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Surrealism The Last Snapshot of the European Intelligentsia walter benjamin Intellectual currents can generate a sufficient head

of water for the critic to install his power station on them. The necessary gradient, in the case of Surrealism, is produced by the difference in intellectual level between France and Germany. What sprang up in ! ! in France in a small circle of literati"we shall give the most important names at once# $ndre %reton, &ouis $ragon, 'hilippe Soupault, (obert )esnos, 'aul *luard"may have been a meagre stream, fed on the damp boredom of post+war *urope and the last tric,le of French decadence. The ,now+alls who even today have not advanced beyond the -authentic origins. of the movement, and even now have nothing to say about it e/cept that yet another cli0ue of literati is here 1mystifying2 the honourable public, are a little li,e a gathering of e/perts at a spring who, after lengthy deliberation, arrive at the conviction that this paltry stream will never drive turbines. The German observer is not standing at the head of the stream. That is his opportunity. 3e is in the valley. 3e can gauge the energies of the movement. $s a German he is long ac0uainted with the crisis of the intelligentsia, or, more precisely, with that of the humanistic concept of freedom4 and he ,nows how frantic is the determination that has awa,ened in the movement to go beyond the stage of eternal discussion and, at any price, to reach a decision4 he has had direct e/perience of its highly e/posed position between an anarchistic fronde and a revolutionary discipline, and so has no e/cuse for ta,ing the movement for the -artistic., -poetic. one it superficially appears. If it was such at the outset, it was, however, precisely at the outset that %reton declared his intention of brea,ing with a pra/is that presents the public with the literary precipitate of a certain form of e/istence while withholding that e/istence itself. Stated more briefly and dialectically, this means that the sphere of poetry was here e/plored from within by a closely ,nit circle of people pushing the -poetic life. to the utmost limits of possibility. $nd they can be ta,en at their word when they assert that (imbaud5s Saison en enfer no longer had any secrets for them. For this boo, is indeed the first document of the movement 1in recent times4 earlier precursors will be discussed later2. 6an the point at issue be more definitively and incisively presented than by (imbaud himself in his personal copy of the boo,7 In the margin, beside the passage -on the sil, of the seas and the arctic flowers., he later wrote, -There5s no such thing.. In just how inconspicuous and peripheral a substance the dialectical ,ernel that later grew into Surrealism was originally embedded, was shown by $ragon in !89"at a time when its development could not yet be foreseen"in his Vague de reves. Today it can be foreseen. For there

profane struggle for power and domination. There is always. Image and language ta. of -Surrealist e/periences. This I loosening of the self by into/ication is. &autreamont. but at any rate not literature"will also . is over. language only seemed itself where. fi/es a notice on his door# -'oet at wor. and the very writings that proclaim it most powerfully. dearest language. or to themselves. was left for the penny+in+the+slot called -meaning. living e/perience that allowed these people to step outside the domain of into/ication. For e/ample. or decay as a public demonstration and be watchwords. $lso before the self. and forth.2 This profane illumination did not always find the Surrealists e0ual to it. %ut at the time when it bro. It is a cardinal error to believe that. to which hashish. &anguage ta. in such movements. forgeries if you will. or whatever else can give an introductory lesson. I want to pass where no one yet has passed. $nd these e/periences are by no means limited to dreams. passionate revolt against 6atholicism in which (imbaud. %reton notes# -:uietly. whose catalogue of heroes $ragon left us in that wor. " $fter you.. or opium smo. for the same reason. $ragon5s incomparable Paysan de Paris and %reton5s Nadja. *verything with which it came into contact was and sleeping was worn away in everyone as by the steps of multitudinous images flooding bac.e over its founders as an inspiring dream wave. conclusive. and $pollinaire brought Surrealism into the world. <ot only before meaning.ed.4 %reton adds the assurance that in those days %oulevard %onne+<ouvelle fulfilled the strategic promise of revolt ?that had always been implicit in its name. 0uietly. sound and image. I shall refer later to the bitter. This is not the place to give an e/act definition of Surrealist e/perience. a materialistic. show very disturbing symptoms of precedence.e a bad tooth.. %ut @adame Sacco also appears. there is in Nadja an e/cellent passage on the -delightful days spent looting 'aris under the sign of Sacco and =an>etti. we . 1%ut a dangerous one4 and the religious lesson is stricter. It resides in a profane illumination. %ut the true creative overcoming of religious illumination certainly does not lie in narcotics. anthropological inspiration. not the wife of Fuller5s victim but a voyante. documents.e precedence. at the same time. hours of hashish eating. and brought the two things closer together than the Surrealists could have li. it seemed the most integral. Saint+'ol (ou/. &ife only seemed worth living where the threshold between wa. bluffs.. absolute of no doubt that the heroic phase. Surrealism is in this phase of transformation at present. &enin called religion. precisely the fruitful. The opium of the people. a moment when the original tension of the secret society must either e/plode in a only the religious ecstasies or the ecstasies of drugs. In the world5s structure dream loosens individuality li. a fortune+teller who lives at A rue des Bsines and tells 'aul . that the writings are concerned literally with e/periences.. %ut anyone who has perceived that the writings of this circle are not literature but something else"demonstrations.... not with theories and still less with phantasms. image and sound interpenetrated with automatic precision and such felicity that no chin. retiring to bed about daybrea.

The dialectics of into/ication are indeed curious..s. I found out that in these rooms lived members of a sect who had sworn never to occupy closed rooms. and emigre profiteers7 In other respects %reton5s boo. and I tried to picture with great intensity how people saw life then. too. career of Surrealism over rooftops...e chastity. stucco wor.. once an aristocratic virtue. )iscretion concerning one5s own e/istence. What are these things7 <othing could reveal more about Surrealism than their . has become more and more an affair of petty+bourgeois parvenus. <ow I concede that the brea. a transport7 Into a world that borders not only on tombs of the Sacred 3eart or altars to the =irgin. that we badly need. verandas. It is also an into/ication. creative synthesis between the art novel and the roman-aclef. So. I was struc. %ut I am not pleased to hear it cautiously tapping on the window+panes to in0uire about its future.. I had then must be felt by the reader of Nadja. 1i. Who would not wish to see these adoptive children of revolution most rigorously severed from all the goings+on in the conventicles of down+at+heel dowagers.*luard that he can e/pect no good from <adja. by the number of doors in the corridors that were always left ajar. in esoteric love. -$t just that time. binds %reton to the telepathic girl"if not to ma. for %reton. 3e calls Nadja -a boo. The lady. lightning conductors.e love seriously to recogni>e in it.ind of secret bond that determines their inner and perhaps also their outer+lives. The shoc. 3e is closer to the things that <adja is close to than to her. but also on the morning before a battle or after a victory. matters least. 1In @oscow I lived in a hotel in which almost all the rooms were occupied by Tibetan lamas who had come to @oscow for a congress of %uddhist churches. -$ll the poets of the ?new style5.. too. -I too. @oreover. Is not perhaps all ecstasy in one world humiliating sobriety in that complementary to it7 What is it that courtly !inne see. when he . one need only ta. illustrates well a number of the basic characteristics of this -profane illumination. a moral e/hibitionism. a great interest in the epoch of &ouis =II. weathercoc. too"as Nadja also indicates"a -profane illumination."all ornaments are grist to the cat burglar5s mill+may have ta.e. they all have appro/imately the same very curious e/perience of love4 to them all $mor bestows or withholds gifts that resemble an illumination more than sensual pleasure4 all arc subject to a . not love. *rich $uerbac. the author tells us. which comes surprisingly close to the Surrealist conception of of spiritualism. What had at first seemed accidental began to be disturbing. gutters. Nadja has achieved the true.s" and it. retired majors. -possess a mystical beloved.) To live in a glass house is a revolutionary virtue par e/cellence.en it also into the humid bac. We have from a recent author 0uite e/act information on 'rovencal love poetry. points out in his e/cellent Dante: Poet of the Secular orld.. because it was the time of the ?courts of love5. with a banging <

What form do you suppose a life would5 ta. In his volume of novellas. by which this world of things is mastered"it is more . here stands the fabulous . than a method+consists in the substitution of a political for a historical view of the past. to ta. 3e was the first to perceive the revolutionary energies that appear in the -outmoded. who .eeper of .eys holding a bunch of the . to ma. one5s own. . in palaces.eys to all times. which one must overrun and occupy in order to master their fate and. Where shall I begin7 3e can boast an e/traordinary discovery. corpses behind screens. and invites you to step into the midst of the world of today. <o picture by de 6hirico or @a/ *rnst can match the sharp elevations of the city5s inner strong+ holds. %reton and <adja are the lovers who convert everything that we have e/perienced on mournful railway journeys 1railways are beginning to age2. if not action. in the first iron constructions. the earliest castles. in the fate of their masses. in the sense that I always want to prove that it commands forever everything that is mine. on Godforsa. of a tric..e yourself at home in their automobiles. in their fate.. the poverty of interiorsCenslaved and enslaving objects+ can be suddenly transformed into revolutionary nihilism. $nd no face is surrealistic in the same degree as the true face of a city. fashionable restaurants when the vogue has begun to ebb from them. he used it with @achiavellian calculation to blow 6atholicism 1to which he inwardly clung2 to smithereens. $t the centre of this world of things stands the most dreamed+of of their objects. -Dpen. %ut only revolt completely e/poses its Surrealist face 1deserted streets in which whistles and shots dictate the outcome2. which are beautiful as armour from the age of chivalry. %ut civili>ation will give them short shrift. in the first glance through the rain+blurred window of a new apartment. graves. you. &eaving aside $ragon5s Passage de "#$pera. the city of 'aris itself.. <adja is an e/ponent of these masses and of what inspires them to revolution# -The great living.nows where to press the most artful loc. $pollinaire originated this techni0ue. proper to spea. sonorous unconsciousness that inspires my only convincing acts. into revolutionary e/perience. the dead of the picture galleries. the mechanics whom money ennobles.e your places in the international sleeping cars. %#heresiar&ue. the objects . The relation of these things to revolution"no one can have a more e/act concept of it than these authors. the first factory buildings. and monasteries.e that was determined at a decisive moment precisely by the street song last on everyone5s lips7 The tric.that have begun to be e/tinct. They bring the immense forces of -atmosphere. This speech was attributed to $pollinaire by his friend 3enri 3ert>.en Sunday afternoons in the proletarian 0uarters of the great cities. and to weld yourself to all the people who today are still proud of their privileges. 3ere. to mingle with the bearers of burdens. <o one before these visionaries and augurs perceived how destitution"not only social but architectonic. concealed in these things to the point of e/plosion. grand pianos. the dresses of five years ago.

to my memory that most uncomprehended room in the old 'rincess 6afe. yet e/ists. the belief in a real. from 'lace @aubert. in ! F# -For the speed and simplicity with ."there is something that brings bac. whether it is called Futurism. It is the region from which the lyric poetry of Surrealism reports.4 it was the last restaurant designed for love.nown. portrays less a historical evolution than a constantly renewed. the cosmos. separate e/istence of concepts whether outside or inside things"has always very 0uic. 3ow slogans.e was scarcely ever to be ta. word+for+word 0uotations with page numbers refer.e. are crossroads where ghostly signals flash from the traffic. room on the first floor. however"that is. $nd it is as magical e/periments with words. with arbours li. too. draws off the banal obviousness of this ancient ? architecture to inject it with the most pristine intensity toward the events described.e a revolving door. too. that would illuminate as has no other the crisis of the arts that we are witnessing# a history of esoteric poetry. or Surrealism. The Surrealists5 'aris. s0uares of the city into illustrations . It ma. For written as it demands to be written"that is. that we must understand the passionate phonetic and graphical transformational games that have run through the whole literature of the avant+garde for the past fifteen years. all contribute -what is most worth .es the streets. <or is it by any means fortuitous that no such wor. where as nowhere else dirt has retained all its symbolic power. This is the moment to embar. %reton indicates in his "ntroduction au discours sur le peu de realite how the philosophical realism of the @iddle $ges was the basis of poetic e/perience. $nd this must be noted if only to counter the obligatory misunderstanding of l#art pour l#art. to which. things loo. from inner compulsion. This realism.e impenetrable tunnels"a drawing room on the bottom of a la.en literally4 it was almost always a flag under which sailed a cargo that could not be declared because it still lac.. There.. and inconceivable analogies and connections between events are the order of the day. It was the bac. For art5s sa. photography intervenes in a very strange way. but as the deeply grounded composition of an individual who. with couples in the blue light. That is to say.nowing.ed a name. $nd all the parts of 'aris that appear here are places where what is between these people turns li. no different. The last page would have to show an E+ray picture of Surrealism. magic formulas.therefore. We called it the -anatomy school. which I am inconsolable not to have . not as artistic dabbling.of a trashy novel. from their fields. on a wor. In such passages in crossed over from the logical realm of ideas to the magical realm of words. as in old chambermaids5 boo. is a -little universe. %ut in %reton5s description of her bar on the upper floor"-it is 0uite dar. not as a collection to which particular -specialists. primal upsurge of esoteric poetry" written in such a way it would be one of those scholarly confessions that can be counted in every century. we find the catalogue of these fortifications. gates.s. %#esprit nouveau et les poetes. in the larger one. to the -Theatre @oderne. )adaism.. 3e says. and concepts are here intermingled is shown by the following words of $pollinaire5s from his last manifesto.

es me laugh. calls its company to a last crusade. The chapters -'ersecution.age of Surrealism to the outside world with the declaration# -The con0uests of science rest far more on a surrealistic than on a logical thin. rightly called this development dialectical. too"then such integration is too impetuous.e real. burst out with the cry -&ong live Germany. To understand such prophecies. and to assess strategically the line arrived at by Surrealism. the bourgeoisie is as thic.s of poems thrown on the fire. the universe. when the Surrealists.. $pollinaire and $ragon saw the future of the poet.If.. There is remar. -The thought of all human activity ma. in other words. in $pollinaire5s Poete assassine contain the famous description of a pogrom against poets. now it is the turn of poets to create new ones that the inventors on their side can then ma.which we have all become used to referring by a single word to such comple/ entities as a crowd.+s. in anticipation of such horrors. there is no modern e0uivalent in literature. We are not of course referring here to %eraud. above all the war in @orocco. This utterance of $ragon5s shows very clearly the path Surrealism had to follow from its origins to its politici>ation. -Imagination. under such political auspices. one must investigate the mode of thought widespread among the so+called well+meaning left+wing bourgeois intelligentsia. It manifests itself clearly enough in the present (ussian orientation of these circles. or to . This hostility pushed Surrealism to the left. the culmination of which %reton sees in poetry 1which is defensible2. boo.nown. they as is . toward which. the foundation of scientific and technical development. however. $nd the same scenes are ta. 1$pollinaire2"to compare these overheated fantasies with the well+ventilated Btopias of a Scheerbart. 'olitical events. a nation. 'ierre <aville. a fundamentally different platform was gained from that which was characteri>ed by. accelerated this development. $pollinaire and %reton advance even more energetically in the same direction and complete the lin. In his e/cellent essay -%a revolution et les intellectuels'.. for e/ample. %ut todays writers fill this gap4 their synthetic wor. $t that time. they remained within the boundaries of scandal. With the manifesto -Intellectuals $gainst the @oroccan War. In the transformation of a highly contemplative attitude into revolutionary oppositior.s create new realities the plastic manifestations of which are just as comple/ as those referred to by the words standing for collectives. which appeared in %#(umanite. poets lynched.e mystification.inned as it is sensitive to all action.. and -@urder.. 'ublishing houses are stormed. In $ragon. the hostility of the bourgeoisie toward every manifestation of radical intellectual freedom played a leading part. who originally belonged to this group. It is very instructive to compare the movement5s over+precipitate embrace of the uncomprehended miracle of machines "-the old fables have for the most part been reali> place at the same time all over the agreement between the ways in which.+ if. who pioneered the lie about (ussia. shortly after the war. the famous scandal at the Saint+'ol+(ou/ ban0uet. who deemed the celebration for a poet they worshipped compromised by the presence of nationalistic elements.

and in it we are independent and self+sufficient beings. as he did. is God+inspired4 whereas evil stems entirely from our spontaneity. Gne finds the cult of evil as a political device. but to traditional culture. %ut politically and economically they must always be considered a potential source of sabotage. for all the manly virtue of those who practise it. (imbaud. contains a justification of evil in which certain motifs of Surrealism are more powerfully e/pressed than by any of its present spo. $nd here.ed on their infernal machines. but also baseness. of placing things in some ...ey. wor. %etween FHI and FJI a number of great anarchists. without . and &autreamont e/ploded at the same time. 3e considered vileness itself as something preformed. and coming across the scenario of a horror play by %reton that centres about a violation of children. %ut how problematic is even the typical mediating boo. 6onvinced of this. For Stavrogin is a Surrealist avant la lettre. as far as it is positive.e in an inventory of snobbery. deeper revolution. <o one else understood. This chapter. however romantic. )ostoyevs. to disinfect and isolate against all morali>ing dilettantism.e a devoted don. 6haracteristic of this whole left+wing bourgeois position is its irremediable coupling of idealistic morality with political practice. arc certain central features of Surrealism.y5s entire wor. appro/imates conservation. to which we are disposed if not called. as he did. who trots behind him li.y5s God created not only heaven and earth and man and beast. to be understood. Gne might. both in the course of the world and also in ourselves. dictated by embarrassment and linguistic ignorance. -Stavrogin5s 6onfession.en place. one finds something usable inside. 3ow revealing his resume# -the true. and forty years later in Western *urope the writings of )ostoyevs.ind of bourgeois ill+ will. indeed of the Surrealist tradition. <o one else saw inspiration. loaded with every .ind of symbolic illumination. If. from )he Possessed.Fabre+&uce. 3ow difficult to bear is the strained uprightness. he gave the devil no opportunity to meddle in his handiwor. by )uhamel. It is typical of these left+wing French intellectuals"e/actly as it is of their (ussian counterparts. too. . how naive is the view of the 'hilistines that goodness. and precisely in them. one resolves to open up this romantic dummy. &ittle has happened so far to promote this understanding. has not yet ta. Their collective achievement. The seduction was too great to regard the Satanism of a (imbaud and a &autreamont as a pendant to art for art5s sa. one might perhaps go bac.esmen.y. in even the most ignoble actions. not to the (evolution. Gnly in contrast to the helpless compromises of -sentiment. cruelty. as the bourgeois idealist sees virtue. too"that their positive function derives entirely from a feeling of obligation. the one episode that was actually not published until about ! I. which could in some sense transform the substance of the Slavonic soul itself.nowing of one another. $nd the astonishing thing is that independently of one another they set its cloc. to be more e/act. vengeance. select from )ostoyevs. a few decades. however. at e/actly the same hour. the forced animation and sincerity of the 'rotestant method. which touches very closely on the third canto of the *hants de !aldoror.

e him long all the more intensely for goodness as a remedy. to the depth of the insights of 'oe. *urope has lac. The pitch of tension that enabled the poets under discussion to achieve at a distance their astonishing effects is documented 0uite scurrilously in the letter Isidore )ucasse addressed to his publisher on Gctober 8A. has any lineage at all.nowledge because it has been ours. can be assigned one.4 they are perhaps not -splendid. a similar attempt in the case of (imbaud was successful. $lfred de @usset.s in !8J.iewic>. by his own account.ind of pragmatic calculation.. %ut that is the concession of a communard dissatisfied with his own contribution who.That is why all these vices have a pristine vitality in his wor. remains the only cause worth serving."ta. rather.. (imbaud is indeed a 6atholic. %audelaire. They are the first to li0uidate the sclerotic liberal+moral+humanistic ideal of freedom. The Surrealists have one. of which only =ictor 3ugo and a few others are still alive.. had long since"in his earliest wor. and says# -Gf course.e a climbing plant.e his poetry loo. creation originated by $pollinaire. which he does not tire of denouncing and consigning to his own and everyone5s hatred. and it is the achievement of @arcel 6oulon to have defended the poet5s true image against the 6atholic usurpation by 6laudel and %errichon. Southey. separated by an infinity from the cliches through which sin is perceived by the 'hilistine. %ut are they successful in welding this e/perience of freedom to the other revolutionary e/perience that we have to ac.unin. %ut if &autreamont5s erratic boo. as long as it lasts. Gn the other hand. FH!. by the time he turned his bac. only the method is more philosophical and less naive than that of the old school. I somewhat swelled the note to bring something new into this literature that. to you I have entrusted my treasure. in the most wretched part of himself. acceptable. @ilton. Soupault5s attempt.. on poetry. only sings of despair in order to depress the reader and thus ma. to write a political curriculum vitae for Isidore )ucasse was therefore a 0uite understandable and not unperceptive venture. and that adduced by Soupault rests on a confusion. in his edition of the complete wor. $nd this proves to them that -man. which on this earth can only be bought with a thousand of the hardest sacrifices.en leave of religion.. he writes in the Saison en enfer. So that in the end one really sings only of goodness. however.ed a radical concept of freedom. his own and everyone5s contempt# the part that forces him to confess that he does not understand revolt. 3e places himself in the line of descent from @ic. but eternally new.. but he is one. or. after all. it is that of insurrection. is liberation in every respect2. -as on the first day. dictatorial side . to sin. in an attempt to ma. Since %a. Bnfortunately. and happily. must be enjoyed unrestrictedly in its fullness without any . This is another dictum around which a poetics of Surrealism might grow li. the constructive. because they are convinced that -freedom.ind5s struggle for liberation in its simplest revolutionary form 1which. -3atred. there is no documentation for it. its roots deeper than the theory of -surprised.

undialectical conception of the nature of into/ication.e in solitude. the dreamer. the flaneur. To win the energies of into/ication for the revolution. an ecstatic component lives in every revolutionary act. and everyone has as much -as if he were rich. %ut to place the accent e/clusively on it would be to subordinate the methodical and disciplinary preparation for revolution entirely to a pra/is oscillating between fitness e/ercises and celebration in advance. $nything.. the thin. the loiterer. filled to bursting with metaphors. it will interest you all the more how much an e/cursion into poetry clarifies things. The most passionate investigation of telepathic the -organi>ation of pessimism. poetic politics7 -We have tried that beverage. in rooms by &e 6orbusier and Gud7 To win the energies of into/ication for the revolution"this is the project about which Surrealism circles in all its boo. dilettantish optimism must unfailingly show its true colours# where are the conditions for revolution7 In the changing of attitudes or of e/ternal circumstances7 That is the cardinal 0uestion that determines the relation of . $dded to this is an inade0uate. In the name of his literary friends he delivers an ultimatum in face of which this unprincipled. in a condition in which all act -as if they were angels. the impenetrable as everyday. the poet. The reader. freedom. rather than us no further4 we penetrate the mystery only to the degree that we recogni>e it in the everyday world. the ecstatic. imagery of these poets of the social+ democratic associations7 Their gradus ad parnassum+ about the hashish trance.. <ot to mention that most terrible drug"ourselves"which we ta. as the profane illumination of thin. surrealistic. These are mere images. For histrionic or fanatical stress on the mysterious side of the mysterious ta. will not teach us half as much about reading 1which is an eminently telepathic process2. $nd the stoc. by virtue of a dialectical optic that perceives the everyday as impenetrable. have they bound revolt to revolution7 3ow are we to imagine an e/istence oriented solely toward %oulevard %onne+< is enmeshed in a number of pernicious romantic prejudices. wealth.s and enterprises. phantasmagoric gifts and phenomena presupposes a dialectical intertwinement to which a romantic turn of mind is impervious. en etat de surprise. the call of the 1which is eminently narcotic2. For them it is not enough that. $ny serious e/ploration of occult. $ very different air is breathed in the <aville essay that ma. are types of illuminati just as much as the opium eater. and everyone lives -as if he were free. Well. The socialist sees that -finer future of our children and grandchildren. Gf angels."in other words. $nd the most passionate investigation of the hashish trance will not teach us half as much about thin.. This it may call its most particular tas. $nd more profane. as the profane illumination of reading about telepathic phenomena.. The aesthetic of the painter.of revolution7 In short. This component is identical with the not a trace. For what is the programme of the bourgeois parties7 $ bad poem on springtime. for e/ample. as we . of art as the reaction of one surprised.

in a word. in all cases where an action puts forth its own image and e/ists. Trots. $ragon5s last boo. because it can no longer be performed contemplatively. */tension# nowhere do these two"metaphor and image"collide so drastically and so irreconcilably as in politics. where nearness loo. $nd the physis that is being organi>ed for it in technology can. even at the e/pense of his artistic activity. where the -best room.. with dialectical justice. $nd unlimited trust only in I. precisely after such dialectical annihilation"this will still be a sphere of images and. too. The collective is a body. absorbing and consuming it. <evertheless"indeed. <iet>sche. in invective. the individual. what ne/t7 3ere due weight must be given to the insight that in the )raite du style.evolution-that such artists would only emerge from a victorious revolution. There is a residue. cannot lead without rupture to anthropological materialism. in which political materialism and physical nature share the inner man. the long+sought image sphere is opened. If it is the double tas. is missing"the sphere. Surrealism has come ever closer to the 6ommunist answer. mistrust in the fate of freedom. more concretely. a happy insight into 0uestions of style that needs e/tending. but three times mistrust in all reconciliation# between classes. thin. can no longer be measured out by contemplation. of bodies. or whatever else we wish to throw to them. be an essential part of his new function7 The jo. mistrust in the fate of *uropean humanity. For it must in the end be admitted# metaphysical materialism.e contact with the proletarian masses. Farben and the peaceful perfection of the air force. re0uired in distinction between metaphor and image. so that no limb remains unrent. $bsolutely. and artists. and calling for proletarian poets. the world of universal and integral actualities. too. at important points in this sphere of imagery. of the revolutionary intelligentsia to overthrow the intellectual predominance of the bourgeoisie and to ma. Indeed. In reality it is far less a matter of ma.e.ers.politics to morality and cannot be glossed over. For in the the artist of bourgeois origin into a master of -proletarian art. To counter this. between individuals. @istrust in the fate of literature. however. through all its political and factual reality. $nd yet this has hindered hardly anybody from approaching it again and again as if it could. and earlier of he tells are the better for it.y had to point out"as early as %iterature and . and (imbaud. %ut what now. as is attested by the e/perience of the Surrealists. in misunderstanding. only be produced in that image sphere to which profane illumination initiates us. $nd that means pessimism all along the line. Georg %uchner. For to organi>e pessimism means nothing other than to e/pel moral metaphor from politics and to discover in political action a sphere reserved one hundred percent for images. might not perhaps the interruption of his -artistic career. of the brand of =ogt and %u. Gnly when in technology . G. This image sphere. the psyche. $nd he tells them better. than of deploying him.harin. the intelligentsia has failed almost entirely in the second part of this tas. between nations.s with its own eyes.

has reality transcended itself to the e/tent demanded by the *ommunist !anifesto. the play of human features for the face of an alarm cloc.enjamin.body and image so interpenetrate that all revolutionary tension becomes bodily collective innervation. and all the bodily innervations of the collective become revolutionary discharge. only the Surrealists have understood its present commands. /010 . For the moment. to a man. that in each minute rings for si/ty seconds. alter . They e/change.