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Project AMP

Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

Using Inquiry Based Lessons in Middle School Mathematics
(Team 6) Jackie Wolf, Pat Canterbury, Joyce Soranno, Katie Jones 1/20/04 Teacher’s Lesson Plan 1. Lesson Title: Square Roots 2. Description: This lesson will lead students through finding square roots by starting with squaring a number and finding the area of a square and then working backwards. Students will recognize perfect squares and be able to estimate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square. 3. Key Words: square root, perfect square 4. Background Knowledge: Students are presumed to know how to square a number, how to find the area of a square, how to order and round decimals, and how to work with a number line. 5. NCTM Standards addressed: This lesson addresses the NCTM’s Number and Operations Standard for grades 6-8, students will “understand and use the inverse relationships of addition and subtraction, multiplication and division, and squaring and finding square roots to simplify computations and solve problems.” 6. Learning Objectives: Students will understand the definition of square root and discover how to find them for perfect squares and how to estimate them for non-perfect squares. 7. Materials: Students will need a copy of the lab sheet, pencil and eraser, and a calculator 8. Procedures: a. Attention Getter: Pose a problem where the students know the area of a square but not the side length and ask them how they might find it. b. Grouping: Students should work in groups of 2-3. 9. Assessment: Students should be assessed by observation and by asking them to verbalize what they have learned. They should also show mastery through writing instructions on how to find the square root of a number (last question of the investigation) and by showing they can do some or all of the extension problems.

Project AMP

Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

Part II: 1. Lesson Title: Square Roots 2. Katie Jones, Joyce Soranno, Jackie Wolf, Pat Canterbury File name: Square Roots 3. Lesson Goal: Students will recognize and calculate the value of numbers that are perfect squares and estimate the value of numbers that are not perfect squares. 4. Investigation: Review of previous knowledge: A. What is the value of 22, 32, 52, 72 ? _________, ________, ________, ________ B. Find the area of the squares shown below. 3

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Area = __________

Area = ____________

C. Find the area of a square that has a side length of 4. ___________

D. Find the area of a square that has a side length of n. __________

E. If the area of a square is 49 inches squared. What is its side length? (What number times itself equals 49?) _____________ F. What number can you square to equal 81? __________ What number can you square to equal 121? __________ Information point to students: When 9 is squared it equals 81. is the square root symbol, so you would So we can say 9 is the square root of 81. read 81 = 9 as “the square root of 81 equals 9”. G. Write in your own words how to find 25 . ____________________

__________________________________________________________________ H. In your own words, describe how to find the square root of any number. _________ _____________________________________________________________________

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Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

I. Now, using the calculator. Locate the square root key on the calculator. Using the calculator: Find 169 _________ 225 _________ Find Find 625 _________ J. Now, using the calculator: Find 31 __________ 72 Find __________ Find 110 __________ Compare your answers to questions I and J. What do you notice? ______________ __________________________________________________________________ K. Information point to students: Whenever you take the square root of a number and get an answer that is a whole number – the original number was a perfect square. If your answer is not a whole number – then your original number was not a perfect square. List several perfect squares: __________, ____________, _____________

L. Use the calculator and fill in the table below. Round your answer to the hundredths place. Before you start fill in any answers you can without using the calculator. n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 n

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Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

M. What do you notice about your answers between the perfect squares? __________ __________________________________________________________________ N. Put away your calculator. Estimate the value of and then place the value in the correct place on the number line. Label each point on the number line. 6 14 27 45 _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

____________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

P. Between which two perfect squares did you place each value? 6 _____________ 14 _____________ 27 _____________ 45 _____________ Q. Explain how you determined where to place your points. _____________________ __________________________________________________________________

R. Between which two perfect squares would you find 65? ________________ Between which two perfect squares would you find What is the approximate value of 65 ? ________ 65 ? _______

Explain your thinking. ________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

S. Repeat what you did in question R to find: 12 ______________ 38 ______________ 115 _____________

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Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

T. Write instructions on how to estimate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

Extension Problems: 1. Using your calculator type in −9 . Why do you think you get an error? [Hint: What numbers can you multiply together to get –9?] 2. Describe a way that we could get a negative answer to a square root problem. 3. Make a table of values for the equation y = x and graph the results. a. In which quadrant does the graph lie? Is this what you would expect? Explain.

Project AMP

Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

Part II: Answers 1. Lesson Title: Square Roots 2. Katie Jones, Joyce Soranno, Jackie Wolf, Pat Canterbury File name: Square Roots 3. Lesson Goal: Students will recognize and calculate the value of numbers that are perfect squares and estimate the value of numbers that are not perfect squares. 4. Investigation: Review of previous knowledge: A. What is the value of 22, 32, 52, 72 ? ____4____, ____9___, ____25___, ___49___ B. Find the area of the squares shown below. 3

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Area = _9 sq. units_______

Area = 25 sq. units

C. Find the area of a square that has a side length of 4. _16 sq. units _ D. Find the area of a square that has a side length of n. _n2 sq. units _

E. If the area of a square is 49 inches squared. What is its side length? (What number times itself equals 49?) _7 units__ F. What number can you square to equal 81? ___9 ___ What number can you square to equal 121? ___11___ Information point to students: When 9 is squared it equals 81. So we can say 9 is the square root of 81.

G. Write in your own words how to find the square root of 25. _Find the number_____

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Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

_times itself that equals 25. The answer is 5. _____________________________ H. In your own words, describe how to find the square root of any number. _Find a _ _number times itself that equals the number for which you want the square root.__ I. Now, using the calculator. Locate the square root key on the calculator. Using the calculator: Find the square root of 169 _13____ Find the square root of 225 _15 ____ Find the square root of 625 _25____ J. Now, using the calculator: round your answer to the hundredths place Find the square root of 31 5.57___ Find the square root of 72 _ 8.49_____ Find the square root of 110 10.49_________ Compare your answers to questions I and J. What do you notice? _The answers in question I are whole numbers, the answers in question J are not whole numbers. K. Information point to students: Whenever you take the square root of a number and get an answer that is a whole number – the original number was a perfect square. If your answer is not a whole number – than your original number was not a perfect square. List several perfect squares: ____9____, ____16___, _____25______

L. Use the calculator and fill in the table below. Round your answer to the hundredths place. Before you start fill in any answers you can without using the calculator. n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Square root of n 1 1.41 1.73 2 2.24 2.45 2.65 2.83 3 3.16 3.32 3.46 3.61

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Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

14 15 16

3.74 3.87 4

M. What do you notice about your answers between the perfect squares? _The answers _fall between each perfect square on the number line. The answers get larger.___ N. Put away your calculator. Estimate the value of and then place the value in the Correct place on the number line. Label each point on the number line. Square root of 6 ___2.4___ Square root of 14 ___3.8___ Square root of 27 ___5.1___ Square root of 45 ___6.8___

______________________l___________l___________l______________l_____ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

P. Between which two perfect squares did you place each value? Square root of 6 __ 4, 9______ Square root of 14 __9, 16______ Square root of 27 _25, 36______ Square root of 45 _36, 49______ Q. Explain how you determined where to place your points. _I found the two perfect _squares that the given number was between. I then decided which of the perfect squares it was closest to and chose a decimal that was close to the perfect squares square root.__

R. Between which two perfect squares would you find 65? __64 and 81 ____ Between which two perfect squares would you find the square root of 65? _8 and 9_

Project AMP

Dr. Antonio R. Quesada – Director, Project AMP

What is the approximate value of the square root of 65?

8.1___

Explain your thinking. __I chose 8.1, which is close to eight, because 8 times 8 = 64 _65 is closer to 64 than the next perfect square of 9 times 9 = 81. ______________

S. Repeat what you did in question R to find: Square root of 12 ___3.5______ between square root of 9 and 16____ Square root of 38 ___6.1______ between square root of 36 and 49 ___ Square root of 115 _10.7______ between square root of 100 and 121__ T. Write instructions on how to estimate the square root of a number that is not a perfect square. __Find the two perfect squares the number is between. Decide which it is closest to _to and choose a decimal that is close to the square root of that perfect square.___ Example – the square root of 24 is between the square root of 16 and the square_ _root of 25. It is closer to the square root of 25, which is 5, so my approximate___ answer for the square root of 24 is 4.9__________