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and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly as a noun phrase. It may instead be marked on the verb (this is especially common in null subject languages.) The most basic kind of sentence consists of a single clause; more complicated sentences may contain multiple clauses- including clauses contained within clauses. Clauses are often contrasted with phrases. Traditionally, a clause was said to have both a finite verb and its subject, whereas a phrase either contained a finite verb but not its subject (in which case it is a verb phrase) or did not contain a finite verb. Hence, in the sentence "I didn't know that the dog ran through the yard", "that the dog ran through the yard" is a clause, as is the sentence as a whole, while "the yard", "through the yard", "ran through the yard", and "the dog" are all phrases. Modern linguists do not draw quite the same distinction, however, the main difference being that modern linguists accept the idea of a non-finite clause, a clause that is organized around a non-finite verb. Functions of dependent clauses One major way to classify dependent clauses is by function; that is, by the roles they play in the clauses they are subordinate to. Since the same dependent clause might have different roles in different sentences, this classification must be applied onuugetn a per-sentence basis. Under this classification scheme, there are three main types of dependent clauses: noun clauses, adjective clauses, and adverb clauses, so called for their syntactic and semantic resemblance to noun phrases, adjective phrases, and adverbials, respectively. The exact uses of each vary somewhat from language to language, but a noun clause typically acts as the subject of a verb or as the object of a verb or preposition, as in these English examples: • "What you say is not as important as how you say it." • "I imagine that they're having a good time." • "I keep thinking about what happened yesterday." (Note that the word that is optional in the second sentence, highlighting a complication in the entire dependent/independent contrast: "They're having a good time" is a complete sentence, and therefore an independent clause, but in "I imagine they're having a good time", it acts as a dependent clause.) An adjective clause modifies a noun phrase. In English, adjective clauses typically come at the end of their noun phrases: • "The woman I spoke to said otherwise." • "We have to consider the possibility that he's lying to us." An adverb clause typically modifies its entire main clause. In English, it usually precedes or follows its main clause: • "When she gets here, all will be explained." • "He was annoyed by the whole thing, which was unfortunate, but unavoidable." The line between categories may be indistinct, and, in some languages, it may be difficult to apply these classifications at all. At times more than one interpretation is possible, as in the English sentence "We saw a movie, after which we went dancing", where "after which we went dancing" can be seen either as an adjective clause ("We saw a movie. After the movie, we went dancing.") or as an adverb clause ("We saw a movie. After we saw the movie, we went dancing."). More complicated, sometimes the two interpretations are not synonymous, but both are intended, as in "Let me know when you're ready", where "when you're ready" functions both as a noun clause (the object of know, identifying what knowledge is to be conveyed) and as an adverb clause (specifying when the knowledge is to be conveyed).  Structures of dependent clauses The other major way to classify dependent clauses is by their structure, though even this classification scheme does make some reference to the clause's function in a sentence. This scheme is more complex, as there are many different ways that a dependent clause can be structured. In English, common structures include:
Many dependent clauses, such as "before he comes" or "because they agreed", consist of a prepositionlike subordinating conjunction, plus what would otherwise be an independent clause. These clauses act much like prepositional phrases, and are either adjective clauses or adverb clauses, with many being able to function in either capacity. • Relative clauses, such as "which I couldn't see", generally consist of a relative pronoun, plus a clause in which the relative pronoun plays a part. Relative clauses usually function as adjective clauses, but occasionally they function as adverb clauses; in either case, they modify their relative pronoun's antecedent, and follow the phrase or clause that they modify. • Fused relative clauses, such as "what she did" (in the sense of "the thing she did"), are like ordinary relative clauses except that they act as noun clauses; they incorporate their subjects into their relative pronouns. • Declarative content clauses, such as "that they came", usually consist of the conjunction that plus what would otherwise be an independent clause, or of an independent clause alone (with an implicit preceding that). For this reason, they are often called that clauses. Declarative content clauses refer to states of affairs; it is often implied that the state of affairs is the case, as in "It is fortunate that they came", but this implication is easily removed by the context, as in "It is doubtful that they came." • Interrogative content clauses, such as "whether they came" and "where he went" (as in "I don't know where he went"), are much like declarative ones, except that they are introduced by interrogative words. Rather than referring to a state of affairs, they refer to an unknown element of a state of affairs, such as one of the participants (as in "I wonder who came") or even the truth of the state (as in "I wonder whether he came"). • Small clauses, such as "him leave" (as in "I saw him leave") and "him to leave" (as in "I wanted him to leave"), are minimal predicate structures, consisting only of an object and an additional structure (usually an infinitive), with the latter being predicated to the former by a controlling verb or preposition. Independent Clause (IC) An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought. An independent clause is a sentence. Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz. (IC) Dependent Clause (DC) A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence. Often a dependent clause is marked by a dependent marker word. Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (DC) (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.) Dependent Marker Word (DM) A dependent marker word is a word added to the beginning of an independent clause that makes it into a dependent clause. Example: When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, it was very noisy. (DM) Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while. Connecting dependent and independent clauses There are two types of words that can be used as connectors at the beginning of an independent clause: coordinating conjunctions and independent marker words. 1. Coordinating Conjunction (CC) The seven coordinating conjunctions used as connecting words at the beginning of an independent clause are and, but, for, or, nor, so, and yet. When the second independent clause in a sentence begins with a coordinating conjunction, a comma is needed before the coordinating conjunction: Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz, but it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. (CC) 2. Independent Marker Word (IM)
An independent marker word is a connecting word used at the beginning of an independent clause. These words can always begin a sentence that can stand alone. When the second independent clause in a sentence has an independent marker word, a semicolon is needed before the independent marker word. Example: Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz; however, it was hard to concentrate because of the noise. (IM) Some common independent markers are: also, consequently, furthermore, however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore. Tayutay Ang tayutay ay salita o isang pahayag na ginagamit upang bigyan diin ang isang kaisipan o damdamin. Sinasadya ng pagpapayahag na gumagamit ng talinghaga o di-karaniwang salita o paraan ng pagpapahayag upang bigyan diin ang kanyang saloobin. Mga Uri ng Tayutay [baguhin] • Simili o Pagtutulad - di tiyak na paghahambing ng dalawang magkaibang bagay. Ginagamitan ito ng mga salitang: tulad ng, paris ng, kawangis ng, tila, sing-, sim-, magkasing-, magkasim-, at iba pa. Ito ay tinatawag na Simile sa Ingles. • Meatapora o Pagwawangis - tiyak na paghahambing ngunit hindi na ginagamitan ng pangatnig.Nagpapahayag ito ng paghahambing na nakalapat sa mga pangalan, gawain, tawag o katangian ng bagay na inihahambing. Ito ay tinatawag na METAPHOR sa Ingles. • Personipikasyon o Pagtatao - Ginagamit ito upang bigyang-buhay, pagtaglayin ng mga katangiang pantao - talino, gawi, kilos ang mga bagay na walang buhay sa pamamagitan ng mga pananalitang nagsasaad ng kilos tulad ng pandiwa, pandiwari, at pangngalang-diwa. 'PERSONIFICATION' sa Ingles. • Apostrope o Pagtawag - isang panawagan o pakiusap sa isang bagay na tila ito ay isang tao. • Pag-uulit ○ Aliterasyon - Ang unang titik o unang pantig ay pare-pareho. ○ Anapora - Pag-uulit ng isang salitang nasa unahan ng isang pahayag o ng isang sugnay. ○ Anadiplosis - Paggamit ng salita sa unahan at sa hulihan ng pahayag o sugnay. ○ Epipora - Pag-uulit naman ito ng isang salita sa hulihan ng sunud-sunod na taludtod. ○ Empanodos o Pabalik na Pag-uulit - Pag-uulit nang pagbaliktad ng mga pahayag. ○ Katapora - Paggamit ng isang salita na kadalasang panghalip na tumutukoy sa isang salita o parirala na binanggit sa hulihan. • Pagmamalabis o Hayperbole - Ito ay lagpalagpasang pagpapasidhi ng kalabisan o kakulangan ng isang tao, bagay, pangyayari, kaisipan, damdamin at iba pang katangian, kalagayan o katayuan. • Panghihimig o Onomatopeya - ito ang paggamit ng mga salitang kung ano ang tunog ay siyang kahulugan. ONOMATOPOEIA sa Ingles. • Pag-uyam - Isang uri ng ironya na ipinapahiwatig ang nais iparating sa huli. Madalas itong nakakasakit ng damdamin. • Senekdoke o Pagpapalit-saklaw - isang bagay, konsepto kaisipan, isang bahagi ng kabuuan ang binabanggit. • Paglilipat-wika - tulad ng pagbibigay-katauhan na pinasasabagay ang mga katangiang pantao, na ginagamit ang pang-uri. • Balintuna - isang uri ng ironya na hindi ipinapahiwatig ang nais sabihin sa huli. • Pasukdol - pataas na paghahanay ng mga salita o kaisipan ayon sa kahalagahan nito mula sa pinakamababa patungo sa pinakamataas na antas. • Pagtanggi o Litotes - gumagamit ng katagang "hindi" na nagbabadya ng pagsalungat o di-pagsang-ayon. Ito'y may himig na pagkukunwari, isang kabaligtaran ng ibig sabihin.
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