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A TECHNICIANS GUIDE

Mike Cable ISA TECHNICIAN SERIES

CALIBRATION

TABLE OF CONTENTS
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Chapter 1 Calibration Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 What Is Calibration? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 What Are the Characteristics of a Calibration? . . 2 Why Is Calibration Required? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Who Performs Calibrations? The Control System Technician. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Characteristics of a Control System Technician . 9 Loop Calibration vs. Individual Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Bench Calibration vs. Field Calibration . . . . . . 11 Classification of Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Chapter Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Chapter 2 Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Calibration Procedure Content . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Calibration Data Sheets (See Examples in Appendix A-4) . . . . . . . . . . 21 P&IDs (See Example in Appendix A-1) . . . . . . 23 Loop Diagrams (See Examples in Appendix A-2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9

Instrument Specification Forms (See Examples in Appendix A-3) . . . . . . . . . . 26 Project Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Manufacturers Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Calibration Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Safety Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.10 Calibration Status Labels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Chapter 3 Temperature Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 3.1 3.2 3.3 What is Temperature? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Temperature Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Signal Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Chapter 4 Pressure Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 What is Pressure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Challenges When Calibrating Pressure . . . . . . 50 Calibrating Pressure Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Calibrating Pressure Transmitters . . . . . . . . . . 55 Calibrating Pressure Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Chapter 5 Level Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Types of Level Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Special Considerations with Level Calibration . 64 Calibrating a Differential Pressure Level Transmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Calibrating a Capacitance Level Instrument . . . 71 Calibrating an Ultrasonic Level Instrument. . . . 72

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Chapter 6 Flow Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 6.1 Types of Flow Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Calibration of Flowmeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 D/P Transmitter Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Example: Magnetic Flowmeter Calibration . . . . 84 Flowmeter Calibration Using a Master Meter (Prover) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Gravimetric Method for Flowmeter Calibration (Measurement by Weight) . . . . . . . 87

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Chapter 7 Final Control Devices Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 7.1 7.2 7.3 Calibration of an I/P Transducer . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Calibration of a Valve Positioner . . . . . . . . . . 96 Calibration of a Control Valve . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Chapter 8 Process Analytical Instrument Calibration . . . . . . . 101 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 pH Calibration Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Diagnostic Test for pH Electrodes . . . . . . . . 106 Measuring Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Calibration Procedure with Explanations . . . . 109

Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Appendix A-1. Piping & Instrument Diagrams (P&IDs) . . . . . . . . 117 Appendix A-2. Loop Diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Appendix A-3. Instrument Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Appendix A-4. Calibration Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Appendix A-5. Test Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Appendix A-6. RTD and Thermocouple Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Appendix A-7. Conversion Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Appendix B. Answers to Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . 249 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271