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Yvette Crisp ELED 300 October 23, 2013

Module 3 Writing Assignment Our textbook, Learning & Teaching Research-Based Methods by Don Kauchak/Paul Eggen, 6th Edition relates chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 to competencies 7 and 9. These chapters and competencies focus on what teachers need to know, and how to implement it in the classroom. The information discussed points out different methods and strategies used for student learning. As a professional teacher you will need to implement these learning strategies throughout your entire career. Some of the commonly or most widely used strategies mentioned in these chapters include, students learning in groups, direct instruction, lecture discussions, guided discovery, and problem based instruction. Our first topic covered in chapter 7, focused on students learning in groups. It is the social interaction that contributes to how the students are learning. This type of interaction has benefits for teachers and students. Teachers are able to observe and listen to groups, to check their understanding. When students are broken up into groups it is easier to detect problem areas, correct misunderstandings, and provide additional feedback or more detailed information to maximize understanding. The student can benefit from learning in groups, because they are learning how to interact with each other, they are learning through the ideas of each group member, lower performing students may not feel as pressured to participate (no judgments passed or the need to fill approval from the entire class). These groups also build social skills and thinking skills. The social skills include communication skills, empathy, patience, cooperation, listening, and accountability. The thinking skills would include areas like perspective, personal connections, inferences, judgment, predictions, questioning text, background and content knowledge, and elaborating.

Chapter 8 in our text covered Direct Instruction. Direct Instruction is a teacher centered based instructional method. Direct Instruction is a teaching strategy in which the teacher presents well-defined knowledge and skills, and explicitly guides the learning process. Direct Instruction teaches skills and concepts. To implement direct instruction lessons there are four phases that should be covered. These phases include the introduction, presentation, guided practice, and independent practice. One example of incorporating these phases can be illustrated using science. The lesson could be over vertebrates and invertebrates. The introduction of this lesson would include providing information on both, giving definitions, and tying in background knowledge. The presentation phase would be two live animals from each category and informative information discussed. The guided practice phase would include asking questions like who can name a vertebrae and invertebrate animal. The next and last phase, independent practice, could be homework sheets. There would be three columns labeled vertebrae, invertebrate, and differences. Students would have to list animals from a word bank into the correct category and include some commonly found differences between the two. Lecture Discussions was the highlighted topic of chapter 9. Lecture discussion is an instructional strategy that uses teacher presentation, and student interaction. Lecture discussions present verbal information in an organized way. This can mean teaching an organized body of knowledge that combines facts, concepts, generalizations, principles, and rules integrated with one another. Lecture discussions do have their positive and negative aspects. It is easy to implement, plan for, flexible, and require less energy from the teacher. One major drawback may be it can create an environment of passive learners. Too much talking can become a bore, and there can sometimes be an overload of information in students memories. Guided Discover was the strategy focus in chapter 10. Guided discovery is a learner-centered strategy that actively involves students in constructing understanding. In the beginning of this type of instruction or lesson, teachers specify the learning objective and review previous topics in relation to this particular one. Teachers arrange information so that clearly defined patterns

are found, and guide students to the objectives. In this type of learning, students do construct their own understanding. Learning develops depending on the students prior knowledge. Guided discovery lessons have motivational benefits and contribute to students possessing a sense of self efficacy. Guided Discovery like any other learning strategy implemented by the teacher has to be worked on until the teacher is the expert at conducting it. It will take time, planning, and practice. I think it is important for students to understand and know when a problem actually exists. They need to know how they are going to solve that problem, and chapter 11 offers problem based instructions as a solution. These are teaching strategies that use problems as a focal point. They teach problem-solving skills while developing self-directed learning. Problem solving was what stood out the most to me in this chapter. Students can begin solving a problem by using the problem solving model. This model has five steps which include identifying the problem, representing the problem either in thought or using concrete models. The next step is selecting a strategy to solve the problem and implementing that strategy. The last step in the problem solving model is to evaluate the results, making sure it all makes sense. These strategies can be applied to any subject in school and also in life. When I think of an example when the problem solving model would be most needed, math problems and testing comes to mind. In conclusion, the strategies mentioned in these chapters, promote student learning and they give tools to address problem areas that may come up. All of these topics, strategies, and previously discussed topics, contain information for classroom success. When used correctly, they prepare the beginning stages for teachers to become more effective, and produce students with higher turnout rates. Strategies are proven methods to help run, facilitate, and guide the education process within a classroom. Different strategies will be applied at different times for different students, but every teacher will use every strategy to incorporate in their classroom at some time or another.

Kauchak, D.. & Eggen, P. (n.d.) Learning & Teaching Research-Based Methods (6thth ed.)

Latitude and Longitude Assignment 2. Find It What is the latitude and longitude of New Orleans? What is the latitude and longitude of St. Petersburg? Answer: New Orleans (Latitude 30 N/Longitude 90W) St. Petersburg (Latitude 60 N/Longitude 30 E) 3. World Map for Independent Practice Answer: United States Hawaii (Latitude 19 N/Longitude 156 W)