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Yvette Crisp October 10, 2013 ELED 300 Module 2 Writing Assignment Competencies three, four, and eight

in connection with chapters four, five, and six continue to elaborate on teacher requirements and expectations. The textbook Learning & Teaching Research-Based Methods by Don Kauchak/Paul Eggen, 6th Edition goes in depth by providing examples for new teachers to model. These chapters and competencies focus on instructional design, factors effecting student learning, and ways to actively engage students in the learning process. Some information covered in these chapters is information that has been a previous topic presented in a different way. I feel this is because the author is stressing important concepts that we need to learn, know, and implement into our classroom. Let's take a look at some of the information I felt was most important and wanted to discuss in further detail. Chapter 4 in our textbook dealt with planning for learning. This ties in with competency 3 because this chapter is focusing on what factors contribute to how teachers should plan their lessons and the most effective way to deliver it to maximize learning. There are a few factors that contribute to influencing planning. One factor contributing to the influence of lesson planning are state and district standards. Another influencer are teachers beliefs and values. What the teacher perceives as important may be focused on more in depth than other subject areas. The needs of the students also influence lesson planning. The needs of the students will vary in each classroom. The needs of students may require reviewing previously learned material for optimal understanding, or removing and implementing information. Another method used in lesson planning is a planning model. A planning model is a model of a selected topic and how or what tools will be used to teach it. The topic is then turned into lesson/s, longterm, and unit planning. The lesson is more of an individual plan for a specific class. Long-term is what will be covered over the semester, knowledge goals, and expectations of students. The unit plan is the breaking down of a topic into sub-topics with a common goal. One thing that is certain, is that lesson planning in advance is a benefit for the teacher. It allows the teacher to be prepared, organized, and ready to present lessons in a way that the students understand.

Chapter 5 and competency 4 focused on effective teaching, learning processes and factors that impact student learning. The classroom climate is one factor that can impact student learning. The classroom climate should generate a positive feeling. All students should feel accepted, and that they are in a safe environment. From the minute students walk in the class, they should be greeted with a warm hello and bright smile. This positive beginning lets the students know they are wanted and accepted in that place. This feeling within the student helps establish a positive classroom climate, which is essential to learning. It is a known fact that everyone performs better in a positive rather than negative climate. Another factor in determining how much students will learn are teachers attitudes. Teachers should feel that they can make a difference in every student's life and education. Teachers should also have positive expectations for every student. Sometimes teachers tend to not set higher goals and expectations for academically lower students. In that type of case, the teacher has already written those students off. This type of behavior could cause lower achieving students to lose whatever drive factor they posses. This type of attitude should never exist in a teachers mind. Another factor that can impact student learning is the organization of the lesson. If lesson material is unorganized, this can be chaotic and confusing. The lesson should be structured with a beginning, middle, and end. At the beginning objectives should be clearly stated and any previously learned material can be reviewed if it connects to the new material to be learned. When students are learning new material, teachers have to be inventive on using the best strategies that will motivate and keep students focused. I think a great way to start off the lesson, is by playing a game or some type of movement. At the middle of the lesson, information should be presented in an organized and systematic format. Students should be able to easily connect the material when moving from one point to the next. They should also be actively involved in the lesson. Actively involving students may be calling on them to assess their understanding and providing feedback to either agree or correct their responses. At the end of the lesson teachers should be able to summarize everything, answer lingering questions, and evaluating students knowledge over taught material. As teachers we want to see where their comprehension lies. This can be done by using tests, quizzes, or giving homework. This last chapter and competency 8 focus on using techniques and materials that will actively engage students in the learning processes. Of the many ways to promote learning, is student involvement. When

students are actively involved, their learning increases because in order to be actively involved, students have to always be in ready mode, paying attention, and ready to respond to questions. If students know they can be called on at anytime, they pay more attention to what is being taught. During this actively involved stage, teachers must state clear learning objectives and provide good concrete representations of the content they are teaching. Some content can't be observed directly and is best represented by using visual aids. Yet another way to create student involvement is through questioning. As mentioned in chapter four, questioning allows teachers to assess the students current understanding, and make accurate decisions regarding moving forward or re-teaching. Questioning should be frequent and equitably distributed. There are five elements of effective questioning, but I will focus on the ones that really caught my attention. Equitable distribution ensures all students will participate. One idea of how to incorporate equitable distribution, is to use tongue depressors. The teacher writes every child's name on a depressor and then randomly pulls them out of a jar to answer questions. Next, is prompting. Prompting are cues or other questions provided by the teacher when the student is unable to correctly answer the original question. This allows the student to be successful in answering the question, which in return increases their self-efficacy. The last strategy to use, is the wait-time. The wait-time gives the student an opportunity to think out the answer without feeling rushed. These three chapters and the three competencies have covered information that is necessary for all educators, present and future. Due to the fact that I am able to have access to a great reference tool, my outlook on what it takes to become a successful teacher is being fine tuned. As a future teacher I want to apply as many strategies as possible, that are suitable for the occassion. Being an effective teacher will call for me to find ways to increase learning through student involvement, become an effective planner, and also an effective teacher. Having a classroom that is prepared and set to tackle the everyday demands of being a teacher, will create a more productive and stress free environment, not only for the teacher, but also for the students.

Kauchak, D., & Eggen, P. (n.d.). Learning & Teaching Research-Based Methods (6thth ed.).