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Botkin & Keller- 8th Edition Chapter 8- Biological Diversity and Biological Invasions 1: What is biological diversity?

Biological diversity is the variety of life-forms. 2: What is a population? A group of individuals of the same species living in the same area or interbreeding and sharing genes. 3: What is a species? All individuals that are capable of interbreeding. 4: What are the 9 reasons why people value biodiversity? The nine reasons are utilitarian, public-service, ecological, moral, theological, aesthetic, recreational, spiritual, and creative. Define the following: * Genetic Diversity: the total number of genetic characteristics of a species * Habitat Diversity: the different kinds of habitats in a unit area * Species Diversity: three qualities of diversity * Species Richness: total number of a species * Species Evenness: the relative abundance of species * Dominant Species: the most abundant species 5: What are the 3 main domains of life? They are eukaryote, bacteria, and archaea. 6: What is biological evolution?

Biological evolution is the change in inherited characteristics of a population from one generation to the next. 7: What causes mutations? Explain how this affects biological diversity. Mutations are caused by random chance when DNA makes an error. This affects biological diversity because with some mutations, you can get a whole new species. 8: What is natural selection? What are the 4 primary factors involved in natural selection? Natural selection is the theory that those with “fitter” characteristics are able to survive and produce offspring. The four primary factors are: 1. Genetic variability 2. Environmental variability 3. Differential reproduction which varies with environment 4. Influence of the environment on survival reproduction A Closer Look 8.1 Natural Selection: Mosquitos and the Malaria Parasite 1: Discuss the issue with Malaria, Mosquitos and DDT resistance and how this demonstrates natural selection. Malaria is a disease spread by mosquitoes. They are caused by parasitic microbes. DDT is a drug that was proven to be effective against the parasitic mosquitoes, but soon natural selection eliminated those weak mosquitoes while the others became immune to the drug. Migration and Geographic Isolation 1: How does Darwin’s Finches demonstrate the idea of Adaptive Radiation? The finches adapted to different sets of food due to their niche on different areas. 2: Define: Genetic Drift

It is when changes in the frequency of a gene in a population due not to mutation, selection or migration, but to chance. 3: What is the Founder Effect and how does it demonstrate Genetic Drift? The Founder Effect is when a small number of individuals are isolated from a larger population; they may have less genetic variation. It demonstrates genetic drift because of the species affected by chance. Biological Evolution as a Strange Kind of Game In summary, the theory of biological evolution tells us the following about biodiversity: 1: Biological diversity is always changing 2: Adaption has no rules 3: Species and populations do become geographically isolated from time to time, and undergo founder effect and genetic drift 4: Endangered species are in trouble since they do not evolve fast enough to keep up with the environment. The Competitive Exclusion Principle 1: Explain how the introduction of the American Gray Squirrel into Great Britain demonstrates the Competitive Exclusion Principle. The American Gray Squirrel was competing with the red squirrel in Great Britain, and has a greater population compared to the red squirrel. Since these two are very similar, they often compete for resources. The Competitive Exclusion Principle is related to these squirrels because they are fighting to be the dominant squirrel. Measuring Niches 1: What is an ecological niche?

It is environmental conditions in which a species can perform the job/function of that species in the ecosystem. 2: What is the difference between a fundamental and realized niche? Fundamental is where there is no competition, and realized niche is the set of conditions in which a species persists in the presences of competition. Symbiosis 1: In ecology, symbiosis describes a relationship between two organisms that is beneficial to both- each partner in symbiosis is called a: Symbiont. 2: What is an obligate symbiont? It is when a species cannot live without its symbiont partner. 3: Explain the symbiotic relationship between people and dogs. Dogs have developed a friendlier, helpful connection between people, so people are more favored to have more dogs. Predation and Parasitism 1: Explain how predation and parasitism actually helps increase species diversity in an Ecosystem. They help increase by the use of competitive exclusion principle. How Geography and Geology Affect Biological Diversity 1: In general, greater diversity occurs: at lower latitudes. 2: What geographic factors affect species biodiversity? The factors that affect species biodiversity are soil type and topography. 3: How can moderate environmental disturbances increase diversity? Disturbances such as fires can create new patches of land for new species to live and grow in.

4: How do people affect diversity? Explain. People decrease diversity by urbanization, industrialization, and more by reducing habitats and simplifying habitats.

Factors That Tend to Increase Diversity Physically diverse habitat Moderate amounts of disturbances Small variations in environmental conditions High diversity at one trophic level Middle stages of succession Highly modified environments by life Evolution

Factors That Tend to Decrease Diversity Environmental stress Extreme environments Extreme amounts of disturbances Severe limitation in supply of resource Recent introductions to exotic species Geographic isolation

Convergent and Divergent Evolution 1: Define and give an example of each of the following: * Convergent Evolution: species that have similar adaptations due to them being in the same area. Example: desert plants. * Divergent Evolution: species that evolve in different areas separated by barriers, allowing them to have similar characteristics. Ex: Ostriches, rhea, and emu have a common ancestor. Invasions, Invasive Species and Island Biogeography 1: What are the 4 main principles in the theory of island biogeography? The four main principals are: 1. Islands have fewer species than continents 2. Two sources of new species on an island are migration from the mainland and evolution of new species in place 3. The smaller the island, the fewer the species 4. The farther the island from mainland, the fewer the species

2: What is an ecological island? An ecological island is a small habitat separated from a major habitat of the same kind. Study Questions 1: Why do introduced species often become pests? They are often pests because the introduced species competes with the native species and tries to replace them.