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Take the integral:

cos

Π t

2

cos

Π n t

2

t

1

Use the trigonometric identity cos Α cos Β 2 cos Α Β cos Α Β , where

 Π t Π n t Α and Β : 2 2

1

2

cos

1

2 Π n 1 t

cos

1

2 Π n 1 t

t

 1 1 Expanding the integrand cos 2 Π n 1 t cos 2 Π n 1 t gives cos

Π n t

2

cos

1

2 cos

Π n t

2

Π t

2

Π t

2

Π n t

2

:

cos

Π n t

2

Π t

2

t

Integrate the sum term by term:

1

2 cos

Π t

2

Π n t

2

1

t 2 cos

Π n t

2

Π

2

t

t

Π t

2

 Π n t Π t For the integrand cos , simplify powers: 2 2

1

2 cos 2 Π n 1 t t 2 cos

1

1

Π t

2

Π n t

2

t

For the integrand cos

Π t

2

Π n t

2

, simplify powers:

1 cos 2 Π n 1 t t
2

1

1

2

1

cos 2 Π n 1 t t

For the integrand cos

 1 Π n 1 t , substitute u 2

1 t :

1

2 cos 2 Π n 1 t t

1

Π n

1

1 cos u u

For the integrand cos

 1 Π n 1 t , substitute s 2

1 t :

Π

n

1

1 cos s s

Π n

1

1 cos u u

The integral of cos s is sin s :

sin s

Π n 1

Π n

1

1 cos u u

The integral of cos u is sin u :

 sin s sin u constant

Π n 1

Π n 1

 1 Substitute back for s n 1 Π t : 2

sin

1 Π n 1 t n 1 sin u

2

n

1

Π n 1

constant

1

2

1

Π n 1 t and u 2

Π n

1

2 Π n 1 t and s 2 Π n

1

Substitute back for u

1

2

n 1 Π t :

n 1 sin 2 Π n 1 t

n 1

1

1

sin 2 Π n 1 t

Π n 1

constant

Which is equal to:

 sin 2 Π n 1 t sin 2 Π n 1 t 1 1 n 1 n 1 constant Π