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# Teacher: Krista Lissner

Date: February 28, 2008 Grade: Elementary: Grade 3 Title: Multiplication using arrays Lesson Overview:
This is an introduction to using arrays to explain multiplication concepts. Introducing students to arrays will help build a solid foundation for multiplication, and later division. Arrays can help students visualize and understand more complicated math operations. As students begin memorizing the multiplication math facts, they benefit from different ways of visualizing and practicing the multiplication concepts. In order to achieve the desired learning outcome, the Behavioral Model and Direct Instruction Strategy will be used for the lesson plan.

Goal(s):
The student will develop an understanding of multiplication using arrays.

National Standards: Mathematics:
http://www.educationworld.com/standards/national/math/representation/pk_12.shtml MST3: In grades 3-5 all students should: Number and Operations Standard
NM-NUM.3-5.2: Understand

meanings of operations and how they relate to one another

• understand various meanings of multiplication and division Problem Solving
NM-PROB.PK-12.1: Build new mathematical knowledge through problem solving NM-PROB.PK-12.3: Apply and adapt a variety of appropriate strategies to solve problems

Connections
NM-PROB.CONN.PK-12.2: Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole Representation NM-PROB.REP.PK-12.1: Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas

New York State Standards: Standard 3 Mathematics: http://www.nysed.gov/

Students will understand the concepts of and become proficient with the skills of mathematics; communicate and reason mathematically; become problem solvers by using appropriate tools and strategies; through the integrated study of number sense and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, and statistics and probability Math Standard MST 3: Grade: 3 Content strand: Number sense and operations Students will understand meanings of operations and procedures, and how they relate to one another. 3.N.21 Use the area model, tables, patterns, arrays, and doubling to provide meaning for multiplication Process strand: Problem solving Students will solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts 3.PS.6 Translate from a picture/diagram to a numeric expression Connections Students will recognize and use connections among mathematical ideas 3.CN.3 Connect and apply mathematical information to solve problems Representation Students will create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas 3.R.1 Use verbal and written language, physical models, drawing charts, graphs, tables, symbols, and equations as representations

Objectives:
Given a blank piece of paper, the student will fold it into fourths and use markers to draw arrays to solve four provided multiplication problems, with 100% accuracy. Given a multiplication quiz with 20 problems on it, the student will solve the problems using arrays, with no more than 2 errors.

Materials:
1) 2) 3) 4) Multiplication Rock DVD Class computer Blank white paper Markers

5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Smart Board Notebook paper Markers for Smart Board Multiplication worksheets and quiz Pencils

Technology Used:
Smart Board will be used for instruction.

The class computer will be used for the anticipatory set, extended lessons for high learners and extra practice for other students.

Websites: http://www.teachertube.com/view_video.php?viewkey=3730f82b150c5ef38b8f &page=&viewtype=&category= short video on arrays

Introduction/Anticipatory Set:
When the students enter the room, play “Multiplication Rock” on the class computer. The students will enjoy the “catchy” songs but will also wonder why it is being played. After a few minutes turn off the music and say… “You were just listening to Multiplication Rock from the School House Rock DVD. Today we are going to learn about multiplication and using something called arrays. Raise your hand if you know what multiplication is. Raise your hand if you know what an array is.” Then write the word ARRAY on the Smart Board. “Arrays can help people to count things more easily.” Explain that instead of counting objects one by one, they can organize the objects into equal groups and count the groups. Tell them when you multiply, you put equal groups together to find the total. “Arrays are a way to help you understand what multiplication really is. If you look around the room you will see some arrays. The rows of desks are an array. The papers on the bulletin board are also an array.” An example of using an array could be, “If I wanted to figure out how many students were in this class so that I could bring in the correct amount of Twizzlers for everyone, I could use an array to help me figure it out.”

Development: The instructional model used for this lesson will be the Behavioral
Model and the strategy will be Direct Instruction. I will apply the presentation method for instruction by using the Smart Board combined with a lecture. Begin the instruction with examples on the Smart Board coupled with a mini lecture. Explain there are different ways of figuring out a multiplication problem, such as grouping, multiple addition and arrays. Today we are going to learn about arrays. Draw an example of an array on the Smart Board. Explain that arrays are arrangements of objects in equal rows and equal columns, and then write that on the board next to the word “array.” Tell the students that rows go across, and columns go down. Draw 2 rows with 4 counters in each row on the Smart Board (::::) and ask the students how many equal rows of counters there are. They will know there are 2 equal rows. Next ask how many counters are in each column. Students should say there are 4 counters in each column. Then ask them what the total number of counters is. Students will say that there are 8 counters. Show the students how to write the multiplication sentence to match the array (2 × 4 = 8) and explain how to count the items in each row and then the items in each column. Remind the students that rows go across and columns go down. Tell

the students that in a multiplication problem the X means groups of. Continue to do several more examples of this to ensure student understanding.

Guided Practice:
When the students have achieved a satisfactory level of understanding, move on to the guided practice section of the lesson. Activity 1: For the first guided activity give each student a large piece of white paper and a marker, tell them to fold the paper in half and then to fold it in half again. This should produce four squares on each side of the paper. Have the students copy one multiplication problem from the Smart Board, at the top of each square on their paper. There will be four problems in all (eight if time permits and for high learners). Instruct students to make their own arrays to solve the problems, using the distributed markers. (See attached example) Check for understanding by walking around the room and checking the students work. Anyone having difficulties will be helped at their seat one on one. Once these problems are completed satisfactorily, give the class the next activity. Activity 2: For the next activity explain to the students that they will “do it the other way around” and write the problem to match the array. Hand out the worksheet and instruct the students to write the matching multiplication sentence. Check for understanding by walking around the room and checking the students work. Anyone having difficulties will be helped at their seat one on one. When this activity is completed, hand out the quiz (see attached) to the students.

Accommodations:
Accommodations for students with reading problems will be larger type, and simplified text as much as possible. Accommodations for students with writing problems will be to provide adapted paper with enlarged spacing. They will also be provided with adapted grips for markers or pencils if needed. Students with behavior problems will be moved closer to the teacher to assist the student in focusing on directions and staying seated. Positive reinforcement such as catching the student being good and/or doing the right thing, and giving immediate praise or rewards will be used as well. Gifted or high learners will be given extra arrays to create during activity #1. They will also be given access to the class computers when they are done to do extra work on the provided math websites. ELL will be accommodated by simplifying the language as much as possible, using visual supports where appropriate and working with the student(s) individually or in a small group when possible. If another student in the class speaks the ELL student’s native language, they will be asked to assist with directions and understanding.

Reinforce the development and guided practice sections of the lesson plan with any struggling learners that have been identified after C.F.U (Check for Understanding).

Closure:
When the students have completed the guided practice, collect and review it later. Then explain the homework assignment. (See below). Next say “Let’s review what we learned today.” Point to the board where the word array and the definition are written and call on a student to read it aloud. “We learned that arrays are arrangements of objects in equal rows and equal columns.” Remind the students that multiplication is really just an easier, or quicker, way to solve some addition problems. Explain that multiplication is something they will use throughout their everyday lives. They will use it when shopping or paying a bill in a restaurant, as well as in learning further math concepts such as division. Emphasize that it is an important and useful skill to learn. To close the lesson, hand out the aforementioned Twizzlers to the students as a reward. Have pretzel rods as a backup snack if a student cannot have, or does not want, Twizzlers.

Independent Practice:
When the students have completed the worksheets, hand out the multiplication quiz for them to complete at their seats. The students will be instructed to create eight of their own multiplication sentences with matching arrays for homework.

Evaluations:
Diagnostic - The student’s prior knowledge/concept of multiplication/arrays will be assessed during the Anticipatory Set. Formative - I will check student’s activities and worksheets for understanding as we proceed through the guided practice part of the lesson. Summative -The students will complete the multiplication quiz.

Reflections:
Did the lesson overview capture the What, How and Why of the topic? Does the Objective match the National and State Standards identified in the Lesson Plan? Is my Objective measurable? Are my Goals & Objectives aligned with the Direct Instruction Strategy? Was the Anticipatory set too long? Did the Anticipatory set grasp my student’s attention and recall prior knowledge? Did the lesson plan provide transition between each section where it was appropriate? Did the activities planned match the Goals, Objectives and Standards? Are the activities appropriate for Direct Instruction? Did I allow enough practice and Guided Practice in the lesson? Did I select appropriate accommodations and differentiate the instruction accordingly to my students needs? Did the assessment examples prescribed correlate with Formative, Diagnostic and Summative evaluations? If I decided to use this lesson plan again in the future, how can I incorporate different activities? Can a substitute teacher perform this lesson plan in its entirety?

Activity #1:
Multiplication sentences for students to put at top of each box for activity#1: 1) 2×3=6 2) 4×3=12 3) 3×5=15 4) 2×6=12 Extra sentences: 5) 4×4=16 6) 5×4=20 7) 2×7=14

Activity #2:

Mrs. Lissner

Multiplication using arrays

Write the correct multiplication sentence to match the array

1)

2)

3)

Mrs. Lissner

Multiplication using arrays

Write the correct multiplication sentence to match the array

1)

2)

3)

Name:

Using Arrays
Multiplication Quiz

Date:

3 x9

8 x1

2 x9

9 x9

2 x7

8 x6

9 x2

9 x9

6 x7

8 x6

1 x2

3 x7

7 x8

4 x5

2 x5

5 x6

3 x4

4 x6

3 x1

6 x9