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Science comes from the Latin word "scientia," meaning knowledge. It is defined as knowledge
attained through study or practice. Scientist are people who uses observation and experimentation to describe and explain the things that happen in nature and from these understandings we are able to better ourselves. The four natural sciences are biology, chemistry, physics, and earth science.
Matter is anything that has mass and is made up of atoms. The states of matter are solid li!uid
Energy is the capacity to do work, such as being able to move an ob"ect #of a given mass$ by
the application of force. %nergy can exist in a variety of forms, such as electrical, kinetic, potential, mechanical, chemical, thermal, or nuclear.
Potential Energy is the stored energy a body possesses due to its position #i.e. height above
the ground or the arrangement of its parts. &. 'hemical %nergy ( stored in the bonds of atoms and molecules ( coal, petrol, biomass. ). *ravitational +otential %nergy ( the energy of place or position. ,. -uclear %nergy ( energy stored in the nucleas of an atom. .. Stored /echanical %nergy ( stored in ob"ects through the application of force ( springs.
Kinetic Energy this is energy a moving body possesses whether it be the motion of atoms,
molecules, ob"ects or waves. &. %lectrical %nergy ( movement of electrons. ). /otion ( movement of ob"ects. ,. 0adiant %nergy ( electromagnetic energy ( light, x(rays, gamma rays and radio waves. .. Sound ( 'ommonly called noise if it is unwanted, is the movement of energy through air and other substances in the form of vibrating 1longitudinal2 waves. Sound travels in air at a speed of 345 mph however it can travel a lot faster within liquid and solid substances such as water or metal since the atoms are more closely packed. 6. Thermal %nergy ( the internal energy in substances ( the vibration of atoms and molecules within substances.
The Conservation of Energy states that energy can neither be created nor destroyed but
converted from one form to another #i.e. boiling water involves converting chemical energy from the gas to heat and light energy of the flame to sound energy of the boiling water$.
"ust like how you can2t see air.Pressure is defined as the force exerted per unit area. Simple definition: +ressure is created when a body continuously exerts force on another body that is touching #i. #It is not something you notice readily because your bodies are accustomed to it but it exists. Bernoulli's principle state. Tim poking Sally with his finger lol$. See attachment on ‘Coanda effect’ Surface tension is a property of the surface of a li!uid that allows it to resist an external force. 8 Li!uid or gas such as air can be considered a fluid. for example. 9ernoulli:s +rinciple is the principle that allows wings to produce lift and planes and helicopters to fly. It is revealed.e. Atmospheric Pressure is pressure exerted by the air7atmosphere around us. water striders$ and even reptiles #basilisk$ to run on the water surface. even though they are denser than water. the pressure exerted by that fluid decreases. . that as the velocity of a fluid increases .g. and in the ability of some insects #e. B! There is more than one principle that can describe the ping pong ball experiment.$ Fluid is any substance that has weaker bonds than a solid such that it doesn2t have a fixed shape. in floating of some ob"ects on the surface of water.
%ngineers generally don:t "do" science. Engineering is not science. Polymers are made up of many many molecules all strung together to form really long chains #and sometimes more complicated structures. li!uids. 8 omogeneous !ixture is formed. 8toms are so small that there are millions and billions and trillions in the tiniest speck you can see. and even lots of things you can:t see.e.e. >hen atoms "oin together we say they form bonds together and this makes molecules. like a bouncy ball. Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything you can see around you. like the air that you breathe. some are sticky and gooey. 8n example is soap. i. changing the properties of the surface and reducing the surface tension of a li!uid. it is experienced when we rub our hand together or for example we try to pull an ob"ect over a rough surface it is harder than pulling it across a smooth surface we say that its motion is restricted due to friction. . and I mean really itty(bitty. Some are rubbery. like a skateboard. mixing saltwater or sugar and water.Surfactant is a material that spreads along a surface. and it is merely an ad"ective used to describe the direction of the force. Topology is a branch of mathematics the deals specifically with the properties of certain shapes and ob"ects that tend to form continuous loops and twists. gases ( all matter ( are made up of atoms. Swinging a bucket of water= car turning a corner or a satellite orbiting the earth. 8ny ob"ect moving in a circle or along a circular path experiences some physical force either pushing or pulling the ob"ect towards the center of the circle. >hat makes polymers so fun is. Centripetal Force" # The word centripetal means .towards the center<. Solids. Let:s talk tiny. too$. /any many many /?-?mers make a +?L@merA This is a simple diagram of a chain of monomers.inward< or . Science is about discovering the natural. +olymers 8re Like TB 9oth Cave Lots and Lots of 0epeats 8 solution is a mixture of a solid and a li!uid where the solid never settles out i. and some are hard and tough.e. how they act depends on what kinds of molecules they:re made up of and how they:re put together. Friction occurs when two substances slide over one another #i. %ngineering is creating the artificial.
ws7macrog7kidsmac7basics. steel. 8 chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. feel and chemical formula. Acids These are corrosive chemical compounds that have a sharp sour taste. and they react with metals and other substances to . 8lso you can tell if a substance is basic by its chemical formula and its feel.html . They are used in electric motors.com7chemistry(definition.co. @ou can sometimes tell when a substance is acidic by its taste. >e use these substances in our everyday life. >hen a substance dissolves it spreads evenly throughout the li!uid #solvent$. @ou can also identify when a chemical is acidic by its pC value. smell and taste.sciencemadesimple. Bases These are the chemical opposite to acids= they cancel out or neutraliEe acidic substances. because all acids have a pC less than 3. 8 magnet is an ob"ect or a device that gives off an external magnetic field. http 77www.uk7science7source7h7o7home7source. slimy feeling. loud speakers and microphones. generators.diracdelta. It changes the colour of litmus red to blue.D.To dissolve a substance is to mix a solid and a li!uid to form a solution. @ou can identify a base by its pC value. nickel and cobalt. dynamos. They generally have a soapy.D.eat them away< or damage them. because all bases have a pC value of more than 3.html2 http 77pslc. -ot all li!uids dissolve substances because the li!uid has to be able to break the bonds of the solid. such as litmus from blue to red.htm http 77www. slippery. They have a caustic action on plant and animal tissue. /agnets are able to attract certain materials such as iron. 8n 8cid changes the colour of certain vegetable dyes. They are important compounds that are found in many things we use and eat.
html .com7chemistry( definition. steel. They are used in electric motors.diracdelta.htm http 77www.sciencemadesimple. dynamos.co. generators. loud speakers and microphones.8 magnet is an ob"ect or a device that gives off an external magnetic field.uk7science7source7h7o7home7source.html2 http 77pslc. http 77www. /agnets are able to attract certain materials such as iron.ws7macrog7kidsmac7basics. nickel and cobalt.
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