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Single Replacement Reactions Lab

U n i t 3 : C h e m i c a l R e a c t i o n s

Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to determine which metals are most reactive and to create an order from most reactive to least reactive. Part I: Reactions with Aqueous Solutions Materials: Metals: Copper Lead Zinc Magnesium Silver Calcium

Solutions: Copper (II) sulfate Silver nitrate Lead (II) nitrate Zinc sulfate Magnesium nitrate

Procedures 1. Using a well plate and the chemical given, determine which reactions will occur between the metals and the solutions. 2. Add to each of the wells a small piece of the appropriate metal that has first been cleaned with sand paper. Note: Your teacher will provide the calcium when you are ready for it. 3. Create a data table to record your observations of before and after reactions. 4. Observe and record any evidence of a replacement reaction (i.e. a thin coating appears on the surface of the metal) occurring each of the test tubes. If no change is visible within five minutes, record this as “no reaction” Silver nitrate Copper Silvery solid form on copper strip Bubbles form, solid dissolves, liquid looks brown Silvery solid formed on zinc strip Silvery crystals formed on lead strip X Magnesium nitrate No reaction Lead (II) nitrate No reaction Zinc sulfate No reaction Copper (II) sulfate X

Magnesium

X

Zinc

No reaction

Lead

No reaction

Black crystals form on magnesium strip, milky liquid Black crystals with specks of silver form on zinc strip X

Black crystals form on magnesium strip

Black crystals form on magnesium strip and it broke off Black crystal formed on zinc strip Bubbles form, black solids break off No reaction

X

No reaction

Silver

No reaction

No reaction

No reaction

Discussion Questions: 1. From Part I: Which of the metals gave (a) four reactions Magnesium (d) one reactions (b) three reactions Zinc (e) no reaction (c) two reactions Lead Use the answers from above to list the five metals in order of decreasing reactivity. 1) Magnesium 2) Zinc 3) Lead 4) Copper 5) Silver

Copper Silver

2.

Compare this order with that of the reactivity series from your notes. Outline similarities and differences. Suggest several reasons for what might explain any differences. The metals in the reactivity series from my notes are in the same order as the metals that I tested.

3.

Write net ionic equations for all the reactions that occurred (highlighting the ones that were supposed to occur that you may not have observed). i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Cu (s) + 2Ag (aq)  2Ag (s) + Cu (aq) + 2+ Mg (s) + 2Ag (aq)  2Ag (s) + Mg (aq) 2+ 2+ Mg (s) + Pb (aq)  Pb (s) + Mg (aq) 2+ 2+ Mg (s) + Zn (aq)  Zn (s) + Mg (aq) 2+ 2+ Mg (s) + Cu (aq)  Cu (s) + Mg (aq) + 2+ Zn (s) + 2Ag (aq)  2Ag (s) + Zn (aq) 2+ 2+ Zn (s) + Pb (aq)  Pb (s) + Zn (aq) 2+ 2+ Zn (s) + Cu (aq)  Cu (s) + Zn (aq) + 2+ Pb (s) + 2Ag (aq)  2Ag (s) + Pb (aq) 2+ 2+ Pb (s) + Cu (aq)  Cu (s) + Pb (aq)
+ 2+

4.

For each of the reactions, determine which substances has been oxidized and which one has been reduced as well as which is the oxidizing agent and which is the reducing agent. i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) ix) x) Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Oxidized: Cu (s) Mg (s) Mg (s) Mg (s) Mg (s) Zn (s) Zn (s) Zn (s) Pb (s) Pb (s) Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: Reduced: 2Ag (aq) + 2Ag (aq) 2+ Pb (aq) 2+ Zn (aq) 2+ Cu (aq) + 2Ag (aq) 2+ Pb (aq) 2+ Cu (aq) + 2Ag (aq) 2+ Cu (aq)
+

5.

A metal was found in the lab that was missing its labeling tape. In order to determine the identity of the metal several reactions were performed. When the metal was placed in hydrochloric acid, it bubbled. No reaction was noticed when placed in a solution of calcium nitrate. A reaction was observed when placed in a solution of zinc chloride. What could the metal possibly be? What further test could you run to determine the identity of the metal? The fact that this metal reacted with hydrochloric acid suggests that it is more active than hydrogen. Because this metal also reacted with a solution of zinc chloride, it must be more active than zinc. However, the metal didn’t react with a solution of calcium nitrate. This indicates that the metal is not as active as calcium. One of the metals in between calcium and zinc in the activity series (aluminium, magnesium, and sodium) should be the metal found in the lab. I would react this metal sample with a solution of aluminium (III) nitrate and a solution of magnesium nitrate. If there is a reaction when the metal is put in aluminium (III) nitrate and a reaction when the metal is put in magnesium nitrate, then the metal must be sodium. If there is a reaction when the metal is put in aluminium (III) nitrate bit no reaction when the metal is put in magnesium nitrate, then the metal must be magnesium. If there is no reaction at all, then the metal must be aluminium.

Conclusion: A statement about the activity series you discovered. The order of elements from the most active to the least active is: magnesium, zinc, lead, copper, and silver. I decided which elements are more active than others by counting how many solutions a certain element reacts with. For example, magnesium reacted with 4 solutions (which was the most) and zinc reacted with 3 solutions. This indicated that magnesium is more active than zinc.