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The digital image should adequately resolve all spatial and intensity details of the original continuous tone image. The Nyquist (sampling) theorem requires that the pixel size should less than half the size of the finest detail in the original image. Likewise, the grey level brightness increments should be less than half the smallest tonal variation in the original

**The Digital Image
**

Undersampling occurs when the number of pixels in a digital image is too low to accurately represent the fine details present in the original image.

**The Digital Image
**

Undersampling results in spatial aliasing. The example shows this effect as Moire patterns.

Digital Image

Spatial resolution refers to the number of pixels in the digital image. (a) 1024x1024 pixels (b) 512x512 pixels (c) 256x256 pixels (d) 128x128 pixels (e) 64x64 pixels (f) 32x32 pixels Typically, 256x256 is the minimum acceptable spatial resolution.

The Digital Image - Zooming

Although a digital image may appear smooth to the human eye, when zoomed up enough the individual pixels always become visible.

**The Digital Image
**

Brightness resolution refers to the number of grey levels available in the digital image. (b) 256 grey levels (b) 128 grey levels (c) 64 grey levels (d) 32 grey levels

**The Digital Image
**

For convenient computer storage, the number of grey levels is almost always 2N, N = number of bits. (e) 16 grey levels (f) 8 grey levels (g) 4 grey levels (h) 2 grey levels

Image (h) is a binary image.

**The Digital Image
**

Typically, the minimum number of acceptable grey levels is 16. Note the introduction of false contouring when the brightness resolution is too low.

**The Digital Image
**

27 = 128 Bit 7 (MSB) 26 = 64 Bit 6 25 = 32 Bit 5 24 = 16 Bit 4 23 =8 Bit 3 22 =4 Bit 2 21 20 = 1 =2 Bit Bit 0 1 (LSB)

1 Bit : max value = 1 = 21 – 1 1 Byte = 8 bits : max value = 255 = 28 – 1 1 Word = 2 bytes = 16 bits : max value = 65535 = 216 - 1

The Digital Image

A bit-plane is the binary image associated with a selected bit’s contribution to overall pixel brightness. Most of the image structure is conveyed in the higher order bit planes.

The Digital Image

The lower order bit planes carry the important but more subtle shading and detail of the digital image.

The Digital Image

N : 2N = number of pixels, square digital image. m: 2m = number of grey levels. The memory requirements to store digital images is large. One typical high-resolution image requires 1 Megabyte of memory. Colour images require 3X the memory of monochrome images.

**Basic relationships between Neighbours of a pixel – 4-neighbors pixels
**

A pixel p at coordinates (x, y) has four horizontal and vertical neighbors whose coordinates are given by (x+1,y), (x-1,y), (x,y+1), (x,y-1) This set of pixels, called the 4-neighbors of p, is denoted by N4(p). Each pixel is a unit distance from (x, y), and some of the neighbors of p lie outside the digital image if (x, y) is on the border of the image.

**Neighbours of a pixel – The four diagonal neighbors of p have coordinates neighbors (x+1,y+1),(x+1,y-1),(x-1,y+1),(x-1,y-1)
**

and are denoted by ND(p).

8-

These points, together with the 4-neighbors, are called the 8neighbors of p, denoted by N8(p). As before, some of the points in ND(p) and N8(p) fall outside the image if (x, y) is on the border of the image.

Some Definitions

• Two pixels are said to connected if they are neighbors and if their gray levels satisfy a specified criterion of similarity (say, if their gray levels are equal) • 4-adjacency. Two pixels p and q with values from V are 4-adjacent if q is in the set N4(p). • 8-adjacency. Two pixels p and q with values from V are 8-adjacent if q is in the set N8(p).

**Basic relationships between pixels
**

Arrangement of pixels: 0 1 1

0 1 0 0 0 1

4 neighbours N4(p): 1

0 1 0 0

Mixed Connectivity:

Basic relationships between pixels

Note: Mixed connectivity can eliminate the multiple path connections that often occurs in 8-connectivity

Pixel arrangement

8-adjacent to the center pixel

m-adjacency

Path

Basic relationships between pixels

Let coordinates of pixel p: (x, y), and of pixel q: (s, t) A path from p to q is a sequence of distinct pixels with coordinates: (x0, y0), (x1, y1), ......, (xn, yn) where (x0, y0) = (x, y) & (xn, yn) = (s, t), and (xi, yi) is adjacent to (xi-1, yi-1) 1≤ i ≤ n Regions

Distance Measures

Given coordinates of pixels p, q, and z: (x,y), (s,t), and (u,v) De ( p, q ) = ( x − s ) 2 + ( y − t ) 2 Euclidean distance between p and q:

D4 ( p, q ) = x − s + y − t

**• City-block distance between p and q:
**

D8 ( p, q ) = max(| x − s |, | y − t |)

• Chessboard distance between p and q:

**Image Operation on a Pixel Basis
**

• when we refer to an operation like “dividing one image by another,” we mean specifically that the division is carried out between corresponding pixels in the two images

• Other arithmetic and logic operations are similarly defined between corresponding pixels in the images involved.

**Liner and Nonlinear Operations
**

• Let H be an operator whose input and output are images. H is said to be a linear operator if, for any two images f and g and any two scalars a and b,

H(af + bg) = aH(f) + bH(g).

• An operator that fails the test of above equation by definition is nonlinear.

Reading Assignment

• Chapter 2 (2.3-2.6) of “Digital Image Processing” by Gonzalez.

Lab Assignment

• Develop an algorithm for converting a onepixel-thick 8-path to a 4-path. • Develop an algorithm for converting a onepixel-thick m-path to a 4-path.

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING, DIP, IMAGE, EE, ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING, DIP, IMAGE, EE, ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

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