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# ACHIEVING COMPETENCE IN

## This is the first of the modular series produced by the

Jacobo Z. Gonzales Memorial School of Arts and Trades –
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
Region IV-A

## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 1 of 18

## I. LEARNING GUIDE OVERVIEW ........................................................................ 3

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II. HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE ............................................................................... 4
III. LEARNING ACTIVITIES ..................................................................................... 5

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IV. INFORMATION SHEET 1: ALPHABET OF LINES............................................. 6
INFORMATION SHEET 2: ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
A. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION ................................................................ 9

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B. STEPS IN SELECTING CORRECT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT ...................... 9
C. PRINCIPAL DIMENSIONS OF AN OBJECT .............................................. 10
D. STEPS IN PROJECTING THE THREE MAIN VIEWS OF AN OBJECT .... 11
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V. SELF CHECK 1 .................................................................................................. 8
SELF-CHECK 2 ................................................................................................ 13
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VI. ACTIVITY SHEET NO. 1: SKETCHING THREE MAIN VIEWS OF
AN OBJECT ..................................................................................................... 14
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## VII. ANSWER KEYS ......................................................................................... 16-17

VIII. RECORD OF COMPETENCE .......................................................................... 18
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 2 of 18
LEARNING GUIDE OVERVIEW
In the broad field of technical drawings, various projection methods are used to
The normal technical drawing is shown in orthogonal projection, in which more than one
view is used to draw and completely define an object.
However, to be able to represent the different views of an object one must be acquainted
with the different forms of lines. The various lines used in drawing form the alphabet of the

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drafting language.
In this learning material, the students should be able to apply the alphabet of lines in

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projecting the principal views of an object.
Competencies will be demonstrated by completing the job sheet and the unit test with a
minimum score of 75 percent.

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OBJECTIVES When you have successfully completed the learning activities in this
material, you will be able to:
1. Identify the different alphabet of lines;
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2. Steps in selecting correct views of an object;
3. Identify the dimensions of an object; and
4. Project the three main views of an object.

## CONTENTS This learning material includes the following:

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1. Alphabet of lines
2. Orthographic Projection
3. Steps in Selecting Correct Views of an Object
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## 4. Principal Dimensions of an Object

5. Steps in Projecting the Three Main Views
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PRE-REQUISITES The completion of this learning material requires you to have a basic
understanding of:

If you are unfamiliar with any of the above concepts, work on________
before working on this learning guide.
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 3 of 18
HOW TO USE THIS LEARNING GUIDE
This Learning Guide will lead you through a series of activities which will require you to work at
your own pace. These activities will ask you to complete associated learning and practice
activities in order to gain the knowledge and skills you need to achieve the learning objectives
stated earlier.

Refer to Learning Activity Page to know the sequence of learning tasks to undergo and the

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achievement of objectives.

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Read the information sheets. This will give you an understanding of the work, and why things
are done the way they are.

Complete the activities as directed in the activity/practice sheets. These will test your
knowledge and give you practice of doing the tasks involved. Performance criteria for assessing

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practical exercise are shown to guide you in undertaking the practical exercises. Always be
aware of safety requirements highlighted in this material. Ask for clearance in using some tools
and equipment. Should you require some assistance and clarification, consult your trainer or
facilitator. They should be available anytime you need them.
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Answer self-checks found in each section of the learning guide. Do not write anything on this
learning guide; provide separate sheets for your answers. Self-checks will let you know how you
are going. To know how you fared with self checks, review the answer keys found at the end of
the learning guide.
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When you had completed all the tasks required in this learning guide, an assessment exercise
will be given to evaluate if you are already competent with the specified learning outcomes in
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A record of competency is provided on the last page to reflect how much of the required
assessment criteria have been met.
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You may already have some or most of the knowledge and skills covered in this learner’s guide.
Talk to your trainer about having them formally recognized. If you have qualification or certificate
of competence from previous training, show it to your trainer. If the skills you acquired are still
current and relevant to the unit of competency they may become part of the evidence you can
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present for Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL). If you are not sure about the accuracy of
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 4 of 18
LEARNING ACTIVITIES
In order to accomplish the objectives stated in this leaning guide, you must perform the
learning steps below. Beside each step are the resources or special instructions you will use to
accomplish the corresponding activity.

RESOURCES/SPECIFIC
LEARNING STEPS
INSTRUCTIONS

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1. Student will ask the instructor of the 1. Instructor will provide the learning
materials to be used materials in Interpreting Technical

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Drawing

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Lines

## 3. Answer: Self Check 1 3. Self Check No. 1: Alphabet of Lines

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4. Read: Information Sheet No. 2 4. Information Sheet No. 2:
Orthographic Projection
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Projection
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## 6. Perform: Activity Sheet No. 1 6. Activity Sheet No. 1: Sketching three

Main Views of an Object
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 5 of 18
INFORMATION SHEET NO: 1

ALPHABET OF LINES
I. Basic Types of Lines and their Uses

## a. Visible lines – Used to show visible edges

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or contours of an object (NOTE: Visible
lines are sometimes called object lines.)

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b. Hidden lines – Used to show surfaces or
features on an object that are not visible

## c. Center lines – Used to show the centers

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of holes, round shapes, or the travel of a
center (path or motion)

## d. Section lines – Used to show a surface

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that has been cut in a section view

## e. Extension lines – Used for placing

dimensions; these extend (but do not
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touch) from the lengths and widths of
objects

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## (dimensions) of an object; spans from one

extension line to the next, has arrowhead
at both ends, and is broken in the middle
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## g. Leader lines – Used to direct descriptive

information, notes, or special dimensions
to features on the drawing
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## a section has been taken; arrows on the

end show the direction in which the
section was taken

## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 6 of 18
i. Break lines – Used to show that part of
the object has been removed or broken
away
lines
2. Long breaks are solid with a Z symbol
inserted in several places

## j. Phantom lines – Used to show the

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position of an object that moves (rotated
position)

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k. Border lines – Used to define the outer
edges or margins on the drafting media;
the drawing and all other information is
inside this border.

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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 7 of 18
SELF- CHECK NO. 1
Check your mastery in Alphabet of lines by completing the tasks below.

1. Identify the alphabet of lines by writing your answer on the space provided.

1. ______________
A B

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2. ______________

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A B

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3. ______________
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B A 4. ______________
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## a. 25mm b. 50mm c. 30mm

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5. ______________

## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 8 of 18
INFORMATION SHEET NO: 2

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
A. Orthographic Projection
An orthographic projection is a representation of separate views of an object on a two-
dimensional surface. It reveals the width, depth and height of the object.

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Ortho means “straight or at right angle” and graphic means “written or drawn”.
Projection comes from two Latin words: “pro,” meaning “forward,” and “jacere,”

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meaning “to throw.”

The projection is achieved by viewing the object from a point assumed to be at infinity
(an indefinitely great distance away). The line of sight or projectors are parallel to each other
and perpendicular to the plane of projection.

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Figure 1. Visualizing one view of an orthographic projection
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## B. Steps in Selecting Correct Views of an Object

1. Select the number of views necessary to represent the object. This may require only one
view or as many as all six views. Only draw as many views as are necessary.
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## 2. Select the front view which:

a. Best describes contour shape.
b. Contains the least number of hidden lines.
c. Is usually the longest view.
d. Shows object in normal position.
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Figure 2. Objects with very little thickness require only one view

## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 9 of 18
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Figure 3. Two-view drawing

3. Select alternate position for right side view if drawing area is crowded.

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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 10 of 18
Width. This is a perpendicular distance between two profile planes.
Height. This the perpendicular distance between two horizontal planes
Depth. This is the perpendicular distance between two frontal planes.

## 1. Study the given object 2. Determine the number of views

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3. Locate the views

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4. Block in the views with light, thin lines 5. Lay off the principal measurements
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 11 of 18
8. Draw the circles and arcs
6. Draw the principal lines 9. Draw any additional lines needed to
complete the views

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7. Lay off the measurements for the details
( center for arcs, circles, and triangular
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ribs)
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10. Darken the lines where necessary to
make them sharp and black and of the
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proper thickness
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 12 of 18
SELF- CHECK NO. 2
I. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Write only the letter that corresponds to your answer.

## 1. Method of representing separate views of an object on a two-dimensional surface

a. orthographic projection b. orthographic drawing
c. isometric drawing d. perspective

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2. Found below top view which show s the shape, width and depth of the object.
a. top view b. front view c. bottom view d. rear view

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3. Found at the back of the front view.
a. rear view b. side view c. frontal plane d. none of the above

## 4. The perpendicular distance between two profile plane

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a. length b. width c. depth d. height

## 5. The perpendicular distance between two horizontal plane

a. height b. depth c. width d. length

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The word orthographic comes from the two Greek words ortho and graphos meaning
a. forward b. straight/at right angle c. to write/to draw d. both b & c

## 7. The perpendicular distance between two frontal plane

a. width b. length c. depth d. height
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 13 of 18
ACTIVITY SHEET NO. 1

A. Objectives:

## After completing the activity you should be able to:

1. Identify the three main views of the given object; and,

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2. Draw the necessary orthographic views of the given object to show its exact shape.

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B. Materials:
A4 size drawing paper
Eraser

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C. Tools:
Drawing pencil
T-square
Triangles (30ºx60º, 45ºx45º)
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Erasing shield

D. Procedure:
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Study the example below and then complete the
assigned problem.
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Example:

## 1. Sketch the horizontal lines to locate the height of

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the object.
(NOTE: The distance at the top and bottom of the
paper should be the same. The distance between
the top and front views can be the same as the
top and bottom or slightly less than that space.)
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## 2. Sketch the vertical lines to locate the width and

depth of the object.
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(NOTE: The distance at the left side and the right side of the
paper should be the same. The distance between the views
can be the same as that on the left side and right side or
slightly less than that space. In the top and side)
3. Block in details using diagonals to locate centers, if
necessary, and lightly construct the circles and arcs.
4. Add line features to the views of the object.

## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 14 of 18
5. Use eraser to lighten construction lines and darken in visible
lines

Problem:
Layouts for Orthographic drawing problem will be explained by the instructor. Sketch the
three main views of the given isometric drawing below using the grid provided for measurement.

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on an A4 size drawing sheet. Do not erase light construction lines.

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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 15 of 18
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer back to
corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. Center line
2. Hidden line
3. Cutting-plane line

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4. Object line
5. Section line

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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 16 of 18
Check your answer with the answer key below. If you fail to get it right, refer back to
corresponding resources until you make it perfect.

1. A 5. A

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2. C 6. 7

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3. A 7. C

4. B

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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 17 of 18
RECORD OF COMPETENCE

## Below are your assessment ratings:

ASSESSMENT /PERFORMANCE
CRITERIA YES NO

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1. Components, assemblies or

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objects recognized as required

## 2. Dimensions of the key features of

the objects depicted in the

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drawing correctly identified

## 3. Symbols used in the drawing

identified and interpreted correctly
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4. Drawing checked and validated
against job requirements or
equipment in accordance with
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standard operating procedures
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## Prepare/Interpret Technical Version No.: 2

Date: August 10, 2009
JZGMSAT Drawing By: Glenn F. Salandanan
TESDA IV Page 18 of 18