are e3plored in this session& It is apparent that $ric)son% li)e most pioneers in depth psychology% really belie1es in the 1alue of the unconscious as a useful concept in his daily 'or) 'ith people& He carefully points out ho' the conscious and unconscious each ha1e their o'n interests and ho' successful hypnotic 'or) fre4uently depends upon appealing to both& 0s usual% he has an indirect approach for dealing 'ith this problem& $ric)son belie1es that analogies are a means of simultaneously appealing to the conscious and unconscious& 0s such% analogies are a basic tool for facilitating hypnotic learning& "ecause of this% $ric)son employs a rich repertory of analogies dra'n from e1eryday life& It 'ill be seen that many of these analogies are about the perceptions and e3periences of childhoodJ the child>s 'ays of functioning are closer to unconscious% 'hich $ric)son is trying to facilitate in trance 'or)& He li)es to use e3amples from his o'n e3perience because he )no's them best% and his sense of con1iction helps mobiliEe similar e3periences 'ithin the patient& His analogies al'ays fi3ate 2or bore5 the attention of consciousness 'hile simultaneously instructing the unconscious& The conscious mind does not )no' ho' to do certain things& That is 'hy the person is in therapy& The indi1idual>s unconscious does ha1e the resources for doing 'hat is necessary& 0nalogies are fre4uently an effecti1e approach for mobiliEing these unconscious resources& E9pectancy and %i+in. .so interested in conscio*s acti+ity. I still wasn5t clear yesterday why yo* didn5t follow thro*-h when yo* p*t 2e in a trance.SI/ Facilitatin.nconscio*s E. (o* said yo* wanted 2e to e9perience it or so2ethin-: I *nderstand that a hypnotherapist sho*ld e9perience a trance6 b*t I wasn5t A*ite clear in 2y 2ind what yo* were doin-6 b*t 2aybe it isn5t i2portant for 2e to know.nconscio*s.on the . S. $o yo* ha+e any A*estions: S. It wasn5t clear. I wanted yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind to ha+e the liberty of doin.the onscio*s and .on here. Relyin.so2ethin. I had a co*ple of A*estions6 b*t I can ask the2 later. S. E. Ask the2 now.while yo*r conscio*s 2ind was filled with other thin-s. $9 (ou ne1er completely satisfy your audience& (ou lea1e them 'ishing for more& That>s 'hat is happening here& She is as)ing% GBhy didn>t you do more 'ith meIG That impresses upon them that they really do 'ant more& R9 (ou ha1e induced a situation 'herein she is as)ing you for more and may thus brea) through some of her limitating preconceptions& The fact that she finally admits that Gmaybe it isn>t important for me to )no'G suggests she may be gi1ing up some of her reliance on consciousness& Separatin. (es6 what was -oin.*p 0reconceptions E. and yo* wo*ldn5t know yo*r *nconscio*s was acti+e beca*se yo* are bein.

nconscio*s Learnin(o*r *nconscio*s learned a lot yesterday. &hat5s all.4 "ow -o all the way. I think that can only be done by a -ood s*b8ect. 30a*se.4 $9 In fol) language% G(ou ha1e to hang together&G Bhen your hands touch each other% they tend to hang together& "ut you 'ant an openness to stimuli:not something that is hanging together and e3cluding& .< E.S -ets ready to enter trance6 b*t her hands are neatly folded to-ether in her lap. S. #ne of the thin-s that I fo*nd +ery i2portant is6 don5t let the hands re2ain in contact with each other. I*st how the contact of the hands interferes6 I don5t know. E. (es. A -ood s*b8ect or a sophisticated one: What other A*estions ha+e yo*: S.4 All s*b8ects6 whate+er their de-ree of sophistication6 are *ncertain that they can do e+erythin-6 and yet in their personal history they can.I was c*rio*s abo*t what I did with L.in a different place: E.her rela9ed and concentrated on bein. 30a*se. . 30a*se.4 It also learned that we co*ld learn a lot witho*t intr*din. $9 I>m ma)ing it apparent here that there are t'o sets of interests% and the unconscious is going to ha1e its interests& R9 (ou>re carefully pointing out the separation of conscious and unconscious interests& $9 (ou can>t ma)e that too ob1ious or too plain& (ou ha1e to rely on the unconscious& Hand ontact in &rance . o*ldn5t that be considered a kind of hypnosis ha+in. 30a*se.*pon the personality.

I was *nable to find it.30a*se4 I ha+e h*nted for a book in a bookcase *nder the i2pression6 within the fra2e of reference6 that it was bo*nd in red. onscio*s Fra2es of Reference &hat has happened to 2e 2any ti2es.ust says% G(ou don>t ha1e to 'orry because you failed&G R9 That is ho' the unconscious protects the conscious mindI $9 The unconscious mind% 'ith all due respect% does not tell the conscious mind% G(ou>re 'rongIG R9 It says insteadI $9 G(ou don>t ha1e to feel bad about it&G So you must see to it that the conscious mind gets the impression% GI only thin) I>1e failed&G R9 That>s ho' you correct the conscious mind& $9 (es& Bith 8rs& D& 'e had to assure her that I% /r& $ric)son% failed in my instructions to her and that her acutely literal response 'as a success as a hypnotic response on the part of the unconscious& )reakin- #b8ecti+ity. . &he title had no 2eaninbeca*se 2y reference was red instead of bl*e6 which was the correct color. $9 G(our unconscious learned a lot yesterday&G 2$ric)son and R here discuss the case of 8rs& D% 'hose acti1e and conscious mind derogatoriEed her unconscious> 1ery acute GliteralismG 'hile in the trance state& So acute 'as her literalism that it e1en surprised /r& $ric)son& That literalism 'as an GaccomplishmentG of the unconscious% but 8rs& D>s conscious mind regarded it as error&5 $9 The conscious mind do'ngrades unconscious accomplishments% and you can>t allo' that do'ngrading to continue because conscious emotions filter do'n to the unconscious& R9 (ou mean the negati1e sets of consciousness can inhibit unconscious potentialsI $9 The unconscious is going to be protecti1e of consciousness& R9 (ou mean it 'ill go along 'ith the conscious biasI $9 It>s going to try to reassure the conscious mind 'ith% G(ou don>t ha1e to be depressed if you didn>t do things&G The unconscious 'on>t say% G(ou did something e1en though you didn>t )no' it 2e&g&% 8rs& D>s acute literalism5& It doesn>t function that 'ay& It . I co*ld resort to readin.all the titles of e+ery book and still not be able to find it e+en tho*-h I read all the titles.

that was thereH yo* ha+en5t felt thin-s that co*ld be felt.a place6 .4 $9 This illustrates the biasing influence of a conscious set on true )no'ledge& R9 (ou>re trying to tell S 'ith all these e3amples% GGi1e up conscious biases and sets&G $9 /on>t let conscious frames of reference occlude your 1ision& 2$ric)son here gi1es many e1eryday e3amples of ho' conscious sets% e&g&% rose@ colored glasses% continually interfere 'ith an ob.so2eplace where yo* ha+en5t been b*t still think yo* ha+e been there. &ransfor2in. 30a*se. 30a*se.before that yo* really ha+en5t6 of bein.fro2 yo*r sleep and not know where yo* are. R9 No' you>re shifting into suggestions that may lead to an e3perience of negati1e 1isual hallucinations9 not seeing% hearing% or feeling& .so2ethin. E+erybody has the e9periences of de8a +*.4 &hose who ha+e seen so2ethin.4 )eca*se we all ha+e the ability not to see when we are wide awake6 and in trance state that ability can be called *pon at any ti2e.a fa2iliar e9perience into an alien one6 not reco-nizinthat which is fa2iliar6 not reco-nizin. E+erybody has those e9periences. #thers who ha+en5t been in a trance.It see2s tr*e to others.E+eryday E9periences to E+oke Hypnotic 0heno2enon It is a +ery co22on e9perience to de+elop a hypnolo-ic state and aro*se in the 2ornin.before think they ha+e as if it really happened to the2.ecti1e perceptionI Seeing from many points of 1ie' to get a rounded picture&5 "e-ati+e Hall*cination &rainin&here are 2any ti2es in the past when yo* ha+en5t seen so2ethin. 30a*se4 "ow why wo*ldn5t I ha+e seen a book co+ered with bl*e when I read its title: 30a*se. Hearin.tilizin.ecti1e perception of things& Bhat is an ob.

4 Me2ories are so 2any ti2es disco+ered to be false when they are tr*e 2e2ories.a 1u is a nice analogy that may e1o)e associati1e path'ays leading to positi1e hallucinatory e3perience& So you are carefully apposing the possibility of either a negati1e or positi1e hallucination in 'hate1er sense modality it may occur& It is all 1ery open@endedJ you 'ill accept and applaude 'hate1er hypnotic e3perience she is ready to ha1e& $9 (es& 0sycholo-ical #b8ecti+ity fro2 M*ltiple 0oints of 'iew #ne of the 2ost char2in. In hypnosis yo* *tilize those past learnin-s.that. $9 This is a terribly important e3perience& In psychotherapy you ha1e to loo) at a problem upside do'n and side'ise& R9 To brea) out of your conscious sets& $9 (ou ha1e to loo) at your patient as if you 'ere sitting on a seat higher than his& (ou also ha1e to loo) at him from a much lo'er seat& (ou need to loo) at him from the other side of the room& "ecause you al'ays get a totally different picture from different points of 1ie'& Only by such a total loo) at the patient can you gain some ob.4 Most do not re2e2ber.ust one 1ie'% +? inches behind and to the left of the patient& That is a 1ery stereotyped thing& 0lasticity of 0erception and )eha+ior.e9periences that children can de2onstrateD and they all doD they bend o+er and look at the world fro2 between their le-s6 30a*se. 30a*se. It is d*e to a chan-e in the person that5s not been reco-nized. 30a*se.ecti1ity& R9 0ll these different 1ie's add up to a more total ob.ecti1ity& $9 That>s one of the dra'bac)s of con1entional psychoanalysis9 you get . . So2e people re2e2ber doin.4 beca*se the world is so stran-e. R9 (ou no' re1ie' a number of fairly common e1eryday e3periences to ma)e certain hypnotic phenomenon seem plausible& The e3perience of de.a so*nd6 feelin-s.

It takes still 2ore ti2e to differentiate between bi.one person standin. &hey start o*t by seein.FacilitatinAs e9a2ples I can cite personal incidences. In hypnotic e9periences yo* do not try to correct yo*r 2e2ories.it6 they now realize there are two.= 30a*se.4 han-e by )reakin- onscio*s Sets When I went back to the far2 after bein.o+en.4 3Erickson cites another e9a2ple wherein one of his da*-hters as a baby lookin.by the crib *ntil one day6 witho*t +erbalizin.in colle-e6 I fo*nd that the sto+e was *n*s*ally s2all.*p fro2 her crib learned to associate his head with the ceilin-6 and the conf*sion this association entailed on a later occasion when she saw hi2 closer to his tr*e proportions. (o* recei+e the2 witho*t a*to2atic correction. $9 ointing out here the child>s frame of reference& R9 0ll of this is to train S to gi1e up her conscious sets% to brea) do'n her conscious frame'or)s in preparation for change& $9 I 'ant to ma)e her a'are that she has many% many rigid sets& $1erybody has& R9 So this is a general understanding you try to gi1e e1ery patient in the beginning& (ou try to soften up their rigidities by tal)ing of the plasticity of perception and beha1ior% etc& $9 That>s right& (ou try to ma)e the person a'are& There is nothing 'rong 'ith ha1ing . .brother or 2other and to reco-nize three.4 I re2e2bered how I had to stand on 2y toes to reach *p to the war2in. It takes so2e len-th of ti2e to differentiate between 2other and father. 30a*se. My son Allan ret*rned fro2 Washin-ton6 $. 30a*se.6 walked thro*-h all the roo2s of the ho*se6 and re2arked6 =I know it is i2possible that these roo2s ha+e all shr*nk. I ha+e watched babies5 perception de+elop. &hey are 2*ch s2aller6 +ery 2*ch s2aller.4 E.

4 b*t there is no real need to correct the2. .4 As an ad*lt she still shows her wonder2ent at the walkin.-Ab5& "ot $oin.hypnosis6 takin.to Facilitate Early Me2ory and A-e Re-ression (o* ha+e those learnin-s in ad*lt life6 yo* can correct the26 30a*se. )*t as an ad*lt yo* *s*ally correct these 2e2ories6 and yo* si2ply say yo* don5t like that person for no reason at all. (o* then ha+e an opport*nity to assess6 e+al*ate the co2ponents of a total *nderstandin-. 30a*se.stick that is act*ally a snake. A child sees a walkinstick 30a*se.the2. (o* ha+e a walkin-1stick reason6 yo* ha+e a head1between1le-s1lookin-1at1the1world reason6 beca*se yo* ha+e seen so2ethin. (o* 2eet a person6 and for no reason at all yo* dislike that person6 b*t yo* do ha+e a reason.4 We learn to reco-nize those indi+id*al 2e2ories witho*t correctin.new in that person in ter2s of 2e2ories6 of learnin-s.note of past 2e2ories in their p*rity witho*t any need to correct the2.rigid sets& "ut if you 'ant to alter yourself in some 'ay% you must be unashamedly a'are that you do ha1e sets and it>s better to ha1e a greater 1ariety of sets& R9 So you 'ill ha1e a much 'ider range in your beha1ior& 2$ric)son here gi1es se1eral clinical e3amples of ho' he gently bro)e through the inhibiting conscious sets of patients so they gradually began fuller self@e3ploration of their body% etc& 2Haley% +. 0sychotherapy *sin. &hey sho*ld be appreciated.-AJ Rossi% +. As yo* sho*ld want to know what they are.

30a*se.4 I5ll cite personal incidences6 as I know the2 better than other instances. When I walked into the ho*se and 2y son Lance6 then a s2all boy had a proble2. He knew he co*ld not see thro*-h a brick wall. He co*ld see only thro*-h windows. (et $addy walked into the ho*se and said6 =(o* were told not to play with that doily on the table.= He had played with it6 and he happened to be o+er by a window. and saw 2e approachin-. So he caref*lly replaced the doily e9cept he didn5t center it on the table. &hat was what he didn5t know. He then attrib*ted 2y knowled-e that he was playin- with the doily to 2y bein- able to see thro*-h a brick wall. 30a*se.4 So far as the patient is concerned yo* do not re2ind yo*rself of ad*lt *nderstandin-s. "or do yo* look at beha+ior with ad*lt *nderstandin-s. 30a*se.4
R9 Here you suggest an hypnotic phenomenon 2early memory5 by not doing 2no need to correct early memories and childhood distortions5 so that it appeals as being effortlessly easy to one in a placid state of trance& This is actually an indirect approach to age regression& (ou don>t directly tell her to age regress& "y simply mentioning the 'ays in 'hich a child sees the 'orld differently% you are hoping to actually e1o)e her early modes of perception and thereby facilitate the possibility of a genuine age regression&

$9 That>s right&

7*estions as Indirect S*--estions, $isplacin- $o*bt and $ischar-in- Resistance
How soon do yo* think yo* will be willinto open yo*r eyes and not see yo*r hands:

$9 Bhat does this 4uestion really doI ut it into separate sentences9 +& (ou 'ill open your eyes& =& (ou 'ill see& A& (ou 'ill not see certain things& Those are actually commands& R9 "ut they are stated in a 4uestion as a -ait accom%li2 E5 (es& It>s stated as a 4uestion% but the only real 4uestion it as)s is% G0t 'hat time 'ill it be doneIG (ou are displacing all doubt onto the 4uestion of the time& That is the only thing that needs to be doubted& 0ll the rest is actuality& R9 (ou>1e done that 'ith a 4uestion I 'ould call an implied directi1e& $9 (es& The common mista)e in psychotherapy is to gi1e a patient directions 'ithout recogniEing there ha1e to be doubts& R9 In our society 'e in1ariably doubt and test any suggestion that is made to us& This may be the social basis of the so@called resistance& erhaps that is 'hy the Freudians tal) so much about resistances& The typical therapist does not )no' ho' to present directi1es in a 'ay that 'ould discharge resistances automatically as you ha1e here illustrated& (ou are al'ays discharging resistances and doubts by the 'ay you e3press things&

'alidatin- S*--estions for "e-ati+e Hall*cination
(o* ha+e not seen yo*r hands 2any ti2es in the past when they were in direct line of +ision. 30a*se.4 An ad*lt can learn to see thin-s in direct line of +ision. And yo* also learned not to see yo*r hands when they were in a direct line of +ision. 30a*se.4 $9 No' I tied that 4uestion to an actual thing9 G(ou ha1e not seen your hands many times in the past&G R9 (ou 1alidate the suggestion by ;u3taposing it 'ith a common perceptual e3perience of the past& $9 Ho' many times ha1e 'e not seen Gthe impossible not to seeIG R9 0s I>m loo)ing at this microphone I>m holding in front of you right no' I realiEe that I 'as not seeing my hand that>s holding it& $9 That>s rightL 0 magician ma)es his li1ing out of that& He utiliEes your ability not to see 'hat he is doing&

onscio*s and .nconscio*s6

o22*nication by Lo-ic and E9perience

;Here Erickson -i+es another fairly co2ple9 e9a2ple of how ad*lt and child 2e2ories of the sa2e pheno2enon can be different beca*se of their different points of +iew. )eca*se of this we find that there are freA*ently two sets of 2e2ories6 which so2eti2es -i+es rise to conf*sion in patients.<

E, In psychotherapy yo* learn to reco-nize how thin-s can be different thin-s. 30a*se.4 I a2 -oin- to s*--est that yo* open yo*r eyes and keep the2 open6 and be aware not to see. 30a*se.4 ;S opens her eyes and reorients to her body.< R9 So it is a good approach to tie your suggestions to an undeniable e3perience they ha1e had& That tends to 1alidate your suggestions& Bhat are you trying to con1ince 'ith these 1alidating analogies from e1eryday lifeI The conscious or the unconsciousI $9 The unconscious )no's all about these thingsL R9 (ou>re telling the unconscious 'hat mental mechanisms to use by analogy& $9 (es& R9 0t the same time the logic of the analogy impresses the conscious mind& Bould you say thatI $9 The logic appeals to the conscious mind% and the unconscious has the con1iction of actual )no'ledge 2e3periential )no'ing5& R9 So you>re spea)ing to both the logic of the conscious mind and the e3perience of the unconscious& $9 The conscious mind understands the logic of it% and the unconscious understands the reality& R9 Bhat do you mean by reality hereI $9 (ou ;ust demonstrated it by seeing the microphone but not your hand& R9 The unconscious )no's reality from concrete e3periences& $9 (es& R9 Bhen S opened her eyes and came out of trance% she rubbed her hands together as one of her typical acts of reorientation to her body% but she did not comment on 'hether or not she 'as actually seeing them& "y implication 'e can assume that she 'as not seeing her hands since she 'as so absorbed in recounting her early memories& (ou did not tell her to a'a)en% but in her case the association bet'een opening eyes and ending trance 'as stronger than your implication that she could open her eyes and remain in trance and not see&

S*b8ecti+e E9perience of &rance, %en*ine A-e Re-ression6 Hyper2enesia6 and A2nesia
S, I had an e9perience where I was act*ally a year old and lookin- *p fro2 a crib. &here was an e9perience fro2 three years old when I was drinkin- fro2 c*ps and -ettin- splashed on 2y left hand. I was thinkin- abo*t the feelin- that I had. It5s like the son- abo*t Alice6 =She was ten feet tall6= and I had the fear of -ettin- a -lass of water and ha+in- to bend o+er her beca*se I was so tall. E, And e+en that yo* co*ld do witho*t terrifyin- e2otions.

S, (es6 it was like *ntr*e6 like I had been eatin- so2e 2a-ic 2*shroo2s. I -*ess yo* look at thin-s different. &hat flashed thro*-h 2y 2ind when I tried to walk on stilts as a child. It took all afternoon6 and they finally did work. E, And yo* saw thin-s +ery hi-h: S, &hey wereJ &hose stilts were o+er 2y head. ;&his session ter2inates with a reco*ntin- of the 2any 2e2ories that ret*rned to S d*rin- her trance e9perience.< /r& S later 'rote the follo'ing about her inner e3perience at this point& G0s I later read my remar)s% I 'as confused because I could recall only the first part 'here I described myself as being in a crib& I remember that e3perience as though I actually 'ere small and loo)ing up at a big 'orld 2genuine age regression5& I ha1e amnesia no' for the three@year@old incident% and the last one is not as I recall it& 8y recollection here is that I 'as thirsty after the trance 'or) and 'anted to go into the ne3t room for a drin) of 'ater& Ho'e1er% I could not seem to mobiliEe myself& I could not pic) up the glass of 'ater by my chair& I 'as someho' still 0lice in Bonderland% ten feet tall% so I 'as afraid that I 'ould ha1e to bend to get through the door'ay and that might ma)e me diEEy& G8y e3planation is that I must ha1e gone into a trance again as I began to describe the trance e1ents& I recall that I 'as 'earing a dress 'ith long butterfly slee1es& 8y 'rists 'ere bent o1er the end of the arm of the chair and co1ered by my slee1es& This is in contrast to my usual habit of )eeping them in my lap& 0pparently since I had the impression that I could not pic) up a glass% I had 2in a comple3 fashion5 follo'ed the suggestion 2unrecalled by me5 of not seeing my hands& GThere is an unconsciousLG R9 This 'as a fantastically successful trance e3perience for S& She managed to gi1e up some of the limiting sets of her conscious mind% so she had an apparently genuine e3perience of age regression 'herein she e3perienced herself in a crib and actually sa' the 'orld the 'ay a child 'ould& She e3perienced hypermenesia 2the e3tensi1e recall of early memories5 and% parado3ically% she also e3perienced an amnesia 2she forgot some trance e1ents5& She ac)no'ledges ho' she managed not to see her hands to comply in her o'n indi1idual fashion 'ith your suggestion and ho' this immobiliEed her so she could not e1en pic) up a glass of 'ater& (ou attempted to e1o)e a negati1e 1isual hallucination for her hands G'hen they 'ere in direct line of 1ision&G "ut apparently her unconscious could only manage not seeing her hands by immobiliEing them out of her 1ie' at this time& It>s really charming to 'itness her indi1iduality9 to immobiliEe is easier for her at this point than not seeing& 0nd% most significantly for future hypnotic 'or)% she really ac)no'ledges the reality of the unconsciousL

In practical clinical 'or) 'e find that GresistanceG fre4uently means that the patient is stuc) 'ith a fe' patterns of association and e3perience that are interfering 'ith opportunities for ne' learning& Be thus tend to 1ie' resistance as an erroneous mental set that gets in the 'ay of ne' e3perience& Resistance need not al'ays be understood in the psychoanalytic sense as something that is continually maintained by deep and unconscious forces& Rather%

&here is6 of co*rse6 a possibility that yo* can be hypnotized. This gi1es the patient an opportunity to fail and thus pro1e his point that he Gcan>t be hypnotiEed&G This initial failure allo's the patient to Guse upG and discharge his resistance& .resistance can be a relati1ely simple 'rongheaded attitude that pre1ents people from utiliEing their o'n abilities& $ric)son has de1eloped a number of approaches for displacing and discharging resistance that seem merely humorous% cle1er% and superficial& These approaches can help patients dodge free of their o'n Gmental bloc)sG in relati1ely short order% ho'e1er& In a typical case an aggressi1e patient may enter the situation blustering% GI need hypnotherapy and I>m sure I can>t be hypnotiEed&G On one such occasion $ric)son happened to ha1e three other empty chairs in the office and proceeded as follo's9 E.< $ric)son 'ill typically 1ary the procedure slightly 'ith each effort 2e&g&% shifting direction of the chairs% shifting his chair% altering the induction procedure to find the one most satisfactory to the patient& 0nother means of displacing and discharging resistance is through games and seemingly irrele1ant but humorous challenges 'hereby the therapist acti1ely e1o)es and then discharges the resistance by 'ay of a predictable denouement& 0s an e3ample% say that you ha1e a bunch of marbles only one of 'hich is a solid color& (ou tell a child that you are going to 'rite do'n on paper 'hich marble he is going to choose& (ou ta)e the position that you are going to predict and force the child to accept your choice& The child accepts the challenge and maintains that you cannot predict his choice& (ou then begin describing the 1arious marbles as his possibilities9 the blue one 'ith 'hite stripes% the bro'n and 'hite% and so on& He hears you describing all the marbles in a seemingly random manner& He does not notice that you al'ays pic) a color combination& He can escape by pic)ing a marble 'ith no color combination:the solid color marble that you pre1iously 'rote do'n as his e1entual choice& In this case you create the resistance by saying% GI can predict your choice&G (ou insisted that he 'as going to choose one of the color combinations you mentioned% but he puts an end to your speculations by choosing the solid color you had pre1iously predicted 'hen you 'rote it do'n& The child does not )no' ho' you did it% yet there 'as a genuine rationale for predicting his choice& The child is no' intrigued and open to other things you ha1e to say to him& The same procedure can 'or) 'ith a resistant adult& (ou loo) at the boo)case in your office and say that you can predict 'hich boo) the patient 'ill choose& (ou then mention all . He finally e9periences a satisfactory trance in the fo*rth chair.&he patient failed to enter trance in three of the chairs. 30a*se. He then reinforces or gains acceptance of that Gpositi1e possibilityG by his open ac)no'ledgment and acceptance of the patient>s negati1e attitude& The patient immediately feels respected% and a positi1e rapport is established& "ow let5s try this chair.4 $ric)son opens the door by mentioning the GpossibilityG of trance& &here is 2ore possibility that yo* can5t be hypnotized. Implying that the 4uestion of going into trance has something to do 'ith 'hich chair is being used& This begins the process of displacing the resistance from the patient to the chair& If yo* fail in this one6 there is still the possibility that yo* can -o into trance. Each ti2e he failed he =*sed *p= another incre2ent of resistance *ntil trance beca2e ine+itable beca*se of the way the abo+e i2plication displaced the resistance fro2 the patient to the details of seatinarran-e2ents6 etc.

the 1arious possibilities of choice9 the dar) boo)s 'ith light printing and those that are the re1erse% the multicolored bindings% the odd@siEed boo)s% and others& (ou carefully a1oid mentioning .ust one boo)& atients in1ariably resist all the possibilities you mention and pic) the one you did not& atients e3perience a sur%rise upon finding out that you had 'ritten do'n their choice before the game started& Their resistance tends to remain in the boo)case% and they are no' simply open and curious about 'hat you are up to& Bhen the 'hole procedure is carried out in a lo' )ey% fun manner rapport is enhanced& 0ny serious challenge% of course% is to be a1oided 'ith an adult& Should the therapist fail to predict the boo) that the patient chooses% all is not lost& The patient is no' Gone upG and feels more rela3edJ he no' o'es it to the therapist to be obliging by entering trance% etc& Resistance has been discharged in the play% and the patient is no' a1ailable for therapeutic 'or)& $ric)son>s efforts to displace doubt and discharge resistance are a uni4ue contribution to psychotherapy& It is clear that this approach can be useful in any form of therapy 'here careful consideration is ta)en to help the patient circum1ent his o'n learned limitations in order to achie1e something ne'& $ric)son pro1ided another e3ample of a 1ery common situation in therapy 'here he regularly displaces doubt and discharges resistance as follo's9 $9 0 'oman patient came to me 'ith a great many doubts about ho' much she could tell me& So I said% G0ll right% hold bac) e1erything that you could possibly ha1e some doubt about telling me&G R9 So that immediately mobiliEed in her mind all the possible things she could say& $9 (es% by the end of the hour she told me e1erything because once she told me one thing it led to the ne3t& She finally found she had nothing she had any doubts about telling me& 0n analyst could ha1e dealt 'ith those resistances for se1eral years& R9 Bhene1er you gi1e important directi1es% you try to pro1ide a lightning rod to discharge their resistances& $9 Bithout bringing an a'areness of that resistance into the foreground& (ou don>t 'ant your patient to thin) about resistances& R9 (ou discharge resistances 'ithout their e1en being a'are that it is happening& $9 To discredit this as manipulation is as faulty as it is to describe food as being manipulated because you ha1e seasoned it properly& Further insight into $ric)son>s approach to discharging negati1ity and resistance is in the 'ay he gets a patient>s GnoG a'ay from the therapy situation and gradually replaces it 'ith Gyes&G Bith a resistant patient 2GresistantG here means there is a lac) of understandingJ one usually resists 'hen% because of a lac) of understanding% one anticipates harm5 he sometimes begins by saying% G(ou don>t li)e all that smog out there do youIG Of course the patient ans'ers 'ith Gno&G $ric)son then continues 'ith a series of 4uestions that elicit a GnoG response about things far remo1ed from the therapy situation& This process gi1es patients an opportunity to displace and discharge their resistance a'ay from the therapy situation& $ric)son then proceeds to as) 4uestions that 'ill elicit a GyesG about the therapy situation 2e&g&% 0re you as comfortable in that chair as you can beIG5 The GyesG responses then generaliEe to a greater e3tent than the patient realiEes& One 4uestion about comfort% for e3ample% does not con1ince patients that the therapist is concerned about their comfort and 'elfare& "ut a series of 4uestions about comfort begins to generaliEe through the patient>s associati1e process& The possibility of comfort% for e3ample% no' becomes associated 'ith the difficult or traumatic material the patient is struggling to e3press& It is apparent that $ric)son is using a %rocess orientation to shift resistance and 6no6 out of the therapy situation and to bring com-ort and 6$es6 into the therapy situation& That is% the actual content of the GnoG or GyesG is irrele1ant& 0ny e3pressed GnoG 'ill help discharge negati1ity regardless of its particular content& 0ny e3pressed GyesG 'ill generaliEe further .

-65& 0nalogy% puns% metaphor% parado3% and fol) language can all be understood as presenting a general conte3t on the surface le1el that is first assimilated by consciousness& The indi1idual 'ords and phrases used to articulate that general conte3t% ho'e1er% all ha1e their o'n indi1idual and literal associations that do not belong to the conte3t& These indi1idual and literal associations are% of course% usually suppressed and e3cluded from consciousness in its effort to grasp the general conte3t& These suppressed associations do remain in the unconscious% ho'e1er% and under the special circumstances of trance% 'here dissociation and literalness are heightened% they can play a significant role in facilitating responsi1e beha1ior that is surprising to consciousness& This situation can be made clear by analogy& The adult reader is usually searching for an author>s meaning& Bithin certain limits it really doesn>t matter 'hat particular sentences or 'ords are used& 8any different sentences and combinations of 'ords could be used to ."S6 ME&A0H#R6 I#!ES6 A"$ F#L! LA"%. A"AL#%(6 0.A%E $ric)son>s penchant for communication by analogy is herein e3plained as communication on t'o le1els9 the conscious and the unconscious& The logic of an analogy can appeal to the conscious mind and brea) through some of its limiting sets& Bhen the analogy also refers to deeply engrained 2automatic and therefore functionally unconscious5 associations% mental mechanisms% and learned patterns of beha1ior% it tends to acti1ate these internal responses and ma)e them a1ailable for problem sol1ing& Suggestions made by analogy are thus a po'erful and indirect t'ofold approach that mediates bet'een the conscious and unconscious& 0ppropriate analogies appeal to the conscious mind because of their inherent interest 'hile mobiliEing the resources of the unconscious by many processes of association& The authors 2$ric)son and Rossi% +."I A&I#".ect matter& On careful reflection it 'ill be found that this orientation to %rocess is more fre4uently prominent in $ric)son>s approach than his concern about content2 In inducing trance% for e3ample% he utiliEes the %rocess of confusion to depotentiate consciousnessJ the actual sub.$o*bt and Resistance +& Discharging resistance in ever$da$ li-e2 Thin) of occasions in 'hich you 'ere firmly against something and to your surprise found yourself going along 'ith it nonetheless& (ou may later criticiEe yourself for Gcompromising%G Ggi1ing in%G or ha1ing G'ea) 'illpo'er&G "ut actually you 'ere probably caught in a situation 'here your resistance 'as intentionally or accidentally discharged by another person or circumstances& Can you recall your feelings at the moment 'hen you Gga1e inIG Can you trace out the psychodynamics of ho' your resistance 'as dischargedI Can you formulate ho' you could utiliEe this e3ample of discharging resistance in a psychotherapeutic situationI =& Deep a record of all your e3amples of displacing doubt and discharging resistance in e1eryday life and psychotherapy& Bhen you ha1e enough e3amples% try to formulate some general hypotheses about the psychodynamics of displacing doubt and discharging resistance& Can you no' design psychological e3periments that could test the 1alidity of your hypothesesI ublish your resultsL M.ect it is the process of e3periencing one and then a series of hypnotic phenomena that is important% not the content of the particular phenomena& In facilitating therapy it is the process of getting any noticeable impro1ement that is important% e1en if it is initially far remo1ed from the content of the patient>s most pressing problem& Content% to be sure% is important% but its importance is usually as a 1ehicle to gain entry to the patient>s attention and associati1e structures 'here the process of therapy can be facilitated& E9ercises in $isplacin.ect matter or content of the confusion is irrele1ant& In training a hypnotic sub.cooperation regardless of the sub.-.L&I0LE LE'ELS #F #MM.5 ha1e discussed multile1el communication in terms of Cen)ins> conte3tual theory of 1erbal associations 2+.

-65 has summariEed the data of recent e3perimental 'or) in the area of 1erbal association% e1ent recognition% information integration% and memory that places a similar emphasis on the significance of conte3t to understand these phenomena& In any discourse or phenomena using 'ords it is usually the general conte3t that establishes meaning rather than the structural units that create the discourse& The ob1ious e3ceptions to this% of course% are in puns% allusions% and all sorts of 1erbal .o)es can be understood as e3erting their po'erful effects through the same mechanism of acti1ating unconscious association patterns and response tendencies that suddenly sum@mate to present consciousness 'ith an apparently Gne'G datum or beha1ioral response& &HE MI R#$("AMI S #F S..%%ES&I#" Once $ric)son has fi3ated and focused a patient>s attention 'ith a 4uestion or general conte3t of interest 2e&g&% ideally% the possibility of dealing 'ith the patient>s problem5% he then introduces a number of approaches designed to depotentiate conscious sets& "y this 'e do not mean there is a loss of a'areness in the sense of going to sleepJ 'e are not confusing trance 'ith the condition of sleep& In trance there is a reduction of the patient>s foci of attention to a fe' inner realitiesJ consciousness has been fi3ated and focused to a relati1ely narro' frame of attention rather than being diffused o1er a broad area% as in the more typical general reality orientation 2Shor% +.<.5 of our usual e1eryday a'areness& Bhen fi3ated and focused in such a narro' frame% consciousness is in a state of unstable e4uilibriumJ it can be GdepotentiatedG by being shifted% transformed% or bypassed 'ith relati1e ease& $ric)son belie1es that the purpose of clinical induction is to focus attention in'ard and to alter some of the indi1idual>s habitual patterns of functioning& "ecause of the limitations of patients> habitual frames of reference% their usual e1eryday consciousness cannot cope 'ith certain inner andFor outer realities% and they recogniEe that they ha1e a Gproblem&G .ect matter of interest to a particular patient is utiliEed as a general conte3t to fi3ate conscious attention 'hile interspersed suggestions are recei1ed for their effects on an unconscious le1el& $ric)son has de1ised a number of other techni4ues to acti1ate the indi1idual% literal% and unconscious associations to 'ords% phrases% or sentences buried 'ithin a more general conte3t& Turns of phrase that are shoc)ing% surprising% mystifying% non se4uiturs% too difficult or incomprehensible for the general conscious conte3t% for e3ample% all tend momentarily to depotentiate the patient>s conscious sets and to acti1ate a search on the unconscious le1el that 'ill turn up the literal and indi1idual associations that 'ere pre1iously suppressed& Bhen $ric)son o1erloads the general conte3t 'ith many 'ords% phrases% or sentences that ha1e common indi1idual associations% those associations 2the interspersed suggestion5 gain ascendancy in the unconscious until they finally spill o1er into responsi1e beha1ior that the conscious mind no' registers 'ith a sense of surprise& The conscious mind is surprised because it is presented 'ith a response 'ithin itself that it cannot account for& The response is then described as ha1ing occurred Gall by itself 'ithout the inter1ention of the sub.ect>s conscious intentionJ the response appears to be autonomous or Ghypnotic&G 0nalogy and metaphor as 'ell as ..e3press the same meaning& It is the meaning or the general conte3t of the sentences that registered in consciousness% 'hile the particular sentences and 'ords used fall into the unconscious and are Gforgotten&G In the same 'ay one GreadsG the meaning of a 'hole 'ord rather than the indi1idual letters used to ma)e up the 'ord& The general conte3t of the letters registers as the conscious meaning of a 'ord rather than the indi1idual associations of each letter& Cen)ins 2+.o)es 'here the punch line depends on literal or indi1idual 1erbal associations to 'ords and phrases that originally escaped the attention of consciousness& Verbal .o)es depend on literal or indi1idual associations that are usually suppressed& In the same 'ay $ric)son>s t'o@le1el communication utiliEes a general conte3t to fi3ate the attention of consciousness 'hile the indi1idual associations of 'ords% phrases% or sentences 'ithin that conte3t are registered in the unconscious% 'here they can 'or) their effects& From this point of 1ie' $ric)son>s Interspersal Techni4ue 2+.5 is the clearest e3ample of t'o@le1el communication 'herein sub.

Fixation o./epotentiating patients> usual e1eryday consciousness is thus a 'ay of depotentiating facets of their personal limitationsJ it is a 'ay of deautomatiEing 2/ei)man% +..o)e& 0ll the approaches listed in column A .o)es =& 8etaphor% analogy% fol) language A& Implication 6& Implied directi1e <& Ideomotor signaling . De%otentiating Conscious S e t s +& Stories that moti1ate% interest% fascination% etc& =& Standard eye fi3ation A& antomime approaches 6& Imagination and 1isualiEation approaches <& Hand le1itation .& Open@ended suggestions +7&Co1ering all possibilities of response ++&Compound statements +=&Interconte3tual cues and suggestions etc& +& Summation of9 a5 Interspersed suggestions b5 #iteral associations c5 Indi1idual associations d5 8ultiple meaning of 'ords =& 0utonomous% sensory and perceptual processes A& Freudian primary processes 6& ersonality mechanisms of defense <& Oiegarni) effect etc& GNe' datum of beha1ioral response e3perienced as hypnotic or happening all by itselfG :?.-=5 an indi1idual>s habitual modes of functioning so that dissociation and many of its attendant classical hypnotic phenomena 2e&g&% age regression% amnesia% sensory@perceptual distortions% catalepsies% etc&5 are fre4uently manifest in an entirely spontaneous manner 2$ric)son and Rossi% +. nconscious Search :@. nconscious 'rocess :A.-J Rossi% +.-6J $ric)son and Rossi% +. #$%notic (es%onse 0 number of $ric)son>s most interesting approaches to facilitate hypnotic response are the hypnotic forms listed in column A of table +& 0ll these approaches are designed to e1o)e a search on the unconscious le1el& 0llusions% puns% metaphors% implications% and so on are usually not grasped immediately by consciousness& There is a momentary delay before one GgetsG a .& Rela3ation and all forms of inner sensory% perceptual or emotional e3perience etc& +& Shoc)% surprise% the unrealistic and unusual =& Shifting frames of referenceJ displacing doubt% resistance and failure A& /istraction 6& /issociation and dise4uilibrium <& Cogniti1e o1erloading .-=5 'e designate ours as Gmicrodynamics&G Bhen 'e succeed in fi3ating attention% 'e automatically narro' the focus of attention to the point 'here one>s usual frames of reference are 1ulnerable to being depotentiated& 0t such moments there is an automatic search on the unconscious le1el for ne' associations that can restructure a more stable frame of reference through the summation of unconscious processes& There is thus a certain arbitrariness to the order and the headings under 'hich 'e assign some of the approaches $ric)son used in Table +& He could e4ually 'ell begin 'ith an interesting story or pun as 'ith a shoc)% surprise% or a formal induction of trance& Once the conditions in the first three columns ha1e been set in motion by the therapist% ho'e1er% the patient>s o'n indi1idual unconscious dynamics automatically carries out the processes of the last t'o columns& &able ? &he Microdyna2ics of &rance Ind*ction and S*--estion :=.attention :>.-A5& 0lthough 'e may outline these processes as stages of a se4uence in Table + for the purpose of analysis% they usually function as one simultaneous process& "ecause of this% and in order to distinguish these processes from the broader dynamics of induction and mediating 1ariables pre1iously outlined 2"arber and /e8oor% +.-<J Haley% +.o)e% and in part% that is 'hat is funny about it& In that delay period there ob1iously is a search and processes on an unconscious le1el 2column 65 that finally summate to present a ne' datum to consciousness so that it gets the .& Confusion% non se4uiturs -& arado3 ?& "inds and double binds .& Bords initiating e3ploratory sets -& Huestions and tas)s re4uiring unconscious search ?& ause 'ith therapist attitude of e3pectancy .& Conditioning 1ia 1oice dynamics% etc& +7&Structured amnesia ++&Not doing% not )no'ing +=&#osing abilities% the negati1e% doubt etc& +& 0llusions% puns% .-<5& /epotentiating the limitations of the indi1idual>s usual patterns of a'areness thus opens up the possibility that ne' combinations of associations and mental s)ills may be e1ol1ed for creati1e problem sol1ing 'ithin that indi1idual& $ric)son>s approaches to depotentiating conscious sets are so subtle and per1asi1e in the manner 'ith 'hich they are inter'o1en 'ith the actual process of induction and suggestion that they are usually unrecogniEed e1en 'hen one studies a 'ritten transcript of his 'ords& In order to place them in perspecti1e 'e ha1e outlined the microdynamics of induction and suggestion in Table + as9 2+5 the Fi3ation of 0ttentionJ 2=5 /epotentiating Conscious SetsJ 2A5 !nconscious searchJ 265 !nconscious rocessesJ and 2<5 Hypnotic Response& Be ha1e also listed a number of $ric)son>s approaches to facilitating each stage& 8ost of these approaches are illustrated in this 1olume and are discussed in more detail else'here 2$ric)son and Rossi% +.

A=5& That is% .-<5 and get that Gfara'ayG or Gblan)G loo)J their eyes may actually close% their body tends to become immobile 2 a form of catalepsy5% certain refle3es 2e&g&% s'allo'ing% respiration5 may be suppressed% and they seem momentarily obli1ious to their surroundings until they ha1e completed their inner search on the unconscious le1el for the ne' idea% response% or frames of reference that 'ill restabiliEe their general reality orientation& Be hypothesiEe that in e1eryday life consciousness is in a continual state of flu3 bet'een the general reality orientation and the momentary microdynamics of trance as outlined in Table +& The 'ell@ trained hypnotherapist is acutely a'are of these dynamics and their beha1ioral manifestations& Trance e3perience and hypnotherapy are simply the e3tension and utiliEation of these normal psychodynamic processes& 0ltered states of consciousness:'herein attention is fi3ated and the resulting narro' frame of reference is shattered% shifted% andFor transformed 'ith the help of drugs% sensory depri1ation% meditation% biofeed@bac)% or 'hate1er:follo' essentially the same pattern but 'ith 1arying emphasis on the different stages& Be may thus understand Table + as a general paradigm for understanding the genesis and microdynamics of altered states and their effects upon beha1ior& E9ercises with Analo-ies 0*ns6 and Metaphors +& Create analogies and metaphors that are interesting and arresting to the conscious mind 'hile also acti1ating habitual modes of unconscious functioning that can be used to facilitate all the standard hypnotic phenomena& =& Bhen planning a therapeutic approach to a particular patient>s problem% utiliEe puns% .ust because patients are e3periencing trance% it does not mean they are going to accept and act upon the therapist>s direct suggestions& This is a ma.-5& $ric)son relies upon the s)illful utiliEation of such forms of communication% rather than hypersuggestibility per se% to e1o)e hypnotic beha1ior& 0s noted in Chapter One% it is important to recogniEe that 'hile $ric)son thin)s of therapeutic trance as a special state 2of reduced foci of attention5% he does not belie1e hypersuggestibility is a necessary characteristic of such trance 2$ric)son% +...J Hilgard and Hilgard% +.h$%notic suggestion can be 1alidated if it is found that other therapists and researchers can also effect more reliable results by carefully utiliEing 'hate1er associations and mental s)ills a particular patient already has that can be mobiliEed% e3tended% displaced% or transformed to achie1e specific GhypnoticG phenomena and therapeutic goals& In the therapeutic trance situation the successful utiliEation of unconscious processes leads to an autonomous responseJ patients are surprised to find themsel1es confronted 'ith a ne' datum or beha1ior 2column <5& The same situation is in e1idence in e1eryday life% ho'e1er% 'hene1er attention is fi3ated 'ith a 4uestion or an e3perience of the amaEing% the unusual% or anything that holds a person>s interest& 0t such moments people e3perience the common e1eryday tranceJ they tend to gaEe off 2to the right or left% depending upon 'hich cerebral hemisphere is most dominant% 2"a)en% +.are communication de1ices that initiate a search for ne' combinations of associations and mental processes that can present consciousness 'ith useful results in e1eryday life as 'ell as in hypnosis& The hypnotic forms listed in columns = and A are also the essence of $ric)son>s indirect approach to suggestion& The study of these approaches may be regarded as a contribution to the science of pragmatics9 the relation bet'een signs and the users of signs 2BatEla'ic)% "ea1in% and Cac)son% +.suggestions2 $ric)son depends upon certain communication de1ices such as those listed in column A to e1o)e% mobiliEe% and mo1e a patient>s associati1e processes and mental s)ills in certain directions to sometimes achie1e certain therapeutic goals& He belie1es that hypnotic suggestion is actually this process of e1o)ing and utili*ing a patient>s o'n mental processes in 'ays that are outside his usual range of ego control& This utili*ation theor$ o..or misconception that accounts for many of the failures of hypnotherapyJ it has frustrated and discouraged many clinical 'or)ers in the past and may ha1e impeded the scientific e3ploration of hypnosis in the laboratory& Therapeutic trance is a special state that intensifies the patient@therapist relationship and focuses the patient>s attention on a fe' inner realitiesJ trance does not ensure the acce%tance o.

analogies% metaphors% and fol) language that 'ill ha1e the follo'ing9 a2 0 direct appeal for that indi1idual in terms of his lifetime interests& b2 /irectly acti1ate by association habitual modes of functioning in the patient that can facilitate a therapeutic goal& Note that such analogies can be effecti1e 'ith or 'ithout trance& In trance% ho'e1er% analogies can be considered as specific tools for facilitating desired responses& .

on. Erickson ass*res her that she will know soon eno*-h. After a 2o2ent5s pa*se Erickson contin*es. Rossi is noticin. S la*-hs self1conscio*sly and asks what is -oin. A des*ltory con+ersation takes place for a few 2in*tes.= &his was a hint to R to notice that S5s eye blink refle9 was spontaneo*sly be-innin. R isn5t s*re 8*st what is happenin-6 b*t he is aware Erickson is tellin. What I52 ready for: 30a*se4 What a2 I s*pposed to know: . E.SE'E" Indirectly onditioned Eye los*re Ind*ction $ric)son continues in this session to deal 'ith /r& S>s ma.S what she wo*ld like to acco2plish today. How soon do yo* think yo* will know: S. I don5t e+en know what I52 s*pposed to know.hi2 to obser+e S caref*lly.so2ethin-.ect in trance& onf*sion in &rance Ind*ction Erickson be-ins the session by askin.to slow down.or problem in learning to e3perience trance9 allo'ing and trusting unconscious modes of functioning& This is the most typical problem the modern hypnotherapist must learn to cope 'ith in our 'estern culture 'here the rational aspect of mind is 1alued abo1e all others& It is the bias and hubris of the rational and intellectualiEed mind to do'ngrade the accomplishments and possibilities of the unconscious& The conscious mind li)es to belie1e in its autonomy and po'er& In actuality% consciousness is al'ays focal and thus limited to 'hat is 'ithin its momentary focus& It cannot possibly deal 'ith e1erything all at onceJ at e1ery moment in our li1es 'e are dependent on unconscious processes 2to regulate e1erything from our blood chemistry to our ne3t 1erbal association5& Consciousness is a relati1ely recent e1olutionary ac4uisition& 0lthough 'e li)e to belie1e that consciousness is a high form of e1olutionary de1elopment% it is in fact e3tremely labile and limited in its abilities& 0 ma. S 2entions a wart she wo*ld like to ha+e -o away b*t does not +ol*nteer any personal proble2s she 2i-ht want to deal with.or problem of consciousness as it is presently constructed is that it fre4uently e3cludes e1erything outside of its immediate focus and it tends to belie1e only in its o'n momentary mood and truth& No 'onder there are so many lethal conflicts 'ithin us as indi1iduals and bet'een us as people& "ecause of these limitations it is important that consciousness be e3panded 2a'areness heightened5 by learning to relate optimally to the unconscious& For $ric)son this 'ould mean allo'ing the unconscious an opportunity to do its o'n 'or)& Therapeutic trance can be understood as a state in 'hich unconscious 'or) is to some e3tent freed from the limiting foci and sets of consciousness& Once the unconscious has done its 'or)% the conscious mind can recei1e and focus it appropriately in the 1arious moments and sets 2circumstances5 of life& The unconscious is a manufacturer and consciousness is a consumerJ trance is a mediator bet'een them& $ric)son begins the session 'ith remar)s that tend to confuse and depotentiate consciousness& He then demonstrates another indirect approach to induction by conditioning eye closure& He emphasiEes the need for careful obser1ation of trance induction by a scaling procedure& Of particular 1alue in the commentaries of this session are e3amples of $ric)son>s unusual percepti1eness in dealing 'ith a number of difficult issues in trance 'or)% including sources of psychological confusion% GliesG in trance% alternating rhythms of suggestibility in trance% posthypnotic suggestion% dealing 'ith spontaneous a'a)ening% and 'ays of protecting the sub. &hen Erickson A*ietly re2arks6 =0robably $r.

#dd. "ow I5ll say odd and e+en for a specific p*rpose. E+en. He is talkin. #dd E+en.4 R9 (ou fre4uently use this approach of hinting that something is happening that the patient>s consciousness is not tuned into& It tends to confuse the patient% it depotentiates the ego>s sub.4 onditioned Eye los*re Ind*ction E. 30a*se. 30a*se.in a way that is apparently 2eanin-f*l6 yet she cannot -rasp his 2eanin-. After a 2o2ent of concentrated attention she apparently -i+es *p and lapses into herself< $9 (ou say GoddG 'hen the eye blin) is slo' and Ge1enG 'hen it is fast& R9 (ou . Will yo* tell 2e: E.ust say that 'ithout her being a'are of 'hat you 'ere doingI $9 (es& R9 Bhat does that do to herI $9 She ma)es the connection unconsciously& She begins 'ith t'o blin)s% one fast and one slo'& !nconsciously she noticed that I said GoddG after the slo' blin)& So then she pauses and then blin)s slo' three times& She gi1es a more rapid blin) and pauses again& R9 This is an induction procedure or 'hatI $9 It is an induction procedure because you>re closing the eyelids& It is a techni4ue to close the eyelids& R9 Bhy 'ill the eyelids closeI $9 "ecause it becomes a conditioned response& GOddG becomes associated 'ith a sensation of slo'ness if you say it each time there is a slo' blin)& R9 Once you>1e established that association% you need only say GoddG and the eyelids 'ill get slo'er and slo'er and finally close& Is this another subtle or indirect 'ay of inducing tranceI Is it an unconsciously conditioned response for inductionI $9 (es& It>s an unconsciously conditioned response& . At the end.30a*se. .S is ob+io*sly p*zzled by Erickson5s odd1e+en state2ents.ecti1e sense of control% and it builds up a high e3pectancy that something unusual and significant 'ill happen& Her 4uestions clearly indicate the great confusion that has been induced by your simple remar)% G robably /r& Rossi is noticing something&G Indirectly S.4 #dd. #dd.

E. 30a*se. "ow she is *p to abo*t ?F. I *s*ally don5t blink so 2*ch.&o S< "ow searchin.back and forth on a scale of ? to ?EE.4 R9 0t the 'ord GdriftG there 'as a 1isible rela3ing of S that 'as apparently mediated by ego consciousness% since it 'as ob1ious and 4uic)& Bhen rela3ation is mediated by the unconscious% it is someho' more subtle& Her conscious mind recogniEed the 'or) GdriftG as her o'n description of deepening trance 2see end of first session5& $9 No' S has been trying to get some rational understanding of hypnosis& She doesn>t realiEe that to learn to s'im you ha1e to get in the 'ater to actually e3perience it& Intellectual boo) )no'ledge about s'imming 'on>t do it& She has been trying to get in the trance and understand& "ut she should .4 "ow there yo* saw the conscio*s 2ind reco-nizin.#bser+ation Scale for Hypnotic $epth She is -oin.re2ain *nconscio*s. 30a*se. "ow I let that be prolon-ed. I interr*pted it so it co*ld be de2onstrated thoro*-hly.< $9 On a scale of + to +77 'here a +77 is deep trance& Bhen the eyes close 'hen you say Gclose%G the sub. &his is a chance for yo* to see it in operation.a word of si-nificance. 30a*se. 30a*se.4 .ust get in the 'ater first& R9 Bhen the patient tries to obser1e and understand% it interferes 'ith the process of learning by the e3perience of .thro*-h thin-s yo* really want for 2any different reasons6 not only for an *nderstandin.&o R.ect is perhaps at +7& R9 (ou are using your o'n sub.of the2 b*t for an e9perience of the2. #rdinarily yo* wo*ldn5t 2ake prolon-ed *se of this. After a while she will let the driftin.ecti1e scale 'hen you say she is up to +<% <7% etc& Bhen she 'as up to +<% I noticed her face beginning to iron out& 0t 67 I noticed more 4uietness& $9 I said GcloseG here 'hen the eyes 'ere closing on a slo' blin)% and that ser1ed to close them& &rance as E9periential Rather &han Intellect*al Learnin"ow I know that S wants to drift. S.4 FE BF6 CE ?F6 close .ust letting things happen& In trance it is necessary to learn by e3periencing rather than intellectualiEing& .

ust another 'ord in the sentence to a specific 'ord& R9 0 specific direction and command to the unconscious is gi1en 'ith the emphasis on that 'ord Gelaborate&G o+erin. )y patients with who2 yo* work.to yo*. M*ltile+el State2ent to onscio*s and . R and 2e.4 With others within yo*. And yo* sho*ld do that as an e9perience for yo*rself as a disco+ery of what yo*r *nconscio*s 2ind can do. $9 G$laborateG is separated off as a separate 'ord to ma)e it a command& R9 Bhat>s the commandI $9 GSo you can let your o'n unconscious mindG is a permissi1e statement that the conscious mind hears& G$laborateG ma)es it a command 'hich the unconscious hears& It>s an interspersal techni4ue& It>s not noticeable that a command has been gi1en& R9 Bhat>s the interspersed message hereI $9 The 'ord Gelaborate&G The emphasis on this 'ord changes it from . 30a*se.Interspersed S*--estions. $9 She thin)s% GShould I share this 'ith /r& R% )no'ing that I )no' /r& R only to such and such a degreeI Is this something he can tolerateI Is this something he can be interested inIG R9 These statements are a series of psychological truisms 'herein you mention all possibilities of response and thereby bring 'hate1er she does into association 'ith you and your 'ords& It is easy for her to accept and follo' any one of these truisms% but 'hate1er she chooses 'ill actually place her in the situation of follo'ing your 'ords and thus reinforce her rapport 'ith you and her tendency to follo' other suggestions& . )y others in -eneral. And in any direction.nconscio*s As yo* know eno*-h abo*t pheno2ena so yo* can let yo*r own *nconscio*s 2ind elaborate whate+er pheno2ena yo* wish. Also6 yo*r *nderstandin-s belon. )*t it is possible for yo* to share with others in ways yo* ne+er tho*-ht of before.All 0ossibilities of Response to Facilitate S*--estion (o*r *nconscio*s 2ind can decide what part or what aspects of the e9perience sho*ld be shared by $r.

= &he reason he didn5t know was that 2y si9th -rade son was *sin. &his bewildered 2y son6 and he reached the concl*sion that a slide r*le was a child5s playthin-.ointed mannerI Bon>t this acti1ate her conscious mind and defeat the process of deepening the trance and unconscious learningI . &his baffled the teacher. If yo* know the 2athe2atical relationship a2on. An E9a2ple of Indirect S*--estion I5ll -i+e yo* a personal e9a2ple. I told hi2 how I did 2y 2ath.$epotentiatin. R9 S is in a light trance at this point% so 'hat is the purpose of gi1ing such a comple3 and detailed mathematical e3ample in such a dis.= I had to wait *ntil I -ot to colle-e to e9plain to 2y teacher what it was I had done.in yo*r arith2etic lessons6 b*t yo* do ha+e the ri-ht answers6 so keep ri-ht on with whate+er yo* are doin-.the answers.the answers.= When yo* *se 2*ltiplication tables6 there is a 2athe2atical relationship a2on.onscio*sness with )oredo2. &ake the K ti2es table. If yo* know the 2athe2atical relationship6 yo* know all the answers. He fo*nd a book of lo-arith2s and be-an a for2al st*dy of lo-arith2s and tried to teach the2 to his teacher.a-o6 b*t it5s too si2ple. In learnin. K9?QK K 9 @ Q ?C K 9 B Q @? K 9 C Q @L K 9 F Q BF K 9 G Q C@ K 9 K Q CM K 9 L Q FG K 9 M Q GB If yo* know this relationship of pro-ression in the last di-it6 it is easy to re2e2ber the whole table.the 2*ltiplication tables at school 2y teacher said6 =I do not know what yo* are doin-6 b*t yo* ha+e all the answers ri-ht. I sent hi2 to a library to find so2e books there that 2i-ht interest hi2. 30a*se4 I ha+e a son whose teacher said6 ="ow I don5t know what yo* are doin. He said6 =Well I tried that lon. )*t he really co*ldn5t e9plain lo-arith2s to his teacher6 and he later fo*nd that to teach lo-arith2s to colle-e st*dents is A*ite a 8ob.lo-arith2s.

ects you resort to uninteresting detail to bore the hell out of them& R9 That>s 'hat you>re doing hereI (ou>re boring the hell out of herI That>s 'hy you used this mathematical e3ampleL Bell% you 'ere succeeding because at that point I 'as also going into a trance myself& $9 They don>t )no' 'hat you are doing& They try to be polite% and this% past e3perience has taught them% can be a'fully fatiguing& R9 So this is a 'ay of ma)ing her tired& $9 (es& 3ithout telling her to be tired7 R9 I see& (ou>re ta)ing all the spun) and fire and energy out of her intellect& (ou>re discharging it 'ith this boredom& (ou>re fiEEling it out 'ith boredom& $9 That>s right& R9 I seeL I 'as bored tooL I 'as 'ondering% GIs this supposed to be brilliant hypnotherapyI Bhat is thisIG "ut no' that I can see 'hat it 'as used for% I can realiEe it>s mar1elous& (ou 'ere depotentiating consciousness by boring it out of e3istence& $9 (es& That>s right& R9 This is an e3cellent e3ample of your indirect approach to suggestion& (ou did not directly suggest she 'ould be rela3ed or tired& Rather% you had recourse to e1o)ing a certain psychological situation or stimulus 2boring arithmetic5 that 'ill arouse an internal response 2acting polite5 that 'ill in turn e1o)e an e3perience of mental fatigue by associations and processes that already e3ist 'ithin her& She is not able to recogniEe the relation bet'een 'hat you are saying and 'hat she is actually e3periencing& "ecause of this the indirect suggestion escapes her conscious attention& She is responding in a certain 'ay but may not )no' e3actly 'hy& This not &nowing is compatible 'ith the essence of trance% 'hich is to allo' more autonomous or spontaneous responses ta)e place 'ithout the habitual sets of consciousness structuring% directing% and controlling them& For the benefit of the reader I>ll point out that I thin) the relationship you mean is that the last digits in the ."e-ati+e Attit*des "ow personal 2eanin-s to yo* are yo*rs.$9 O-ten 'ith highly sophisticated sub.ust gi1es up& 0nd that is trance 'hen the normal ego consciousness is no longer directing and controlling things as usual& 0ersonal Meanin-s. .times table actually form a progression that is easy to see 'hen they are arranged in ro's of three9 6 + ? < = . &he application of all those 2eanin-s . $ischar-in. A Of course% it 'ould be hopeless for someone trying to go into trance to figure that out% so their consciousness .

ects% try to do 'hat they understand Mtry to direct their unconscious 'ith their consciousN% they run into confusion& R9 I 'onder if that thro's light on the general significance of confusion 'hen 'e deal 'ith personality and inner problemsI Confusion is the result of trying to impose our conscious and more limited understanding on the broader patterns of unconscious functioningI . My son co*ld not e9plain to his teacher.to others is an entirely different thin-.ust needs to e3perience it& So*rce of 0sycholo-ical "ow the 2atter of hall*cination6 of re-ression6 of ti2e distortion6 the selection of 2e2ories6 the achie+in.of *nderstandin-s6 the isolation of the self fro2 a sit*ation. 30a*se. I co*ld know 2athe2atical relationships and co*ldn5t e9plain the2 to 2y teacher. 30a*se. We co*ld not e9plain why we preferred o*r way. 30a*se.4 $9 I>m trying to get her to understand9 'hat may be pleasant and agreeable to one may not be pleasant and agreeable to others& R9 Bhy do you put that in hereI $9 Ho' many times has a patient said to you% G"ut you 'ouldn>t be interested in hearing this&G That>s a 1ery inhibiting thing in them& They are inhibiting themsel1es& (ou>1e got the tas) of telling them% G(ou are interesting&G R9 (ou>re brea)ing through a negati1e attitude of consciousness& 0gain you>re telling S that she does not ha1e to understand trance intellectually% she .4 I e9ist in the office.4 onf*sion $9 She might be intellectually interested in any of these phenomena% but she doesn>t )no' if her unconscious 'ants them& R9 Be ha1e to be humble enough to let our unconscious direct and e3perience 'hiche1er of these possibilities it needs& $9 (es& Be let the unconscious direct& Bhene1er sub. )*t we -et the sa2e answers as they -et.

that6 I noticed so2e people in the a*dience that were -oin. &hey were +ery still.4 $9 I 'ant her to hear my 1oice as something 'hich e1o)es memories and associations meaningful to her& R9 (ou>re trying to associate your 1oice 'ith meaningful dimensions 'ithin her& She can e1en reinterpret your 'ords in terms of her o'n mental sets and personal conte3ts into 'hich she places your 'ords& $9 8y 'ords are not limited to the 'ords themsel1es& They 'ill .$9 Confusion results from trying to impose some form of regimentation upon natural processes& R9 I see& That>s ho' you 'ould define psychological confusion& $9 0 centipede can be 'al)ing along happily until some son@of@a@gun as)s him 'hich leg comes after 'hich& Then he falls into confusion trying to figure that out& 0s long as the centipede does not try to rationaliEe% he is o)ay& R9 From a neuropsychological point of 1ie'% I 'onder if psychological confusion and error can result from trying to impose the rational programs of the left hemisphere on the gestalt patterns of the rightI &herapist 'oice E+okin.to -o into a trance. I told the people in the a*dience they co*ld look aro*nd and see which of the2 had -one in a trance. While I was doin. &hey were not in a trance. I told the a*dience that the people on sta-e were -oin.ust naturally trigger off many different associations in her& R9 So you>re actually describing another natural mental mechanism here9 the process of association& 0t the same time you>re associating your 1oice 'ith 'hate1er personal associations are e1o)ed& .4 When I was de2onstratin. Meanin-f*l so*nd to which yo* -i+e the interpretation. So2e 2i-ht ha+e to stand *p to look aro*nd.0ersonal Associations (o* can learn to hear 2y +oice as only 2eanin-f*l so*nd.in a hospital6 I had so2e s*b8ects on a sta-e with 2e. And it isn5t necessary for yo* to waste 2ental ener-y on the realities6 the e9ternal realities. 30a*se. 30a*se. "ow I will ill*strate that.in a trance.

I worked with the other s*b8ects on sta-e.4 (o* ha+e done co2parable thin-s in yo*r drea2s at ni-ht. A distance of FE 2iles. I told her she co*ld do so2ethin.4 (o* can read a book.she liked to do.her to co2e back to the hospital roo2.4 (o* can do co2parable thin-s in the trance state. 30a*se. It was hard to reco-nize 2y +oice6 beca*se of the distance6 askin. And then she heard 2y +oice fro2 a lon. I later asked her to -i+e 2e so2e attention.tilizin. I asked her to tell 2e if she co*ld share it with others6 to tell 2e what she had been doinand to e9plain it. She wo*ld do so. &here was nobody in si-ht so she went in swi22in.in the n*de +ery 2*ch and often swa2 n*de alone at that place.Inner Realities in Spontaneo*s &rance. &he o22on E+eryday &rance #ne -irl in the a*dience stood *p and looked aro*nd.4 refreshed.in the n*de and had a 2ost deli-htf*l ti2e.4 She nodded her head a-reeably. 30a*se. 30a*se. .$9 That>s right% to elaborate their associations at the unconscious le1el& (ou>1e already told them they don>t ha1e to share it all 'ith you% but you do 'ant them to elaborate& R9 (ou>re acti1ating the unconscious% you>re getting them mo1ing hereI $9 (ou>re getting them mo1ing because there is a lot of territory they can co1er& R9 In other 'ords% you 'ant patients to be acti1e in the inner 'orld% not .ust sitting there passi1ely& $9 That>s right& . 30a*se. She ca2e back and e9plained how she en8oyed swi22in. She said she had been down to the bay and looked all aro*nd. She had en8oyed that swi2 and now felt +ery rested6 30a*se.distance away.

And e+erythin. He cannot see that person6 b*t he can hear how tall a person is.will be totally real beca*se the only reality that thin-s possess is the reality that o*r senses -i+e the2. (o* can con+erse with friends.(o* can -o swi22in-.ects achie1e significant ob.nconscio*s 0erception6 "ot ES0 and s2ells so2eone else.ecti1es in deep trance& "y being sensiti1e to 'hat they 'ant and need and Ggi1ing them permissionG to achie1e these things% they go into intense periods of inner absorption 2deep trance5 focused on their needs and thereby achie1e their inner realiEation& That accounts for the potency of your clinical% patient@centered approachJ you go along 'ith the natural currents that are there stri1ing for e3pression& (ou simply utiliEe 'hat is there& $9 0nd 'hen a patient says% GI don>t 'ant to do this%G I say% Go)ay% then I>ll ta)e care of it 'hile you do this other&G So they can dissociate& R9 (ou help them dissociate their negati1e affect from something that needs to be done& Mini2al A blind person hears and feels *es and .ects and patients and then utiliEed these 'ishes in deep trance to help them achie1e them&5 R9 This accounts for much of your success in helping sub. R9 It is not unusual for you to notice the spontaneous trances that people in the audience fall into 'hile they are apparently listening to you& Their bodies are still% they typically ha1e a G1acantG or Gfara'ayG loo) in their eyes% and their faces may be Gironed out&G This sort of trance or re1erie is a natural part of e1eryday life% and you ha1e de1eloped approaches to utiliEe these spontaneous trances for demonstration and therapeutic purposes& The 1ery fact that this girl from the audience did stand up indicated she 'as in rapport 'ith you% and your simple suggestion that she could Gdo something she li)ed to doG 'as sufficient to utiliEe her spontaneous trance for demonstration purposes& $9 Bhen she stood up% I could tell she 'as in a trance by the economy of effort in her mo1ements9 a slo' and highly coordinated 'ay of mo1ing& R9 So you utiliEed her spontaneous trance for demonstration purposes& $9 0t an in1itation by her& R9 I see& Since she did go into a spontaneous trance and follo'ed your suggestion to stand and loo) around% you concluded that her unconscious 'as as)ing for a trance e3perience directed by you& 2$ric)son here gi1es se1eral other e3amples of ho' he detected the unconscious 'ishes of e3perimental sub. He can tell6 .

4 Will yo* stop to think abo*t it: We do not know 30a*se.off that person5s body back to his ears.with the person6 8*st by his own speech to the person he can tell if the body is 2ale or fe2ale6 beca*se there is a different so*nd bo*ncin.. He can tell if a person is facin. of which we are *naware.talkin. We all ha+e so 2*ch knowled-e.tilizin.hi2 or has his back to hi2.ect turn around by loo)ing at their bac)% for e3ample% is achie1ed because the person 'ho turns around has actually pic)ed up minimal cues from others in the audience 'ho ha1e noticed the loo)er& If t'o people are alone% the same effect is achie1ed by detecting subtle smells or sounds of the presence of the other 'ithout e1en being a'are that these subtle smells or sounds 'ere utiliEed& On numerous occasions people ha1e as)ed $ric)son about the e3istence of $S and other psi phenomena in hypnosis& $ric)son simply replies that he has ne1er personally encountered a situation 'here such GparapsychologicalG e1ents could not be accounted for by minimal sensory cues 'hich people 'ere una'are they 'ere capable of using&5 R9 (es% many of the mind@reading% thought@reading% and muscle@reading e3periments of the early days in hypnosis 2Hull% +. &en years later in dri+in. $9 8ost people do not )no' of their total capacities for response to stimuli& They place mystical meanings on much of the information they get by subtle cues& 2$ric)son goes on to e3plain that the ability to ma)e a sub. 30a*se. &he landscape i2presses yo* +ery war2ly.AA5 can be e3plained as forms of ideomotor or ideosensory cues that most people do not ordinarily recogniEe& .east yo* reco-nize that landscape. #ne can think *es and 0erception .4 which *se of yo*r awareness of thin-s yo* will *se.nconscio*s (o* can dri+e strai-ht west and pass a distant 2o*ntainslide.

4 And yo* ha+e no occasion to be fri-htened or e9cited or conf*sed e9cept for yo*r own desires and yo*r own *nderstandin-s.a sin-le 2*scle. #ne can re2e2ber a lon. If openin. R< "ow when a patient has this opport*nity to e9plore the2sel+es6 yo* are caref*l not to place any interpretation on anythin. In brief6 there is a wide field of e9ploration for yo*.they do.past fear and be co2pletely passi+e b*t feel all the 2e2ories of that fear. #r one can +ery sli-htly *se the 2*scles. #r one can think of a sit*ation and *se only the 2e2ories of 2*scle action.4 And yo* can 2ake 2y +oice 8*st a 2eanin-f*l so*nd that yo* can interpret in any way that yo* please. . (o* *se yo*r 2e2ories to constr*ct it. 30a*se. . (o* can look at anythinyo* wish to see it.of a sit*ation witho*t *sin. 3Erickson here -i+es a personal e9a2ple of 2e2ories associated with 2*scle action.the eyes aids the constr*ction6 that5s all ri-ht.&o $r. )*t yo* can constr*ct with the eyes closed.

ust one cue or fact that you can name in recogniEing things&G R9 Bhy are you telling her thisI Bhat are you getting atI $9 (ou don>t )no' 'hat the cues are that you are using% but you can recogniEe things& R9 So your unconscious is automatically identifying all those cues and ends up by telling the conscious mind% GIt>s so and soG 'ithout telling the conscious mind all the details of ho' it came to that perception& So you>re telling her unconscious to utiliEe all its cues& $9 It doesn>t ha1e to ha1e a cue that is nameable& The conscious mind tends to thin) it has to ha1e identifiable cues% but you don>t need specific cues to do things& R9 "ut 'hy are you gi1ing her this lesson hereI $9 "ecause she>s been trained as a psychologist% and one of the defects in teaching psychologists is they try to ma)e you a'are of all the cues to different things& R9 They train you to consciously label e1erything rather than learning to utiliEe your intuition 2unconscious perception5& Bith S you must undo some of this o1errational training to force the unconscious to 'or) on its o'n& This is necessary if she is to e3perience hypnotic phenomena 'herein the unconscious operates autonomously& (ou are thus trying to acti1ate her unconscious by 2+5 emphasiEing all the things it does 'ell all by itself and 2=5 depotentiate her o1er rational conscious orientation by emphasiEing that it is not needed& $9 She has learned in college that you use 'ords and numbers to e3press e1erything& R9 That rational approach is good for certain intellectual things% but for total human functioning it is not good& $9 It>s not goodL R9 It freeEes you up& It limits you to your conscious a'areness& It loc)s out unconscious perception and mentation& (ou don>t trust your unconscious perception& 2$ric)son here tells a charming story of ho' he and se1eral of his male colleagues at a con1ention happened to be standing together 'atching a young female child ho1ering in ob1ious difficulty in front of a men>s room& /r& $ric)son immediately 'agered that she 'ould pic) the married man 'ith the most children from among them to ta)e her into the men>s room& Bith unerring unconscious perception she did& The child did not stop to thin)% >No' the ablest man to help me 'ould be the one 'ho had the most children and is therefore used to this sort of thing&>5 R9 So you 'ant S to learn to trust that unconscious )no'ing and doing in her trance 'or)& This e3perience 'ill then help her e1entually achie1e a better balance bet'een rational and irrational processes in her daily life& $9 (esL (ou don>t actually ha1e to loo) for a 'edding ring to spot a married man or 'oman& &r*stin.nconscio*s F*nctionin- .$9 This is another e3ample of the same thing9 you don>t )no' 'hich cues you are using% but you do remember the landscape& The 'hole effect is registered& R& The 'hole% the gestaltI $9 (es% the gestalt& R9 So you>re telling S by this e3ample to be sensiti1e to gestaltsI $9 I>m telling her% G/on>t assume it must be .. &rance as a "at*ral For2 of .nconscio*s F*nctionin-.

&hey also know they can *se their nose to s2ell and ears to hear6 their fin-ers to feel. &hey -et all that by i2plication. )*t in reconstr*ction of a +is*al scene yo* only need the 2e2ories. Feelin.. (o* feel with the learnin-s of the past.&o S< We learn early that to see thin-s we ha+e to ha+e eyes open.of a pict*re6 the feelin. (o* -i+e the2 the opport*nity to open their eyes. #ne can learn by readin-6 by seein-6 by feelin-6 by bein.told6 by e9periencin-6 and the best way of learnin-6 to *se folk lan-*a-e6 is by -ettin. R. . R9 To encourage a %erson to go into trance $ou must encourage them to trust their unconscious because trance is a natural -orm o.of a stat*e. o22*nications to Reach Si2pler Le+els of )eha+ior We do not 8*st feel with the fin-ers6 b*t with the heart6 the 2ind. E.the feel of it.that yo* ha+e to open the eyes6 and so yo* tell the2 they can open their eyes since it 2ay help the2.&o R< &here is that lifeti2e of learnin.is a +ery 2eanin-f*l word.unconscious -unctioning& E5 That>s right& R9 Our 1ie' is that trance is an altered state& /o you go along 'ith the idea that it is a paleological system of mental functioning:more on the paleocorte3 rather than the neo@corte3I $9 Trance is a simpler and uncomplicated 'ay of functioning& 2$ric)son here gi1es e3amples of ho' a child learns food preferences% etc&% by 'atching the parents and siblings reactions to food& These early learnings are based on the simpler and more direct processes of obser1ation rather than the more complicated forms of learning in1ol1ing the mediated use of 'ords and logical thought processes that come later& $ric)son does not belie1e% ho'e1er% that trance is an ata1istic state&5 0anto2i2e and "on+erbal (o* -et the feel of a poe26 the feelin. . (es6 by i2plication.

It wo*ld spoil the 2a-icians art if yo* knew how he did that trick.< 2$ric)son gi1es e3amples of the economy of body mo1ement in trance& Nodding the head GyesG in trance is 1ery slight and slo'J this is in mar)ed contrast to the rapid and large nodding mo1ements to signify GyesG 'hen 'e are a'a)e&5 R9 (ou can differentiate conscious from unconscious mo1ements because the latter are al'ays slo'er and more abbre1iated& $9 If something is 1ery important% then the mo1ement Me&g&% head noddingN 'ill be continuous rather than .sli-ht =yes= head1noddin.in &rance . R9 (ou li)e to use pantomime and non1erbal approaches to trance because they acti1ate and reach in more deeply to the simpler le1els of functioning& $9 (es& (ou thereby bypass the enforced rigid forms of later conscious ac4uisitions& (ou don>t ha1e to ha1e things put into 'ords& 2$ric)son gi1es e3amples in courtship& 0 girl may tilt her head for a )iss% but it 'ould spoil the situation for her to 1erbaliEe her 'ish&5 (ou .nconscio*s "ow I wo*ld lea+e instr*ction in ne*rosis pri2arily to yo*r *nconscio*s. How did he -et that rabbit o*t of a hat: . &hese sli-ht =yes= responses are apparently S5s e9pression of a-ree2ent with what Erickson was sayin-.2otions. (o* feel the present.S is 2akin. So sli-ht and slow were the 2o+e2ents that Erickson had to silently point the2 o*t and Rossi had to caref*lly st*dy S for a 2in*te or two before he was con+inced that they were really takinplace.(o* feel with the hopes for the f*t*re.ust once:still slo' and abbre1iated but continuous so you reall$ understand& They 'ill continue the head nodding until you gi1e some ac)no'ledgment that you understand& Repetiti1e mo1ements in trance mean a thing is more important& &*rnin.0roble2s #+er to the .ust ruin things 'ith your later learnings& 0 tilt of the head is far more meaningful than 'ords& R9 Ho' can 'e generaliEe this to trance beha1ior as a 'holeI Trance is not so much regressed beha1ior as a simpler form of beha1ior:beha1ior that is not necessarily dependent on 'ords and adult patterns of understandingI $9 (es% it>s a'fully simple beha1ior& haracteristics of Ideo2otor Head Si-nalin. 30a*se4 And I want yo* to know that in each person5s life there are thin-s we like and don5t want to know abo*t.

#f co*rse6 there is so2e kind of an e9planation6 b*t yo* wo*ld rather en8oy ha+in- hi2 perfor2 than know how he did it. All 2a-icians keep their own special secrets6 and they all respect each others5 secrets. ;Erickson -i+es se+eral e9a2ples of how he and others ha+e en8oyed not knowinhow 2a-icians perfor2ed their 2ysterio*s feats.< And another thin- all patients sho*ld keep in 2ind6 ad*lts are only children -rown tall. R9 It seems strange to suddenly pop out 'ith that didactic statement% GNo' I 'ould lea1e instruction in neurosis primarily to your unconscious&G Bhy did you come out 'ith that right hereI $9 "ecause MI ha1e prepared her for it 'ith the pre1ious conte3t% 'here I 'as gi1ing many instructions for more freedom for unconscious functioningN& So that statement 'ould mean% G#ea1e all the instructions concerning your neurosis to your unconscious& #et us turn this problem o1er to the unconscious&G R9 "ecause your conscious mind does not )no' ho' to cope 'ith itI $9 That>s right& "ut you do not tell them they cannot deal 'ith it consciously& R9 0gain you>1e ta)en something out of the biased% rigid sets of consciousness and gi1en it to the more fle3ible system of the unconscious& $9 It 'ould spoil the magician>s art if you )ne' ho' he did that tric)& If you 'ant to en;oy s'imming% do not analyEe it& If you 'ant to ma)e lo1e% don>t try to analyEe it& R9 Right% 8asters and Cohnson e1en tal) about getting hung up in the GspectatorG role in se3% 'hich interferes 'ith se3ual e3periencing 28asters and Cohnson% +,-7J Rossi% +,-=b5&

Facilitatin&he *nconscio*s is 2*ch 2ore childlike in that it is direct and it is free. hildren ha+e asked 2e why I walk that f*nny way

reati+e 0erception

when their parents had not e+en noticed that I li2ped. &hey were appalled at the children callin- attention to 2y li2p. &he children saw so2ethin- they wanted an *nderstandin- of. &hey were willin- to reach o*t for an *nderstandin-. When yo* ha+e a patient in a trance6 the patient thinks like a child and reaches for an *nderstandin-. $9 atients tend to disparage themsel1es as being childish during trance% but don>t let

them disparage themsel1es that 'ay& (ou rob them of that sort of neurosis shelter2 R9 Self@disparagement is a neurosis shelter& So you emphasiEe the creati1e aspects of a child>s fresh perception and curiosity about the 'orld to loosen patients from their negati1e adult bias against natural free in4uiry in trance& This is one of the characteristic 'ays you attempt to facilitate an attitude that 'ill encourage them to ta)e a fresh loo) at their problems from ne' points of 1ie'& $9 Cu1enility is far superior to senility&

0rotectin- the S*b8ect
(o*r task is to protect hi2. R, &o protect hi2: E, &o protect hi2 so he doesn5t -et alar2ed at what he disco+ers. $9 Bhen patients came in to stop smo)ing% they may say 'hen in trance% GI don>t really 'ant to stop smo)ing&G The therapist then sees physical alarmJ they no' )no' the truth about themsel1es& So you say to them% GI don>t thin) you should )no' that 'hen you>re a'a)e $et26 (ou protect your patient& (ou>re protecting the conscious mind by )eeping that self@understanding unconscious& R9 "ecause the conscious mind should not ha1e its sets shattered too rapidly& $9 (es% that can be a shattering e3perience unless the patient has the strength to endure it&

Lies in a &rance
An e9a2ple is in lyin-. hildren are entitled to tell lies. &hey are entitled to see thin-s as they are witho*t bein- fri-htened. $9 Bhen a person in a trance says something you )no' is a lie% you better loo) it o1er because it has another meaning& R9 It has meaning other than being a lieI $9 (es& In some 'ay the person is telling the truth& 0 truth as seen from a totally different point of 1ie'& 0nd bear in mind that you as the therapist also ha1e your o'n set and rigid points of 1ie' to deal 'ith& R9 Bould lies in a trance also be an indication of regression to a more childli)e stateI $9 It>s a regression to a more simple mode of functioning% less complicated& 0 person may tell you of going to a circus in Bisconsin% yet they ha1e ne1er been to Bisconsin& That may mean they are identified 'ith somebody in Bisconsin& This is their 'ay of telling you about an identification 'hen they don>t ha1e a 1ocabulary to permit them to say% GI identify 'ith so and so&G R9 They e3press an identification by attributing something about the other to themsel1es& This )ind of psychological language accounts for many of the so@called lies and distortions e3pressed in trance&

onscio*s and .nconscio*s as Separate Syste2s
A child will drop a -lass on the floor and say with wonder2ent6 =It brokeJ= And not necessarily ha+e to react with ad*lt *nderstandin- that it was a +al*ed antiA*e.

30a*se.4 E+ery patient needs to know that the e2otional content of so2ethin- can be e9perienced with no knowled-e of what ca*sed the e2otion. 30a*se.4 A patient can also recall the intellect*al 2e2ories of an e+ent as if they happened to so2eone else. Many other thin-s ha+e no 2eanin- to the self6 and then later the e2otions and intellect*al content -ets to-ether piece by piece6 like a 8i-saw p*zzle. $9 It>s 'ell to let them e3perience this state of 'onderment in the trance& R9 That 'ould mean that in the trance state their unconscious is free from the biases of the conscious mindI $9 (es& It sho's the unconscious can forget 'hat the conscious mind )no's& It may lea1e certain )no'ledge in the conscious mind& R9 I see& So the conscious and unconscious really are separate systemsI $9 (es% they are separate systems& R9 /o you ha1e any therapeutic goal for the ideal mode of psychological functioningI 0 certain amount of interchange bet'een the conscious and the unconscious% for e3ampleI $9 The ideal person 'ould be one 'ho had a readiness to accept the interchange bet'een the conscious and unconscious& Children are uncluttered by rigid conscious sets% and therefore children can see things that adults cannot&

Ri-ht1 and Left1He2ispheric F*nctionin- in &rance
I ta*-ht 2y sons the best way of hoein- a -arden. (o* ha+e a sA*are yard at the northeast corner6 a sA*are yard at the northwest corner6 and then the so*theast and the so*thwest. "ow that yo* ha+e hoed a sA*are yard at all corners6 yo* hoe a sA*are yard in the center. &hen hoe a line fro2 the 2iddle to a corner. "ow yo*5re 2akin- a desi-n of the -arden. &hat is a +ery interestin- way of doin- a laborio*s piece of work. (o* beco2e so interested in the desi-n that it5s a pleas*re. In workin- at a proble2 of diffic*lty6 yo* try to 2ake an interestin- desi-n in the handlin- of it. &hat way yo* ha+e an answer to the diffic*lt proble2. )eco2e interested in the desi-n and don5t notice the back1breakin- labor. In therapy that is often a +ery deli-htf*l thin- to do. 30a*se4 When yo* do work freely and willin-ly6

one has a ri-ht to take a rest period at any ti2e. (o* are free to res*2e work at any ti2e. Free to alter the desi-n and pattern in which the work is done. #ne can do a*to2atic writin- fro2 ri-ht to left or left to ri-ht. ;Erickson here -i+es a detailed clinical e9a2ple of a child who wrote backwards and *pside down and fro2 ri-ht to left b*t not the con+entional way. Rather than atte2pt to correct the child by prohibitin- his *n*s*al ways of writin-6 Erickson pointed o*t to the child his s*periority in bein- able to write in three different ways while Erickson co*ld only write in one, the con+entional way. Erickson then proceeded to try to learn to write one of the ways the child did6 and the child6 to 2aintain his s*periority6 now wanted to learn yet another way of writin-Dthe con+entional way. He was now learnin- his fo*rth way of writin- while Erickson was still str*--lin- to learn his second.< $9 0nother simple techni4ue of distracting consciousness from a laborious piece of 'or)& R9 So here again in this lengthy e3ample you>re telling S to let go of her conscious sets and orientation because they are so laborious& (ou are suggesting that she substitute a )ind of creati1e% aesthetic play 'ith patterns for the hard 'or) of hoeing in laborious linear ro's& Throughout this and many pre1ious sessions many of your efforts could be understood as distracting or depotentiating the linguistic% rational% linear% and directed modes of left@ hemispheric functioning in fa1or of the spontaneous perceptual@aesthetic% )inesthetic% and systhetic modes of right@hemispheric functioning& /ream% re1erie% and trance ha1e recently been characteriEed as right@hemispheric functions& Bhen you emphasiEe trusting natural or unconscious patterns of functioning in trance% you are actually emphasiEing the paralogical or appositional 2"ogen% +,.,5 characteristics of the right hemisphere& It may 'ell be that future research 'ill establish that much of 'hat 'e ha1e until no' characteriEed as the dichotomy bet'een the conscious and unconscious 2secondary and primary process thin)ing5 is neuropsychologically a dichotomy bet'een left@ and right@hemispheric functioning& From this point of 1ie' many psychological problems could be understood as the erroneous imposition of rational left@hemispheric approaches to situations that could be better dealt 'ith by the right hemisphere&

&rainin- the Modern Mind to Rely on the .nconscio*s
"ow the ne9t thin- I want to say to yo* is this, It is ne+er necessary when yo* sleep at ni-ht to re2e2ber yo*r drea2s the ne9t day. It5s possible to drea2 toni-ht and wait a year before yo* re2e2ber the drea2. (o* 2ay re2e2ber a part of the drea2 to2orrow and part of it ne9t week. (o*r re2e2berin- the drea2 has to be in accord with what yo* need. (o* don5t ha+e to re2e2ber.

30a*se4 R9 (ou are again illustrating the unimportance of consciousness relati1e to the unconscious in trance& Bith all these e3amples you are telling S that she can rely on her unconscious& This approach is needed 'ith S because she is% relati1ely spea)ing% a highly intellectualiEed person 'ith a h&/& This approach of retraining the patient to rely on the unconscious is going to become more important in the future as more and more people become highly intellectualiEed& /irect authoritati1e suggestions may ha1e been appropriate +77 years ago% 'hen it 'as possible to reach the unconscious that 'ay& "ut the modern hypnotherapist has to help people relearn that natural mode of functioning 'here they lea1e things to their unconscious& Indirect 0osthypnotic S*--estion An ill*stration is when yo* awaken. &o let yo*r *nconscio*s feed to yo* the ri-ht infor2ation that per2its yo* to do the ri-ht thin.yo* are ready to -o into a trance for the first ti2e. &o know that yo* can rely on yo*rself.always is to do the ri-ht thin. Maybe the de-ree of li-ht o*tside indicates that.at the ri-ht ti2e. &he indication is fro2 the o*tside.e9perience.aware that yo* 2*st ha+e been in a trance. And then beco2in. &hat can be assessed by yo* as a bea*tif*l learnin. It is necessary for yo* to be aware that yo* know they are there.is to ha+e certain e9periences recorded in yo*r 2ind. It 2ay be this year or ne9t year or two years fro2 now. #ne of the 2ost pleasant thin-s yo* ha+e to e9perience is in co2in.o*t of the trance thinkin.&he i2portant thin. So2e day their presence will be of ser+ice to yo*. &he i2portant thin.at the ri-ht ti2e. 30a*se4 R9 This is an e3ample of an indirect posthypnotic suggestion& First you carefully lay the ground'or) by tal)ing about forgetting dreams until it is the right time to remember them& (ou thereby hope to e1o)e forgetting mechanisms& Cust as she can forget a .

co2e before *nderstandin-. &hey ha+e only an inco2plete +iew of how they did it.and -ettinready to talk to *s. Analo-ies of Lapses in onscio*sness In e+eryday life yo* o+erhear people sayin. &hey then ha+e to reco+er step by step the 2anner in which they did it.< .M*ch of the abo+e act*ally appeared to be a con+ersation between Erickson and Rossi.Spontaneo*s Awakenin. .Erickson here -i+es se+eral clinical e9a2ples of how he reco-nized 2ini2al c*es of hand6 eye6 and lip beha+ior that indicated that certain patients did not really want to -i+e *p s2okin.and learnin. Erickson notes this and re2arks that she is awakenin.dream until it is important to remember it% so can she% by implication% forget she 'as in trance until it is important to remember it& (ou then administer the indirect posthypnotic suggestion& (ou don>t directly tell her to forget she 'as in trance& That might only e1o)e the typical reaction of consciousness% G"ut I don>t )no' ho'I>G Instead% you describe the )ind of pleasant e3perience she can ha1e Gcoming out of the trance thin)ing she is ready to go into a trance for the first time&G Instead of gi1ing a direct suggestion to do something consciousness 'ould find difficult% you simply moti1ate her for a GpleasantG e3perience& (ou tal) about the degree of daylight outside as an indication of the passage of time& erhaps that 'ill be the only cue that 'ill enable her to recogniEe she 'as in trance for some time& (ou also prepared for this earlier 'hen you tal)ed about the 'ay the unconscious uses cues and the 1alue of relying on the unconscious to do things& Thus% during the earlier part of this session you 'ere laying an important foundation for this seemingly casual posthypnotic suggestion& (ou 'ere building an associational net'or) and acti1ating mental mechanisms that might be utiliEed to facilitate forgetting in an entirely autonomous or dissociated manner& $9 (es% you are al'ays building one thing on another and relating 'hat you are saying no' to 'hat you said earlier& $epotentiatin. &hese e9a2ples ill*strated the difference between conscio*s p*rpose and a deeper *nderstandin. E9periencin.of 2oti+ation. S apparently felt abandoned and be-an spontaneo*sly to awaken6 as was indicated by 2ini2al 2o+e2ents of her lips6 nose6 forehead wrinklin-6 and so2e fin-er 2o+e2ents.onscio*sness.to the2sel+es6 ="ow 8*st how did I do that:= What they 2ean is6 they don5t know how they did it.< R9 Here you>re gi1ing e3amples of lapses in consciousness in e1eryday life& "y simply mentioning these possibilities you hope to facilitate their occurrence in S as a means of depotentiating her consciousness so she can learn to rely more on her unconscious& Acceptin.e+en tho*-h they presented the2sel+es in therapy for that p*rpose. R.

I want yo* to learn a lot faster than I did.oin them 'hen they come out% and later they 'ill .tilization S. Why don5t yo* do so2ethinlike that: R.sit*ation yo* ha+e to do yo*r own learnin-. )*t I52 kind of c*rio*s why yo* don5t follow thro*-h with so2eone who is in trance. Like when I do hypnotherapy6 I stay ri-ht with the patient the whole ti2e6 and then when I 8*d-e it5s ri-ht6 I say yo* can co*nt to wake *p or whate+er.and . When yo* were sayin. What do yo* want to know: E.oin you in follo'ing your suggestions more easily& (ou al'ays gi1e the patient appro1al for 'hat she is doing& R9 There is no need for the beginning hypnotherapist to panic 'hen a patient spontaneously comes a'a)e& That>s .yo* for a proble26 I5d stay with yo* and -i+e yo* s*pport at different . (es6 $r. "ow if I were treatin. S. In a learnin. )*t when yo* said I was wakin. Well6 I was 8*2pin.S.an$one& $9 That>s rightL Alternatin.to wake *p6 I act*ally had already abandoned the idea beca*se 2y hands were so hea+y I co*ldn5t 2o+e the2. What is the lo-ic of what yo* do: E.*p6 I tried to wake *p a-ain. Erickson6 why don5t yo* beha+e like a re-*lar hypnotherapist sho*ld: R9 Here you accepted her spontaneous a'a)ening and utiliEed it as part of a hypnotic suggestion by simply remar)ing on it and helping it happen further& eople are continually going in and out of trance% so 'hen they are coming out you may as 'ell utiliEe that beha1ior to strengthen the hypnotic relationship rather than contesting it and setting up a battle of 'ills bet'een therapist and patient& (ou can be 'ith them 'hether they are in or out of trance& $9 (ou may as 'ell .aro*nd a lot.I was tryin. It took 2e abo*t BE years to learn6 and there is no sense in that.Rhyth2s of S*--estibility R9 There are only moments 'hen the therapist can effecti1ely direct something the patient 'ants to e3perience& "ut it is Gtouch and go:touch and go&G 8oments 'hen a suggestion can be accepted alternate 'ith moments 'hen they cannot& $9 0nd the therapist can remain comfortable in that situation& R9 (es% this is 1ery important for the beginning therapist to learn9 there is a natural rhythm in patients that the therapist learns to recogniEe and go along 'ith& + used to get all tense in 'or)ing 'ith patients by thin)ing% GOh% this is not 'or)ing% that doesn>t 'or) either% the 'hole thing>s not happening&G Such an attitude I no' see is ridiculous& $9 It is so ridiculousL (ou ne1er gi1e the patient the impression that you must be constantly alert& (ou gi1e them the impression that they are al'ays sharing in the responsibility for the success of the 'or)& S had e3pressed her belief that 'hen she did hypnotherapy she had to stay right 'ith the patient all the time& Therefore 'hen I appeared to be distracted% that ga1e her reason to 'a)e up& &rance &rainin.ust their natural mode of functioning and is to be accepted as a 'ay of strengthening the hypnotic relationship& $9 If it is their 'ay of functioning% you>d better go along 'ith it& R9 The thera%ist is not reall$ in control o. #nly what yo* want to tell *s.

points.0atient5s "eeds S.things as the$ develo%ed& R9 That accounts for your de1elopment of utiliEation techni4ues:one of your basic contributions to modern hypnosis& (ou utiliEe the patient>s o'n beha1ior to initiate trance% self@e3ploration% and the li)e& Fail*re of S*--estion by not Meetin.. It5s al2ost as if I fell asleep beca*se I ca*-ht 2yself noddin. what it is6 how yo* deal with proble2s6 how yo* deal with s2okin-6 wei-ht proble2s6 etc. E. E.. S. Why do yo* think yo* -ot dizzy: S.the feel of e+erythin-. What was happenin.t too& me a long time to let things develo% and ma&e use o.process6 -ettin.way Erickson re+ealed he had act*ally obser+ed 2any 2ore details of S5s trance beha+ior than she co*ld recall. E. When I tried to lift 2y ar2s toward the end in an effort to awaken6 I -ot dizzy. .2e what to do. S. In an a2azin.ect gro'L R9 Oh% they learn to do their o'n thing at their o'n pace& (ou let them gro' and not interfere 'ith their natural gro'th process& $9 +$ learning over the $ears was that . Well6 I -*ess I want to know the practical thin-s abo*t hypnosis.on yo*r left side6 so2e distance off to the left: Were yo* lookinfor so2ethin-: .< R9 Bith this 4uestion S re1eals her highly rational approach& That is 'hy you>1e spent most of this session telling her to gi1e up consciousness control& Could you elaborate here on .the s*b8ecti+e e9periences that were associated with her beha+ior in trance6 s*ch as eye and head 2o+e2ents to the left and ri-ht6 2in*te 2o+e2ents of the face6 breathin. Are yo* s*re yo* co2e o*t of it beca*se yo* are bored: S. It was a disorientation6 as if I co*ld be tippin. I think S has been -ettin.ust 'hat you 'ant her to learn on her o'nI This appears almost li)e self@ hypnosis% 'here the person has to do it all on their o'n& (ou>re telling her to learn to let things happenI $9 That>s right& R9 If an itch happens% fine% go along 'ith it& If hea1iness happens% fine% go along 'ith it& If memories happen% fineL If you flash and trip around in your head% fineL 2$ric)son here tells an amusing anecdote about a husband and 'ife trying to outdo each other in gro'ing tomatoes& 0 fe' days after planting them the 'ife decided they needed more sun% so she transplanted them& #ater it seemed to her they needed more shade% so she transplanted them again:and so on& She 'as still transplanting them 'hen her husband 'as har1esting his tomatoes&5 R9 So 'hat>s the rele1ance of that story for 'hat 'e are discussingI $9 (ou let the sub.all sorts of ways.a few ti2es. It was like when yo* first wake *p in the 2ornin. I was 2yself en8oyin.why the heck yo* weren5t tellin. It was a stran-e body sensation. R.Erickson now p*ts a detailed series of A*estions to S re-ardin. )*t yo* are in a learnin.alternations6 etc. tried to direct the %atient too much2 . I2patient in a c*rio*s way6 and that is always a barrier.i2patient with *s. .and yo* are +ery -ro--y. )*t this way I 8*st trip aro*nd till I52 bored and then co2e o*t of it.the trance in the be-innin-H then I beca2e the therapist6 wonderin.

se+eral e9a2ples of e9periential learninand knowin.R.&ILI>A&I#" $ric)son ma)es a highly significant statement in this commentary% G8y learning o1er the years 'as that I tried to direct the patient too much& It too) me a long time to let things de1elop and ma)e use of things as they de1eloped&G This entire session 'ith S 'as an effort on $ric)son>s part to train her to allo' things to happen spontaneously% unconsciously& The most basic learning in hypnotic 'or) is to let things to happen of themsel1es% to let the unconscious function as free as possible from the learned habits and programs of consciousness& It too) $ric)son a long time to learn that this is the first essential in all sound hypnotherapeutic 'or)& atients are patients because they are out of rapport 'ith their o'n unconscious& Trance allo's the patient to e3perience his o'n unconscious free% to some e3tent% from the limitations of his conscious sets& Once this unconscious mode of functioning becomes manifest% then $ric)son feels free to help the patient utiliEe it for therapeutic purposes& Therapeutic hypnosis is not .+ers*s intellect*al learnin-.< R9 (ou attempted to e3tend her trance training in this session by gi1ing her an interesting posthypnotic suggestion to forget she 'as in trance& To carry out that suggestion successfully% she 'ould ha1e to rely on her o'n unconscious% as she did in her last session 'hen she e3perienced that mar1elous age regression% hypermenesia& "ut in this session she 'as irritated because you did not meet her preconcei1ed e3pectations of ho' closely attenti1e you should be to her during trance& "ecause these more personal emotional needs 'ere not met% your indirect posthypnotic suggestion paled into insignificance and 'as not recei1ed& That she 'as e3periencing trance is indicated by the hea1iness of her hands% but then the therapist obser1er 'ithin her may ha1e gotten in the 'ay of further e3periential learning in this session& This is a clear indication of ho' important it is to recogniEe and meet in some 'ay the patient>s emotional needs before 'e can e3pect them to rela3 to the point 'here they can rely upon their unconscious to carry out suggestions& &RA" E &RAI"I"% A"$ .of trance.ust another techni4ue for programming patients& atients are people 'ho ha1e had too much programming:so much outside programming that they ha1e lost touch 'ith their inner sel1es& Therapeutic trance is an e3perience 'herein patients recei1e something from 'ithin themsel1es& The astute hypnotherapist is one 'ho arranges circumstances to permit such recepti1ity to inner e3perience& He helps the patient to recogniEe the 1alue of his uni4ue inner e3perience and pro1ides suggestions about ho' it may be utiliEed therapeutically& Be may note that this 'ay of defining therapeutic trance is 1ery similar to the classical use of meditation& The 'ord GmeditationG comes from the #atin meditari. S is *sed to intellect*al learnin.%%ES&I#" $ric)son>s use of a boring e3planation of arithmetic to fatigue /r& S in this session re1eals some basic principles of his use of indirect suggestion in a particularly clear manner& $ric)son did not directly suggestion that she 'ould be rela3ed% tired% or fatigued& Rather he used an arithmetic e3planation as a stimulus 2Sarithmetic5 for e1o)ing an e3ternal response of being polite 2Rpolite5%'hich in turn e1o)ed 'ithin /r& S an internal response of boredom 2rboredom5 'hich led her to feel fatigued 2Rfatigue5& This process of outer stimulus% internal mediation% and beha1ioral response can be outlined as sho'n in Figure +& There is little or no identity .Erickson ter2inates this session by -i+in.75& &HE $("AMI S #F I"$IRE & A"$ $IRE & S.rather than the e9periential learnin.. a passi1e form of the 1erb that means literally Gbeing mo1ed to the center&G Consciousness remains passi1e as it is mo1ed to the center 2the unconscious5% 'here it can achie1e 'holeness9 a reunion 'ith contents and tendencies that ha1e been e3cluded from consciousness 2Cung% +. .

ect can recogniEe or influence in any 'ay& Sarithmetic Rpolite rboredom sboredom Rfatigue Figure +& The process of indirect suggestion 'ith no ob1ious relation bet'een the suggestion 2Sarithmetic5 and response 2Rfatigue5@ The large letters represent o1ert% e3ternal% ob.ects 'ith a sense of surprise& The response appeared to occur in an in1oluntary and spontaneous manner& It has a curiously dissociated or autonomous aspect that is usually ac)no'ledged as Ghypnotic&G 0 problem 'ith direct suggestion is that the responses obtained may simply be 1oluntary compliance on the part of the sub.ect accepts and acts on a direct suggestion& Bith indirect suggestion% ho'e1er% sub.ect 'ill cooperate 'ith this e3act suggestion or find other internal processes by 'hich the response can be mediated& Ho' the response is mediated 'ithin is sometimes understood at least in part by the sub.-65 actually train their sub.ects recogniEe that they made the response happen& The response is more or less under 1oluntary control& Indirect suggestion% by contrast% is usually mediated by internal processes that remain un)no'n to the sub.-=5 or a form of 1oluntary conscious cooperation in thin)ing and imagining along 'ith the theorist>s suggestions 2"arber% Spanos% and Cha1es% +.bet'een the suggestion 2Sarithmetic5 and the final response 2Rfatigue5 that the sub.ect& Bhen they are successful% sub.ects& They may simply be trying to please the therapist in a fully conscious 'ay& Thus% theorists 'ho ha1e identified hypnosis and trance 'ith suggestibility 2compliance 'ith direct suggestions5 ha1e been led to a do'ngrading of the autonomous or in1oluntary aspects of hypnotic e3perience& Thus% 'e ha1e theories of trance as 1oluntary role@playing 2Sarbin and Coe% +.ects usually ha1e some a'areness of& The sub.ects usually do not recogniEe the relation bet'een the suggestion and their o'n response& There thus can be no 4uestion of 1oluntary compliance 'ith the therapist>s suggestion& If a response does ta)e place% then it has been .-65& These are all actually theories of direct suggestion& 0n unconscious or in1oluntary component is not necessarily e1ident 'hen a sub.ecti1e e1ents% 'hile the small letters 2r and s5 represent co1ert% internal% sub.ects e3actly 'hat internal processes they should use to mediate the response& In gi1ing a direct suggestion the therapist can only hope the sub.ects to use conscious ideation in this 'ay& /irect suggestion could be diagrammed as sho'n in Figure =% 'here there is a clear identity bet'een the initial suggestion% the internally mediated responses% and the outer response that the sub.ects 'ith a stimulus that identifies 'hat the response should be& Fre4uently the therapist offering direct suggestions 'ill actually tell sub.ects& The response% 'hen it is noticed% is usually ac)no'ledged by the sub.ects usually report that they imagined themsel1es in a fatiguing situation% for e3ample% and then by association they managed to e1o)e a response of fatigue they could actually feel& Some in1estigators 2"arber% Spanos% and Cha1es% +.ecti1e e1ents that are usually not understood or e1en recogniEed by the patient& /irect suggestion% by contrast% presents sub.ect can recogniEe and influence& Sfatigue rfatigue Sfatigue situation Rfatigue Figure =& The process of direct suggestion 'ith an ob1ious relation bet'een the suggestion 2Sfatigue5 and the response 2Rfatigue5& The internal mediating responses 2rfatigue :P Sfatigue situation5 are in part recogniEed and understood by the patient& /irect and indirect suggestions can both achie1e effecti1e results% but they are mediated in different 'ays such that their relations to consciousness and 1olition are different& /irect suggestion is mediated by internal processes that the sub.

ect>s presence in the office and sitting in the same chair as the first time& There 'ill be associations bet'een the appearance of the room% the presence of the cut@glass paper'eight that $ric)son usually uses as a point for eye@fi3ation induction% etc& Indeed% for some sub.-<5 has emphasiEed that the defining feature of hypnotic suggestion is the absence of conscious 1olition in the production of the hypnotic response& Be agree 'ith this basic formulation& In order to ta)e a preliminary step in ma)ing a distinction bet'een direct and indirect suggestion 'e ha1e discussed the role of conscious a'areness and intention in our formulation abo1e& In direct suggestion it is possible for the patient to ha1e some conscious a'areness of ho' the hypnotic response is mediated 'ithin and may in conse4uence attempt either to inhibit or to facilitate the hypnotic response 'ith conscious intentionality& Bith indirect suggestion care is ta)en so that the typical patient 'ill not become a'are of ho' the hypnotic response is mediated 'ithinJ hence there is less opportunity for conscious intentionality either to facilitate or to bloc) the response& I"$IRE & #"$I&I#"I"% #F &RA" E $ric)son>s use of indirect eyelid conditioning in this session is another prime e3ample of his indirect approach& He labels a slo' eye blin) 2associated 'ith trance5 'ith the 'ord GoddG and a fast eye blin) 'ith the 'ord Ge1en&G The sub.ect is una'are of 'hy or ho' it happens& BeitEenhoffer 2+.-6% +.ects 'ho ha1e successful e3periences 'ith trance the first time they come into $ric)son>s office 'ill ha1e many associati1e connections built bet'een trance e3perience and $ric)son as a person% his 1oice% his manner% and other characteristics& There 'ill be associati1e connections bet'een trance and the sub.ects are on their 'ay to an appointment& $ric)son simply 'atches for these natural processes of conditioning the e3perience of trance& Bhen patients enter the office% $ric)son carefully obser1es their beha1ior for the subtle signs of trance& 8any of these are standard signs that are fairly applicable to most people9 slo' eye blin)% economy of mo1ement% smoothing of facial features% response attenti1eness% and so on& Some signs are characteristic of an indi1idual9 a part of the body held in an inconspicuous catalepsy 2e&g&% the finger of one hand bent in a characteristic 'ay5% a particular gaEe or manner& Bhen $ric)son sees these signs of naturally conditioned trance beha1ior emerging% he simply adopts his o'n usual manner 'hen inducing a trance& He 'ill loo) at the patient 'ith his characteristic attitude of e3pectancy& He may loo) meaningfully at the cut@glass paper'eight& He might ta)e a deep breath and 1isibly rela3& He might e1en .ects the simple beha1ior of going to an appointment 'ith $ric)son is enough to initiate the e3pectation of trance so that inner ad.ect>s immediate range of a'areness& This in1oluntary mediation of responses is 'hat 'e use to define the genuineness of trance beha1ior& The in1oluntary or autonomous response that surprises consciousness is 'hat differentiates hypnotic from ordinary a'a)e beha1ior& Such autonomous responses can be elicited by direct suggestions:2e&g&% all the suggestions of the Stanford 2Hilgard% +.mediated by in1oluntary processes outside of a sub.<-% +..< and the "arber et al& 2+.ustments are being made to facilitate the trance e3perience e1en 'hen the sub.ects find themsel1es drifting into trance 'ithout )no'ing e3actly 'hy& $ric)son actually uses many forms of indirect or incidental conditioning that ta)e place all by themsel1es& Often he relies on nothing more than the natural processes of associational conditioning that are formed bet'een trance e3perience and the situation in 'hich the first trance occurred& Sub.-65 hypnotic suggestibility scales:but 'ith direct suggestion there is al'ays the problem of simulation9 /id the response ta)e place in a 1oluntary or in1oluntary mannerI Bith indirect suggestion% ho'e1er% the 1ery appearance of a response can be a satisfactory criterion of its in1oluntary nature% since the sub.ect did not )no' the connection bet'een her eye blin)s and the 'ords& 0n association can be made bet'een the rapidity of eye blin) and the 'ords GoddG and Ge1enG 'ithout conscious a'areness& Once this association is made% then saying the 'ord GoddG 'ill tend to e1o)e slo' eye blin)s% and since slo' eye blin)s are associated 'ith the beginning of trance 2by pre1ious eye fi3ation induction as 'ell as by e1eryday life e3perience 'herein 'e do begin to blin) slo'ly as 'e drift into altered states li)e daydreaming and sleep5% sub.

ect meanings that are important to itself& 'oice Loc*s and 'ol*2e for Spatial10ercept*al .ects& It may help to ha1e a trained obser1er present to help you recogniEe subtle beha1ior changes that you do not recogniEe yourself& '#I E $("AMI S I" &RA" E $ric)son>s use of 1oice dynamics is another ma.of &rance +& #earn to obser1e your patients carefully as they enter the therapy situation after ha1ing had a trance e3perience during the pre1ious session& Can you discern signs of de1eloping tranceI =& Carefully study your o'n physical office situation and induction procedures to disco1er 'hat incidental associations are being formed bet'een your patients> trance e3perience and the physical characteristics of the setting and your o'n beha1ior& lan ho' you might utiliEe these to facilitate later trances& A& Bhat non1erbal cues can you learn to utiliEe to reinduce trance in your pre1ious sub.or approach to indirect suggestion& This use of 1oice dynamics ranges from simple direct suggestion that his 1oice 'ill e1o)e personal associations to indirect conditioning 'herein he associates the locus of his 1oice to different processes 'ithin the sub.Attention to &herapist5s 'oice as an Indication of &rance E9perience In the traditional style of direct suggestion the therapist often tells the patient to pay attention to the therapist>s 1oice and ignore e1erything else& That is an effecti1e approach 'ith direct suggestion& For indirect suggestion% by contrast% $ric)son 'ill typically tell patients that they do not ha1e to bother listening to his 1oice& Bhen patients later report that during trance they lost trac) of $ric)son>s 1oice and did not al'ays )no' 'hat he 'as tal)ing about% it can be ta)en as an indication of the typical de1elopment of trance& Initially many sub.ectsI 8any of these 'ill be the slight alterations in your o'n beha1ior as you are facilitating trance e3perience in your sub.ects report an alteration in hearing and not hearing or paying attention& This spontaneous alteration may correspond to the spontaneous alteration of trance depth that is a characteristic feature of hypnotic e3perience& &herapist 'oice as 'ehicle for 0ro8ection In this session $ric)son suggested that /r& S could learn to hear his 1oice only as a meaningful sound to 'hich she 'ould gi1e an interpretation& That is% the content of $ric)son>s 'ords could be ignored& The sound of his 1oice could become a 1ehicle carrying /r& S>s o'n pro.close his eyes for a moment& These are all non1erbal cues for patients to enter further into the trance they may already be e3periencing& atients are surprised to find ho' easily trance de1elops% and they fre4uently ha1e no idea of ho' or 'hy& $1en 'hen patients ha1e some intellectual a'areness of ho' they ha1e been conditioned to e3perience trance% they find it more comfortable to go along than to resist& (et% if patients 'ant to resist the de1eloping trance% they certainly can& Such indirectly conditioned trances de1elop to a significant degree only in an atmosphere of trust% comfort% and cooperation% 'here there is an e3pectation that something 'ill be gained from the e3perience& E9ercises with Indirect or Incidental onditionin.ections& Fre4uently $ric)son 'ill suggest or imply that 'hat he says is not important& Only the patient>s interpretation of 'hat he says in important& "ecause of this he 'ill use 'ords 'ith multiple meanings% puns% incomplete sentences% and dangling phrases% so that the patient>s unconscious can pro.ect& Alternatin.

nconscio*s One of $ric)son>s most interesting but contro1ersial uses of 1oice locus is his effort to direct suggestions selecti1ely to the conscious and unconscious of the patient& 0s he goes through his induction tal)% $ric)son may shift slightly to the right e1ery time he mentions the 'ord GconsciousG or tal)s about ob1iously conscious matters of interest& He shifts slightly to the left 'hene1er he uses the 'ord GunconsciousG or tal)s about in1oluntary and autonomous processes that are usually mediated 'ithout 1oluntary conscious control& Bithout the patients realiEing it% they are being conditioned to associate conscious 1oluntary processes 'ith 1oice locus coming from the right and unconscious or in1oluntary and disdissociated processes 'ith 1oice locus on the left& Once these associations are established% $ric)son can beam a suggestion to a conscious or unconscious le1el by shifting his 1oice in the appropriated direction& It 'ill be a matter of future empirical research and practice to determine the effecti1eness of this procedure and the degree to 'hich others can learn to use it effecti1ely in a systematic 'ay& E9ercises with 'oice $yna2ics +& Study tape recordings of your o'n 1oice during therapy sessions and in e1eryday life situations to become more familiar 'ith your o'n natural 1oice dynamics in different circumstances and 'hat you are consciously and unconsciously communicating& =& Study recordings of your 1oice before and during trance induction to learn 'hat changes you usually ma)e and ho' these changes may be facilitating or interfering 'ith trance de1elopment in your patients& A& The actual conscious utiliEation of one>s o'n 1oice dynamics re4uires some practice& The ob.-A5 or .ect is to use 1oice dynamics in a 'ay that does not arouse the patient>s conscious attention& Other'ise their purpose may be largely lost& One can begin by learning to spea) a bit so-tl$ 'hen one 'ants to obtain the listener>s closer attention& One can then learn to spea) more slowl$ 'hen one 'ants to help a listener slo' do'n& One can practice spea)ing .Associations One of $ric)son>s uni4ue contributions to the use of 1oice locus is 'hat 'e might call its spatial@perceptual associations& 0s he tal)s about associations and memories bac) in the past% he may tip his chair bac)'ard a'ay from the patient% lo'er his 1oice% and e1en turn his head a'ay from the patient% so that it seems as if his 1oice is coming from far a'ay& Cust as the 1oice is far a'ay% so 'ill the patient>s memories come from far a'ay in their dim past& 0s those memories stir and become a1ailable to the patient>s a'areness% $ric)son may gradually tip his chair for'ard and come closer to the patient and spea) more clearly and loudly& "ut his manner is al'ays subtle% so that the patient does not recogniEe 'hat he is doing& The patient>s unconscious% ho'e1er% may utiliEe these differences in 1oice locus and 1olume as stimuli that e1o)e altered patterns of association that may ma)e 1aluable memories a1ailable& In one stri)ing demonstration 'ith a sub.ects to recei1e suggestions at different le1els of a'areness& Can you de1ise ne' field e3periments 2$ric)son% +.-A5 has reported ho' 1oice locus can be used to induce sea sic)ness% 1ertigo% and similar conditions& 'oice Loc*s for onditioninLe+els of Recepti+ity onscio*s and .ect it up'ard by loo)ing up 'hen he 'anted her to see something up in the air and 1ice 1ersa 'hen he 'anted her to see something lo'er on her internal 1isual screen& The mo1ements of her closed eyes 'ere obser1ed to follo' the locus and pitch of his 1oice e3actly& The patient later remar)ed about the peculiar alteration in the height at 'hich the suggested images appeared to her& $ric)son 2+.ust a bit more loudly and distinctly 'hen one 'ants a patient to arouse from trance& 6& $3plore the use of 1oice locus in conditioning sub.ect 'ho 'as 1isualiEing a suggested scene 'ith her eyes closed% $ric)son 'ould raise the pitch of his 1oice and actually pro.

more controlled e3perimental situations to assess the effecti1eness of this use of 1oice locusI I"&ER #"&E/&.ES A"$ I"$IRE & S.ects in the trance state% it is not only 'hat you say% but it is 'hat they hear% that is important& I can gi1e you an e3ample& #et us say there is a 1illage named Sun-lower in 0riEona& #et us ta)e another imaginary place 'e 'ill call Beldon>s ditches2 (ou carry on a casual con1ersation about 0riEona and you mention Suntower2 Rather than Sun-lower2 (ou purposely say Suntower2 The person listening automatically and unheedingly corrects you and doesn>t )no' that you actually said 6Suntower26 In tal)ing about the southern part of 0riEona and strip mining you mention Belson>s Britches 2instead of Ditches. it is short.ect& The interspersed suggestion comes at an unex%ected moment.2 No' you ha1e said t'o things outrageously 'rong and the sub. it is usually a truism that is not arguable% and the therapist )uic&l$ moves on to the general con1ersation before the patients can react to the suggestion& The suggestion is recei1ed% but the patients ha1e no opportunity to resist it 'ith their habitual associations% limiting frames of reference% or other inhibiting factors& The general con1ersation that is of interest to the patients has the follo'ing functions as .ect has consciously corrected 'hat you said& So consciously they thin) you said Sun-lower6 and Beldon>s /itches& "ut the unconscious heard you say Suntower and Britches2 They detect and remember that& (ou can later use that because they don>t )no' 'hy they are impelled to tal) about a -lower and a /utchman>s Britches2 Rossi9 They are impelled to use those associations 'hich you placed in their unconscious& $ric)son9 (es& They may then tal) about that G/e1ils To'erG in the Caribbean and ha1e no idea of ho' you got that association across to them& "ut you )no' ho' you ha1e done it& They can>t consciously e1er figure it out& Their consciousness corrected for their conscious mind% but their unconscious heard it& Rossi9 (our error remains lodged in their unconscious% stri1ing for e3pression& $ric)son9 It is lodged there in the unconscious% and you can )eep on tal)ing and dri1e the con1ersation in such a fashion that the discussion of 'ildflo'ers brings up /utchman>s Britches and the /e1ils Tower in the Caribbean& This rather e3treme e3ample may be characteriEed as one of placing associations 'ithin the patient>s unconscious and then allo'ing the unconscious to utiliEe them in its o'n 'ay& 0 more common practice is $ric)son>s habitual use of pauses that brea) up his sentence structure into phrases% each of 'hich can ha1e its o'n meaning that can be entirely independent of the meaning the sentence has as a 'hole& In our transcripts of the induction section of each session 'e made an effort to note these important pauses& The separate and independent meaning of each phrase can be described as interconte3tual cues and suggestions that are pic)ed up and partially processed by the unconscious% 'hile the conscious simply 'aits for the remainder of the sentence& These phrases buried in the conte3t of the sentence thus function as another form of indirect suggestion& This use of phrases as separate suggestions buried 'ithin the broader conte3t of the 'hole sentence is actually another form of inters%ersal techni)ue 2$ric)son% +..%%ES&I#"S The lengths to 'hich $ric)son 'ill go in utiliEing all sorts of inter@conte3tual cues as indirect suggestion is indicated in the follo'ing dialogue& $ric)son9 I had some repetiti1e dreams last night about some things that should be said about this& In gi1ing suggestions and instruction to hypnotic sub.AL ..b5& $ric)son has illustrated the uses of inters%ersing suggestions 'ithin the broader conte3t of a general con1ersation about a topic the patient can easily identify 'ith 2e&g&% a general con1ersation about gro'ing plants 'ith a farmer% caring for children 'ith a mother% and so on5& Interspersed in this con1ersation is a pattern of suggestions that come at random inter1als 2fre4uently 'ith a slightly different intonation of 1oice5 so they are unpredictable by the sub.

-65 for the interspersed suggestions and thus pre1ents a patient>s usual associati1e structure from interfering 'ith the suggestions& The intercontextual cues and suggestions buried 'ithin the general conte3t of a sentence 'ould appear to function in the same 'ay as the inters%ersed suggestions in the conte3t o.a general conversation as described abo1e& E9ercises with Interconte9t*al *es and S*--estions +& Re1ie' the induction sections of all pre1ious sessions to study the interconte3tual cues and suggestions that are present in the phrases but not in the sentence as a 'hole& =& On the other hand% note ho' at times the separate phrases of each sentence ha1e the same implications as the total sentence& In such cases the phrases can summate and greatly reinforce the suggestion contained in the sentence as a 'hole% but 'ithout belaboring the point and possibly arousing the limiting reactions of an a'a)ened consciousness& A& Notice ho' often in pre1ious commentary sections $ric)son brings attention to this or that phrase as a separate suggestion buried 'ithin a more general conte3t& It 'asn>t until this session% ho'e1er% that it finally da'ns on Rossi that $ric)son 'as trying to teach another indirect approach to suggestion% 'hich 'e ha1e no' labeled Ginterconte3tual cues and suggestions&G 6& In actual practice it is 1ery easy to learn ho' to administer inter@conte3tual cues and suggestions& Simply tape record your sessions and later study the transcripts to note 'hat interconte3tual cues and suggestions you are un'ittingly gi1ing& 0s you become more sensiti1e to your o'n buried suggestions% you 'ill de1elop a heightened a'areness of 'hat you are saying 'hen you actually say it in the therapy sessions& Soon you 'ill 'elcome the pauses in your sentence structure to sa1or your interconte3tual cues and bring them under greater control& 0s you administer a phrase and carefully 'atch the patient>s face% you can study the patient>s in1oluntary response 2'incing% smiling% etc&5 to each separate phrase& This can gi1e you a sense of the reality of interconte3tual suggestions& (ou 'ill then be able to utiliEe these immediate patient responses as a )ind of feedbac) to ma)e you more a'are of the effect your 'ords are ha1ing on the patient>s associati1e structure& (ou can then learn to orchestrate your phrases and the patient>s responses to more ade4uately effect the therapeutic harmonies you are attempting to create together& RI%H&1 A"$ LEF&1HEMIS0HERI F.a 1ehicle for the interspersed suggestions& +& The general con1ersation facilitates the de1elopment of an accepting or Gyes set%G since it is a topic of interest to the patients& The interspersed suggestion is thus recei1ed 'ith acceptance along 'ith the o1ert message that is moti1ating to the patients& =& The general con1ersation )eeps the patients Ga'a)eG at an optimal le1el of recepti1ity rather than drifting to the border of sleep and its uncertain recepti1ity& A& The topic of interest facilitates patients> rapport 'ith the therapist% rather than ha1e them drift too far off into their o'n associati1e matri3% 'hich might again result in uncertain recepti1ity& 6& The interspersing of suggestions 'ithin a familiar and redundant message facilitates a structured amnesia 2$ric)son and Rossi% +." &I#"I"% I" &RA" E In our efforts to conceptualiEe $ric)son>s understanding of trance and its facilitation 'e ha1e used a number of different models9 +& The psychodynamic model of the conscious@unconscious system =& The learning theory model of beha1ioral psychology A& 0 linguistic model utiliEing multiple le1els of communication& From this session it is finally clear that a neuropsychological model utiliEing the differences bet'een right@ and left@hemispheric functioning is also implicit in $ric)son>s 'or)% e1en though he de1eloped his 1ie's and s)ills long before the recent studies of hemispheric .

functioning 2Sperry% +,.?J GaEEaniga% +,.-J "ogen% +,.,5& These studies suggest to some in1estigators that e3periences of trance% re1erie% and dream are all characteristic of right@ hemispheric functioning% 'hile the rational% logical% and 1erbal modes of functioning are more characteristic of the left& 0 summary listing of the differences in hemispheric functioning that can be related to $ric)son>s emphasis on the differences bet'een a'a)e and trance e3perience is as follo's9 /e-t #emis%here :!wa&e; (ight #emis%here :Trance; #inguistic antomime% )inesthetic% musical #ogical@Grammatical Visuospatial Rational Intuiti1e 0bstract #iteral@concrete 0nalytical erceptual@synthetic /irected Spontaneous Focal /iffuse $ffort Comfort From this dichotomy it is clear that much of $ric)son>s efforts to facilitate trance e3perience are directed to depotentiating left hemispheric functioning& The hallmar) of left@ hemispheric functioning is the linguistic and logical@grammatical organiEation of consciousness% 'hich is usually related to the location of the speech center in the left corte3& 8any of $ric)son>s non1erbal% pantomime% and indirect approaches to trance induction are ob1iously means of shifting consciousness a'ay from this linguistic specialiEation of the left hemisphere& 0s 'e ha1e disco1ered in this 1olume% many of $ric)son>s habitual forms of 1erbal e3pression are actually designed to ;am or depotentiate the orderly% rational% abstract% and directing functions of a sub;ect>s usual modes of left@hemispheric )no'ing& His use of shoc)% surprise% dissociation% shifting frames of reference% confusion% parado3% and double binds are thus all directed to depotentiating the left hemisphere& His emphasis on body language% cues from 1oice locus% emphasis% rhythm% etc& are all shifts a'ay from the rational and analytic to the perceptual% )inesthetic% and synthetic of functioning so characteristic of the right hemisphere& Bhen he uses hypnotic forms li)e implication% e3pectancy% partial remar)s% and dangling phrases% analogies% metaphors> puns% and fol) language% he is again shifting a'ay from the abstract and analytical to the intuiti1e and synthetic modes of the right& 8any of the most characteristic features of trance e3perience such as re1erie% dream% literalism% comfort% and the autonomous or spontaneous flo' of mental e3perience and beha1ior are all facilitated by hypnotic forms such as not doing and not )no'ing% open@ended suggestions and suggestions co1ering all possibilities of response& 8any in1estigations 2"a)an% +,.,J 8organ% 8ac/onald% and Hilgard% +,-65 ha1e e3plored the 1ie' that left@hemispheric functions are diminished during trance and then assumed that right@hemispheric functioning 'as thereby enhanced& This does appear to be the case in those specialiEed trance states 'here there are suggestions made to enhance patients> perceptions of their o'n body and personality& The right hemisphere is more directly concerned 'ith the perception of sensory and )inesthetic cues% spatial orientation% and the organiEation of the body schema 2#uria% +,-A5& In the more typical trance state% ho'e1er% it is precisely the disturbances of the body schema that 'e recogniEe as characteristics of the trance state& /istortions of the body image:such as feeling a part of the body 2head% hand% etc&5 as being unusually large or small% dissociated% or anesthetic:are fre4uently commented on spontaneously by sub;ects e3periencing trance for the first time& Such distortions are also characteristic of patients 'ith organic disturbances of the right hemisphere& #uria reports se1eral other patterns of right@hemispheric dysfunction that are similar to spontaneous phenomena of trance& atients 'ith deep lesions of the right hemisphere sho'ed se1ere loss of spatial orientation and disturbances of the time sense& 0s 'e ha1e seen in this 1olume% time distortion is highly characteristic of trance% and one of the most reliable signs of people a'a)ening from trance are their efforts to reorient to their o'n bodies& #uria e1en reports Gtrance logicG in such patients 'herein they firmly belie1e they can be in t'o places at once% ;ust as do some hypnotic sub;ects 'hen they are e3periencing

1isual hallucinations 2Orne% +,<,5& These correspondences indicate that in the typical trance right@hemispheric functions can be depressed ;ust as 'ell as those of the left& In fact% because of the more global and diffuse character of right@hemispheric functioning% the right hemisphere may be more easily altered than the left& "ecause of this 'e fre4uently 'itness the disturbances of body schema% etc& 'ithout any bloc)ing of the more focal linguistic@logical functions of the left& This is particularly characteristic of highly intellectualiEed sub;ects 2"arber% +,-<5% 'ho may accurately describe the sensory@perceptual distortions their right hemisphere is e3periencing 'ith the unimpaired 1erbal logic of the left hemisphere& #uria also comments on this situation% 'here patients 'ill ma)e an effort to mas) changes in personality and consciousness due to lesions of the right hemisphere 'ith glib 1erbal formulations& This sounds 1ery similar to the mode of highly intellectualiEed sub;ects% 'ho tend to deny that trance or an altered state 'as e3perienced& Such sub;ects are probably both right and 'rong& They are right in denying any alteration in their left@hemispheric functioning but are 'rong in denying and remaining una'are of alterations in their right@hemispheric functioning& This 1ery denial of any disturbance in functioning is also characteristic of patients 'ith organic dysfunctions of the right hemisphere& These considerations indicate that it may be too simple to 1ie' trance as a function of the right hemisphere& The 'ay trance is usually induced 'ith suggestions for rela3ation and comfort tends to alter the functioning of both left and right hemispheres& Be can understand 'hy right@hemispheric functions are usually more ob1iously altered than those of the left% ho'e1er& Since the left hemisphere is dominant and more focal in its functioning% the right hemisphere tends to be depotentiated more easily in the early stages of learning to e3perience trance& 8ost people ha1e 'ell@established habits to maintain and control their left@hemispheric functions more than those of their right% so the right hemisphere tends to be more easily depontentiated or altered than the left& 0nd since the left hemisphere is the center of 1erbal@logical consciousness% it can contradict or GdefendG itself against the 1erbal@ logical suggestions of the hypnotherapist& The right hemisphere% by contrast% is used to cooperating 'ith the 1erbal@logical formulations of its o'n left hemisphere& The right hemisphere thus need only generaliEe this function of cooperation to go along 'ith the 1erbal suggestions of the therapist& These recent studies of the characteristics of left@ and right@hemispheric functioning can thus greatly enhance our understanding of trance phenomena& They pro1ide a source of interesting hypotheses for further e3plorations of trance e3perience and suggest means for refining classical procedures as 'ell as the in1ention of ne' methods& This neuropsychological approach ta)es the 1erbal GmagicG out of suggestions and pro1ides us 'ith a sound rationale for understanding hypnotic susceptibility as a function of both genetic and learned patterns of indi1idual differences in beha1ioral response&


Infinite 0atterns of Learnin-, A &wo1(ear Follow*p
0fter one final session% during 'hich /r& S discussed her initial efforts and problems in beginning to use hypnosis in clinical practice% /r& S felt she had sufficient 'or) 'ith $ric)son for the present and planned to continue her training in the 'or)shops of the 0merican Society of Clinical Hypnosis and under professional super1ision 'here she 'or)ed& T'o years later she 'as contacted for a follo'up& She reported that in the inter1ening period she had continued her training in hypnotherapy and 'as using it regularly in her clinical practice& Bhen she came for the actual inter1ie'% she sat in the same chair 'here she had e3perienced her hypnotherapeutic training 'ith $ric)son& 0s she sat do'n and ad;usted herself% it 'as immediately ob1ious that she 'as ta)ing her habitual posture for induction% 'ith her hands on her thighs% etc& $ric)son recogniEed this body language and 'ithout a 'ord simply loo)ed at her as he usually does 'hen inducing hypnosis& "y reproducing the hypnotic situation in this 'ay% /r& S immediately 'ent into a 1ery deep trance% deeper than any she had e3perienced pre1iously& The follo'up inter1ie' thus became another step% a 1ery profound one% in /r& S>s training& $ric)son uses one of his o'n dream e3periences to initiate a Gt'o@stage dissociati1e regressionG 'herein /r& S e3periences a genuine state of hyperamnesia and reco1ers memories from a phase of her childhood that she had entirely forgotten& $ric)son then initiates a series of open@ended suggestions that 'ould set /r& S on an infinite path of inner e3periential learning& He successfully dra's a curtain of amnesia o1er these suggestions so that /r& S>s conscious mind cannot interfere 'ith them& "ut the ne' e3periential learning 'ould be a1ailable 'hene1er /r& S needed it& /r& S did manage to recall a bit of 'hat her 1ery deep e3perience 'as li)e in this session before $ric)son initiated the process of amnesia& She 'rote a fe' re1ealing paragraphs% GReflections 0fter Trance Induction%G to describe her e3perience& Of particular interest in this session is $ric)son>s illustration of the type of open@ended suggestions that can gi1e rise to infinite patterns of learning that can be of life@sa1ing 1alue& He discusses the earson incident% 'here open@ended suggestions gi1en to a student 'ere utiliEed by him years later in an emergency situation% 'here he 'as able to self@induce anesthesia and an accelerated healing of the physical body after being hit on the head 'ith a bric)& The infinite possibilities of learning initiated by trance 'or) 'ere also illustrated by /r& S>s ingenuous response to reading these transcripts t'o years after they occurred& She reported that in these t'o years she had thought of herself as particularly in1enti1e in her approaches to initiating her patients into trance and the therapeutic uses she de1eloped for trance in groups as 'ell as indi1iduals& !pon reading these transcripts% ho'e1er% she realiEed ho' many of her GoriginalG approaches had their origin in one thing or another that $ric)son had said or done here or there& Her trance e3periences 'ith $ric)son had ob1iously interacted 'ith her o'n creati1e processes to originate ne' thin)ing and beha1ior patterns&

)ody Lan-*a-e and E9pectation of &rance
After bein- introd*ced to $r. >6 who was present as an obser+er6 the inter+iew proceeds as follows. S sits co2fortably with her pal2s on her thi-hs6 e9actly as she did two years a-o when she was ready to enter trance. Erickson instantly reco-nizes this readiness and witho*t sayin- a word be-ins to look steadily and e9pectantly into S5s eyes. S, (o* are starin- at 2e a-ain. E, $escribe yo*r feelin-s as yo* sit there.

< E. . #h6 I feel fine.ects report all sorts of sub. And now en8oy +ery 2*ch -oin. .contin*ed for a few 2o2ents lon-er *ntil S finally closes her eyes6 takes a deeper breath6 and A*ite ob+io*sly enters trance with a rela9ation of facial 2*scles and an absol*te i22obility of body.-+5 regards the trance stare as due to a decrease in the blin) rate together 'ith an appreciable decrease in the spontaneous% random% saccadic mo1ements of the eyeball& Other sub.S.with a hi-her de-ree of e9cellence. Rela9ed and co2fortable. 30a*se4 %ettin.2ore rela9ed. We achie+e certain le+el of learninto skate in the winter. It is -ettin.&rance Ind*ction. 30a*se4 R9 She e3periences this fogging e1en before she closes her eyes& It>s her usual 'ay of e3periencing the first stages of trance% .&rance It is often said6 we learn to skate in the s*22er and to swi2 in the winter. Fo--in.0a*se as the lookin.deeper and deeper.0heno2enon and &rance Stare S.ecti1e changes in the 1isual field during trance induction9 alterations in the color bac)ground% tunnel 1ision% perceptual distortions% illusions% blurring% an apparent decrease in illumination% a 1eil before the eyes% a grayness o1er the 1isual field% and similar changes& $eepenin.0a*se as E and S contin*e to look into each other5s eyes.fo--y a-ain. )eca*se the rando2 2o+e2ents of skatinthat co2plicated the first learnin- . S then blinks slowly a few ti2es.ust as she did t'o years ago& She also demonstrates the Gtrance stateG 'hen she e3periences this fogging& Her eyes ha1e an unblin)ing stare% a fi3ity of regard or a fara'ay or distant loo)& BeitEenhoffer 2+. )*t the ne9t winter we start skatin.< $9 No' I thought that 'as 1ery interesting the 'ay she sat do'n and began to sin) bac) into t'o years ago& 0ll I did 'as gi1e a loo) of confident e3pectation& No' that>s the important thing& 0n infant learning to 'al)% you )no' he can learn to 'al)% but the infant doesn>t )no'& (ou gi1e the infant the confident support of your e3pectation& R9 Her body language cued you into the fact that she 'as ready for trance 'or)& (our e3pectant loo) silently ac)no'ledged that readiness and permitted her to enter trance 'ithout a 'ord being said& #c*lar and 'is*al Alterations $*rin.

3Lon. 30a*se4 . 30a*se4 "ow yo* can -o 2*ch deeper beca*se there are 2any fewer rando2 2o+e2ents or processes. And the first winter the rando2 2o+e2ents were still fresh in 2ind.to do. Its own desires. 30a*se4 And e9perience can be any place6 any ti2e6 in any sit*ation. I don5t know if yo* ha+e any conscio*s idea6 b*t always the *nconscio*s 2ind has its own tho*-hts. 30a*se4 And yo* can feel +ery pleased in disco+erinwhat yo*r *nconscio*s is -oin.pa*se4 And it will be yo*r own e9perience. R9 This 'as a ne' 'ay of deepening trance after a long period of absence from e3periencing an induction& (ou simply describe a truism of the learning process9 random mo1ements drop out during a period of rest& Therefore% this 'ill be an e1en deeper trance % than before& $9 0nd that is a past e3perience e1eryone has had& R9 So you>1e deepened trance by utiliEing an innate learning process 'e all ha1e e3perienced& $9 (ou learn to 'rite by grimacing your face and mo1ing your feet% but after a 'hile these random and irrele1ant mo1ements drop out& #pen1Ended S*--estions And now I don5t know what partic*lar e9periences yo* want to sense.ha+e dropped o*t.

aro*nd the c*t ends of the roots6 and lookin.*p and down.the c*t ends of the roots6 . )y the -radin. In ?MBE6 in the early May6 I drea2ed one ni-ht that I was on the north side of an east and west road. And I was lookin.at the oak tree6 and lookin. A fence on the top of the -rade and barbed wire fence.so2ethinis always a char2in.at the wild cherry tree6 and then e9a2inin. Erickson.at a s2all boy who was r*nnin.on the side of the road by the hills was a 2aintenance crew.&o look at one self doin.thin-.the freshly -raded -ro*nd6 and e9ca+atin.that I was $r. 30a*se4 I can -i+e yo* a personal acco*nt. R9 Here you begin a typical pattern of open@ended suggestions& (ou begin depotentiating consciousness by saying that you % Gdon>t )no'%G and that implies that it is o)ay if her conscious mind does not )no' either& "ut you emphasiEe that the unconscious does ha1e thoughts and desires% and you reinforce them by noting that she can be pleases to disco1er 'hat her unconscious is going to do& 0s her GreflectionsG later indicate% she did use these open@ended suggestions in a manner that 'as uni4uely her o'n& (ou emphasiEe the open@ended aspect of your suggestion by mentioning that it 'ill be her ex%erience any time% any place% any situation& This sounds li)e a great deal of freedom& It is freedom as far as the conscious mind in concerned% but it is being highly determined by her o'n unconscious& &wo1State $issociati+e Re-ression And I stood there knowin. And I saw that barefoot boy with o+eralls c*rio*sly probin. Hazel b*sh6 an oak tree6 a wild cherry tree. in Wisconsin.

in the road.to deter2ine which roots ca2e fro2 the wild cherry tree and which ca2e fro2 the oak tree.that fresh -radin. &here is a -ra+el pit near that road. And I fo*nd o*t where that road was. And thinkinb*t how little appreciation he had of the fact that he was -oin.that little boy. And I en8oyed watchin. In Septe2ber of that year I did take a +acation trip to Wisconsin. He didn5t e+en know I was on the other side of that east1 west1bo*nd road. I co*ld see hi2 plainly.to -row *p and beco2e $r. )*t I had no 2e2ory of e+er e9a2inin. Acti+e I2a-ination and 0sychosynthesis )*t he co*ld not see $r.tryin. ? re2e2ber -oin. Erickson.-=% +. &he little boy was s*re none of those roots ca2e fro2 hazeln*t b*sh.. Erickson.<5& (ou hoped to trip off this state in S by gi1ing this charming e3ample of ho' it occurred to you in a dream state% 'here it is not uncommon 2Rossi% +. I went to the co*nty seat6 -ot o*t all the records of the co*nty road 2aintenance work. And then I dro+e to that area. R9 This t'o@state dissociati1e regression 'herein a person sees and sometimes e1en relates to himself at an earlier age le1el 'as 'ell described in your trance 'or) 'ith 0ldous Hu3ley 2$ric)son% +. I appro+ed of that boy. I fo*nd o*t how it was possible for 2e to ha+e been there. I reco-nized hi2 as little Milton Erickson.-Aa5& 0s /r& S remar)s in her GreflectionsG on this session% you did succeed at this point because she did see herself as a child reading a boo) by #ouisa 8ay 0lcott& She reports the actual reco1ery of memories from an entirely forgotten phase of her life 'hen she 'anted to be a 'riter& That is% she e3perienced a genuine h$%ermnesia7 &rance as an Ate2poral &heater. .there with 2y father when he -ot a load of -ra+el. And then the drea2 ter2inated.

-Ab5& Readin. and was tre2endo*sly interested in the thinkin. And so 2y *nconscio*s 2ind f*rnished 2e with an opport*nity of obser+in. 30a*se4 And yo* work with patients and yo* work with yo*r *nderstandinand yo*r *nderstandin-s co2e fro2 yo*r knowled-e of how yo* beha+e. I had lon.for-otten that6 b*t 2y *nconscio*s 2ind had re2e2bered it.2yself at a pre+io*s a-e.to Wisconsin on +acation in Septe2ber. In yo*r obser+ations .Mini2al )ody Mo+e2ents in &rance.)*t I fo*nd there was a hazeln*t b*sh6 an oak tree6 and a wild cherry tree. 30a*se4 R& It is utterly fascinating ho' in dreams and trance states the personality can encounter itself at different age le1els as if time did not e3ist& This 'as particularly clear in your 'or) 'ith Hu3ley& These are states of acti1e and creati1e imagination 'herein the person as an adult personality can actually relate to and help himself as a child& In this 'ay old traumas and needs% .ust about any form of Gunfinished business%G can be resol1ed& This is a form of psychological healing that I belie1e is the essence of any form of therapy% 'hether it ta)es place in dreams% trance% free association% acti1e imagination% meditation% or 'hate1er& The common denominator is that something ne' is synthesiEed 'ithin the personality 2Rossi% +.this to yo* as a possible e9perience. 3Lon.and beha+ior of people at +ario*s le+els. And I knew I was -oin.pa*se4 I be-an work on the research ser+ice in Worcester6 Mass. And I was still a little boy6 a barefoot boy. Eye Mo+e2ents in &rance I52 s*--estin.

ects ha1e been found to be still responsi1e to the hypnotist&G Spiegel 2+.-+5 has in1estigated Gslo' eye mo1ements of a pendular 2sinusoid5 type resembling those 'hich ha1e been reported to accompany Stage I of natural sleep and certain other altered states of consciousness& &&& 0t such times the sub.pa*se4 $9 No' it is my interpretation that she 'as a bit abashed by /r& O>s presence& "ut I thin) /r& O isn>t here no' Mfor /r& SN& 0s far as I can .-65% ho'e1er% ha1e found no relation bet'een eye@roll and other measures of hypnotic susceptibility in the laboratory& 0ncient images as 'ell as modern photographs of yogi in meditation also sho' the up'ard roll of the eyeball& $1en though there are great indi1idual differences in eye beha1ior during trance% it can be studied for 'hate1er clues it pro1ides regarding altered states of consciousness& A2nesia.-6J Bheeler et al&% +.fro2 "ow it isn5t i2portant for yo* to recall what yo* ha+e achie+ed here today.&rance Learnin.udge% there are 4uite a number of mobile memories being manifested& R9 Ho' can you tellI $9 "y those muscle 4ui1erings around that elbo'& 0nd the alterations of her breathing are 1ery suggesti1e of mobility& Sometimes those are suggesti1e of% for e3ample% going for a 'al) in the 'oods& R9 Bhat is the meaning of those slight 1ibratory mo1ements of the eyesI $9 Sometimes they are random mo1ement% sometimes they signify a )ind of rela3ation& (ou don>t )no' really& I thin) a proper thing to do is let her disco1er bit by bit more and more things about herself& R9 (ou li)e to ha1e your patients disco1er and tell you about these minimal mo1ements rather than ma)ing spurious generaliEations about them& This is 1ery 'ise because indi1idual differences bet'een people are so great in trance e3perience it is really difficult to relate inner e1ents to e3ternal beha1ior in any consistent 'ay& $9 That>s right& R9 BeitEenhoffer 2+. (o*r *nconscio*s can *nfold it to yo* 6 in bits and parts at the appropriate ti2e6 onscio*sness .-=5 has found eye@roll 2the ability to loo) up'ard on signal 'hile closing the eyelids5 and s4uint during induction to be indications of clinical hypnotiEability& Other in1estigators 2S'itras% +.of the beha+ior of others 30a*se4 yo* need to ha+e a +i+id obser+ation of yo*r own past beha+ior 3Lon. 0rotectin.

And I52 -oin. Anesthesia and )ody Healin(o* need not know today that perhaps yo* are anesthetized co2pletely. &hat yo* are i22obilized co2pletely. 30a*se4 R9 In her later GreflectionsG /r& S reported that this remar) did in fact cause a dramatic and un'anted amnesia& $9 I>m gi1ing /r& S an opportunity for inner e3periential learning in this trance% 'hich she 'on>t )no' about until the time is right to use it& R9 (ou don>t 'ant her to )no' about it till the time is right because you don>t 'ant her conscious mind to interfere 'ith it& $9 I don>t 'ant her conscious programs to depotentiate itL R9 So theoretically a patient could lea1e feeling you>1e done absolutely nothing for herI $9 That>s rightL 0nd they often doL R9 !ntil later% 'hen they call you up 'ith reports of the 1alue of 'hat you>1e helped them accomplish& $9 That>s right& Facilitatin.< $9 In therapy this is often the 'ay you get patients to become a'are of their capabilities& (ou are essentially gi1ing them the freedom to use themsel1es& atients come to you because they don>t feel free to use themsel1es& . 3Lon.not re2e2bered today is still recorded in yo*r 2ind. And anythin.pa*se4 And yo* keep ri-ht on in a trance6 learnin.to t*rn away fro2 yo* and talk to $r.which Erickson A*ietly talks to $rs.Lon. > and Rossi.pa*se d*rin. "ot !nowin.0otentialities.and #pen1Ended S*--estions for Infinite Learnin-. R. yo* will repeat these learnin-s s*bseA*ently. .to realize that yo* are a far better s*b8ect than yo* pre+io*sly tho*-ht.and yo* will ha+e a -ood *nderstandin-. And yo* are be-innin. 30a*se4 (o* need not e+en know if yo* ha+e dissociated yo*rself fro2 yo*r body. At the ri-ht ti2e yo* will disco+er All the thin-s that yo* ha+e acco2plished.the thin-s yo* need to learn.

done so2ethin.5I (ou say you had ne1er gi1en him specific suggestions to e3perience anesthesia& $9 No& R9 "ut he 'as able to de1elop an anesthesia that may 'ell ha1e sa1ed his life because years before you had gi1en him such open@ended suggestions for the possibility of anesthesia 'hen he might need it& $9 I told him% G(ou )no' a lot of things you need to )no'% only you don>t )no' you )no' them& Bhen the appropriate situation de1elops% use the appropriate learning&G R9 $1en though he had ne1er e3perienced hypnotic anesthesia before% in an appropriate situation% in the emergency situation 'hen a bric) hit him on the head% he 'as able to de1elop a hypnotic anesthesia& $9 0t that moment he said to himself% GIf only $ric)son 'ere here&G $ric)son connoted hypnosis for him% and that meant he should use hypnosis& R9 He should use hypnosis for his ob1ious need in that emergency situation& So this is an e3tremely 1aluable suggestion you are gi1ing to patients& (ou are stimulating in them an infinite number of learnings that they 'ill be able to apply at the appropriate time& $9 That earson incident 'as a beautiful e3ample of that& His associations to me 'ere primarily about hypnosis% anesthesia% and the utiliEation of the unconscious& He added healing to that% better healing& R9 So he 'as able to effect faster body healing through hypnotic suggestionI $9 He 'as bac) lecturing in a fe' days 'ith only a bandaid& His s)ull had been fractured and chips of bone ta)en out& The surgeon had e3pected him to pad around in his slippers for a fe' 'ee)s& riteria for &rance &er2ination . )*t co2fortable6 slowly6 a-reeably6 brin..Erickson now st*dies $r.rested and co2fortable and at ease6 with a sense of ha+in.R& No' is this the 'ay you ga1e /r& Robert earson open@ended suggestions for the anesthesia that he 'as suddenly able to use in an emergency 2 earson% +.4 E.yo*r trance to an end at a ti2e of yo*r own choice. R9 Bhat are you studying no'I $9 I>m trying to determine ho' 4uic)ly I should a'a)en her& R9 Bhat criteria are you usingI . And co2e o*t of it feelin. I don5t know how to *nderstand yo*r fin-er 2o+e2ents6 the elbow 2o+e2ent6 the alteration in yo*r breathin-.+ery well.. S +ery intently for a few 2in*tes.

. $id $r. S reorients to her body6 opens her eyes6 and awakens. R e+er tell yo* abo*t 2y ironwood car+in-s: S. S. . And yesterday I beca2e the pro*d possessor of a fro.la*-hs< I*st what e+erybody needs6 I -*ess.With la*-hter and 2irth all aro*nd Erickson contin*es to talk abo*t e+erythin. $id $r. We all then 8oin hi2 to look at the ironwood car+in-s in the li+in..ect at the 'rong moment% they resent it& They can then demand that you put them bac) in trance so they can finish& R9 Ho' do you )no' 'hen they are finished and ready to a'a)enI $9 (ou loo) for a 4uiet moment 'hen all you can see is comfort& A2nesia by $istraction .ridin. R tell yo* abo*t 2y ironwood car+in-s: SH Ironwood car+in-s: E.: E. .< E.roo2 of his ho2e. As soon as she opens her eyes6 before she is co2pletely awakened6 Erickson A*ickly distracts her.$9 I don>t )no'& I do )no' I 'on>t do it no' 'hile she is ta)ing a deep breath& R9 BhyI $9 I don>t )no' 'hat is going on then& If you a'a)en a sub.a tricycle.related to the session that has 8*st taken place.0a*se as #r. Wha.< $9 No' 'hat I had to do 'as a'a)en her and distract her so 'hate1er she has done can remain at the unconscious le1el& I don>t 'ant it sho1ed into a conscious frame of reference& R9 (ou produced an hypnotic amnesia by distraction 2$ric)son and Rossi% +.-65% and by this means you hoped to )eep the trance 'or) effecti1e at an unconscious le1el& 0s her later GReflectionsG indicate% you 'ere highly effecti1e in facilitating this amnesia e1en though she greatly regretted it& Some material did slip through to consciousness% and this is the essence of her reflections& R$F#$CTIONS 0FT$R TR0NC$ IN/!CTION by /r& S I first e3perienced fog and then trance% rela3ed& In response to $ric)son>s comments 2roots% etc&5 I remember 1arious childhood memories including a forgotten phase 'here I 'anted to be a 'riter:I see myself reading a boo) by #ouisa 8ay 0lcott at the beach and planting a maple tree from seed 'hich gre' outside my bedroom 'indo'& Scenes of 'al)ing on the beach% etc& I thin) I must tell /r& $ric)son my 'art is gone M/r& S remo1ed a 'art on her o'n finger by self@ hypnosisN and that I ha1e gotten to be a smoother therapist& atients comment% GShe helps you and it doesn>t hurt&G I feel some'hat pleased& I remember feeling my body numb and still& I hear /r& $ric)son say something li)e G(ou 'on>t ha1e to remember 'hat happens&G Then% suddenly% I loo) and my memories become fogged up& Then I see myself in a bed reflecting to myself%G (ou are really going into a deep sleep: you 'ill be so rela3ed you 'on>t remember your dream&G I can>t remember anything after that& "ut ha1e a feeling I 'as in a dream@phantasy trance for some time& I 'a)e up after a suggestion 2that>s the first thing I can recall5 rela3ed% serene% satisfied and greatL 0part from her interesting comments on fogging% the reco1ered memories from a forgotten identity phase of childhood 2'anting to be a 'riter% the numbness of her body% and her apparent psychosomatic healing in remo1ing a 'art through self@hypnosis% /r& S>s .*nder the s*n e9cept anythin.

ect& Thus it is 1ery important to facilitate this transformation process 'ith permissi1e suggestions that are formulated in as open@ended a manner as possible& $ric)son fre4uently reinforces this tendency by directly suggesting that the patient>s unconscious can hear and transform the therapist>s 'ords in any 'ay that 'ould be most suitable for its o'n functioning& I"FI"I&E 0#SSI)ILI&IES #F LEAR"I"% REA&I'I&(6 HEALI"%6 A"$ The depotentiation of a sub.ect>s limited and habitual frames of reference together 'ith open@ended suggestions to facilitate ne' possibilities of creati1ity% healing% and learning appears to be one of the most e3citing prospects opened by $ric)son for a hypnotherapy of the future& His life 'or) has demonstrated the possibilities of utiliEing trance as an inner@ directed e3perience 'herein one can get free from some of the learned limitations of pre1ious history and training& The mind is an incredibly 1ast reser1oir 'hose potentials are still unrealiEed by most people& Trance is a free period for the inner disco1ery% e3ploration% and realiEation of these potentials& 0t the present time 'e see only the tip of the iceberg of the possibilities of human nature& Hypnosis has been greatly hampered by its past image of being a techni4ue for manipulation and control& Ho' boring to deal 'ith manipulation and control 'hen 'e can be facilitating ne' possibilities of human nature undreamed of by either therapist or patient& #i)e dream% re1erie% and creati1e states of imagination% trance can be a period for free de1elopment& The art of the modern hypnotherapist is in opening up the possibility of this de1elopment by helping each indi1idual outgro' his o'n learned limitations& .description of ho' she e3periences her amnesia is particularly re1ealing& She reports that $ric)son>s 'ords are transformed in her mind into a 1isual image of herself in bed Greally going into a deep sleep:you 'ill be so rela3ed you 'on>t remember your dream&G $ric)son maintains that all successful suggestion contains this process of transformation 'hereby the therapist>s 'ords are reformulated in a manner that is consistent 'ith the personal psychodynamics of the sub.


RE #F &HERA0E.ect>s indi1iduality5 and clinical hypnosis 2'here the patient>s indi1iduality is of essence in the approaches used for trance induction and utiliEation5& c. &rance 'iewed as Acti+e . &rance 'iewed as Inner $irected States Trance phenomena may be understood in the broadest sense as inner@directed states 'herein the multiple foci of attention so characteristic of our usual e1eryday consciousness are restricted to relati1ely fe' inner realities& "ecause of this restricted focus% ne' learning can proceed more sensiti1ely and intensely in trance 'hen the patient is not interrupted by irrele1ant stimuli and the limitations of his usual frames of reference& b.or headings9 +& The Nature of Therapeutic Trance =& Clinical 0pproaches to Hypnotic Induction A& The Forms of Hypnotic Suggestion 6& The Facilitation of Human otentials I.or goal of this 1olume has been to carefully delineate e3actly ho' $ric)son goes about his 'or)% the obser1ations and inferences he ma)es% and the hypotheses he tests& 0ny fair e1aluation of his approaches re4uires that the clinician and researcher ac4uire some of $ric)son>s hypnotherapeutic s)ills& To facilitate this process of s)ill ac4uisition% 'e ha1e outlined the types of study and e3ercises that other 'or)ers might 'ell pursue to further their clinical practice and research in hypnosis& To help the reader organiEe the material of this 1olume 'e 'ill summariEe some of its basic ideas under four ma.&I &RA" E $ric)son tends to be atheoretical and pragmatic in his approach& His )no'ledge comes from practical e3perience about 'hat 'or)s rather than theoretical speculation& He has ne1er formulated an o1erall theory of hypnosis% and it is only 'ith some prompting that he 'ill e3press himself on theoretical issues& The follo'ing 1ie's about therapeutic trance are definitely e3pressed throughout this 1olume% ho'e1er& a.ect has been to learn as much as possible about $ric)son>s approaches so that other clinicians and research 'or)ers could study% test% and utiliEe our findings& "ecause $ric)son>s approaches presuppose a certain amount of clinical s)ill% a ma. &HE "A&.ect of trance is to rela3 these learned limitations of the patient>s usual frames of reference to permit the 1ast reser1oir of their unrecogniEed potentialities to operate& Freed from the common sets% biases% and inhibitions of consciousness% learning can proceed on an autonomous or 'hat is con1entionally called an ."I"E S*22ary Our approach in this 1olume has been to ma)e a detailed analysis of the actual 'ords and approaches of one outstanding clinician in the area of hypnotherapy& Our ob.nconscio*s LearninFundamental to $ric)son>s approach is his 1ie' that patients ha1e problems because of their learned limitations& The ob. &rance 'iewed as a Hi-hly Moti+ated State $ric)son carefully notes and utiliEes a patient>s personal psychodynamics and moti1ation for initiating and de1eloping trance e3perience& It is patients> moti1ation that 'ill bind them to their tas) of inner focus& It is this uni4uely personal moti1ation that may account for some of the differences found bet'een laboratory hypnosis 2'here standardiEed methods are used that tend to e3clude the sub.

ect follo's the operator>s instructions as 'ell as possible& The difficulty in resol1ing this contro1ersy is in a definition of 'hat constitutes an Galtered stateG and the de1elopment of ob.ects memoriEe nonsense syllables 'hile drun)& It is then found that they are better able to recall them on a later occasion 'hen they are drun) than 'hen they are sober& Recall is thus state@dependentJ recall ta)es place better 'hen people are in the same state they 'ere in 'hen e3posed to the learning& Other in1estigators 1erified the same state@dependent phenomenon 'ith amphetamine@induced e3citatory states and amobarbitual@induced inhibitory states& Fisher generaliEes these results into a theory of Gho' multiple e3istence became possible by li1ing from 'a)ing state to another 'a)ing stateJ from one dream to the ne3tJ from #S/ to #S/J from one creati1e% artistic% religious or psychotic inspiration or possession to anotherJ from trance to tranceJ and from re1erie to re1erie&G Be 'ould submit that therapeutic trance itself can be most usefully conceptualiEed as but one 1i1id e3ample of the -undamental nature o.a5 has emphasiEed that deep or really satisfactory trance e3perience depends on the ability to subordinate and eliminate 'a)ing patterns of beha1iorJ that is% to gi1e up some of the learned limitations and habitual frame'or)s of one>s characteristic conscious attitudes& To achie1e this end $ric)son e1ol1ed many ne' techni4ues of induction and stressed the need for careful Ghypnotic trainingG 'hereby the indi1iduality of each sub.A.ust 'hat 'e 'ere going to do&G Bithout the bridging associati1e connections% consciousness 'ould brea) do'n into a series of discrete states 'ith as little contiguity as is apparent in our dream life& It is no' a 4uestion of definition and of further empirical 'or) to determine 'hether these states are discrete and different in mental content alone or 'hether more gross physiological indicators can be used in defining them& 0 drug ob1iously introduces a physiological change that may or may not be measurable 'ith current techni4ues& Bith therapeutic trance the case is more e4ui1ocal& The case is further complicated by the fact% as Fisher indicates abo1e% that once an altered state is produced% GsymbolicG associations alone are sufficient to reinduce it& Ho' can 'e reconcile this special@state theory of hypnotic trance 'ith the many informati1e e3perimental studies that support the alternati1e paradigm 2"arber% +...-65 the authors ha1e made a case for the Gstate theoryG of clinical hypnosis as follo's& Researchers 2Fisher% +.ecti1e measures of the Galtered state&G In a recent paper on hypnotic amnesia 2$ric)son and Rossi% +..ect 'as carefully ta)en into account to ma3imiEe the presence of in1oluntary or autonomous beha1ior in trance 'ith as little participation of habitual conscious attitudes and mental frame'or)s as possible& In his early 'or) $ric)son .% +.5 of hypnosis as a Gresponsi1e 'a)ing stateG that is not discontinuous or essentially different from normal ordinary consciousnessI In many of his papers $ric)son 2+.-+5 ha1e recently in1estigated state-de%endent learning in a number of 'ays& One group of sub.. &rance 'iewed as an Altered State of F*nctioninThe research literature of the past decade has dealt e3tensi1ely 'ith the contrasting 1ie's of trance as an altered state 1ersus the 1ie' of trance as simply a moti1ated situation 'herein the sub.unconscious le1el& In the ideal case $ric)son first clears the mental stage from the clutter of a patient>s learned limitations and then helps patients utiliEe their o'n uni4ue life e3perience and associations to create and restructure themsel1es from 'ithin on an unconscious le1el 'ithout the mediation of consciously directed thin)ing& Trance is thus an active %rocess ounconscious learning some'hat a)in to the process of latent learning or learning 'ithout a'areness described in e3perimental psychology 2/eese and Hulse% +..-5& This is different% indeed% from the crude conception of hypnosis as a passi1e and regressed state 'here the patient is an automaton under the control of the operator& d.all %henomenological ex%erience as 6state-bound26 The apparent continuity of consciousness that e3ists in e1eryday normal a'areness is in fact a precarious illusion that is only made possible by the associati1e connections that e3ist bet'een related bits of con1ersation% tas) orientation% and so on& Be ha1e all e3perienced the instant amnesias that occur 'hen 'e go too far on some tangent so 'e Glose the thread of thoughtG or Gforget .<=% +.

-=a5& From our earlier statement of trance as a process of unconscious learning it 'ould follo' that trance deals primarily 'ith those autonomous processes that ma)e presentations to consciousness& "ut things are not that simple& In most e3periences of trance some obser1er ego is present% 4uietly ta)ing in the sceneJ the patient is 4uietly 'atching 'hat is happening 'ithin 2Gill and "renman% +. &he S*b8ecti+e E9perience of &rance The sub.<.ecti1e e3perience of mind& Our mental life is a dialogue bet'een 'hat happens to us and 'hat 'e do about it& Sensations% perceptions% emotions% moods% dreams% fantasies and associations are al'ays happening spontaneously on an unconscious le1el and presenting themsel1es to the threshold of consciousness& Ho' 'e learn to respond to these spontaneous presentations determines in great part our sense of reality% mental health% and 'ell@being& Be can respond% for e3ample% to the ne' that occurs to us in perceptions or in dreams 'ith% on the one hand% fright% flight% and phobia or 'ith curiosity and creati1ity on the other hand 2Rossi% +.-75 as 'ell as of the approach used for trance induction and utiliEation& One common denominator in the e3perience of most of $ric)son>s patients is that in trance things seem to happen by themsel1es& 0s 'as so 'ell demonstrated 'ith the e3periential learning of trance phenomena by /r& S% there is a sense of surprise 'hen a hand le1itates or an ideosensory phenomenon is manifest& The contrast bet'een 'hat happens by itself and 'hat 'e seem to control and direct is in fact one of the most profoundly interesting things about the sub.ecti1e 4uality of this ideation ma)es it particularly useful in psychotherapy& 0s long as this obser1er ego is present% ho'e1er% many patients 'ill insist they are not hypnotiEedJ they e4uate the obser1er function 'ith being conscious in the normal sense of the 'ord& $ric)son is al'ays concerned about this obser1er function% and many of his approaches are designed to .ecti1e e3perience of trance naturally 1aries as a function of an indi1idual>s personality and life history 2Hilgard% +.ecti1e 4uality to much of the conscious ideation in trance& The ob.5& It is this obser1ing ego that gi1es a detached% impersonal and ob.ostle it about and depotentiate it& Not that consciousness itself is a problem .rarely ga1e therapeutic suggestions until the trance had de1eloped for at least =7 minutes:and this only after hours of pre1ious hypnotic training& 0fter years of e3perience his clinical e1aluation of the patient>s psychodynamics and current mental state enabled him to 'or) much more rapidly& In actual practice it is admittedly difficult if not impossible to eliminate all 'a)ing patterns& This is particularly true in the typical e3perimental study% 'here standardiEed instructions and direct suggestions are utiliEed 'ith little or no e3tensi1e hypnotic training directed to the elimination or at least the mitigation of habitual conscious patterns in trance& The presence of many 1erbal% sensory% perceptual% and psychodynamic associations common to both the trance and 'a)ing situation in most e3perimental studies bridges the gap bet'een them and further reduces their discontinuity& Be 'ould therefore submit that the alternati1e paradigm% 'hich 1ie's the trance and 'a)ing conditions as more or less continuous% 'ith no e1idence of a Gspecial state of trance%G is correct in e1aluating the typical e3perimental situation& It does not% ho'e1er% ade4uately conceptualiEe those clinical situations 'here the s)ill of the therapist together 'ith the needs of the patient interact to produce the stri)ing discontinuities bet'een trance and the normal state of consciousness that are so suggesti1e of special@ state theory& This issue is analogous to the heated contro1ersy about the fundamental nature of light as continuous 2'a1es5 or discontinuous 2particles5 that plagued physicists during the first 4uarter of this century& In practice it has been found helpful to thin) of light sometimes as 'a1es and other times as particles& The most ade4uate conceptualiEation% ho'e1er% is through mathematical symbols that cannot be meaningfully related to in terms of e1eryday associations on the 1erbal and imagery le1el& #i)e'ise in clinical practice it may be most helpful to conceptualiEe and stress those antecedent and mediating 1ariables that promote discontinuity bet'een trance and 'a)ing state% 'hile in e3perimental 'or) there may be more theoretical interest in dealing 'ith the continuities& e.

<6% +.ect>s habitual patterns of direction and control& A& to facilitate patients> recepti1ity to their o'n inner associations and mental s)ills that can be integrated into therapeutic responses& Ordinarily this is 1ery simply accomplished by $ric)son 'hen he tells a patient to sit in a certain 'ay% focus on a spot% and remain 4uiet 'hile $ric)son tal)s& $ric)son then embar)s on a train of associations that 'ill help the patient focus attention in'ard on memories% feelings% and all sorts of associations% de1elopmental patterns% and learning e3periences& In this $ric)son is not so much suggesting 2in the sense of putting something into the patient>s mind5 as he is e1o)ing& The effecti1eness of his 'ords is in their calculated design to e1o)e pree3isting patterns of association and natural mental processes in the patient& He can e1o)e memories because the memories are already there in the person& He can e1o)e amnesia% anesthesia% or any other hypnotic phenomenon only because there are built in mechanisms for these processes already e3isting in the patient& $ric)son 'atches patients 1ery carefully during induction& Induction is certainly not a standardiEed and mechanical procedure 'here he parrots some formula by rote& $ric)son carefully notes 'here patients are all the time& The precise moment he chooses to begin an induction might be 'hen he senses that patients need to focus in'ard and alter some limiting aspect of their conscious attitude and belief system so that therapy can proceed& $ric)son understands trance as a normal e3perience of e1eryday life that occurs naturally 'hene1er a person becomes deeply absorbed in some inner or outer reality 2e&g&% daydreaming or listening to music5& $ric)son notes the beginning signs of trance and then simply reinforces them in any 'ay that is particularly appropriate for a particular person in the here and no' circumstances& $ric)son has commented that he can recogniEe potentially good sub. LI"I AL A00R#A HES &# H(0"#&I I"$.in trance% but rather its associated functions of directing and controlling are the problem& In trance the ego alters its habitual patterns of control and direction% 'hile 1arying degrees of the obser1er function remains intact& This permits t'o things to happen9 +& The autonomous 2unconscious5 presentations 2e1erything from sensations and emotions to dreams and spontaneous associations5 are freed to function spontaneously 'ithout the restrictions of the ego>s usual frames of reference& =& The interface bet'een these autonomous presentations and the obser1ing ego can be broadened so that% in effect% more of the unconscious can become conscious& $ric)son>s preference is for therapy to proceed by the first process alone& He is al'ays delighted 'hen the patient sol1es his problem 'ithout )no'ing ho' he did it& The more con1entional forms of depth psychotherapy proceed by the second process of ma)ing more of the unconscious conscious& $ric)son has used this process as one step in some of his o1erall plans of hypnotherapy 2$ric)son% +.ects in an audience by noting those 'ho seem GfroEenG 2relati1ely little body mo1ement5 and those 'ho e3hibit Gresponse attenti1enessG 2those 'ho become 1ery absorbed in 'hat another is saying or doing5& The moment 'hen these characteristics are manifest in the therapy session is ob1iously the best time for trance induction& If they do not become manifest naturally% $ric)son might initiate them by focusing and fi3ating the patient>s attention 'ith an interesting story% anecdote% or 'hate1er is moti1ating and absorbing for that particular patient& These interesting stories may seem irrele1ant to the casual obser1er% but through them $ric)son is actually initiating a Gyes setG and follo'ing beha1ior by the patient that 'ill gradually lead into .<<5& @. #rientation to Hypnotic Ind*ction The purpose of trance induction is threefold& +& to reduce the foci of attention 2usually to a fe' inner realities5& =& to facilitate alterations in the sub. &I#" a.

ust as effecti1e as 'hen in formal trance& Trance thus need not be formally induced for effecti1e clinical 'or)& The approaches to clinical induction described in this 1olume are simply a con1enient means by 'hich the therapist can initiate a process of inner focus and unconscious learning& b.ect>s attention& Shoc)% surprise% distraction% dissociation% and .the induction phase proper& $ric)son has described the state of response attenti1eness as the common Ge1eryday trance%G and he fre4uently utiliEes this natural form of absorption .ust as he 'ould trance& $1en 'ithout any form of formal trance induction% patients 'ill become so absorbed in 'hat he is saying that they later 'onder if $ric)son had someho'% 'ithout their )no'ledge% put them in trance& GSuggestionsG made 'hile the patient is in this state of absorption can be . Approaches to Hypnotic Ind*ction It is 'ell that 'e spea) of GapproachesG to hypnotic induction rather than GmethodsG or Gtechni4ues&G These latter 'ords ha1e connotations of being mechanical% hard@and@fast procedures that one imposes on a person& $ric)son imposes nothing& He simply tries to e1o)e the natural process 'ithin patients that 'ill enable them to be recepti1e to their o'n inner realities and e3perience the possibility of ne' creati1e inner 'or) being done to resol1e a problem& $ric)son has de1eloped a be'ildering 1ariety of GapproachesG to these ends& 0s 'as illustrated in this 1olume he 'ill fre4uently use a 1ariety of these approaches in the same session& Bith each approach he learns something ne' about the patient>s characteristic 'ays of responding& He accepts 'hate1er response the patient ma)es as ade4uate& Ho' could it be other than ade4uate since it is an e3pression of the patient>s indi1idualityI It is in this indi1iduality that a uni4ue solution 'ill be found for his uni4ue problem& These responses teach $ric)son something about the patient>s indi1idual 'ays of responding 2the patient>s Gbeha1ior hierarchyG5% and he uses this )no'ledge as a )ind of feedbac) that allo's him to modify his approaches to further fit the indi1iduality of patients to help them achie1e the inner direction and recepti1eness that are so characteristic of trance& Be can in summary list some of the particular and general approaches to trance induction that are illustrated in this 1olume& 0ll of these approaches can be used for either direct or indirect induction of trance% depending on ho' they are presented to the patient& 'articular !%%roaches "eneral !%%roaches $arly learning set $ye fi3ation Hand le1itation Handsha)e induction 8utual trance induction osthypnotic cue $1o)ing pre1ious trance associations Rhythm induction Con1ersational Confusion antomime Conditioning $3periential Introspection@imagination Surprise Huestion Shift in frames of reference Heightened@a'areness 8ost of these approaches can be described as more or less indirect because consciousness is not entirely a'are of e3actly 'hat is happening& Consciousness understands something of 'hat is happening but not all& Things soon seem to begin happening all by themsel1es% conscious sets are further depotentiated% and trance begins& Be ha1e described the microdynamics of trance induction and suggestion 'ith a number of flo' diagrams that could be summariEed as follo's9 Fi3ation of attention /epotentiating conscious sets 1ia 1ia The amaEing% unusual% standard approaches to hypnotic induction or anything that attracts and holds the sub.

!nconscious search !nconscious processes Hypnotic response 1ia 1ia 1ia other hypnotic forms& Implication% 4uestions% analogy% and other indirect hypnotic forms& Summation of literal and personal associations and mental mechanisms structured by all the abo1e& $3pression of beha1ioral potentials e3perienced as ta)ing place all by themsel1es& c. $epotentiatin.ecti1e and impersonal ideation upillary changes Response attenti1eness Sensory% muscular% and body changes Slo'ing and loss of blin) refle3 Slo'ing pulse Slo'ing respiration Spontaneous hypnotic phenomena .ect>s habitual frame of reference& 0bsence of challenge Casual and permissi1e manner 0mnesias structured continually "oredom Confusion Continually redirecting attention Contradictions /isplacing doubt and discharging resistance artial remar)s and dangling phrases Huestions that distract Rest Tas)s outside patient>s usual frames of reference /issociation /ouble bind /oubt $3pectancy and need for closure In1oluntary signaling #osing abilities Negations !sing therapist>s rhythm Voice locus and emphasis (es set (ou don>t need to )no' d. Indicators of &rance $e+elop2ent Once induction has begun% $ric)son recogniEes a 1ariety of indications of de1eloping and deepening trance such as the follo'ing& Trance e3perience is highly indi1idualiEed% ho'e1er% and patients 'ill manifest these indicators in 1arying combinations as 'ell as in different degrees& 0utonomous ideation "alanced tonicity 2catalepsy5 Changed 1oice 4uality Comfort% rela3ation $conomy of mo1ement $ye changes and closure Facial features ironed out Feeling distant Ob.Habit*al Fra2es of Reference Bhen 'e state that the purpose of clinical induction is to focus patients in'ard and help them alter the controlling and directing functions of their habitual attitudes and belief system% 'e are in effect helping them depotentiate their usual e1eryday consciousness& "ecause of the limitations of their habitual frames of reference% their usual e1eryday consciousness cannot cope 'ith certain inner andFor outer realities% and they recogniEe he has a Gproblem&G /epotentiating patients> usual e1eryday consciousness is thus a 'ay of depotentiating their personal limitations& /epotentiating the limitations of an indi1idual>s usual patterns of a'areness thus opens up the possibility that ne' combinations of associations and mental s)ills may be e1ol1ed for creati1e problem sol1ing 'ithin that indi1idual& So subtle and per1asi1e are $ric)son>s approaches to depotentiating conscious sets that they ha1e ta)en a significant place in most of our commentaries& They ha1e also been listed as a ma.or topic in most of our essays concerned 'ith the description and dynamics of $ric)son>s hypnotic forms& Here 'e can only list some of the hypnotic forms that can be utiliEed to depotentiate a sub.

5 and 8eares 2+. Ratifyin.<.&rance Since the obser1er function of the ego is usually more or less present in trance% the patient 'ill sometimes refuse to belie1e he 'as in trance% and this belief can limit further 'or)& "ecause of this it is necessary to demonstrate that trance is in fact different from the ordinary a'a)e stateL $ric)son describes this as Gratifying the trance&G The most con1incing ratification of trance is the therapist>s astuteness in recogniEing and pointing out the spontaneous hypnotic phenomena that are becoming manifest so the patient can recogniEe that he is in1ol1ed in an altered or unusual state& 0ll of the abo1e@mentioned general indications of trance de1elopment are 'ell suited for this purpose as 'ell as any indi1idual patterns a particular patient may manifest& In addition $ric)son utiliEes the spontaneous body reorientation on a'a)ening as 'ell as alterations in pulse and respiration as e1idence of trance& In his e3periential approach to trance he 'ill ha1e patients e3plore all the differences in their sensory% motor% and conceptual beha1ior bet'een the trance and a'a)e state& $ric)son fre4uently as)s 4uestions that in1ol1e a double bind to ratify trance& 0ny ans'er that is gi1en to the 4uestion% G(ou really thin) you are a'a)e% don>t youIG tends to ratify trance by implication& 0nother such double bind 4uestion is% G/o you )no' if you 'ere in a tranceIG This 4uestion appears to as) for simple information% but either a GyesG or GnoG ans'er ratifies trance 2GyesG means trance 'ith a'arenessJ GnoG implies trance 'ithout a'areness5& He regularly as)s ne' patients 'hat time it is as soon as they emerge from trance to ratify their trance by the spontaneous time distortion that is usually in1ol1ed& Huestions are al'ays a particularly useful approach to ratifying trance because they elicit .<-5% for e3ample% ha1e ta)en regression as a fundamental aspect of trance& From our point of 1ie'% ho'e1er% regression per se is not a fundamental characteristic of trance% although it is often present as an epiphenomenon of the early stage of trance de1elopment% 'hen the patient is learning to gi1e up ego control& In this first stage of gi1ing up ego control many uncontrolled things happen% including spontaneous age regression% paresthesias% anesthesias% illusions of body distortion% psycho@somatic responses% time distortion% and others& Once patients ha1e learned to stabiliEe these un'anted side reactions% they can then allo' their unconscious to function freely in interacting 'ith the therapist>s suggestions 'ithout the mediation of their conscious ego& e.Feeling good after trance #ac) of body mo1ement #ac) of startle response #iteralism Retardation of refle3es s'allo'ing blin)ing 0mnesia Regression 0nesthesia Catalepsy Time distortion etc& Time lag in motor and conceptual beha1ior 0s these indications become manifest 2usually o1er a period of +7 to =7 minutes5% $ric)son gradually introduces 1erbaliEations designed to e1o)e recogniEable responses from patients to indicate that they are in rapport and are follo'ing $ric)son& These can 1ary from head nodding or sha)ing to hand le1itation and% bit by bit% other hypnotic phenomena that are useful for training that particular patient in trance 'or) so he can e1entually accomplish his therapeutic goals& It is of interest to note that $ric)son loo)s for the spontaneous de1elopment of such hypnotic phenomena as age regression% anesthesia and catalepsy as more genuine indicators of trance than 'hen these same phenomena are Gsuggested&G Bhen they are directly suggested% 'e run into the difficulties imposed by the patient>s conscious attitudes and sets& Bhen they come about spontaneously% they are the natural result of the dissociation or the loosening of ego control o1er the general reality orientation that is characteristic of trance& Certain in1estigators ha1e selected some of these spontaneous phenomena as defining characteristics of the fundamental nature of trance& Shor 2+.

beha1ioral e1idence from the patient>s personal e3perience& This is 1astly more con1incing than any therapist>s authoritati1e statements about the patient>s state& In a'a)ening a ne' sub. &HE F#RMS #F H(0"#&I S.%%ES&I#" a.ect from trance by counting bac)'ard from =7 to one% $ric)son 'ill sometimes use the surprised re1ersal techni4ue 'hereby he suddenly re1erses the count 2=7% +.er)G or mild 1ertigo as they suddenly feel themsel1es going bac) into trance as the numbers shift from bac)'ards 2a'a)ening5 to for'ard 2deepening5& $ric)son maintains that formal ritualistic techni4ues are not needed to induce trance& 0ny con1ersation that is really absorbing can entrance people 'ithout them necessarily recogniEing their o'n trance state& In such cases $ric)son belie1es they are listening and capable of thin)ing and responding on the conscious and unconscious le1els simultaneously& Ho' does one ratify the fact that a trance is being e3perienced 'hen a person e1idences a high degree of response attenti1enessI SimpleL $ric)son .ects e3perience a G.ects could be responding in a 'ay that they belie1e $ric)son 'ants them to& 8ore clinical e3perience and controlled laboratory studies 'ill be needed to settle such issues& 0s 'e ha1e repeatedly 'itnessed in the demonstrations of this 1olume% $ric)son 'ill use a buc)shot approach in e1o)ing many possibilities of posthypnotic suggestion& Bhen any posthypnotic suggestion is then carried out% of course% it ratifies trance in a most con1incing 'ay& robably $ric)son>s fa1orite approach to ratifying trance is to induce an arm catalepsy and then a'a)en the sub.ordinar$ ever$da$ consciousness& It has been estimated that most of us do not utiliEe more than +7 percent of our mental capacity& $ric)son certainly belie1es this& Our consciousness usually has too narro'% rigid% and limited a conception of 'hat it is capable of accomplishing& Ordinary education and daily life ha1e taught us ho' to accomplish some things but ha1e un'ittingly biased us against many if not most of our capacities& Be all )no' from e1eryday e3perience that 'e can be so absorbed in something that interests us that 'e ignore e1erything else& Be can Gnot hearG someone calling us and 'e can Gnot feelG pangs of hunger& (et if you baldly as) someone to Gnot hearG or Gnot feel%G they 'ill loo) at you in disbelief& Our normal consciousness does not )no' ho' to Gnot hearG or Gnot feelG on direct command% e1en though the mental apparatus can do these things easily and automatically 'hen the e1eryday conditions of ordinary life are suitable& $ric)son>s indirect forms of suggestion are all means of arranging such suitable conditions so that indi1iduals can accomplish things that are 'ithin their beha1ioral repertory but usually not a1ailable to 1oluntary control 2although automatically and unconsciously .ect 'ith the arm still cataleptic& The peculiarity of obser1ing one>s arm in an a')'ard position ratifies trance in a particularly 1i1id 'ay& Throughout this 1olume the reader 'ill note ho' carefully $ric)son de1elops% supports% and then ratifies all of his suggestions as each hypnotic phenomenon becomes manifest& Trance and hypnotic phenomena are delicate% ephemeral% and e1anescent in their appearance% particularly in the first stages of trance training& It is therefore necessary to strongly reinforce and ratify them 'hen they do become manifest& B. &he "at*re of Hypnotic S*--estion Comple3 and multifaceted as they may seem% $ric)son>s approaches to suggestion ha1e but one rationale9 suggestions are designed to b$%ass the %atient4s erroneousl$ limited belies$stemB suggestions must circumvent the all too narrow limits o.% +? &&& +=% ++% +7% ++% +=% +A &&& =75 so the sub.ust as)s for an autonomous response from the unconscious 'ith a 4uestion such as% GIf you ha1e been in trance% your unconscious 'ill let your right hand lift&G Or% GIf your unconscious thin)s you>1e been in a trance% your eyelids 'ill gro' hea1y and close&G Ob1iously% not all in1estigators 'ill agree 'ith $ric)son>s approach and 'ith his interpretation that affirmati1e autonomous responses to such 4uestions are 1alid indicators that a trance e3isted& The sub.

a1ailable 'hen the ordinary circumstances of life call for them% as illustrated abo1e5& The 'onder and fascination of hypnosis is that it enables us to control these responses that are usually mediated by unconscious mechanisms outside the normal range of consciousness& The art and science of the hypnotherapist is in )no'ing enough about beha1ior and learning in general% and the indi1idual e3periences of each patient in particular% so the therapist can present suggestions to e1o)e all the responses necessary to accomplish a gi1en therapeutic goal& The theory is simple% but the practice is difficult until the therapist has really learned ho' to e1o)e responses that are usually outside the patient>s normal range of ego control& There are 1ast indi1idual differences to be ta)en into account& Some patients can easily accept direct suggestions simply because they belie1e so much in the therapist>s GprestigeG or Gpo'er&G Such belief 'ipes a'ay the limitations and doubts characteristic of their usual attitudesJ they don>t belie1e they can accomplish such and such by themsel1es% but their belief system allo's them to accomplish it in the special circumstances of therapy& Other patients% more critical and doubting% caught in a narro'% rationalistic 1ie' of themsel1es% re4uire indirect suggestions that 'ill bypass the destructi1e limitations of their belief system& Still other patients% more in tune 'ith the facts% recogniEe their personal limitations but need not belie1e in the prestige or po'er of the therapistJ rather% they hope the therapist really has the s)ill to help them accomplish their goal by indirect suggestions 'hose rationale they need not understand at the time& It is in the in1ention and practice of indirect suggestion for the a1erage or GresistantG 2GlimitedG 'ould be a better 'ord5 patient that $ric)son has e3celled& Be 'ill no' ma)e an effort to catalog those indirect approaches to suggestion& b. Indirect Approaches to Hypnotic S*--estion Betterstrand 2+.7=5% 'ho 'as one of "ernheim>s foremost students% described the problem of suggestion in a manner that places $ric)son>s indirect approaches in proper historical perspecti1e& Suggestion% or rather suggestibility% is composed of t'o elements9 ability to recei1e an impulse from 'ithout% and the ideo@plastic faculty& MThe po'er that ideas possess to influence physiological conditions&N 0s these are absolutely independent of each other% 'e must distinguish bet'een them& There are patients 'ho are 1ery impressionable% and 'ho accept a suggested idea 'ith absolute confidenceJ the influence% ho'e1er% of the idea upon their physiological functions is feeble& They do not realiEe the suggestions% and their morbid symptoms yield 'ith great difficulty% as their ideo@plastic conception is small& Others% on the contrary% accept suggestions slo'ly% are incredulous and e1en resist them& Ne1ertheless 'e find that the physiological and pathological processes are easily modified by the psychic influence% sometimes by autosuggestions& In )eeping 'ith this dichotomy% $ric)son>s indirect approaches may be di1ided into t'o similar categories9 +& Structuring an acce%tance set to facilitate the acceptance of the Gsuggested idea&G =& tili*ing the %atient4s associative %rocesses and mental s&ills to facilitate the Gideo@ plastic faculty&G =2 Structuring an !cce%tance Set2 $1ery therapist has innumerable approaches for facilitating an atmosphere of cooperation% recepti1ity% and the possibility of creati1ity 'ithin the therapy session& Here 'e 'ill only list the hypnotic forms that 'e ha1e found in prominent use by $ric)son in the actual process of trance induction and the facilitation of hypnotic responses& The inde3 is )eyed to illustrations and discussions of all of these hypnotic forms for facilitating an acceptance set& The Gyes setG Truisms and tautologies !se of interesting and personally moti1ating material .

5 to e1o)e hallucinatory phenomena in all sense modalities e1en 'hile patients 'ere apparently a'a)e& The in1ention and systematic use of a 1ariety of these hypnotic forms for the stud$ and utili*ation o.Interconte3tual cues and suggestions Interspersal techni4ue Obtaining patient>s assent Casual% permissi1e% and positi1e approach Vocal intonations of sincerity and intentness Validating and ratifying suggestions Co1ering all possibilities of response 0ccepting all responses as 1alid "uilding e3pectancy >2 tili*ing the 'atient4s !ssociative Structure and +ental S&ills2 $ric)son>s 'or) is rich in hypnotic forms designed to utiliEe a patient>s o'n associati1e structure and mental processes to facilitate the Gideo@plastic faculty&G Not all of these hypnotic forms are original 'ith $ric)son& The e1ocation of hypnotic phenomena by as)ing pointed 4uestions% for e3ample% is a classical approach much utiliEed by "raid 2+?6. ho'e1er% does appear to be one of $ric)son>s original contributions to the theory and practice of Gsuggestion&G The use of these hypnotic forms is by no' so much a part of $ric)son>s nature that Rossi sometimes felt G'ooEyG and a bit in a trance e1en 'hile apparently ha1ing a straightfor'ard intellectual discussion 'ith $ric)son& $ric)son himself is not al'ays clear about the means by 'hich his Gcon1ersationG is effecti1e in structuring and directing a listener>s associati1e processes in predetermined 'ays& $ric)son maintains that fi3ing and focusing attention by such con1ersation does put the listener into trance 'ithout the need for any other formal process of induction& 0s 'e ha1e repeatedly seen in this 1olume% a single sentence uttered by $ric)son can be loaded 'ith a number of hypnotic forms that catch the listener>s mental fabric in 1arious 'ays& In this 1olume it has been our precarious tas) to ma)e a beginning in untangling% unco1ering% and labeling some of these indirect hypnotic forms% 'hich are listed belo'9 0pposition of opposites "inds and double binds Compound suggestions Contingent suggestions Co1ering all possibilities of a class of responses /issociation Ideomotor signaling Implication Implied directi1e Interconte3tual cues and suggestions 8ultiple le1els of communication 2analogy% puns% metaphor% etc&5 8ultiple tas)s and serial suggestions Not doing% not )no'ing Open@ended suggestions antomime and non1erbal suggestions arado3ical intention artial remar)s and dangling phrases Huestions Surprise Truisms !tiliEing need for closure Voice locus and dynamics (es set These hypnotic forms are all merely descripti1e labels of different aspects of suggestionJ they need not function independently of one another& One and the same suggestion% for e3ample% could be a truism 2because it is true5% a compound suggestion 2because it contains at least t'o connected statements5% and an implication 2because it implies that more than .a %atient4s own associative structure and mental s&ills in wa$s that are outside his usual range o.conscious ego control to e--ect thera%eutic goals.

one may be immediately apparent5& In fact% the art of formulating suggestions is to utiliEe as many of these mutually reinforcing hypnotic forms as possible in close pro3imity& It is important to repeat that 'hile $ric)son does thin) of trance as a special state% he does not belie1e hypersuggestibility is a necessary characteristic of trance& That is% .MA" 0#&E"&IALS Throughout this 1olume 'e ha1e touched upon the 1arious means by 'hich human potentials and unrealiEed abilities may be e3plored and facilitated during trance& Trance in this sense can be understood as a period of free e3ploration and learning unencumbered by some of the limitations of a person>s pre1ious history& It is for this purpose that $ric)son de1eloped so many uni4ue approaches to hypnotic induction and trance training 'herein a person>s usual limitations could be altered momentarily so that inner potentials could become manifest& The great 1ariety of these approaches can ne1er become standardiEed because happy humans are ne1er static and standardiEed& $1eryone is an indi1idual in a process of de1elopment& The hypnotic interaction reflects and facilitates this de1elopment in 'ays that are creati1e and surprising to both therapists and patients& Bell@trained hypnotherapists are% abo1e all% fine obser1ers 'ho are able to recogniEe the fetters that bind human nature& They are e1er eager to ma)e a1ailable means of freeing and facilitating human de1elopment& They then 'isely stand aside to 'atch and 'onder about its ultimate course& .ust as human consciousness itself de1elops in ne' 'ays& &HE FA ILI&A&I#" #F H.suggestions2 $ric)son depends on the abo1e approaches to e1o)e and mo1e patients> associati1e processes and mental s)ills in certain directions to sometimes achie1e certain goals& So@called suggestion is actually this process of e1o)ing and utiliEing a patient>s o'n associations% mental s)ills% and mental mechanisms& Ho' shall 'e conceptualiEe the hypnotic forms listed abo1eI Ob1iously% they are communication de1ices of sorts& They are all bits and pieces of the ne' science of pragmatics9 the relation bet'een signs and the users of signs& Since these communication de1ices ha1e all been de1eloped in clinical practice% there is an urgent need to 1alidate them and study their parameters in controlled laboratory studies as 'ell as in further clinical and field e3periments& There appears to be an infinite e3panse of e3ploration a'aiting future 'or)ers in this area& !ndoubtedly the field 'ill continue to e3pand and change .ust because patients e3perience trance% it does not mean they are going to accept the therapist>s suggestions& This is a ma.or misconception that has frustrated and discouraged many 'or)ers in the past and has impeded the de1elopment of hypnosis as a science& Trance is a special state that intensifies the therapeutic relationship and focuses patients> attention on inner realities& Trance does not ensure the acce%tance o.


?& /eese% C&% and Hulse% S& The psychology of learning& Ne' (or)9 8cGra'@Hill% +.=7& "ernheim% H& Suggesti1e therapeutics9 0 treatise on the nature and uses of hypnotism& Ne' (or)9 utnam% +?.=& "raid% C& The po'er of the mind o1er the body& #ondon9 Churchill% +?6.<& "a)an% & HypnotiEability% laterality of eye@mo1ements and functional brain asymmetry& 'erce%tual and +otor S&ills.+% A% +.-+& "ogen% C& The other side of the brain9 0n appositional mind& "ulletin of the #os 0ngeles Neurological Societies% +..6% -% .<@-7& 2a5 $ric)son% 8& Initial e3periments in1estigating the nature of hypnosis& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.% >C.& "ram'ell% C& Hypnotism9 Its history and practice and theory& #ondon9 Rider% +..A?% -% 66A@6@.-<% +?% .& $ric)son% 8& Hypnotic psychotherapy& The 8edical Clinics of North 0merica% +..:<-& $ric)son% 8& Naturalistic techni4ues of hypnosis& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.<?% F% A@?& $ric)son% 8& Further techni4ues of hypnosis@utiliEation techni4ues& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.+@?.<<% A% 6.<& 2b5 .-=% +<% ++=:+A<& "arber% T&% Spanos% N& and Cha1es% C& Hypnosis% imagination and human potentialities& Ne' (or)9 ergamon% +.& "arber% T& Responding to GhypnoticG suggestions9 0n introspecti1e report& The 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +..A=& "ateson%G& Steps to an ecology of mind& Ne' (or)9 "allantine% +.6?% <-+@<?A& $ric)son% 8& /eep hypnosis and its induction& In #& 8& #e Cron 2$d&5% $3perimental hypnosis& Ne' (or)9 8acmillan% +....6% -% +<=@+.-=& /onaldson% 8 8& ositi1e and negati1e information in matching problems& "ritish Cournal of sychology% +.& $ric)son% 8& ossible detrimental effects of e3perimental hypnosis& Cournal of 0bnormal and Social sychology% +. +..-=& "ateson% G& ersonal communication& #etter of No1ember +7% +.<.=+& "ro'n% "& Ne' mind% ne' body& Ne' (or)9 Harper Q Ro'% +.=& 2b5 $ric)son% 8& 0 hypnotic techni4ue for resistant patients& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.=-@.<6% =% =..<& "ird'histell% R& Introduction to )inesics& #ouis1ille% Dy&9 !ni1ersity of #ouis1ille ress% +..-6& Chee)% &% and #e Cron% #& Clinical hypnotherapy& Ne' (or)9 Grune and Stratton% +.% =% A:=+& $ric)son% 8& Historical note on the hand le1itation and other ideomotor techni4ues& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.<=% pp& -7:++6& $ric)son% 8& seudo@orientation in time as a hypnotherapeutic procedure& Cournal of Clinical and $3perimental Hypnosis& +.=& /rayton% H& Human magnetism& Ne' (or)9 +?..References 0ssagioli% R& sychosynthesis& Ne' (or)9 Hobbs% /orman% +....A.+:=?A& $ric)son 8& Self@e3ploration in the hypnotic state& Cournal of Clinical and $3perimental Hypnosis% +.% =7% .-<& "arber% T& Hypnosis9 0 scientific approach& Ne' (or)9 Van Nostrand Reinhold% +.<% ?% +6@AA& 2a5 $ric)son% 8& The use of symptoms as an integral part of therapy& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.A=% =-% A=+@A=-& $ric)son% 8& 0utomatic dra'ing in the treatment of an obsessional depression& sychoanalytic Huarterly% +.:+..& $ric)son% 8& antomime techni4ues in hypnosis and the implications& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.. .& $ric)son% 8& The induction of color blindness by a techni4ue of hypnotic suggestion& Cournal of General sychology% +..-6& "audouin% C& Suggestion and autosuggestion& #ondon9 0llen and !n'in% +..:==& "arber% T&% and /e 8oor% B& 0 theory of hypnotic induction procedures& The 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.% <7% =A<@=.<% ?% <-@.<.6% F% ?@A=& 2c5 $ric)son% 8& 0 special in4uiry 'ith 0ldous Hu3ley into the nature and character of 1arious states of consciousness& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-& /ei)man% 0& C& /eautomatiEation in the mystic e3perience& In C& T& Tart 2$d&5% 0ltered states of consciousness& Ne' (or)9 /oubleday% +.<=& "ird'histell% R& Dinesics and conte3t& hiladelphia9 !ni1ersity of ennsyl1ania ress% +.% A6% +A<:+.

& 2a5 $ric)son% 8& The interspersal hypnotic techni4ue for symptom correction and pain control& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis& +.<-% --% <6.% +?@=A& erles% F& Gestalt therapy 1erbatim& #aFayette% Calif&9 Real eople ress% +..7& Cung% C& 8ysterium con.& $ric)son% 8&% and Rossi% $& Varieties of /ouble "ind& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-+% +-6% ?.-6& Droger% B& Clinical and e3perimental hypnosis& hiladelphia9 #ippincott% +.?% ++66@+=7+& Rossi% #& The brea)out heuristic9 0 phenomenology of gro'th therapy 'ith college students& Cournal of ..=% .-7& 8eares% 0& 0 'or)ing hypothesis as to the nature of hypnosis& 0merican 8edical 0ssociation 0rchi1es of Neurology and sychiatry% +..<& Hilgard% C& ersonality and hypnosis& Chicago9 !ni1ersity of Chicago ress% +.% +% +A<@+<7& Ra1itE% #& History% 8easurement% and applicability of periodic changes in the electromagnetic field in health and disease& 0merican 0rchi1es o..:<<<& 8organ% 0& H&% 8ac/onald% H& and Hilgard% $& R& $$C 0lpha9 #ateral asymmetry related to tas) and hypnotiEability& sychophysiology% +.% <?% =--@=.=@+7.<...-<& Hull% C& Hypnosis and suggestibility9 0n e3perimental approach& Ne' (or)9 0ppleton@Century% +...?:=7..A?& Orne% 8& The nature of hypnosis9 artifact and essence& The Cournal of 0bnormal and Social sychology% +..<=& Gill% 8&% and "renman% 8& Hypnosis and related states& Ne' (or)9 International !ni1ersities ress% +..& 2b5 $ric)son% 8& Further e3perimental in1estigation of hypnosis9 Hypnotic and non@hypnotic realities% 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +..6+% =% .& Haley% C& Strategies of psychotherapy& Ne' (or)9 Grune and Stratton% +..<. Ne' (or) Science& +.A& #e Cron% #& 0 hypnotic techni4ue for unco1ering unconscious material& Cournal of Clinical and $3perimental Hypnosis% +..-% =+-% =6:=.<.& 8orris% C& Foundations of the theory of signs& In O& Neurath% R& Carnap% and C& 8orris 2$ds&5% I% International $ncyclopedia of !nified Science% Vols& +% =% Chicago9 !ni1ersity of Chicago ress% +.-A% +.<6% =% -.-<% +-% +6A@+<-& $ric)son% 8&% and Rossi% $& T'o le1el communication and the microdynamics of trance& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.?& Hilgard% $& Hypnotic susceptibility& Ne' (or)9 Harcourt% +.=% .-7& Hilgard% $&% and Hilgard% C& Hypnosis in the relief of pain& #os 0ltos% California9 Daufmann% +.-A& 8asters% B&% and Cohnson% V& Human se3ual inade4uacy& "oston9 #ittle% "ro'n% +.AA& Cung% C& The structure and dynamics of the psyche& Ne' (or)9 antheon% +. 2$ds&5 Hemispheric disconnection and cerebral function& Springrield% +++&% C& C& Thomas% +.-6% +.& #uria% 0& The 'or)ing brain& Ne' (or)9 "asic "oo)s% +.& $ric)son% 8& and $ric)son% $& Concerning the character of post@hypnotic beha1ior& Cournal of General sychology% +.-% +7% ?-@+A<& $ric)son% 8& 0 field in1estigation by hypnosis of sound loci importance in human beha1ior& The 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.% ?% =..$ric)son% 8& $3periential )no'ledge of hypnotic phenomena employed for hypnotherapy& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.6:+AA& $ric)son% 8& and 8&% and Rossi% $& Varieties of hypnotic amnesia& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.unctions& rinceton9 rinceton !ni1ersity ress% +.-6% ++% =-<@=?.-@.A& Haley% C& !ncommon therapy& Ne' (or)9 Norton% +..-=& GaEEaniga% 8& The split brain in man& Scientific 0merican% +.% ..:A7.& A.:-.& Ghiselin% "& 2$d&5 The creati1e process9 0 symposium& "er)eley9 8entor% +.@A...% ?% +.76& Fromm% $rica% and Shor% R& Hypnosis9 research de1elopments and perspecti1es& Ne' (or)9 0ldine% +.% .& earson% R& Communication and 8oti1ation& art I& 0 fable& art II The bric): 0 personal e3perience& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.% ==<@=A.-A& Henle% 8& On the relation bet'een logic and thin)ing& sychological Re1ie'% +.% +?% +<A:+-+& Fischer% R& 0 cartography of ecstatic and meditati1e states& Science% +.-..A& Dinsbourne% 8&% and Smith% B.& Ra1itE% #& 0pplication of the electrodynamic field theory in biology% psychiatry% medicine and hypnosis& I& General Sur1ey& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis& ..

<A& BeitEenhoffer% 0& General techni4ues of hypnotism& Ne' (or)9 Grune and Strat@ton% +.+7& .-<& Betterstrand% O& Hypnotism and its application to practical medicine& Ne' (or)9 utnam% +..?% ?% .A% <& =.-6& BeitEenhoffer% 0& Hypnotism9 0n ob.7=& Sperry% R& Hemisphere disconnection and unity in conscious a'areness& 0merican sychologist% +.:=?& Rossi% $& /reams and the gro'th of personality9 $3panding a'areness in psychotherapy& Ne' (or)9 ergamon% +.% In ress& Sacerdote% & 0n analysis of induction procedures in hypnosis& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-6& Sheehan% & Hypnosis and manifestations of Gimagination&G In $& romm and R& Shor 2$ds&5 Hypnosis9 Research /e1elopments and erspecti1es& Chicago9 0ldine@0therton% +.-+% +6% +7=:+=+& BeitEenhoffer% 0& and S.7% =% +--@+..-<% ==% +:A=& S'itras% C& 0 comparison of the $ye@Roll test for hypnotiEability and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale9 Form 0& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.% .-=& Scheflen% 0& Ho' beha1ior means& Ne' (or)9 0ronson% +.?& Shor% R& Hypnosis and the concept of the generaliEed reality@orientation& 0merican Cournal of sychotherapy% +.6@+7.ecti1e study in suggestibility& Ne' (or)9 Biley% +.-<% +=% A.-=& She1rin% H& /oes the a1erage e1o)ed response encode subliminal perceptionI (es& 0 reply to Sch'artE and Rem& sychophysiology% +.7=& Bheeler% #& Reis% H&% Bolff% $&% Grupsmith% $&% and 8ord)off% 0& $ye@roll and hypnotic susceptibility& International Cournal of Clinical and $3perimental Hypnosis% +.Humanistic sychology% +.<.% =.@AA6& Bhitehead% 0&% and Russell% "& rincipia mathematica& Cambridge9 Cambridge !ni1ersity ress% +.-=% +<& =<@=?& Sternberg% S& 8emory scanning9 Ne' findings and current contro1ersies& Huarterly Cournal of $3perimental sychology% +.<@A=+J % 67@-=& BeitEenhoffer% 0& Ocular changes associated 'ith passi1e hypnotic beha1ior& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.?% =A% -=A@-AA& Spiegel% H& 0n eye@roll test for hypnotiEability& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-& BatEla'ic)% &% Bea)land% C&% and Fisch% R& Change& Ne' (or)9 Norton% +.oberg% "& Suggestibility 'ith and 'ithout hypnosis& Cournal of Ner1ous and 8ental /iseases& +.? 2b5& Rossi% $& The dream@protein hypothesis& 0merican Cournal of sychiatry& +..% +A% <?=@.:==& 2b5 Rossi% $& The cerebral hemispheres in analytical psychology& Cournal of 0nalytical sychology% +..-=% ..@=<A& Sarbin% T&% and Coe% B& Hypnosis9 0 social@psychological analysis of influence communication& Ne' (or)9 Holt% +.& BeitEenhoffer% 0& The nature of hypnosis& arts I and II& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-7& BatEla'ic)% &% "ea1in% 0&% and Cac)son% /& ragmatics of human communication& Ne' (or)9 Norton% +.<-& BeitEenhoffer% 0& !nconscious or co@consciousI Reflections upon certain recent trends in medical hypnosis& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-6% +-& <6@<<& Tintero'% 8& 8& Foundations of hypnosis& Springfield% +++&9 C& C& Thomas% +.& BeitEenhoffer% 0& ersonal communication% +.7@=.-& 2a5 Rossi% $& sychological shoc)s and creati1e moments in psychotherapy& 0merican Cournal of Clinical Hypnosis% +.-6% ==% =<?:=.-6% ==% A=.-A% +A7% +7.<@A.-=& 2a5 Rossi% $& Self@reflection in dreams& sychotherapy& +....+% +A=% =76@==7& BeitEenhoffer% 0& Bhen is an GinstructionG an GinstructionGI International Cournal of Clinical and $3perimental Hypnosis% +.-A% +.-.-7% +=& =A.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful