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Different types of CCTV cameras.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) cameras can produce images or recordings for surveillance purposes, and can be either video cameras, or digital stills cameras. Marie Van Brittan Brown was the inventor of the CCTV camera.
1 Video cameras
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1.1 Analogue 1.2 Digital 1.3 Network
2 Digital still cameras 3 See also 4 References
A couple of CS-mount lenses for surveillance cameras. The left one is designed to be hidden behind a wall.
four frames or "snapshots" in time. Digital . These cards are relatively cheap. but inevitably the resulting digital signals are compressed 5:1 (MPEG compression) in order for the video recordings to be saved on a continuous basis. A person for example can have walked a distance of 1 meter. for a medium to large number of analogue cameras. most DVRs designed for CCTV purposes are embedded devices that require less maintenance and simpler setup than a PC-based solution. i. the camera scene can change dramatically. then the tape must run at a very slow speed in order to operate continuously. Analogue signals can also be converted into a digital signal to enable the recordings to be stored on a PC as digital recordings.e. then each frame invariably looks like a blur. then it's called a video server. unless the subject keeps relatively still. If the analogue signals are recorded to tape. it must be set to run on a time lapse basis which is usually about four frames a second. but does not record it. Such a device is similar in functionality to a PC with a capture card and appropriate video recording software. In one second. If a device does allow broadcasting of the video. thus acting like a network camera.Video cameras are either analogue or digital. This is because in order to allow a three hour tape to run for 24 hours. Analogue Can record straight to a video tape recorder which are able to record analogue signals as pictures. and therefore if the distance is divided into four parts. Some DVRs also allow digital broadcasting of the video signal. Unlike PCs. Another way to store recordings on a non-analogue media is through the use of a digital video recorder (DVR). In that case the analogue video camera must be plugged directly into a video capture card in the computer. which means that they work on the basis of sending analogue or digital signals to a storage device such as a video tape recorder or desktop computer or laptop computer. These devices effectively turn any analogue camera (or any analogue video signal) into a network TV. and the card then converts the analogue signal to digital.
but they can capture video images at resolutions of 1. 2. Because of the much higher resolutions available with these types of cameras. in any situation where standard-definition video cameras are used. they generally capture horizontal and vertical fields of lines and blend them together to make a single frame. and a few hours of uncompressed video could quickly fill up a hard drive. but DVD quality can be achieved with more compression (MPEG-2 is standard for DVD-video. with a slightly lower video quality than 5:1 at best. Still quite expensive. . they can be set up to cover a wide area where normally several analogue cameras would have been needed. and has a higher compression ratio than 5:1. 3. Unlike with analogue cameras. and is adjustable for the amount of space to be taken up versus the quality of picture needed or desired). The signal is compressed 5:1. the maximum frame rate is normally 30 frames per second. However.A traffic surveillance camera inStockholm. 5 and even up to 11 Mpix. forensic quality images are made where each hand on a person can be distinguished. multi-megapixel IP-CCTV cameras are coming on the market. At 11 Mpix. details such as number plates are easily readable.000 pixels (analogue quality is measured in TV lines but the results are the same). Sweden These cameras do not require a video capture card because they work using a digital signal which can be saved directly to a computer. Motion detection is therefore sometimes used as a work around solution to record in uncompressed quality. Holiday uncompressed recordings may look fine but one could not run uncompressed quality recordings on a continuous basis. Saving uncompressed digital recordings takes up an enormous amount of hard drive space. The highest picture quality of DVD is only slightly lower than the quality of basic 5:1-compression DV. That said. the quality is going to be poor because the maximum pixel resolution of the image chips in most of these devices is 320.
whereas network cameras may have VGA (640×480 pixels). resolutions higher than CCTV analogue cameras are possible. some Ethernet cabling. CPU. There continues to be much debate over the merits and price-for-performance of Network cameras as compared to analog cameras.Network Looking at the inside of a network camera. are the components that determine the image quality. but the image size is restricted to that of the video standard of the camera. capable of streaming the video (and sometimes. power supply. An analogue or digital camera connected to a video server acts as a network camera. or to replace entire CCTV installations (cameras become network cameras. Looking at the inside of a CCTV camera . A typical analogue CCTV camera has a PAL (768×576 pixels) or NTSC (720×480 pixels). plus an embedded video server having an IP address. and one PC). even audio). and do not need to output an analogue signal. Many in the CCTV industry claim that many analog cameras can outperform network cameras at a lower price. However. and CCTV monitors become computers with TFT screens and specialised software. IP cameras or network cameras are analogue or digital video cameras. Network cameras can be used for very cheap surveillance solutions (requiring one network camera. optics (lenses and image sensors). image encoder. Digital video manufacturers claim that turning CCTV installations into digital video installations is inherently better). image sensor. SVGA (800×600 pixels) or quad-VGA (1280×960 pixels. tape recorders become DVRs. Because network cameras are embedded devices. From left to right: network adapter. not video resolution. also referred to as "megapixel") resolutions.
The pixel resolution of the current models have easily reached 7 million pixels (7-mega pixels). Some point and shoot models like those produced by Canon or Nikon boast resolutions in excess of 10 million pixels. it is possible to take jpg pictures on a continuous or motion detection basis that will capture not only anyone running past the camera scene. Modern digital still cameras can take 500 kb snapshots in the space of 1 second. and with high shutter speeds like 1/125th of a second. All that is necessary is for the camera to be mounted on a wall bracket and pointed in the desired direction. If the computer is connected to the Internet. but even the faces of those driving past. or the entrance to a bank or underground station. These cameras can be plugged into the USB port of any computer (most of them now have USB capability) and pictures can be taken of any camera scene. Hitachi CCTV color camera Philips CCTV Varifocal Auto-Iris security camera lens Digital still cameras These cameras can be purchased in any high street shop and can take excellent pictures in most situations. The images themselves don't need to stay on the computer for long. . At these resolutions. and these snapshots are then automatically downloaded by the camera software straight to the computer for storage as timed and dated JPEG files. then the images can automatically be uploaded to any other computer anywhere in the world. as and when the pictures are taken. The direction could just as easily be the street outside a house. The user does not need to lift a finger except to simply plug the camera in and point it in the desired direction.
. images are simply transmitted wirelessly through walls or ceilings to the computer. so that no USB cable is required.Digital still cameras are now being made with in-built wireless connectivity.
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