DESIGNING TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR PROFESSIONALS

RUFO R. MENDOZA, Ph.D.
Chair, PRC CPE Council for Accountancy

Training
• Training is a planned and systematic effort to modify or develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities. • Its purpose, in the work situation, is to enable an individual to acquire abilities (competencies), in order that he or she can perform adequately a given task or job.

2/2/2009

Design of Training Programs

TRAINING IN THE CONTEXT OF ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS
PROBLEM IN PERFORMANCE

Systems
Lack of or wrong process, equipment, structure, or non-human aspects

Environment
Socio-cultural, economic, regulatory factors affecting the business

Training
Lack of knowledge and skills or problems in attitude or behavior

2/2/2009

Design of Training Programs

TRAINING CYLCE (Donald Kirkpatrick) Evaluation of Program Training Needs Analysis Conduct of Program Design of Program 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

ADDIE MODEL • • • • • Analysis Design Development Implementation Evaluation 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Functions and Policies THE SEVENSTAGE TRAINING SYSTEM MODEL TRAINING NEEDS DETERMINATION TRAINING PROGRAM DESIGN TRAINING MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT CONDUCTING INSTRUCTION EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-UP REVIEW/ REVISE 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .ORGANIZATIONAL STUDY Goals.

• Goal of Training Design – To determine what training experience will meet training needs and thereby close performance gaps between what people can do and what they must do to meet the performance requirements. 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .Design of Training • Examines how the training should be planned so that it will meet identified training needs. It shifts the focus from investigating the problem (which is the key issue in the analysis) to investigating and scoping the solution.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF TRAINING PROGRAMS • Principles in designing programs • Steps in designing • Linking TNA to the design 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

learnings. and activities and avoiding overlaps and redundancies – Synergy—considering the learnings converge (integration or summary of learnings) • Openness and Flexibility—responding to anticipated needs and the degree of capacity to adopt to varying circumstances 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .Principles of Good Training Design • Structure—the configuration of the various elements in a program considering the plan and goals and taking note of the sequence of activities – Linkage—appropriate connection of topics – Specificity—detailing goals.

Principles of Good Training Design • Relevance—addressing the needs of trainees or participants and the organization as well • Compatibility-considering the background of the trainees or participants • In-Process Evaluation and Feedback—presence of learning validation during conduct of training • Transferability—passing on skills to trainees or participants • Cost-Effectiveness—providing the greatest benefit at minimum cost 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

STEPS IN DESIGNING A TRAINING PROGRAM • Name the program – Provide rationale in the conduct of the program • State the program objectives – Terminal objectives – Enabling objectives • Determine the specific contents of the program – Must know – Nice to know • Arrange learning units in the order they will be taken up – Whole-part – Sequencing 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .STEPS IN DESIGNING A TRAINING PROGRAM • Select the learning methodology and determine the time frames • Determine dates and appropriate venue • Identify standards and evaluation measures • Select the resource speakers • Calculate and prepare the budget.

OUTLINE OF A TRAINING DESIGN • • • • • • • • • • 2/2/2009 Title Rationale of the Training Objectives of the Training Course Outline – Module Session Activities Expected Output Learning Methodology Time Frames Dates and Venue (if can be determined) Evaluation Method Resource Speakers/Persons Training Cost Design of Training Programs .

and methodology Basis for determining cost efficiency and effectiveness Precondition in getting ready for the training proper Design of Training Programs . time allotment.Why should we prepare training design? On the part of the Training Institution Blueprint the way to respond to the needs of the participants Focus clarifies scope of the subject matter Management in terms of time and financial resources Order enhances effective and orderly presentation Contingencies provides inputs for contingencies Evaluation important in evaluating the training outputs 2/2/2009 On the part of the Trainee Guide on the emphasis of topic.

Code of Ethics 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs . Updates on Philippine Standards on Auditing.Sample Title Presentation in Accordance with PFRS Emphasizing Common Disclosure Errors.

RATIONALE OF THE TRAINING • Background or introduction of what the training is all about – Developments in the field/discipline/area – Increased demand for performance of service • Description of the needs being addressed by the training – To whom the training is designed – What gaps are being addressed • Overview of how the training program – Overall approach of meeting the goals – General description of the learning outputs – Where do we go from here? 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

FORMULATING BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES Terminal Program Objective — what the learner will be able to do after going through the training program (same as the goal) Enabling or Specific Objective – learning steps that the learner must undergo to accomplish the terminal objective 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

SAMPLE TRAINING OBJECTIVES • Terminal Program Objective By the end of the three-day training program. participants will be able to apply the three techniques of long-term and short-term planning • Enabling or Specific Objective During the first day of the program. participants will be able to: • Discuss the importance of scientific tools in planning for both long-term and short-term • Explain the principles of the various techniques of longterm and short-term planning 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

the trainee will be taught the principles of leadership • Describing the Content – The objective of this course is to discuss the principles of leadership • Promising Too Much – As a result of this course.PROBLEMS IN CRAFTING TRAINING OBJECTIVES • Trainer-centered – In this course. the trainee will be able to supervise subordinates effectively 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

GUIDE IN CRAFTING TRAINING OBJECTIVES • Should have trainee/participant as the subject At the end of the training. • Should have an action verb that is observable and measurable (Should focus on the goals of the training) X understand the procedures in the opening of new accounts / process the opening of a new account – – – – Quantity Quality Time Cost • Should specify the conditions and standards 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs . the participants should be able to….

Writing Behavioral Objectives Vague • • • • Know Appreciate Comprehend Understand • • • • Action Verb Enumerate Describe Explain Evaluate 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

• Main advantage is the exactness in giving direction in a training course • Clarity of goals makes it easier for trainees and facilitator to communicate 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .BEHAVIORAL TRAINING OBJECTIVES • Describing the objectives based on what the trainees should do at the end of the training.

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES DOMAINS COGNITIVE (KNOWING) AFFECTIVE (ATTITUDES) (FEELINGS) PSYCHOMOTOR (DOING) 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DOMAIN EVALUATION SYNTHESIS ANALYSIS APPLICATION COMPREHENSION KNOWLEDGE 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

LEVELS OF AFFECTIVE DOMAIN CHARACTERIZING ORGANIZING VALUING RESPONDING RECEIVING 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

LEVELS OF PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN NATURALIZATION ARTICULATION PRECISION MANIPULATION IMITATION 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Category Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Description Ability to recall previously learned material. Ability to separate material into component parts and show relationships between parts. restate ideas. Ability to grasp meaning. Ability to put together the separate ideas to form new whole. establish new relationships. Design of Training Programs 2/2/2009 . Ability to use learned material in new situations. explain. Ability to judge the worth of material against stated criteria.

visual guide and information on location. To teach the techniques of long and short-term planning using network analysis so that the techniques can be applied as appropriate. 4. in less than three minutes Given an architect’s drawing.TRAINING OBJECTIVE EXERCISE Each of the following statements is supposed to be a training objective. all order clerks will be able to place all copies of 15 separate orders in the files as listed without error. An appreciation of current resource allocation problems which influence project completion dates for civil engineering contracts. Revise each objective as you deem necessary. Without supervision. apprentices will calculate all essential heat losses expressing each in SI units to two decimal places Design of Training Programs 2. 3. 1. 2/2/2009 .

ADVANTAGES OF HAVING A COURSE OUTLINE • It provides direction to the trainees or participants • It gives more information concerning the training program • It keeps the trainer focused (especially on the things that the trainees “must know”) 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Learning is… • An experience that occurs in the learner and is activated by the learner • The discovery of personal meaning and relevance of ideas • The consequence of an experience • A cooperative and collaborative process • An evolutionary process • Emotional as well as intellectual 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Learning works better… • When the learner is personally involved • When there are activities using materials • When experienced in multiple modes (using all senses) • With more of the senses engaged 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Functions of the Facilitator • Motivate learners • Connect with learners • Give meaning to the experience • Manage the learning process • Provide or define procedure. system or roles for the learners to follow 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

LECTURER • • • • • Leader-centered Presentation-driven Content-heavy “Sage in Stage” “Tell everything you can in time alloted” • • • • • FACILITATOR Participant-centered Experience-driven Application-heavy “Guide on the Side” “Never do for learners what they can do for themselves” 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Common Areas for Evaluation in Training • Curriculum based on TNA – Content – Time allotment – Activity requirements • Training methods • Trainer/resource persons • Training management group • Logistics – Facilities – Food – Accommodation 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

Where do we go from here? • Teaching-learning styles and methodologies • Training Evaluation and Measurement Methods • Effective Presentation and Facilitation • Training Needs Analysis • Organizing and Running a Conference • Instructional Materials Design 2/2/2009 Design of Training Programs .

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