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Honors Chemistry

Name Aidan Marzo Period 3 Date 16/11/2013
U n i t 3 : C h e m i c a l R e a c t i o n s

Single Replacement Reactions Lab
Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to determine which metals are most reactive and to create an order from most reactive to least reactive. Part I: Reactions with Aqueous Solutions Materials: Metals: Solutions: Copper Copper (II) sulfate Lead Silver nitrate Zinc Lead (II) nitrate Magnesium Zinc sulfate Silver Magnesium nitrate Data Table 1: Observations between metals and aqueous solutions Copper Lead Zinc Magnesium Copper (II) None None Reaction: Reaction: Sulfate Thin coating - Precipitate metal black form, blueish Silver Nitrate Reaction Reaction : Reaction: Reaction: Thin metal Thin coating Brown and coating precipitate Lead (II) None Reaction: Reaction: thin Reaction: Gas Nitrate some dust bubbles precipitate precipitate Zinc Sulfate None None None Reaction: Bubbles form Magnesium None Green coating None None Nitrate

Silver None

None

None

None None

Image 1: Combination of aqueous solutions and metals Image 2: different types of metals used Procedures 1. Using a well plate and the chemical given, determine which reactions will occur between the metals and the solutions. 2. Add to each of the wells a small piece of the appropriate metal which has first been cleaned with sand paper. Note: Your teacher will provide the calcium when you are ready for it. 3. Create a data table to record your observations of before and after reactions. 4. Observe and record any evidence of a replacement reaction (i.e. a thin coating appears on the surface of the metal) occurring each of the test tubes. If no change is visible within five minutes, record this as “no reaction”

No Reaction Explanation Lead (II) Nitrate + Copper metal When the copper metal was placed in the lead (II) nitrate solution there was no reaction. All of the reactions we tested are single replacement reactions. Single replacement reactions follow the general idea: AB + C=CB+A. A and C being the cation and B being the anion. In order for A and C to swap places, C has to be more active than A. On the activity series for elements sheet, it states that lead is more active than copper. This supports the data, as lead (II) nitrate didn't react with copper. However if copper was more active than lead, there would be a reaction. Reaction Explanation Lead (II) Nitrate + Zinc Metal When the zinc metal was placed in the lead (II) nitrate solution a thin coating appeared around the zinc, signaling that a reaction was taking place. This reaction is a single replacement reaction and in order for this to happen zinc has to be more active than lead. On the Activity Series for Elements sheet, zinc is more active than lead, which is why the reaction took place.

1. Write net ionic equations for all the reactions that occurred (highlighting the ones that were supposed to occur that you may not have observed). For each of the reactions, determine which substances has been oxidized and which one has been reduced as well as which is the oxidizing agent and which is the reducing agent. A. Copper (II) Sulfate + Zinc Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: Cu(SO ) + Zn = Zn(SO ) + Cu
4 (aq) (s) 4

Total Ionic Equation: Cu + SO + Zn = Zn + SO + Cu
2+ 24 2+ 24

Net Ionic Equation: Cu + Zn = Zn + Cu
2+ 2+

Oxidized: Zn Reduced: Cu
2+

Oxidizing Agent: Cu Reducing Agent: Zn

2+

B. Copper (II) Sulfate + Magnesium Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: Cu(SO ) + Mg = Mg(SO ) + Cu
4 (aq) (s) 4 aq) (s)

Total Ionic Equation: Cu + SO + Mg = Mg + SO + Cu
2+ 24 2+ 24

Net Ionic Equation: Cu + Mg = Mg + Cu
2+ 2+

Oxidized: Mg Reduced: Cu
2+

Oxidizing Agent: Cu

2+

Reducing Agent: Mg C. Silver Nitrate + lead Balanced Molecular Equation: 2 Ag(NO ) + Pb = Pb(NO ) + 2Ag
3 (aq) (s) 3 2

Total Ionic Equation: 2Ag + 2(NO ) + Pb = Pb + 2(NO ) + 2Ag
+ 3 2+ 3 -

Net Ionic Equation: 2Ag + Pb = Pb + 2Ag
+ 2+

Oxidized: Pb Reduced: 2Ag
+

Oxidizing Agent: 2Ag Reducing Agent: Pb

+

D. Silver Nitrate + Zinc Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: 2 Ag(NO ) + Zn = Zn(NO ) + 2 Ag
3 (aq) (s) 3 2

Total Ionic Equation: 2Ag + 2(NO ) + Zn = Zn + 2(NO ) + 2 Ag
+ 3 2+ 3 -

Net Ionic Equation : 2Ag + Zn = Zn + 2 Ag
+ 2+

Oxidized: Zn Reduced: 2Ag
+

Oxidizing Agent:2Ag Reducing Agent: Zn

+

E. Silver Nitrate + Magnesium Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: 2 Ag(NO ) + Mg = Mg(NO )
3 (aq) (s) + 3 2+ 3 3 2 (aq)

+ 2Ag

(s)

Total Ionic Equation: 2Ag + 2(NO ) + Mg = Mg + 2(NO ) + 2Ag Net Ionic Equation : 2Ag + Mg = Mg + 2Ag
+ 2+

Oxidized: Mg Reduced: 2Ag
+

Oxidizing Agent: 2Ag Reducing Agent: Mg

+

F. Lead (II) Nitrate + Zinc Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: Pb (NO )
2+ 3 3 2 (aq)

+ Zn = Zn (NO )
(s) 2+ 3 -

3 2 (aq)

+ Pb

(s)

Total Ionic Equation: Pb + 2(NO ) + Zn = Zn + 2(NO ) + Pb Net Ionic Equation: Pb + Zn = Zn + Pb
2+ 2+

Oxidized: Zn Reduced: Pb
2+

Oxidizing Agent: Pb Reducing Agent: Zn

2+

G. Lead (II) Nitrate + Magnesium Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: Pb(NO )
2+ 3 3 2 (aq)

+ Mg = Mg(NO )
(s) 2+ 3 -

3 2 (aq)

+ Pb

(s)

Total Ionic Equation: Pb + 2(NO ) + Mg = Mg + 2(NO ) + Pb Net Ionic Equation: Pb + Mg = Mg + Pb
2+ 2+

H. Zinc Sulfate + Magnesium Metal Zn (SO ) + Mg = Mg(SO ) + Zn
4 (aq) (s) 4

Total Ionic Equation: Zn + SO + Mg = Mg + SO + Zn
2+ 24 2+ 24

Net Ionic Equation: Zn + Mg = Mg + Zn
2+ 2+

I. Magnesium Nitrate + Lead Metal Balanced Molecular Equation: Mg (NO ) + Pb = Pb(NO ) + Mg
3 2 (aq) 3 2

Total Ionic Equation: Mg + 2(NO ) + Pb = Pb + 2(NO ) + Mg
2+ 3 2+ 3 -

Net Ionic Equation: Mg + Pb = Pb + Mg
2+ 2+

2. A metal was found in the lab that was missing its labeling tape. In order to determine the identity of the metal several reactions were performed. When the metal was placed in hydrochloric acid, it bubbled. No reaction was noticed when placed in a solution of calcium nitrate. A reaction was observed when placed in a solution of zinc chloride. What could the metal possibly be? What further test could you run to determine the identity of the metal? First of all, the metal could not be copper or silver. This is because silver metal and copper metal would not react with hydrochloric acid. The remaining metals, lead, zinc and magnesium, all don’t react with zinc chloride. However, out of the remaining 3 metals, only magnesium would react with zinc chloride. This is because magnesium is the only metal (out of those three) that is more active than zinc. You could also try and react the metal with another solution containing aluminium as the cation. If there was a reaction, this would confirm that the metal was magnesium.
Conclusion: A statement about the activity series you discovered. This lab showed me a single replacement reaction first hand and further solidified the concepts of single replacement reactions. Googledoc Link: https://docs.google.com/a/hkis.edu.hk/document/d/11ZKSoLPwfwzKaG4OLc5gJUcQm_0piqSvcmSlsxLY4w/edit#