A project of Volunteers Purifi-W of

in Asia water . on_ 3 sna1.L y*


Paper kc.


Published by: International Reference Water Supply P.O. Box 5500 2280 HM Rijswijk The Netherlands Avaiiabie from: International Reference Water Supply P.O. Box 5500 2280 HM Rijswijk The Netherlands







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need water for these supply W. its paper briefing 3 resulted is intended collaborative by the hoped It is between organisation paper of will water and W.R.C.lical in supply. of Hlth. I.R.H.H"0. Organisation Purifica- on a small 1956.C. especially for areas. to be used of new consultants.O.C. for available.Introduction In -the tion Org. paper. improve will this highly paper. There rural sanitary In 1956 Mr. appreciate receiving any contribution.R. and it practical leave exists. suggested including to the I. with sh this Community Water supply This new data from tech. be of use to them and also to many others working field I. which may further . efforts latter that in the the instructions. World of Health Water Clark of The Division in Geneva scale which of Environmental prepared a note in was published the Sanitation on the Bull.C. he?.N. where health conditions much to be desired and no connection to repub I. Wld. is a great drinking 820-826.R.. 14. R. no.

to boil the requires cercariae. and vessel. at that being to n "rt .e cooled and stored no other . continue suitable as a rule. Filtration These methods can be used singly or in combination.-5- There vidual are or three domestic general scale: I. and 2. J. for at to low level one minute of will height boil at . it is purpose. Chemical 3. intervals water a boiling appear- or steam water None 01 Ia'lGse signs to boil least further above lower Having locations. be the elevation 1000 metre be given locations 1000 metres. at higher It is also than in the altitudes. fuel required Under water. bubbles ance of indication boiling Five below should minutes mist point water (simmering) that will for water the canfused water. temperature. Boiling destrOVE 2" forms of disease organisms usually encountered in water. 1. water about cysts varies usually 1 or ova. Boiling Boiling and it is is a satisfactoi-y equally effective 'n-thod for destroying the water is disease clear organisms or cloudy. that It turbid is or cloudy water be boiled water and to use somewhat in this the same contain- longer container er for good practice to boil to ?. The appearance as is is the sufficient reached minutes."Ll" "oiling.rril tihether they of be bacteria. drinking 2 lb conditions associated wood to boil kp of one litre To be safe. reason recommender clear which water. say. with the type with of fire. boiling sea-level temperatures of five of it spores. must be brought is sometimes over the has reached should minimum and. methods for the purifii:ation of water on r:n indi- Boiling disinfection. in water whether whether it is relatively pure or highly contaminated with organic matter. the boil- The amount stove. ing of (approx. per quart).


Chemical disinfection has its of own private in Fig. Chlorine -------Chlorine against the nor most water usual against can be given to ensure efficiency The two chemicals availability and easy chlorine is the a useful bacteria doses. of Engineering designs developed Nagpur. Rources. a partially even boiled it water is than though taste preferable Aerating left of by stirring a period where container stored to in the pclof is or 5y pouring makes for several is covered. combination only of to V'combined't must addition disinfection.Boiling particularly elters the carbon from tase of water because to it drives of is filled the in not Water out dissolved water gases. enters matter for water-borne diseases. to be reconciled drinking of boiled to run 2. in at the chlorine.O. one container risk of a day. instantaneously and in chemical form. Public with the disinfection well the well. de- Sufficient mand" of chlorine water in therefore to the be added amount "chlorine action. but Where a house the ef:: water ient can be disinfected methods using India. iodine Centre water.H. mouth particular the risk a refrigerator. water certain with limited satisfy for and is cysts Chlorine organic use tne effective In alin and ova. simple are chemical recommenand treatment ded on the iodine. is for For still An alternative development Water Supply. of in the The practice another recontamination. most any case. organisms such it disinfectant commonly is into not embedded for associated effective -n solid is drinking with against particles. required bacterial . the by means of Reference Community water brought grounds into of house from its outside safety. will recommended for the if of container. as its source in of into several jar Research drinking simple successful chlorinator Institute. inoffensive luted water hours. Central Research a double disinfection International has resulted 1. as this dioxide. illustrates Health method W. a serious up to surface lose In taste there a good air exposed.

instances places. that chlorine to apply treating strength water!'. lime the container can also is best strength. The inert in to the clear stoppered chemical In using will chlorinated settle which for future which container immediately soluti. and when c lear. of this of powder cans which should bursting contains be kept when left about as cool ir.o use the off is contains strength a loss solution. opening. lime.:. It This freshly after opening. for with of other such substances gives general. matter. so it the even can be used High-test keep its necessary will is opened. chlorine in a tightly subject dosing.-8- This but luted combination the presence residual water. about A good such stock 20-33 minutes is Experience necessary Chlorine solution This is "Zonite" Other bleaches usually diluted water. sources a variety of of chlorine trade of are chlorine appropriate the commercial Annex 1). coma diminishes even a white made. powder However. to make a hypochlor- same way as chlorinated chlorinated is or opened. as "Milton". proprietary disinfectants IILKI~S (see 3% to 5% available by addition and can be easily a 1% solution possible to purchase which the in the opened. few hours then This plicates Another stock it is also is to use in contains 1. containing chlorination. Storage 307: available powder a long at once. storage The powder lime. However. is result <.Jn bottle to make up a stock leaving solution the type reliability of powder is active still of and kept be poured degradation high-test Containers been hypochlorite. can be successfully indicates for is about or easily sold contain to the easiest the "UTavel available under about chlorinated. the stock ite better whole its is hot solution after container strength sun or chlorine. available chlorine. whole bleaching about of of powder this over or chlorinated chlorine rapidly period. pol- a taste large some indicltion a cloudy of organic chlorine" suitable it exists. and will is not this lime. when without after in can use. there in in having hot the than once. lime. to 3 chlorine tnat a "free or highly is not taste. two after more stable at in strength to use lose most the of -the container a month material container . quantities Turbid water in may giv<? rise water. 70% available as possible. a solution. can be filtered. quantities laundry These of will pure of a contact to destroy in water the period harmful form of of about bacteria.

The foregoing illustrates names are has a double chlorine the If in even inner compound. . commercial may be avaiiable: be followed This Then.: _'. or It if is to each If it the litre water that (c!ua.<-. first the the is Tablets is outer the 1. bleach.:': laundry . strengtr: add three ounce dosage like should '~1 which ex. solutions or gri-en are bottles..ed wihout drops very should of 1% To chlorinate of water but period clear sulphur* tact complete Chlorine examples use '_ .'. be kept cool: stoppered To make a litre. $.:1 baline". an example disinfect 8 mg of iodine.Chlorine in brown places..: '. U~lulion. \. within the house.. '. :L> r . and stored They in should dark. normally available j' ..:r' (one quart ) of clear water by liberating I:. given of which in Annex carefully.._. '~(. from any chemist. is of also available other on the brand package in brands tablet which should action. 'Iodine . the about to 32 imperial be doubled..'.. i . tablet after "Halazone" llChlor-d%hlor"._.: .s . b.:-’ solution gallons.' agent In and.-t is a conensure or one fluid odour. genes*al- a 1% solution water.. ^ ‘). dissolved be put of same time.. -. core form.r to cup) of about the liar_J of of of I$ stc. 1. ! . iodine as tincture water of to of which for iodine. highly of 3nd can be '~.:. has a noticeable use to repeated 30 minutes be allowed before disinfection.‘..:.. unstable well in warm climates.. The proprietary ly have quantities tablespoons) of stock cnlorina-ted 15 g (1 tablespoon) !. . completely practices a practice are all related for well to water chlorination.) '.Lgh-test solution can be made by using proportionate dit.tples have bet-1 given. coloured. add the re- of any of following: F 250 ml (I 01 40 g (Lh or Smailer amounts. the must core taste. hypochlorite. more than at the one of these neutralizes one tablet tablets remaining added '.Lanis.. weak tea.. >' I:' I: " L 1: i '.i'.$. .' t) rat:.lr. is an excellent disinfecting b. Each tablet contains sufficient .I'..' i'1..: " ‘-’ 3‘ t-. after are to be used. :'. addition. Fig..:'..'(one quisite amount Tither 1~. is disinfectantstants disinfec is i s "Gloone litre turbid'id or turb based on iodine are commercially available..i. lime.. i .. Chlor-dechlor with tablet reduce amount inating ineffective. . w---e_ -'2 . . iod ine.-.. following Directions For disinfects portion chlorine the whole the dechlorthe of are and for water the to example.+ ... as given a special dissolves..:-qlution. suitable Iodine .

against such as tri-iodine. Potassium Permanganate ---------------------Potassium water. potassium difficult permanganate to remove precipitate.. cercariae. two drops water even when However. the The commercially tetraglycine cysts. vibrio. organic g/l. is tablets are normally iodine as well. solution. higher water water can be filtered is known There is taste. of cloudy not should water. . Potassium it is that use is is account The commonly permanganate of little one part against a dark may possibly use against in be effective disease produces organisms.e. produce no harm dosage. oxidizing containing 2000 or 0. a medicinal produced potassium leptospira. contact When iodine mended proprietary read for disinfectant should the period minutes. i. of water. scouring. compounds. treated is but with which and its used for the disinfection its action of is used ~. or muddy. and are effective amoebic and some viruses a similar be followed. should to that recom- chlorine tablets 20-30 When u:-<ing be carefully manufacturer's instructions and followed. can then which clear. two tablets less than to are recommended.5 cholera Water on which material. or water iodine polluted. noticeable with filtrate the normally colour. . Turbid If will . be treated.10 - highly prior mates in If of polluted this 1. rapidly dosage other time without is not It is permanganate is a powerful in waters in the brown spent has frequently been agent. a satisfactory The opinion disinfectant expressed potassium not permanganate recommended. the dose but it the or suspected to be heavily using should be doubled. Other Contact very period cold clishown to use should Annex tincture 2% strength is is be not 20 minutes and in be increased 25 minutes. makes are iodine will well is suffice suited used for for to disinfect one litre having clear in disinfection and the water.

/ft'/hLa). large matter treating no purifying compounds.itment coarse. most of certhe by a certain charabsorb bachaving exte?lt of view Subse' to water inagainst and similarly and visible carefully almost frequently matter. also removal of ilouse- There hold the carbon chlorine. be at be desirable treatment. than in the unless It skillfully will.) ‘and the oI‘ excess Sand filter ----------The household effective csriae.an additional (4 Imp.l and 75 cm (30 head underneath. dep-th the of rate filter. bacteria. may be made more effective as a result filters is have contain being lost the of unless property Some household effect function absorb the taste-producing filters are can serve as nutrients unfiltered as a single be boiled household points which through causing water. but crganisms. even Charcoal There the sandfilters. It filtration reservation water sand that should the or disinfected. which for is the relatively There is is tre. however. step of an undesirable filtered To a lesser point treatment. filter 4./ft'/hr from with drum to a steel the US gall. Filtration are water ceramic filter two types supplies: filter. coarse turbidity first clear This coal organic terial a higher this these quent With place ever firstly. growth can also filters to this in fine bacterial happen should or cloudiness. (Fig. greater A simple diameter on a stand. the a container the bottom drum 60 cm (24 inch) cut off. 15 cm (6 secondly. is the that can easily through flow be made for household The essential sand of 60 cm (2 ft> . ?nd will although alum. water effect. sand in water inch) the or is. which in the count :Jith not the in found./t. out may pass of tc relatively ova. with its this Sand filtraticn some fine which charcoal.8 filteimakin. a finer purpose used which of texture. of filters sand is the of prime commonly filter. a hole filter l'lace outlet. the which 2. passes in finds a filter should fact. renewed. least and. can be obtained.- 11 - 3. suspension. instances From a hygienic be used water mind. and drill serve as the . remove strain it is cysts. the 2 mm (:. ir drum inch) can be constructed inch) of high. should not a definite use whereare. operated. in diameter water has is sand filter. than filter with at 200 i/m2/hr gall.


of water with surface A filter per prior running a slight of into the of to the under di- To operate top.'ZI .. on the the sand. the . ._ . ." '..t'. are the also filter be used as they cleaned contaminated.g... . ':$ .z .'*( . ". failing occur chemical week after of the Passage start described of organisms.‘ . A general heavily disinfected The sand fully illustrated normally should Drums chemicals to use..*.. .! ..'. : I: .I '..I 'I off and discarded. .._4. '._ ). sand should be restored to its initial level with clean sand aiter .. with to keep growth a reliable is will filter green it as described. After several such cleanings.I /... flow to interdeA slow degrethe as algae may be necessary mensions one litre minute (12 gallons hour) water. about . to disease organisms... a very thin layer... :. in with the the bottom top rim line.C'. / .. however.. ). since filter green can be eliminated this by covering depends on light for growth. Lx.' scraping the filter surface down to a clean level. through /.:: /.I :.' '.(. It the clear In fall vals pends sand (even dation just inlet sufficient to prevent should deliver which such filter time.‘i.. at but several all the a continuous the filter disc in a small forming per flow filled.. . : . I_ i'>‘ :.& cm (l/4 inch) can be carefully scraped <.Place of fine for ..( . .'j.( raked or scratched to leave it loose.i( :..’ constructed Trouble filter and after growths perfectly cleaning (algae) dark. The drum used be thoroughly likely is water to be contaminated assembled. )I>.:. filter weeks is or is be chlorinated to keep of filtration only since surface because in the first operating the in off desirable The rate should even a continuous is its of of likely at long efficiency the sand._/.. ly the a few ten timetres drum and fill to sand. the filter keep to place a hollow should a filter. following which the sand surface should be lightly '. . of pipe the just for in top below Fig..' '_.. t ‘ 2‘ : -: : " /~ rc.I' i filter.!\'. and allowed The filter nnd have should for to be carethen be before cleaned with .I (' ^.' ~.. I. a newly below. _ be cleaned months. j"._. .<. p . When it becomes necessary to clean the ^.I : L. on the barrier possibly highly filter of of when the the on the after chlorine biological chlorination solution). j . Make a hole and insert of or such layout for oil prior and stones before highly of in small 10 stones..' filled draining chlorinated to stand 2 hours to waste.4 r_. ‘... the .. .~“ . sand these of drinking.: 'II/. . '. initialout and may be within the cm (4 inch) rather an overflow used a short a filter should an overflow 3.:. nevertheless it times. :.g .:AI._':a'.. side is of length not about the drum of pea-size. .( . of to keep overflow.. ..'. _I I .


ceramic otherwise.rrir. grease. These and consequently be chlorinated coarse-grained Porcelain larger the king water After pass clog. filter cercariae. running boiled filters or industrial-type are made with 11 . the smaller candles disease or otherwise are useful They in removing suspended partially passage matter. candles quickly. ilaving candle.~ly of a matter Only cloudy @should be used water. disinfected filter. pumps.il of half water Lo ~i~ar:c~c filtration 100 litres sLarts may be necessary. with sizes. of types of cera!nic pore method filters. such fine-grained found safe treatment. breakthrough at least brush coated growth even it soap. remove orga:lisms without to use and further a prolonged filter. penetrate filter or oil. such and there as pressure is water LI wide of through the filters. settling cc solution followed continuous for the or cotlgul:iting The la-tter of one for :knd seLtli!lg oul :ilinut. drum by stirring of to the water form. This filter gets a stiff 20 minutes.i. .5 disease of a filter the once free bacterial time. pore sizes I . and filter different and the convenience.. floe to carbonate should for Ceramic fil-ters ----^L---------There ceramic is is very the only are several filters. removing and cysts. should will from for a radius water of usually is of 5011 or the filters in are drin- down to 0.For steel floe cium hour ready more turbid waters. purification. p . range the of these candle with clog non-pressure media filter filters. if can generally a week.c:: of about ( !.! calan is then to be tre.I g) of tablespoon) settled pl*ivr in 'I ur. under be allowed filtering. of clean or The !leurt getting turbid water :.tLeti by ndding st5. quite will the maximum pore porcelain Examples and similar and it L2 and the a limited through use. be effective water should a through Coarse-grained helminth in always ova. the a filter water with 15 or however. may be c:lrricd tzble~poon about three 'l0 g (one A period settle. the :kl~~~ into .30 radius Chamberland filters during passage water after the If for To be satisfactory be about Selas all period such 015. from be prevented should be scrubbed by cleaning does not under and then and boiling or clogged.g. may only after organisms.

attached through Another The candle water of A third type to which the the candles is simply can be mounted with poured for use is which from like is the in in is at the a gravity-type or top. sizes. only with safe are or infusorial also in is made with removing porothe type The filshould they four reof or diatomaceous Like found porcelain. these with made in two reservoirs stored piped being pump.Another various all sity moval candle. the and their to water cleaning only should cracks For this when it attachments guard to against get by. wall porosity surface of bacteria graded well-known Their for this and Mandler N (normal. is filtered fitted and the inside. material. the through of days water suitable to destroy is suspended remove this filtration and it treated bacteria. intervals Kieselguhr at porcelain be cleaned of not There in teria action. candle tube. " L . should the grade more the smallest or course). or fine). most. candles. consists upper one. "Katadyn" with but the filter. candles. water. this efficient Among the filters. Such a filter filters unfiltered of view. water case drawn available attached the mounted a pressure The suction water a vessel filter another candles operated is a bicycle discharged if pump. to use water The same care except longer that than treatment. are as V (tlvieltt. and W ("wenig". commonly are the is known the in as the types water. water in the lower under filter tube is be carefully or leaks reason also which examined might with and from intervals a hygienic filtered should be disinfected filter. candles trickles pressure. being Any of selected.. filters The finer-grained Berkefeld The V filters and following be further bacteria.. type of of the with needs filter filter the the candle. directly as needed. bac- which impregnated killed a silver a way that contact coming by oligodynamic becomes clogged. Kieselguhr. at possibly chlorine. are The filtered satisfactory suitable : . candle ceramic is is compartment. N filters tered should or five is be taken types is of Kieselguhr type pore of filter earth candle filter. or intermediate). _. put through filter into the to the mounting system. Above frequent permit point Filter of Water and is where water a hand pump is systems catalyst a special the in surface such in known is is are not as the impaired. further as of at without candles frequently. s .

of with t. small-mouthed prevent. is selective. with scheme or by rolling possible. which how much care if water the is water Water will period unless the treated simple. It some form The be and should insects. the alone would carbon cannot dioxide does inhibit are more on to make beverages beverages. impervious on the roaches. preferably depends out flies. If this will refor imporbe or contaminated treatment. the . pouring. of hazards to store boiled "unprotected" treated of time. periodic to prevent emptying. heavily accumulation growths. enough are if the is to used. of dirt. water. to do not prevent The principles dip the anything entry of are into insects..ie Use clean and keep or other vessels the foreign vessels covered substances. entry vessel. to keep washable material.. dust. or iodine light residual are made. and othe. entry of enough precaution cover not To prevent of tight cover form necessary. a dipper. of bactericidal and long complete storage. lost use of The fact ensure decreases storage. foreign vessel. be made for The best cup or hand. does not content of and capped periods their purity carbonated its action Thebest others.rashing.o-----------No matter nullified filtered protection" a considerable ly tant disappears to keep contamination. water successfully additions may be subjected to immediate has "residual recontamination effect It is eventualvery recontamination. and type enough substantial Another water into bottled. Carbonation policy bacteria. When water and ova sweetened safety de- The amount properties. storage is is taken it with in producing after chlorine deal However. the water. may survive drinks pends In the to be easily to the or broken. resistant a beverage since some organisms Le counted seem to be to use only . Cleanliness and rinsing of slime vessels chlorinated involves water.the arrangements the a spigot. of free chemicals from the with this safe water. commercially that their with such purity. should vessels of should be used easy with a neck When large either vessels large Wherever narrow vessels by tipping is to use. practicable. of but but sugar produced products cysts in bottled are put is relates and carbonated bottles its bacterial long beverages.Water storage . determines on initial case hut than safe. matter. time. dust and other of primarily wasps.

traveller job of in water It safe is it with water drinking supplies. The transient own unobtrusive particular. be safer would water it is the safest validity nothing advised to not to of take that this anything assumption frequently. settling. for is large cities when dealing granted. purification. a public should round that contamination. e. be put beverage from water supply. water but too. It Ice is in establishments high reliably standard known of plant to use pure ingredients and standards and which of a suitably hygiene also relevant should ice is the drinking into to mention be made from water reliably beverage cooling. would and often Unless be well wrongly. All 2. have established. be pure.g. to do his Summary of treatment Type 1. Turbid 5. cubes the chlorinated Unless directly containers or piped known itself. only never the packed to effect Conclusion In all conclusion. treated from it can harbour water. assumed to leave chance. means. high content oi minerals such as iron or manganese seek professional special treatment advice for . Clear 3. Recommended processes for rendering water suitable for drinking. of types water. and disinfection Special types.- ‘IU - bottled maintain operation. boiling chlorination filtration (disinfection) and disinfection filtration water turbid coagulation. excessive hardness. that properly to ice. Slightly 4. corrosive.

"Regina" .tablets . " II II II solution I' I' .form "Zonite" "Milton "Javel "Dankin's and other laundry "Clorox". Sources of iodine a. chlorine Sources a. names are or of endorsed in giver.tablets (Use as directed) ( ( II if '1 '1 II 1' II 'I II !I II II > ) "Halamid" "Chloramin-T b. used as supplied) . 5% iodine Water Aqua" Purification Tablets" .5% chlorine chlorine solution) solution .liquid(approx.ANNEX 1. PROPRIETARY NAMES OF SOLUTIONS OR TABLETS SUITABLE FOR WATER PURIFICATION FOR INDIVIDUAL USAGE. The following mention not which I. Solid ---------.liquid (approx.g.ationmanufacturers' by WHO or of only.form l'Lugolls "Tincture solution" of iodine" . proprietary specific that not of they are Centre.form "Individual "Portable "Globaline" B. and (usually to 1%) 3-5s 1% chlorine (approx.tablets .tablets solution) SOlUtiOn) 2% iodine . (approx. ( ( > > Liquid ----------.liquid antiseptic" water" . Liquid c--m---'--..form "Halazone" "Chlor-dechlor" "Hydra-chlorazone" _. Solid I--------. . certain for infc-r:~.dilute 2. "Dazzle" e.liquid ..can be II II > > solution" 0.tablets Heyden" .tablets . products the The does WHO Internature - of companies imply are or recommended national Reference preference to others a similar mentioned.liquid commercial bleaches.tablets (use ( ( II I' as directed) II II I' II > > .liquid( ( .tablets .

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