Take the integral:
_{} cos
Π t
2
cos
Π n t
2
t
1
Use the trigonometric identity cos Α cos Β 2 cos Α Β cos Α Β , where
Π t 
Π n t 

Α 
and Β 
: 

2 
2 
1
2 _{}
cos
1
2 Π n 1 t
cos
1
2 Π n 1 t
t
1 
1 

Expanding the integrand cos 2 Π n 1 t cos 
2 Π n 1 t 
gives cos 
Π n t
2
cos
1
2 _{} cos
Π n t
2
Π t
2
Π t
2
Π n t
2
:
cos
Π n t
2
Π t
2
t
Integrate the sum term by term:
1
2 _{} cos
Π t
2
Π n t
2
1
t 2 _{} cos
Π n t
2
Π
2
t
t
Π t
2
Π 
n t 
Π t 

For the integrand cos 

, simplify powers: 

2 
2 
1
2 _{} cos 2 Π n 1 t t 2 _{} cos
1
1
Π t
2
Π n t
2
t
For the integrand cos
Π t
2
Π n t
2
, simplify powers:
1 _{} cos 2 Π n 1 t t
2
1
1
2
1
_{} cos 2 Π n 1 t t
For the integrand cos
1 

Π n 1 t , 
substitute u 

2 
1 t :
1
2 _{} cos 2 Π n 1 t t
1
Π n
1
1 _{} cos u u
For the integrand cos
1 

Π n 1 t 
, 
substitute s 

2 
1 t :
Π
n
1
1 _{} cos s s
Π n
1
1 _{} cos u u
The integral of cos s is sin s :
sin s
Π n 1
Π n
1
1 _{} cos u u
The integral of cos u is sin u :
sin s 
sin u 




constant 
Π n 1
Π n 1
1 

Substitute back for s 
n 1 Π t : 

2 
sin
1 _{Π} _{} _{n} _{} _{1} _{} _{t} _{} _{} n 1 sin u
2
n
1
Π n 1
constant
1
2
1
Π n 1 t and u 2
Π n
1
2 Π n 1 t and s 2 Π n
1
Substitute back for u
1
2
n 1 Π t :
n 1 sin _{2} Π n 1 t
_{n} _{} _{1}
1
1
sin _{2} Π n 1 t
Π n 1
constant
Which is equal to:
sin _{2} Π n 1 t sin _{2} Π n 1 t 1 1 


n 
1 
n 
1 
constant 

Π 
Answer :
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