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Translated by Howard Eiland and Kevin Mclaughlin

PREPA RED ON TIlE BASIS OF TIlE GERMAN VOLUME EDITED BY ROLF TIEDEMANN

THE BELKNA P PRESS OF HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS


CAMBRIIlGE, MASSACHUSETTS, AND LO NDO N, ENGLAND 1999

C O N TEN TS

Copyright 0 1999 by the Praidcnt and FdIows oJ HlJ"\IWd CoIkgl: All righu rcscrvro Printed in the Uniled SCites of America
Thi" work iJ a lr.lIUlation of Walta Benjamin, Dtu PaJ.Sagt'n.WtTA:, edited by RolfTICdauann, copyright o 1982 by Suhrbmp \Ulag; volume 5 of w.aJta" Benjamin. Guammdu Sdtrijtnt, pttpan:d with the coopention ofTheodor W. AdQmo and Gcnhom Scholan, alitcd by Rolf Tw:douann and Hermann SchwqlpenhiU5Cl". wpyrigI:u 0 1972, 1974, 1977, 1982, 1985, 1989 by Subrkamp Verlag. "Diakctia 11.1 a ~till.ft by RQlfTlCdauann. wall fint publilhed in EngIiID by MITPr-eu. copyright 0 1988 bytbe Mauach.usetu Institute ofTcchnology.
Publicatioo of this book has been 5Upponed by a grant from tht- National Endowment for the Humani ties, all indepcndcnt fcdcral agalC).
Coo,.-c- photo: Wailer lkJ~amin, ca.. 1932. PhOtographer unknown. Courtesy of the Thcodor w: Adorno Arch.iv, Frankfurt am Main.

Translators' For eword

'"
3 14
27

Exposes "Paris, the Capital or the Nineteenth Century" (1935)


"Paris, Capital or the Nineteenth Century" (1939)

Convolutes
Overview

29
827

Firs1l Sketches Early Or af18


"Arcades" "The Arcades or Paris" "The Ring or Saturn"

FronliJpiccc: Pam~JOtIITroy, 1845-1847. Photographer unknQ....n. Courtuy MUJ~ Camavalct, Paris. Photo copyright C PhOlotheque des MusCa dt b. V.ue o:k Paris.

Vignette.: pages i, 1, $25, 891. 1074. [m liml Frru>s d'Archilecture: pa~ 21, Hans Mcyu-Vedcn: pagt: 869, Robert DoUna.u.
Library of Congress C3taloging.inPublic:a.oon Data
~amin,

871 873 885

Waiter, 1892-1940. [Pauagcn-\lkrk. English] l1w: an:ada ptqca I Walter Benjamin: lraluiated by How:W Eiland and Kvin McLaughlin: p~ on the ~is of the Germa.n m lume edited 1:.)' RolfTl<!:dcmann. p. 011. Ind udC:l inde.x. ISBN 0~74-{)432&X (alk. paper) I. liedernann. Rolf. II. Tlll~ PT2603.E455 1>'33513 1999 944' .361081--dc2 1 99-27615

99201 75

Ad d end a
Expose of 1935, Early Version Materials ror the Expose or 1935 Materials ror "Arcades"

893 899 919

,J

Designw by Gwc:n Nefsky Frunkfcldt

"Dialectics at a Standstill," by RolfTtcdemarut "The Story of O ld Benjamin," by Lisa Ftttko Translators' Notes G uide to Names and TemlS lndCJt

929
946 955 1016 lOSS

nIustrations

Shops in the Passage Vero-Dodat


Class roof and iron girders, Passage Vivienne The Passage des Panoramas

34 35 36 47 49 50 59 65 67 134 159 164

A page of Benjamin's manuscript from Convolute N

457 491 529 534 680 682 683


717

A gallery of the PaIais-Royal


A panorama under construction

A branch of La BellcJardinierc in Marseilles


TIle Passage de l'Opera, 1822-1823

A diorama on the Rue de Bondy


Self-portrait by Nadar

Strtet scene in from of the Passage des Panoramas


Au Bon Marchi: department ston: in Paris

Nadar in his balloon, by Honore Dawnier

17It Origin

ofPainting

I.e Pont deJ ploniteJ, by Grandville


Fashionable courtesans wearing crinolines, by Honore Daumier Tools used by Haussmann's workers Interior of the Crystal Palace, London

Rut 7'mnmonain, It 15 avril 1834, by Hanori Dawruer


Honore Dawnier, by Nadar

742 747
~750

Victor Hugo, by Eticlme Catjat


L'Artiste et {'amateur dll dix-neu uieme J;e& L'Homm e de I'arl danJ l 'nnbaTTaJ lk Jon m/Ii"

La Ca.sJt-ti ft-omanit, ou La Fureur du jollr


The Paris Stock Exchange, mid-nineteenth century
The Palai.s de I'lndusttlc at the world exhibition o f 1855

751 752 783


792

165 166 169 185 229 232 242 41 3 433


Alexandre Dumas ~rc: , by Nadar

I.e Triomphr du knllid()Jcope, ali I.e tombeau dujeu (hinou

L'Efrangomanie blamie,

0 11

D 'Em Franfilu if n 'y a pa.s d '~nl

Exterior of the Crystal Palace, London


C h arles Baudelaire, by Nadar The Pom-Neuf, by Charles Meryon Theophile Gautier, by Nadar The scwcrs of Paris, by Nadar

Actu(J/iti . a caricature of th e painter Gustave Couroet


A barricade o f the Paris Commu ne

794 813 888 889


927

The Fourierut missionary J eanJoumet, by Nadar


Walter Benjamin consulting the Grand DictiormoiT ( univuJeI Walter Ikojamin at the: card cataJogue of the Bibliothtquc Nationale TIle Passage Choiseul

A Paris onmibus, by Honore Oaumier

Translators' Foreword

he materials assembled in Volume 5 of Walter Benjamin's Gesammelle &hrjflen, under the: tide Dill PtUJagen-W "* (first published in 1982), repre-

sent research that Benjamin carried out, over a period of thirteen years, on

subject of the Paris arcades-les pa.ssagt.s-which he considered the most imponant architectural form of the nineteenth century, and which he linked with

a number of phenomena characteristic of that century's major and minOT preoccupations. A glance at the overview preceding the "Convolutes" at the center of the work reveals the range of these phenomena, which extend from the litaary and philosophical to the political, economic, and teclmological, with all sOrtS of

intennediate rdations. Benjamin's intention &om the first, it would seem, was to grasp such diverse material under the general category of Urgtschichtt; signifying the "primaJ history" of the nineteenth cenrury. 1bis was something that could be realized only indirectly, through "cunning": it was not the great men and celebrated ev(~ts ofD'aditional historiography but rather the "refuse" and "detritus" of history, the half-concea1ed, variegated traces of the daily life of "the collective," that ''VaS to be the object of study, and with the aid of methods more akin-above all, in their dependence on dwtcc:-to the methods of the nineteenth-cenrury collector of antiquities and cwiosities, or indeed to the methods of the nineteenth-ttntury ragpicker, than to those of the modem historian. Not concepcu.aJ analysis but something like dream interpretation was the model. The nineteenth century was the collective dream which 'We, its heirs, were obliged to reenter, as patiencly and minutely as possible, in order to follow out its rammcations and, finally, awaken from it. TIlls, at any rate, was how it looked at the outset of the project, which wore a good many faces over time. Begun in 1927 as a planned collaboration for a newspaper article on the arcades, the project had quickly burgeoned under the influence of Surrealism, a movement toward which Benjamin always maintained a pronounced ambiva lence. Before long, it was an essay he had in mind, "Pariser Passagen: Eine clialektische Feerie" (Paris Arcades: A Dialectical Fairyland), and then, a few years later, a book, Paris, die Hauptsladt ,us XIX. ]alzrhundulJ (Paris, the Capital of the Nineteenth Century). For some two-and-a-half years, at the end of the Twenties, having expressed his sense of alienation from contemporary ~ writers and his affinity with the French cu1rural milieu, Benjamin worked intermittently on reams of notes and sketches, producing one short essay, "Der

Satumring oder Etwas vom Eisenbau" (!be Ring of Saturn, or Some Remarks on Iron Construction), which is included here in the section "Early Drafts." A hiatus of about four years ensued, until. in 1934, Benjamin reswned work o n the arcades with an eye to u new and far-reaching sociological perspectives." The scope of the undertakillg, the volume of materials coUected, was assuming epic proportions, and no less epic was the manifest intenninabili~ ? f the task, which Benjamin pUJ'5ued in his usual fearless way-step by step, nsking engulfment-beneath the ornamented vaulting of the reading room of the Bibliotheque Nationa.le in Paris. Already in a lena of 1930. he refers to The AmuUs Project as "the theater of all my struggles and all m y ideas." In 1935, at the request of his coU eagues at the Institute of Socia.I Research in New York, Benjamin drew up an expose, or documentary synopsis, of the main lines of The Arcades Proj({J ; another expose, based largdy o n the first but more exclusively theoretical, was written in French, in 1939, in an attempt to interest an American sponsor. Aside from these: remarkably concentrated essays, and the brief text ,;The Ring of Saturn; the entire Arcades complex (without definitive tide, to be sure) remained in the fonn of several hundred notes and reBections of varying length, which Benjamin re~d and grouped in sheafs, or " con~lutes," according to a host of topics. Additionally, from the late Twenties on. It ~u1d appear, citations were incorporated intO these materials-passages drawn mainly from an array of nineteenth-century sources, but also from the works of key contemporaries (Marcel Proust, Paul Val~ry, Louis Aragon, Andre Breton, Georg Simme1, Emst Bloch, Siegfried Kracauer. Theodor Adorno). These proliferating individual passages, extracted from their original context like collectibles, were eventually set up to communicate amo ng themsdves, often in a rat!ter subterranean manner. The organized masses ofhistoricaJ objects-the partirular items of Benjamin's display (drafts and excerpts)- together give rise to "a world of secret affinities," and each separate article in the collection, each entry, was to constitute a "magic encyclopedia" of the epoch from which it derived. An image of that epoch. In the background of this theory of the historicaJ image, constituent of a historicaJ "mirror world," stands the idea of the monad-an idea given its most comprehensive fomlUl ation in the pages o n o rigin in the prologue to Benjamin's book on German tragic drama, Ursprung rkJ deutschen rrauerspiels (Origin of the German Thuerspid)-and back of this the doctrine of the re8ective medium, in its significance' for the object, as expounded in Benjamin's 1919 dissertation, "Der Begriff der Kunstkritik in der deutschen Romanek" (The Concept of Criticism in Genllan Romanticism). At botto m, a canon of (nonsensuous) similitude JUles the conception of the ArcaMs. Was this conception realized? In the text we have before us, is the world of secret affinities in any sense perceptible? Can o ne even speak of a "world" in the case of a literary fragment? For, since t.he publication of dIe Pa.su:gen- Werk, it has become customary to regard the text which Benjamin himself usually called the Pasjag~Ulrhl:it, Or just the PasJagen, as at best a "torso," a monumental fragment or ruin, and at worst a mere notebook, which the author supposedly intended to mine for mort' extended discursive applications (such as the carefully o utlined and possibly half-completed book on Baudelaire, which he ",,"'Orked o n from 1937 to 1939). CertainlYI the project as a whole is unfinished; Benjamin abandoned

work on it in the spring or 1940. when he was forced to Dee Paris berore the advancing Genoan army. Did he leave be1Und anything more than a large-scaJe plan o r prospecrus? No, it is argued, 17Ie Arcade; Project is just that : the blueprint for an unimaginably massive and labyrinthine arch.itecrure-a dream city, in effect. This argument is predicated on the classic distinction between research and application, FOrsr:llung and DarsJdlung (see, for example, entry N4a,5 in the "Convolutes"), a distinction which Benjamin himself invokes at times, as in a letter to Gershom Scholem of March 3, 1934, where he wonders about ways in which his research on the arcades might be put to use, or in a letter or May 3, 1936, where he tells Scholcm that not a syUable of the actual text (eigroJlichtTI 1i xt) of the Pa..uagroarb~;t exists yet. In another of his letters to Scholem of this period, he speaks of the futu re construction of a literary fonn for this text. Similar statements appear in letters to Adorno and others. Where 17re A1'CiUks Projut is conlXrned, then. we may distingui.sh between various stages of research, more or less advana:d, but then: is no question of a realized work. So runs the lament. Nevertheless, questions remain, not least as a consequence of the radicaJ starus of "study" in Benjamin's thinking (see the Kafka essay of 1934, or Convolute m of the Arcades, "Idleness"). For one thing, as we have indicated, many of the passages of reHection in the "Convolutes" section represent revisions of earlier drafts, notes, or letters. Why revise for a notebook? The fact that Benjamin also transferred masses of quotations from acrual notebooks to the manuscript of the convolutes, and the elaborate o rganization of these cited materials in that manusoipt (including the use of numerous epigraphs), might likewise bespeak a compositional principle at wo rk in the project, and not just an advanced stage of research. In fact, the montage fonn-with its philosophic play of distances, transitions, and intersections, its perperually shifting contexts and ironic juxtapositions-had become a favorite device in Benjamin's later investigations; among his major works. we have examples of this in EjnbalmsJra.ue (One-'Way Street), Ikrlitlt'r Kindh~;1 um Neunu lmhuntkrt (A Berlin Childhood around 1900). "Dba den Begriff der Geschichte" (On the Concept of History), and "Zenttalpark" (Central Park). What is d istinctive about 17u: .Arcade.; ProjecJ-in Benjamin's mind, it a1ways dwdt apan-is the working of quotations into the frame\\'Ork of montage, so much so that they eventually far o utnumber the commentaries. If we now wen: to regard this ostensible patchwork as, de facto, a determinate literary fo nn, one that has effectively constructed itself (that is, fragmented itself), like the Journaux inljmes of Baudelaire, then surely there ",,"'Ould be significant repercussions for the d irectio n and tempo of its reading, to say the leasr. TIle transcendence of the conventional book foml would go together, in this case, with the blasting apart of pragmatic historicism-grounded, as this always is, on the premise of a continuo us and homogeneous temporality. Citation and cOlmnentary m.iglu then be perceived as intersecting at a thousand different angles, setting up vibrations across the epochs of recent history, so as to effect "the cracking open of natural teleology." And all this would unfold through the medium of hints or "blinks"-a discontinuous presentation deliberately opposed to traditional modes of argument. At any rate. it seems undeniable that despite the infomlal, epistolary armounec.ments of a "book" in the works, an eigenllidufTl Buch, the resc.a.rcll project had become an end in itself.

,.

Of course, many ruders will cono.Jr with the German editor of the PaJJagrnWa-k, Rolf TIedemann, when he 3peak.s, in his essay "'Dialectics at a Standstill"

(fint published as the introduction to the German edition, and reproduced here. in trallslation). of the "oppressive chunks of quotations" filling its pages. Part of
Benjamin's purpose was to document as concretely as possible, and thus lend a < 'heightened graphicness" to, the scene of revolutionary change that was the nineteenth century. At issue was what he called the "conunodification of things." He was interested in the Wlsettling effects of incipient high capitalism on the most intimate an:as of life and work--especially as reflected in the work of an (its composition, its dissemination, its reception). In this "projection of the historical into the intimate," it was a matter not of demonsttating any straightforward cultural "decline," but rather of bringing to light an uncanny sense of crisis and of security, of crisis in security. Particularly from the perspective of the nineteenth century domestic interior, which Benjamin likens to the inside of a mollusk's shell, things were coming to seem more entirely materia] than ever and, at the same time, more spectral and estranged. In the society at large (and in Baudelaire's writing par excellence), an unflinching realism was ru1tivated alongside a rhapsodic idealism. 1bis essentially ambiguous siwation--one could call it, using the term favored by a number of the writers studied in 1ht ArwdtJ Project, "phantasmagorical"-scts the tone for Benjamin's deployment of motifs, for his recurrent topographies, his mobile cast of characters, his gallery of types. For example, these nineteenth-century types (fi1neur, collector, and gambler head the list) generally constinne figures in the middle-that is, figures residing within as weU as outside the marketplace, between the worlds of money and magicfigures on the threshold. Here, funhermore. in the wakening to crisis (crisis ~ked by habiwal complacency), was the link [0 present-day concerns. Not the least CUIUting aspeCt of this historical awakening- which is, at the same time, an awakening to myth-was the critical role assigned [0 humor, sometimes humor of an infernal kind. This was one way in which the documentary and the artistic, the sociological and the theological, were to meet head-on. To speak of awakening was to speak of the "afterlife of works," something broUght to pass through the medium of the "dialectical image." The latter is Benjamin's ceno-al tenn, in 'fht Arcades Proj td, for the historical object of interpretation: that which, undcr the divinatory gaze of the coUector, is taken up into the collecto r's own particular time and place, thereby thro'A-mg a pointed light on what has been. \-\'doomed into a present moment that seems to be walUng just fo r it- Ioactualized." as Benjamin likes to say- the moment from the past comes alive 3$ never before. In this way, the <;now" is itsdf e.:{perienced as prefomlcd in the <;then," as its distillation- thus the leading motif of "precu rsors" in the text. 'The historical object is reborn as such into a present day capable of receiving it, of suddenly "recogn.izing" it. TIlls is the famous "now of r ogniz.ability" a tai da- Erknwharluit}, which has the char.acter of a lightning fl ash. In the dusty, cluttered corridors of the arc.;\des, where street and interior a re one,.ruslOrical time is broken up into kaleidoscopic distractions and mo mcntary come-ons. myriad displays of epheme ra, thresholds fo r the passage of WlllU Gerard de Nerval (in Aurilia) calls "the ghOSts of matcrial things_" Here, at a distance from what is nonnally meant by "progress,'" is the ur-historica1, coUective redemption of lost time, of the times embedded in the spaces of things.

The German edition of the PaJJagtn ' W a-~ contains-besides the two uposb we have mentioned, the long series of convolutes that foUow, the "Erste Nonzen" (here translated as '" FIrSt Sketches") and " Friihe Entwiirfe lt ("Early Draftslt) at the end-a wealth of supplementary material relating to the genesis of 7M. AruukJ Projut. From th.is textual-critical apparatus, drawn on for the Translators' Notes, we have exttacted three additional sets of preliminary drafts and notations and tranSlated them in the Addenda; we have also reproduced the introduction by the German editor, Rolf Tiedemann, as well as an account of Benjamin's last days written by Lisa Fittko and printed in the original English at the end of the GcmWl edition. Omitted from our volume are some 100 pages of excerpts from letters to and from Benjanlin, docwnenting the growth of the project (the majority of these letters appear elsewh~ in English); a partial bibliography, compiled by TIedemann, of 850 works cited in t.he "Convolutes" ; and, finally, precise descriptions of Benjamin's manuscripts and manuscript variants (see translators' initial note to the "Convolutes"), In an effort to respect the unique constitution of these manuscripts. we have adopted Tiedemann's practice of using angle brackets to indicate editoriaJ insertions intO the texL A salient feature of the German edition of Benjamin's "Convolutes" ("Aufzcichnungen und Materialicn") is the use of two different typefaces: a larger one for his reflections in Gennan and a smaller one for his numerous citations in French and German. According to Tiedemann's ina-eduction, the larger type was used for entries containing signilicant commentary by Benjamin. (In <;FtrSt Sketches," the two differmt typefaces are used to demarcate canceled passages,) 'Tb.is typographic distinction, designed no doubt for the convenience of readers, although it is without textual basis in Benjamin's manuscript, has been maintained in the English translation. We have chosen, however, to use typefaces differing in style rather than in size, so as to avoid the hierarchical implication of the German edition (the privileging of Benjamin's reflections over his citations, and, in general, of German over French). What Benjamin seems to have conccived was a dia1ectical reIation-a formal and thematic interfusion of citation and commentary. It is an open, societary relation, as in the protocol to the imaginary world irm (itself an unacknowledged citation from Baudelaire's Paradis o.rtificitls) mentioned in the "Convolutes" atJ75,2. As for the bilingual character of the text as a whole, this has been, if not entirely e.liminated in the English-language edition, then necessarily reduced to merely the citation of the o riginal titles of Benjamin's sources. (Previously published translations of these sources have bee:n used. and duly noted! wherever possible; where two or more published translations of a passage are available, we have uied to choose the one best suited to Benjamin's context.) In most cases we have regularized the citation of year and place of book publication, as well as volume and issue number of periodicals ; bits of information, such as first names, have occasio nally been supplied in angle brackets. Otherwise. Benjamin's irregu lar if relatively scrupulous editorial practices have been preserved . A5 a further aid to ruders. the English-language edition of 1"h.t AraukJ ProjUl includes an extensive if not exhaustive "Guide to Names and Terms"; tranSlators' notes intended to help cOlllexrualize Benjamin's citations and reflections; and cross-references serving to link panicular items in the "FlI'St Sketches" and "Early Drafts" to corresponding entries in the "Convolutes."

Translation duties for this edition ~ divided a.o; follows: Kevin McLaughlin translated the Expose of 1939 and the previously untranslated French passages in ConvolUt'es A-C. F. H , K, M (second half), 0 , Q;I, and p- r. Howard Eiland tranSlated Benjanrin's German throughout and was responsible for previously untranslated material in Convolutes 0 , E, G. I,j , L. M (firslhalf) , N, P, and m. as wcll as for the Translators' Foreword.

In conclusion, a word about the tranSlation of &nuo/ut. A5 used for the grouping of the thirtysix alphabetized sections of the PasJogen manuscript, this tenn, it would seem. derives not from Benjamin himself but from his friend Adomo (this according to a communication from Rolf Tiedemann, who srudied with Adorno). It was Adamo who first sifted through the manuscript of the "Aufzeich nungen und Materialien," as TIedemann later called it, after it had been hidden away by Georges Bataille in the Bibliotheque Nationale de France during the Second \-\brld War and then retrieved and delivered to New YOrk at the end of 1947. In Germany, the term Klmvolut has a common philological application: it refers to a larger or smaller assemblage-literally, a bundle-of manuscripts or printed materials that belong together. The noun "convolute" in English means "something of a convoluted form." VW: havt: chosen it as the translation of the German term over a number of other possibilities, the most prominent being "folder," "6Ie," and "'sheaf." The problem with these more common English terms is that each carries inappropriate connotations, whether of office supplies, computerese, agriculture, or archery. "Convolute" is strange, at least on first acquaintance. but so is Benjamin's project and its principle of sectioning. Aside from its desirable closeness to the German rubric, which, we ha~ suggested. is both philologically and historically legitimated, it remains the most precise and most evocativt: term for designating the daboratdy intertwined collections of "notes and materials" that make up the central division of this most various and colorful ofBenjaminian texts.
The translators are gratefu1 to the National Endowment for the Humanities for a rwo-year grant in support of the translation, and to the Dean of the Graduate School of Brown University, Peder Estrop, for a generous pUblication subvention. Special thanks are due Michad w.Jennings for checking the entire manu' script of the translation and making many valuable suggestions. "*- are Cunher indebted [0 Wmfried Menninghaus and Susan Bernstein for reading portions of the manuscript and offering excdlent advice. Rolf Tiedemann kindly and promptly answered our inquiries concerning specific problems. The revic\\"t.rs enlisted by Harvard University Press to evaluate the tranSlation also provided much hdp with some of the more difficult passages. Other scholars who gener ously provided bibliographic information are named in the relevant Translators' Notes. Our work has grearJy bene..6ted at the end from the resourceful. vigilant editing of Maria Ascher and at every stage from the foresight and discerning judgment of Lindsay Waters.

Paris, the Capital of the Nineteenth Century


<Expose of 1935>
The waters ilK blue, the plants pink; the evening is SWttt to look on; One goes for a walk; the granMJ damts go for a w-.uk; bdtind

them stroU the !Jenus dames.


-Nguyen Tmng Hiep, Parir, tspitak de fa Fronct; RtctleiJ de (Hanoi. 1897), poem 2S
UtrS

I. Fo urier, or the Arcades


The magic columns of these palaces
Show to lhe amateur on all sides, In the objcc15 their porticos display, That industry is the rival of the ans.
- N'IlIwaux iabka,," de /tuiJ (Paris, 1828). vol. 1, p. Xl

Most of the Paris arcades come into being in the decade and a half after 1822. The firSt condition for their emergence is the boom in the: textile trade. Magasiru d~ nouvcautiJ, the first establishments to keep large stocks of merchandise on the premises, make their appearance, I They are the forerunners of department stores. This was the period of wbich Balzac wrote: "TIle grt:at poem of display chants its stanzas of color from the Church of the Madeleine to the Porte SaintOm.is." 1 The arcades art a center of commerce in luxury items. In fitting them out, an enters lhe service of the merchant. Contemporaries never tire of admiring them, and for a long time they remain a drawing point for foreigners. An flltHira ted Guide 10 Paris says: "These arcades, a recent invention of indusO"ial luxury, are glass-roofed, marble-panded corridors extending through whole blocks of buildings, whose owners have joined to~ther for sudl enterprues. Lining both sides of these corridors, which gel their light from above, are the most elegant shops, 50 that the jJaJsagr is a city, a world in miniature." The arcades are the scene of the first gas lighting_ The second condition fOT the emergence of the arcades is the beginning of iron construction. TIle Empire saw in this technology a CQmribution to the revival of

a:rc.hitecrure in the classical Greek sense. The architectural theorist Boetticher expresses the general view of the matter when he says that. "with regard to the art fonDS of the new system, the fonnal principle of the Hellenic mode" must com e to prevail.! Empire is the style of revolutionary terrorism, for whicll the state is an end in itself. just as Napoleon failed to understand the functional nature of the state as an instrument of domination by the bourgeois class, so the architects of his time failed to understand the functional nature of iron, with which the consauctive principle begins its domination of architecrure. These architc:Ct5 design supports resembling Pompeian columns, and factories that imi tate residential houses, just as later the first railroad stations will be modeled on chalets. "Construction plays the role of the subconscious.''' Nevertheless, the concept of engineer, which dates from the revolutionary wars, starts to gain ground, and the rivalry begins between builder and decorator. &01(' Polytechnique and Ecole des Beaux-Arts. For the first time in the history of architecture, an artificial building material appt'ars : iron. It undergoes an evolution whos(' tempo will accc:Jerate in the course of the century. development enters a decisive new phase when it becomes clear that the locomotive-on wruch cxpt'riments havt: been conducted since the end of the 1820s-i5 compatible only with iron tracks. The rail becomes the first prefabricated iron component, the precursor of the girder. Iron is avoided in hom e construction but used in arcades, exhibition halls, train stations-buildings that serve transitory purposes. At the same time, the range of architectural applications for glass expands, although the social prerequisites for its widened application as building material will come to the fore o nly a hundred years later. In Scheerban's Glasarchitdtur (1914), it still appears in the context of utopia.J

nus

trace in a thousand configurations of life, from enduring edifices to passing fashions. These relations are discernible in the utopia conceived by Fourier. Its secret cue is the advent of machines. But this fact is not directly expressed in the Fouricrist Iiterarure, which takes, as its point of departure, the amorality of the business wo rld and the fals(' morality enlisted in its service. The phalanstery is designed to restore human beings to re1ationsrups in wruch morality becomes superfluous. The highly complicated organization of the phalanstery ap~ as machinery. The meshing of the passions, the intricate collaboration of paJSion.J mialni.fleJ with the jm.JJiml cahalute, is a primitivt: contrivance formed-on analogy with the machine-from materials of psychology. This mechanism made of men produces the land of milk and honey, the primeval wish symbol that Fourier's utopia has 6lled ,,,tith new life. In the arcades, Fourier saw the architectural canon of the phalanstery. Their reactionary metamorphosis with him is characteristic: whereas they o riginally serve commercial ends, they become, for him, places of habitation. The phaJan Stery becomes a city of arcades. Fourier establishes, in the Empire's auster(' world of forms. the colorfu1 idyll of Biedenneier. Its brilliance persists, however faded , up through Zola, who takes up Fourier's ideas in his book. Trauail, just as he bids fareweU to the arcades in his 1htrtJe Raquin.-Marx came to the defense of Fourier in his critique of Carl Grun, emphasizing the fonner 's "colossal conception of man."l H e also directed attention to FOurier's humor. In fact, jean Paul, in his "Levana," is as closely allied to Fourier the pedagogue as Scheerban, in his GiaJ.s Architecture, is to Fourier the utopian.-

U. Daguerre. or the Panoramaa


Each epoch drearw the one to foU ow.
-Michdct, ~AYCnir! AYCnir! '"

Sun. look. out for youndf!

-A.J. WICItt, DnwreJ littiraim (Paris, 187()), p. 374


j ust as architecture, with the first appt'arance of iron construction, begins to outgrow an, so does painting, in its tum, with the first appearance of the panoramas. The high point in the diffusion of panoramas coincides with the introduC-I tion of arcades. One sought tirelessly, through tedmical devices. to make panoramas the scenes of a pt'rfect imitation of nature. An attempt was made to reproduce the changing daylight in the landscape, lhe rising of the moon, the m sh of waterfalls. ~acqu es-Louis) David counsels his pupils to draw from nature as it is shown in panoramas. In their attempt to produce deceptively lifelike changes in represented nature, the panoramas prepare: the way not only fo r pho tography but for (silent> 6lm and sound 61m. Contemporary with the panoramas is a panoramic literature. Le Liure deJ crnt-et-un [The Book of a I-Iundred-and-Onel, UJ Frall(au peillu par eux-mimtJ [TIle French Painted by Themselves], LL Diabie a Paro rnle Devil in Paris], and La Grande Ville [TIle Big City1 belong to this. l bese book3 prepare the belletristic

~rrc::spo~ding to the fonn of the new means of production, which in the beginnmg L'l still ruled by the form of the old (Marx), are images in the collective ~ns~ousnes~ in which the old and the new interpenetrate. These images are :ro>h urta.ges; m them the collective seeks both to lM:rcome and to transfigure the
unmatunty of the social product and the inade(luacies in the sociaJ organizatio n of production. At the same time, what emerges in these wish images is the resolute effon to distance oneself from all that is antiquated- which includes, however, the recent past. These tendencies deflect the imagination (which is given impetus by the new) back upon the prim al past. In the cUu.m in which each epoch entertains images of its successor, the latter appears wedded to clements of primal history f Urgm n;(hie->-mat is, to elenlents of a classless society. And the experiences of such a society-as stored in the unconscious of the collectiveengender, through interpenetration with what is new, the utopia that has left Its

collaboration for which Girardin, in the 18305, will create a home in the feuilleton. They consist of individuaJ sketches, whose anecdotal fonn cOlTesponcis to the panoramas' plastically arranged forrground, and whose infonnational ~ corresponds to their painted backgrowld. l'b.i! literature is also socially panoramic. For the last time, the worker appears, isolated from his class, as pan of the ~tting in an idyll. Announcing an upheavaJ in the relation of an to technology, panoramas are at the same time an expression of a new attitude toward life. The city dwci1er, who~ political supremacy over the provinces is demODSD'ated many times in the course of the century, attempts to bring the countryside into town. In panoramas, the city opens out to landscape-as it will do later, in subtler fashion , for the Bineurs. Oaguerre is a student of the panorama painter PrevoSt, whose establishment is located in the Passage des Panoramas. Description of the panoramas of Prevost and Daguerre. 1n 1839 Daguerre's panorama bums down. In the same year. he announces the invention of the daguerreotype. (Fran~ois) Arago presents photography in a speech to the National Assembly. He assigns it a place in the history of technology and prophesies its scientific applications. On the other side, artists begin to debate its artistic value. Photography leads to the extinction of the great profession of portrait miniaturist. This happens not just for economic reasons. The early photograph was artistically superior to the miniature portrait, The technical grounds for this advantage lie in the long exposure. time, which requires of a subject the highest concentration; the social grounds for it lie in the fact that the lirst photographCJ3 belonged to the avant-garde, from which most of their clientele came. Nadar's superiority to his colleagues is shown by his attempt to take photographs in the Paris sewer system: for the first time, discoveries were demanded of the lens. Its importance becomes still greater as. in view of the new technological and social rrality, the subjective strain in pictorial and graphic information is called into question. The world exhibition of 1855 offers for the firSt time a special display called "Photography." In the same year. Wiertz publishes his great article on photogra phy, in which be defines its task as the philosophical enlightenment of painting.9 llis "enlightenment" is undCJ3tood. as his own paintings show, in a political sense. Wienz can be characterized as the first to demand, if not actually foresee, the use of photographic montage for political agitation. With the increasing \ scope of communications and transport, the infonnationa1 value of painting di minishes. In reaction to photography, painting begins to stress the elements of color in the picrure. By the time Impressionism yields to Cubism, painting has an.ted for itself a broader domain into which, for the time being, photography cannot follow. For its pare, phOlography greatly extends the spherr of comrnodjry I exchange, from mid-century onward, by ftooding the market ....ith countless images of figures , landscapes, and eventS which had previously been available either not at all or only as pictures fo r individual customers. To increase turnover, I it renewed its subject matter through modish variations in camera techniqueinnovatiuns that will detemu.ne the subsequent history of phOlography.

m. Grandville, or the World Exbibiliom


~. when all the world from Paris to China Pays heed to your doctrine, 0 divine SaiJu-5imon.

The gloriow Colden Age will be reborn, RiVl!fS will B ow with chocolate and tea, Sheq> roasted whole will frisk on the: plain. And !3utttd pike will swim ill the: Sc:ioe. FricasSttd spinach will grow on the growld. Garnished with crushed Cried croutons; The treC5 will bring forth apple compotes, And fanners will harvest boots and coats. It will snow~, it will rain chickens, And ducks cooked with turnips will fall from the sky.
-LangL! and Vanduburth, LAuiJ-Bronu et" Soint-Simonial (Tbd.tfC du Palais-Royal, February 27, 1832)10
I

\r\brld exlubitions are places of pilgrimage to the commodity fetish. "Europe is off to view the merchandise," say:. Taine in 1855. II The world exhibitions art: preceded by national exhibitions of indusay, the first of which takes place on the Champ de Mars in 1798. It arises from the wisb "to entertain the working classes, and it becomes for them a festival of emancipation." I! The worker occupies the forrground, as rustomer. The framework of the entertainment indusay has not yet taken shape j the popular festivaJ provides this. Chaptal's speech on indusay opens the 1798 exhibition.-The Saint-Simonians, who envision the indusaialization of the earth, take up the idea of world exhibitions. Chevalier, the first authority in the new field, is a student of Enfantin and editor of the Saint Simonian newspaper Globe. The Saint-Simonians anticipated the development of the global economy, but not the class struggle. Next [0 their active participa tion in industrial and commercial enterprises around the middle of the century stands their helplessness on all questions concerning the proletariat. \r\brld exhibitions glorify the exchange value of the commodity. They create a framework in which its use value rrcedes intO the background. They open a phantasmagoria which a person enters in order to be distracted. The entertainment industry makes this easier by elevating the person to the level of the commodity. H e sUITt.nders to its manipulations while enjoying his alienation from himself and others.- The enthronement of the commodjty, with its luster of distraetion, is the secret theme of Grandville's an. 1bis is consistent with the split between utopian and cynical dements in his work. Its ingenuity in representing inanimate objects corresponds l O what Marx calls the "theological niceties" of the commodity.'3They are manifest clearly in the spicia'jt~a category of goods which appears at this time in the luxuries industry. Under Grandvill~' 5 pencil, the whole of natut(' is transfonned into specialties. He presents them U1 the same spirit in which the advertisement (the term ridame also originates at this point) begins to present its articles. He ends in madness.

Fashion: ~Madam Deathl Madam Deathl"


-Lcopardi. "Dialogue- between F:uhion and Ocath~1I

\\brld exhibitions propagate the universe of commodities. Grandville's fantasies confer a commodity character on the universe. They modemize it. Saturn's ring becomes a castiron balcony o n which the inhabitants of Saturn take the evening air. The: literary counterpart to this graphic utopia is found in the books of the Fourierlst naturalist To ussend . -Fashion prescribes the ritual according to which the commodity fetish demands to be worshipped. Grandville extends the authority of fashion to objects of everyday use, as well as to the cosmos. In taking it to an extreme, he reveals its nature. Fashion stands in opposition to the organic. It couples the living body to the inorganic world_To the living, it defends the rights of the corpse. The fetishism that succumbs to the sex appeal of the inorganic is its vital nerve. The cult of the commodity presses such fetishism into its savice. For the Paris world exhibition of 1867, Victor Hugo issues a manifesto: "To the Peoples of Europe," Earlier. and more unequivocally, their interests had been championed by dc:legations of French workers, of which the first had been sent to the London world exhibition of 1851 and the second, numbering 750 ddegates, to that of 1862. The latter delegation was of indirea importance for Marx's founding of the lntc:mational W:>rkingmen's Association.-The phantasmagoria of capitalist culture attains its most radiant unfolding in the world exhibition of 1867. The Second Empire is at the height of its power. Paris is acknowledged as the capital of luxury and fashion. Offenbach sets the rhythm of Parisian life. The operetta is the ironic utopia of an enduring reign of capital.

impinge on social ones. In th( formation of his private environment, both arc: kept o ut. From this arise the phantasmagorias of the interior-which. for the private man, represents the universe. In the interio r, he brings together the far away and the long ago. His living room is a box in the theater of the world. Excursus on Jugendstil. The shattering of the interior occurs via Jugc:ndstil arOlUld the tum of the century. Of course, according to its own ideology, the Jugendsri1 movement seems to bring with it the c0n:'ummation the. in~~r. Tbe tranSfiguration of the solitary soul appears to be Its goal. indiVIdualism IS Its theory. With van de Vc:lde, the hou~ becomes an expression of the personality. Ornament is to this house what the signa~ is to a painting. But the real meaning of Jugendstil is not expressed in this ideology. It represents the last attempted sortie of an art besieged in its ivory tower by technology. 'Ibis attempt mobilizes all the reserves of inwardness. They find their expression in the mediumistic language of the line, in the Bower as symbol of a naked vegetal nature confronted by the technologically anned world. The new elements of iron con strucUon-girder forms-preoccupyJugc:ndstil. In o rnament, it endeavors to win back these fo nns for art. Concrete presents it with new possibilities for plastie creation in architecture. Around this time, the real gravitational center of living space shifts to the office. The itTeal center makes its place in the home. The consequences ofJugendstil are depicted in Ibsen 's M(J.It~ Buildn: the attempt by the individual, on the strength of his inwardness, to vie with technology leads to his downfall.

.0:

I belie~ ... in my 5oul: the TIUng.


-UO I1 Dwbcl, CkwrfJ (Paris. 1929), p. 193

IV. Louis PhiUppe, or the Interior


'Ibe bead ... On m ( night tabk, lik( a ranunculu5,
R CSLS .

- Baudelaire:. ~ Un( Martyn:~l~

Under Louis Philippe, the private individual makes his enttance on the stage of history. 111e expansion of the democratic apparatus through a new c:lectorallaw coincides with the parliamentary conuptio n organized by Guizat. Under cover of this cOmJption. the ruling class makes history ; that is, it pursues its affairs. It funhers railway construction in o rder to improve its stock holdings. It promotes the reign of Louis Philippe as that of the private individual manabring his affairs. With theJuly Revolution, the bourgeoisie realized the goals of 1789 (Marx). For the private individual, the place of dwelling is for the first time opposed to the place of work. The fornler constinnes itself as the interior. Its complement is the office. The private individual, who in the office has to deal with realiry, needs the do mestic interior to sustain him in his illusions. 'This necessity is all the more pressing since he bas no intention of allowing his commercial consil1erations to

The interior is the asylum of an. The: collector is the true resident of the interior. He makes his concern the transfiguration of things. To him falls the Sisyphean task of divesting things of their commodity character by taking possession of them. But he bestows on them only COJUlOtsseur value. rather than use value. The collector d reams his way not only into a distant o r bygone 'world but also into a belter one-one in which, to be sure, human beings are no better provided with what they need than in the c:vc:ryday world. but in which things are freed from the drudgery of being useful . l 'b e interior is not just the universe but also the ctW of the private individual. To dwell means to leave traces. In the interior, these are accentuated. Coverlets and antimacassars, cases and containers arc: devised in abundance; in these, the traces of the most o rdinary objects of use are imprinted. In just the same way, the traces of the inhabitant are inlprinted in the interior. Enter the detective story, which pursues these tracc:s. Fbc:, ill his "Philosophy of Fumirure" as weU as in his detective fiction, shows himself to be the first physiognomist of the domestic interio r. The criminals in early detective novc:ls are neither gentlemen nor apaches, but private cititens of the middle class.

V. Baudelaire. or the Streets of Paris


Everything becomes an allegory for me.
- Ballde:birc. "Le Cygne""

I travel in order to get to Know my geography.


- Not<: ofa madman, ill Marcel RCja, L:Arl dUe fL,.foU 5 (Pam. 1907), p. 13 1

Baudelaitt's genius, which is nourished On melancholy, is an allegorical geniu~. For the first time, VI1ith Baudelaire, Paris becomes the subject of lyric poetry. TIlls poetry is no hynm to the homeland; rather, the gaze of the allegorist, as it falls on the city, is the gaze of the alienated man. It is the gaze of ~e Saneur, ,;,hose way of life still conceals behind a mitigating nimbus the conung desolatlOn of the big-city dweller. The flMeur stillstands on the threshold~f ~e metropolis as of the middle class. Neither has him in its power yet. In neIther 15 he at home. He seeks refuge in the crowd. Early contributions to a physiognomi~ of the ~~d are found in Engels and Poe. The crowd is me veil through which the familiar city beckons to the ftineur as phantasmagoria-now a landscape, now a. ~m. Both become elements of the department store, which makes use of Sanene Itself to sell goods. The department store is the last promenade for the Si\n~ur. In the 8ineur, the intelligentsia sets foot in the marketpJace-ostCIlSlbly to look around but in truth to find a buyer. In this intennediate stage, in which it still has patrons' but is already beginning to familiarize itsdf VI1ith the markel, it appears as the boMme. To the uncertainty of its economic position corresponds the uncertainty of its political function. The latter is manifest ~O~l . ~early in the ~r~fe~ siona! conspirators, who all belong to the boMme. Therr uubal field of aCtlVl~ 15 the army; later it becomes the petty bourgeoisie, occasio~y th~ proletanat. Nevertheless, this group views the true leaders of the proletanat as Its advers.aT)" The Communist Manifesto brings their political existence to an end. Baudelarre's poetry draws its strength from the rebellious pathos of this class. H e sides with the asocial. He realizes his only sexual communion with a whore.

111e last poem of us Fleurs du mal: ;'Le VOyage." "Death, old admiral, up anchor now." 111e last journey of the Baneur; death. Its destination: the new. "Deep in the Unknown to find the IIroJ!", 18 Newness is a quality indepcndelll of the use value of the commodity. It is the origin of the illusory appearance that belongs inalienably to images produced by the collcctive unconscious. It is the quintessence of that false consciousness whose indefatigable agent is fashion. Tbis semblance of the new is reflected, like one mirror in another, in the semblance of the ever recurrent. 11le product of this reflcction is the phantasmagoria of "cu1rural history," in which the bourgcoisie enjoys its false consciousness to the full. The art that begillS to doubt its task and ceases to be "inseparable from ( .. . ) utility" (Baudelaire)!? must make novelty into its highest value. The arbiter nOlJarum mum for such an art becomes the snob. He is to art what the dandy is to fashion.-Just as in the seventeenth century it is allegory that becomes the canon of dialectical images, in the nineteenth century it is novdty. Newspapers Bourish, along VI1ith magasins de 'IOUfJI!a utis. The press organizes the market in spiritual values, in which at first there is a boom. Nonconformists rebd against consigning art to the marketplace. They rally round the banner of lart pour Jart. From this watchword derives the conception of the. "total work of art"-the Gesollltkuru/werk-which would seal art off from the developments of technology. The solemn rite with which it is celebrated is the pendant to the distraction that transfigures the commodity. Both abstract from the social existence of human beings. Bauddaire succumbs to the rage for Wagner.

VI. HOU,8smann , or the Barricades


I venerate the Beautiful, the Good, and all things great; Beautiful nature, on which great art restsHow it enchants the ear and challUS the eye! Ilovc: spring in blossom: women and roses.
- Baron H3USS mann, Crmfim'()fI d 'IUI IWII dnJ(1l1t vieux1i!

Easy the way that leads into Avemw.

- vuWI. 71re Ameid!l


It is the unique provision of Baudelaire's poetry that the image o.f the ,,:oman an.d the image of death intenningle in a third: that of Paris . The Paris o~his poems IS a sunken city, and more submarine than subterranean. The chthoruc e1.ements of the city-its topographic formations , the old abandoned bed of the Seme-have evi.dendy found in him a m old. Decisive for Bauddaitt in the "death-frau,ght idyll" of the city, however, is a social, a modem substratc. The. modern IS a principal aC(%nt of his poetry. As spl~en.' it fracru~, the i~eal ("~pleen et ideal"1' But precisely the modern, la mO lunuti, tS always atmg prunal history. H ere, ~ occurs through the ambiguity peculiar to the social relations and products of this epoch. Ambiguity is the manifest imaging of dialectic, the law of dialectics at a standstill, ibis standstill is utopia and the dialectical image. therefore, dream image. Such an image is afforded by the conunodity per se: as fetish. Such an image is presented by the arcades, which are house no less th~ street. Such an image is the prostitute-seller and sold in one.

The Bowery realm of decorations, The chann of landscape, of archilecture, And all the effect of scenery rest Solely on the law of pers pective.
- Fnru BOhle, T1i(Qla Qlltdli.,mlt5 (1.'lu nich), p. 74

HaussmaJUl'S ideal in city planning consisted of long perspectives down broad strnight thoroughfares. Such an ideal corresponds to the tendency- common in the nineteenth century-to ennoble technological llecc=ssities uu'Ough artistic ends. The institutions of the bourgeoisie's worldly and spiritual dominance were to find their apouleosis lviu:ti.ll Ule fram ework of the boulevards. Before their completion, boulevards were draped across with canvas and unveiled like monu'

mcnts.- Haussmann's acovlty is linked to Napoleonic imperialism. Louis Napoleon promotes investment capital, and Paris experiences a rash of specula tion. Trading on the stock exchange displaces the forms of gambling handed down from feudal society. The phantasmagorias of space to which the Oaneur devotes himself lind a counterpan in the phantasmago rias of time to which the gambler is addicted. Gambling convens rime into a narcotic. < Paul> Lafargue explains gambling as an imitation in miniature of the mysteries of economic Buctuation.~l The expropriations carried out under Haussmann call fonh a wave of fraudulent speculation. The rulings of the Coun of Cassation, which are inspired by the bourgeois and Orleanist opposition, increase the financial risks of Haussmannization, Haussmann tries to shore up his dictatorship by placing Paris under an emergency regime. In 1864, in a speech before the NationaJ Assembly, he vents his hatTed of the rootless urban population, which keeps inCKaSing as a result of his projects. Rising rents drive the proletariat into the suburbs. The quarh'm of Paris in this way lose their distinctive physiognomy. The "red bdt" forms . Haussmann gave himself the title of "demolition artist," artUie dimofisseur. He viewed his work as a calling, and emphasizes this in his memoirs. Meanwhile he estranges the Parisians from their city. They no longer feel at home there, and stan to become conscious of the inhuman character of the metropolis. Maxime Du Camp's monumental work Paris owes its inception to this consciousness.~ The JirimituleJ d 'uTl HauJS1nmmiJi give it the form of a biblica1lament.:l3 The true goal of Haussmann's projects was to secure the city against civil war. H e wanted to make the erection of banicades in Paris impossible for all rime. With the same end in mind, Louis Philippe had already introduced wooden paving. Nonethdess, banicades played a role in the February Revolution. Engels studies the tactics of barricade fighting. zl Haussmann seeks to neutralize these tactics on two fronts. Widening the stteets is designed [Q make the erection of barricades impossible, and new streets are to futnish the shortest route between tlle barracks and the wo rkers' districts. Contemporaries christen the operation "strategic embellishment."

hand in hand with the bourgeoisie. illusion dominates the period 183 11871 , from the Lyons uprisi.ng to the Commune. The bourgeoisic never shared in this error. Its battle against the social rights of the proletaria t dates back to the great Revolution, and converges widl the philanthropic movement that gives it cover and that is in its heyday under Napoleon III. Under his reign, this movement's monumental work appears: Le Play's Ouun'crJ europrem [European WOrkc,rsj .u Side by side with the concealed position of philanthropy, the bourgeoisie has always maintained openly the position of class warfare.2l' As early as 1831 , in the Journal dtJ dibaiJ, it acknowledges that "every manufacrurer lives in his factory like a plantation owner among his slaves." If it is the misfortune of the workers' rebellions of old that no theory of revolution directs their course it is also this absence of theory that. from another perspective, makes possible 'their spontaneous energy and the enthusiasm with which they set about establishing a new society. 11Us enthusiasm, which reaches its peak in the C ommune, wins over to the working class at times the best e1enlents of the bourgeoisie, but leads it in the end to succumb to their worst elements. Rimbaud and Courbet declare their suppon for the Commune. The burning of Paris is the wo nhy conclusion to Haussmann's work of destruction. My good father had been in Paris.
- Karl Gutzkow, Briefl (,lUI Pa~ (Leipzig, 1842), vol. I, p. 58

nus

o Republic, by roiling their plots,


\bur great Medusa face Ringed by ~d lighliling.
- l'brkers' 50llg from about 1850, in AdolfStahr; Zwei Mnnnle;f! PaTiJ (Oldenburg. 1851 ), vol. 2, p. 1992.'1

Rcvealto these depraved,

The barricade is resUITCcted during the Commune. It is stronger and better secured than ever. It stretches across the great boulevards. often reaching a height of two stories, and shidds the ~nche s behind it.Just as the Communist ManjftJto ends the age of professional conspiratOrs, so the Commune puts an end to the phantasmagoria holding sway over the early years of the proletariat.1t dispels the illusion that the task of the proletarian revolutio n is to complete tlle work or 1789

Balzac was the first to speak of the ruins of the bourgeoisie. 21 But it was Surrealism that first opened our eyes to them. The developmelll of the forces of production shattered the wish symbols of the previous century, even before the monwnents representing them had collapsed. In the nineteenth century this development worked to emancipate the forms of construction from art,just as in the sixteenth century the sciences freed themselves &om philosophy. A stan is made with architecture as engineered construction. Then comes the reproduction of naruce as photography. The creation of fan tasy prepares to become practical as commercial an. Literature submits [Q montage in the feuiUeton. All these products are on tlle point of entering the market as conmlodities. But they linger on the threshold. From this epoch derive the arcades and i"tiroielm, the exhibition halls and panoramas. They are residues of a dream world. The realization of dream elements, in the course of waking up, is the paradigm of dialectical thinking. Thus, dialectical thinking is the organ of historical awakening. Every epoch, in fact, no t only dreams the one to follow but, in dreaming, precipitates its awakening. It bears its end within itself and unfolds it-as H egel alread y noticed-by cunning. With the destabilizing of dle market economy, we begin to recognize the monuments of the bourgeoisie as ruins evell before they have cnunbled.

Paris, Capital of the Nineteenth Century


Expose <of 1939>

mann and its manifest expression in his transfonnauons of Paris.-Neverthdess, the pomp and the splendor with which commodity-producing society surrounds itself, as well as its illusory sense of ~curity, are not immune to dangen; the collapse of the Second Emp~ and the Commune of Paris remind it of that. In the same period, the most dreaded adversary of this society, B1anqui, revealed to it, in his last piece of writing, the terrifying features of this phantasmagoria. Humanity figures there as damned. Everything new it could hope for rums out to be a reality that has always been present; and this newness will be a.! little capable of furnishing it with a liberating solution as a new fashion is capable of rejuvenating society. Blanqui's cosmic speculation conveys this lesson: that humanity will be prey to a mythic anguish so long as phantasmagoria occupies a place in it.

Inlroduction
History is lik(:Janus: it has twO faces. Whether it looks at the pa.u or al the present., it sees ~ same things.
- MaximeOu Camp, /'ariJ, vol. 6, p. 315

A. Fourier. or the Ar cades

I
The: magic columns of these palais Show to cnthwiasts from all parts, With the objccu their porticos display, 1bat industry is the rival of the am.
-MJU/NIIIlIl 7abltlJUX tit PllrU (Puis, 1828), p. Xl

The subject of this book is an illusion

e.xpres~d by Schopenhauer in the rauowing Cannula: to seize the ~ce of history, it suffices to compare Herodotus and the morning newspaper.l What is expressed here is a fttling of vertigo characlaistic of the nineteenth cmtury's conception of history. It corresponds to a viewpoint according to which the course of the world is an encUess series of raw congealed in the fonn of things. The characteristic residue of this concepcion is what has been called the "History of C ivilization," which makes an inventory, point by point, of humanity's life forms and creations. The riches thus amassed in the aerarium of civilization hencc:fonh appear as though identified for all rime. This conception of history minimizes the fact that such riches owe not only their

existence but also their transmission to a constant c:fTon of society-an effort, moreover, by which these riches are strangely altered. Our investigation proposes to show how, as a consequence of this reifying representation of civifu.ation, the new forms of behavior and the new economically and technologically based creatio ns that we owe to the nineteenth celltury enter the universe of a phantasmagoria. These: creations undergo this "illumination" not only in a theoretical mannel; by an ideological transposition, but also in the immediacy of their perceptible presence. They are manifcst as phantasmagorias. Thus appear the arcades-first entry in the field of iron construction ; thus appear the world exhibitions. whose link to the entertainment industry is signi6cant. Also included in this order of phenomena is the experience of the 8,ineur, who abandons himself to the phantasmagorias of the marketplace. Corresponding to these phantasmagorias of the market, where people appear only as types. are the phantasmagorias of the interior, which are constirnted by man's imperious need to leave the imprint of his private individual existence on the rooms he inhabits. As for the phantasmagoria of civilization itself, it found its champion in Hauss-

Most of the Paris arcades are built in the fifteen years following 1822. The first condition for their development is the boom in the textile trade. Magasiru de TWuutautis, the first establishments to keep large stocks of merchandise on the premises, make their appearance. They are the forerunners of department stores. TIlls is the period of which Ba1z.ac writes : "The great poem of display chants its stanzas of color from the C hurch of the Madeleine to the Porte Saint-Denis." The arcades are centers of commel"Ce in luxury items. In fitting them out, an enters the service of the merchant. Contemporaries never tire of admiring them. FOr a long time they remain an attraction for tourists. An llluslrllltd GUIde to Paris says: "These arcades. a recent invention of industrial luxury. are glass-roofed, marblepaneled comdors extending through whole blocks of buildings, whose owners have joined t~ther for such enterprises. Lining bOth sides of the arcade, which gets its light from above, are the most elegant shops, so that the jJasJagt! is a city, a world in miniature." TIle arcades are the scene of the first attempts at gas

lighting.
The second condition for the emergence of the arcades is the beginning of iron construction. Under the Empire, this techno logy was seen as a contribution to the revival of architecnm: in the classical Greek ~nse . The architrural theorist Boetticher expres5f!S the general view of the matter when he says that, "with regard to the art forms of the new system, the Hellenic mode" must come to prevail. The Empire style is the style of revolutionary tcrrorism, for which the Slate is an end in itself. Just as Napoleon failed to understand the functional

narurt of the state as an instrument of domination by the bourgeoisie. so the architects o f his time failed to understand the functional naturt': of iron, with which the constructive principle begins its domination of architecture. These architeclS design supporu resembling fbmpe.ian colunms, and factories that imitate residential houses, juSt as later the first railroad stations will assume the look of chalets. Construction plays the role o f the subconsciow. Nevertheless, the concept of engin eer, which dates from the revolution ary wars, starts to gain ground. and the rivalry begins bet\\un builder and decorator. Ecole Poly techruque and Ecole des Beaux-Arts.-For the first time since the Romans, a new artificial building material appears: iron. It will undergo an evolution whose pace will accelerate in the course of the cenrury. This development enters a decisive new phase when it becomes clear that the locomotive-objea of the most diverse experiments since the ~ars 1828-1829-usdully functions only on iron rails. The rail becomes the first prefabricated iron component, the precursor of the girder. Iron is avoided in home construction but wed in arcades, exhibition halls, train stations-buildings that serve transitory purposes.

II
It is easy to understand that every mass-typc "interest" which assertS itself historically goa far ~nd iu rca1limiu in lhe "idea" or "ulllI.gination," when it lint comes on the sceru:.
-~-tarx and

Pericles could already have undertaken it.'" The arcades, which originally were designed to serve commercial en ds. become dwcllulg places Ul Fourier. The phalanstery is a city composed of arcades. In this ville (71 pauoges, the engineer's construction takes on a phantasmagorical character. The "ory of arcades" is a dreanl that ....;n chaml the fan cy of Parisians well Utto the second half of the century. As late as 1869, Fouriers "SDttt-galleries" provide the blueprint for Moilin's Pam en l'an 2000. 1 H ere the ory assumes a strucrnrc that makes it-with its shops and aparanent.s-the ideal backdrop for the fueur. Marx took a stand against Carl Crun in order to defend Fourier and to accentuate his "colossal conception of man.") H e considered Fourier the only man besides Hegel to have revealed the cssentia..l mediocrity of the petty bour~ois. The systematic overcoming of this type in H egel corresponds to its humorous annihilation in Fouricr. One of the most remarkable features of the Fourierist utopia is that it never advocated the exploitation of narurt by man, an idea that became widespread in the following period. Instead, in Fourier, technology appears as the spark that ignites the powder of nature. Perhaps this is the key to his strange representation of the phalanstery as propagating itself "by explosion." The later conception o f man's exploitation of nature reflectS the actual exploitation of man by the owners of the means of production_ U the integration of the technological into soc:iallife failed, the fauJt lies in this exploitation.

Engels, Die J/ci1W /W",i!ir

B. Grandville, or the World Exhibilions


I
Yes, when all the world from Paris 10 China Pays heed to your doctrine, 0 divine Saint-Simon,
The glorious Golden Age will be reborn. Riven will flow with chocoIale and tea. Sheep roasted whole will frisk on the plain, And sauteed pike will swim in the Seine. Fricasseed spinach will grow on the ground. Garnished with cmshed fried croutons; The trees will bring forth apple compotes, And fanners ",,111 harvest boou and ccau. I! will ! now wine, it will rain chickens, And ducks cooked with turnips ",,111 fall from the sky.
-Langlt and V:l.Ilderburch, uuu-Bnmu (lit Sai,,/Simllli/CI
(Thllllf(: du l:lalai.'IRoyaI. ~bruary 27, 1832)

The secret cue for the Fourierist u top ia is the advent of machines. The phalanstay is designed to restore human beings to a system of relationships in which morality becomes superfluous. Nero, in such a context, would become a more usefuJ member o f society than Ftnelon. Fourier does not dream of relying on virtue for this; rather, he relies on an efficient functioning of society, whose motive forces ~ the passions. In the gearing of the p assions, in the complex meshing of the PassifmS manutes with the Pa.ui(JTI cabaliJte, Fourier imagines the collective psychology as a clockwork mechanism. Fourierist hannony is the necessary product of this combinatory play. Fourier introduces intO the Empire's world of austere fonDS an idyll colored by the style of the 1830s. H e devises a syste.m in which the products of his colorful vision and of his idiosyncratic treatment of numbers blend together. Fourier's "harmorues" are in no way akin to a mystique of numbers taken from any other tradition. They are in fact direct outcomes o f his own pronouncements-luOlbratioos of his organizational imagination, which was vcry highly developed. Thus, he foresaw how significant m~tings \vrn.dd become to the citizen. For the phalan stery's inhabitants, the day is organized not around the h ome but in large halls similar to those of the Stock Exchange, where meetings are arranb"Cd by brokers. In the arcades. Fourier recognized the architecrnral canon of the phalanstery. '1tis is what distinguishes the "empire" character of his utopia, which Fourier himself naively acknowledges: "111e societarian state will be all the more brilliant at its inception for having been so long deferred . Greece in the age of Solon and

\\b rld exhibitions are places of pilgrimage to the conunodity fetish. "Europe is ofT to view the merchandise," says Tainc in 185S.6 1nc world exJlibitions were preceded by national exhibitions of industry, the first of which took place on the Champ de Mars in 1798. It arose from the ....-ish "to entertain the working classes, and it becomes for them a festival of emancipation.l!1 The workers would constitute their first clientele. The framework of the entertainment industry has not ~t taken shape; the popular festival provid~ this. Chaptal's cdebrated speech on

industry opens the 1798 ahibition.-The Saint-Simonians, who envision the industrialization of the earth, take up the idea of world exhibitions. Chevalier, the first authority in this new field, is a srudent of Enfantin and editor of the SaintSimonian newspaper Le Globt. The Saint-Simowans anticipated the dcvt:lopment of the global economy, but not the class struggle. Thus, we see that despite their participation in industrial and commercial enterprises around the middle of the cenrury, they were helpless on all questions concerning the proletariat. WOrld exhibitions glorify the occhan~ value of the commodity. They create a framework in which its use value becomes secondary. TIley are a school in which the masses, forcibly occluded from consumption, are imbued with the exchange value of commodities [Q the point of identifying with it : "00 not touch the items on display." \o\brld exhibitions thus provide access to a phantasmagoria which a person enters in order to be distracted. Within these diua-twtTllnlts, to which the individual abandons himself in the frarncv.'Ork of the entertainment industry, he remains always an dement of a compact mass. This mass delights in amu.scme:nt parks-with their roUa coasters, their "twisters," their "caterpillars"-in an attitude that is pure reaction. It is thus led to that state of subjection which propaganda, industrial as well as political, relies 00.-The enthronement of the commodity, with its glitter of distractions, is the secret theme of Grandville's art. Whence the split between its utOpian and cynical elements in his work. The subtle artifices with which it represents inanimate objectS correspond to what Marx calls the "theological niceties" of the commodity.' The concrete expression of this is clearly found in the spiciaJiti-a category of goods which appears at this time in the luxuries industry. \-\brld exhibitions construct a universe of sPicWlitiJ. The fantasies of Grandville achieve the same thing. They modernize the uni vt:r5C. In his work, the ring of Saturn becomes a cast-iron balcony on which the inhabitants of Saturn take the evening air. By the same token, at world exhibi tions, a balcony of castiron would represent the ring of Saturn, and people who venrure out on it would find themselves earned away in a phantasmagoria where they seem to have been transformed into inhabitants of Sarum. The literary counterpart to this graphic utopia is the work of the Fourierist savant Toussend. Toussenel was the natural-sciences editor for a popular newspaper. His zoology classifies the animal ","'Orld according to the rule of fashion. He considers woman the intermediary between man and the a.ni.maIs. She is in a sense the decorator of the animal world, which, in exchange, places at her feet its plumage and its furs . "The lion likes nothing better than having its nails trimmed, provided it is a pretty girl that wields the scissors.'"

natun:. It couples the living body to the inorganic. world. To the living, it defends the rights of the corpse. The fetishism which thus succumbs to the sex appeal of the inorganic is its vital nerve. The fantasies of GrandviUc correspond to the spirit of Cashion that Apollinaire later desaibed with this image: "Any material from nature's domain can now be introduced into the composition of women's clothes. 1 saw a charming dress made of corks . ... Steel, \\'001, sandstone, and 6.1es have suddenly entered the vestmentary am ... . They're doing shoes in \knetian glass and hats in Baccarat crystal."11

C. Louis Philippe, or the lnlerior

I
I believe ... in my soul: the '"Thing.
-Leon Ikubd, (hum (Paris, 1929). p. 193

Under the reign of Louis Philippe. the private individual makes his entry into history. For the private individual, places of dwelling arc for the firSt time opposed to places of work. The former come to constitute the interior. Its comptemem is the office. (For its part. the office is distinguished clearly from the shop counter, which. with its globes, wall maps, and railings, looks like a relic of the baroque fonns that preceded the rooms in teday's residences.) The private indio vidual. who in the office has to deal with realities, needs the domestic interior to sustain him in his illusions. This necessity is all the more pressing since he has no intention of grafting onto his business interests a clear perception of his social function. In the arrangement of his private surrowldin~, he suppresses both of these concerns. From this derive the phantasmagorias of the interior-which, for the private individual, represents the universe. In the interior, he brings together remote locales and mentories of the past. (-lis living room is a box in the theater of the world. The interior is the asylum where an takes refuge. The collector proves to be the true resident of the interior. He makes his concern the idealization of objects. To him falls the Sisyphean task of divesting things of their conunodity ch~cter by taking possession of them. But he can bestow on them only cOllno~seur value, rather than use value. The coUeaor delights in evoking a ,,"'Orld that 15 not just distant and long gone but also better-a world in w?ich, to be sure, bum~ beings are no better provided with what they need than m the real world, but m which things are freed from the drudgery of being useful.

II
Fashion: "Madam Death ! Madam Death!"
-I...copm:Ii, "'Dialogue between F:uhinn and Ikath~'~

II
The. head . On the night table, like a ranuncu1us.
R<..~.

Fashion presaibes the ritua.! according to which the commodity fetish demands to be worshipped. Grandville extends the authority of fashion ta objects of everyday usc, as well as to the cosmos. In taking it [Q an extreme, he reveals its

-Baudelaire. "Une Mattyn~ 12

The interior is not just the universe of the private individual; it is abo his etui. Ever since the time of Louis Philippe. the bourgeois has shown a tendency to compensate for the absence of any trace of private life in the big city. He tries to do this within the four walls of his apartment. It is as ifhe had made it a point of honor not to allow the traces of his everyday objects and accessories to get lost. Indefatigably, he takes the impression of a host of objects; for his slippers and his watches, his blankeu and his umbrellas, he devises coverlets and cases. He has a marked prererence (or velour and plwh, which preservt the imprint of all con tact. In the style characteristic of the Second Empire, the apartment becomes a son of cockpit. The traces of its inhabitant are molded into the interior. Here is the origin of the detective stor)', which inquires into these ITaCc.s and follows these tracks. Ebe- with his "Philosophy ofFumiture" and with his "new detectives"becomes the first physiognomist- of the domestic interior. The criminals in early detective fiction are neither gentlemen nor apaches, but simple private citizens of the middle class ("The Black Cat," "The Tell-Tale Heart," "Wtlliam Wilson").
1II
This seeking fo r my home ... was my affiiction.. _. Where is111)'

D. Baudelaire, or tbe St reet.8 of Pari.!!

Everything for me becomes aUegory.


-Baudelaire,
~Lc Cygnc:"16

home? I ask and M:ek and have sought for il ; I bave not found it.

-N'ICU_sthc. AiJo 3""'01 <aff21!lIul,';'

The liquidation of the interior took place during the last years of the nineteenth century, in the work ofJugcndstil, but it had been coming for a longtime. The art of the interior was an an of genre. Jugendstil sounds the death knell of the gerue. It rises up against the infaNation of genre in the name of a mal du ;iedt:, of a peqx:tually open-armed aspiration.Jugendstil for the first time takes into consideration certain tectonic forms, It also soives to disengage them from their functional relations and to present them as natural constants; it strives, in shon , to stylize them. The ncw elements of iron construction-cspecial1y the girdercommand the attention of this "modem style." In the domain of ornamentation, it endeavors to intcgrate these forms into an. Concrete puts at its disposal new potentialities for architecllirC. With van de Velde, the howe becomes the plastic expression of the personality. Ornament is to this house what the signature i..'! to a painting. It exults in speaking a linear, mediumistic language in which the Bower, symbol of vegetal life, insinuates itself intO the very lines of construction. (!be curved line ofJ ugendstil appears at the same time as the title u; FlelJrJ du mal. A SOrt of garland marks the passage from the "Flowers of Evil" to the "souls of Bowers" in Odilon Redan and on to Swann'sfoirt (fjlleya.)It-Hencefortb, as Fourier had foreseen, the true framework for the life of the private citizen must be sought increasingly in offices and commercial centers. TIle fictional framework for the individual's life is constituted in the private home, II i..'! thw that 'The Maskr Builder takes the measure ofJugendsril. The attempt by the individual to vie with tedmology by relying on his inner Sights leads lO his downfall : the architect Solness kills himself by plunging from his tower. IJ,

Baudelaire's genius, which feeds on mdancholYI is an allegorical genius. With Baudelaitt, Paris becomes for the first time the subject of lyric poetry, This poeb')' of place is the opposite of all poetry of the $Oil. The gaze which the allegorical genius tums on the city betrays, instead, a profound alienation. It is the gaze of the Baneur, whose way of life conceals behind a beneficent mirage the anxiety of the future inhabitants of our metropolises, The 81neur seeks refuge in the O"Owd, The crowd is the veil through which the familiar city is tran.5formed for the 8fu1eur into phantasmagoria. This phantasmagoria, in which the city appears now as a landscape, now as a room, seems later to have inspired the decor of departtnCfit SlOres, which thw put fIanerie to work for profit. In any case, department stores are the last precincts of 8Anerie. In the person of the 8aneur, the intelligentsia becomes acquainted with the marketplace. It surrenders itself to the market, thinking merely to look around; but in fact it is already seeking a buyer. In this intermediate stagc=, in which it still has patrons but is starting to bend to the demands of the market (in the guise of the feuilleton). it constitutes the 6onirM. The uncenainty of its economic position corresponds to the ambiguity of its political function. The latter is manifest especially clearly in the figures of the professional conspirators, who are reauited from the boMme, Blanqui is the most remarkable representative of this class. No one else in the nineteenth century had a revolutionary authority comparable to his. The image of Blanqui passes like a Hash of lightning through Baudelaire's "Litanies de Satan." NeverthelCS$, BaudeIaire's rebellion is always that of tM asocial man : it i..'! at an impasse. The only saual communion of his life was with a prostitute.

II They \\ICtt the sam~ , had risen from the same These cemenarian twins.

hen.

The Baneur plays tlle role of scout in the marketplace. As such, he is also the explorer of the crowd. Within the man who abandons himself to it, the crowd inspires a sort of drunkenness, one accompanied by very specific illusions: the man 8atters himself that, on seeing a passerby s""''Cpt along by the O"O\ ..,'d, he has accurately classified him, seen straight through to the innennost recesses of his sou1-al1 on the basis of his external appearance. Physiologies of the time abound in evidence of this singular conception, Balzac's work provides exceUent examples. The typical characters seen in passersby make such an impression on

the senses that one cannot be surprised at the resultant curiosity to go beyond them and caprure the special singularity of each person. But the nightmare that corresponds to the illusory perspicacity of the aforementioned physiognomist consists in seeing those distinctive traits-traits peculiar to the person- revealed to be nothing more than the dements of a new type: so that in the final analysis a person of the greatest individuality wouJd tum out to be the exemplar of a type. ibis points to an agonizing phantasmab'Oria at the heart of 8Anerie. Baudelaire develops it ~th great vigor in "Les Sept Vicillards," a poem that deals ~th the seven-fold apparition of a repulsive-looking old man. This individual, presented as always the same in his multiplicity, testifies to the anguish of the city dweller who is unable to break the magic circle of the type even though he cultivates the most eccentric peculiarities. Baudelaire describes this procession as "infernal" in appearance. But the newness for which he was on the lookout all his life consists in nothing other than this phantasmagoria of what is "always the same." (!be evidence one couJd cite to show that this poem tranScribes the reveries of a hashish eater in no way weakens this interpretation.)

~messes its hirth. Here we meet the quintessence of the unfo~en. which for Baudelaire is an inalienable quality of the beautiful. The face of modernity itself blasts us with its inunemorial gaze. Such was the gaze of Medusa for the Greeks.

E. HaU8SIIIBJUI. or

tlu~

Barricades

I
I venerate the Beautiful, dIe Good, and all thinV great: Beautiful nature, on which great an rest3HO\" it enchants the ear and charms the: eye! I love spring in blossom: WOJDc:n and roses.
- Baron Haun wann. OMfWirm d '/tTl liM ~ll U~2 1

III
Deq> in the Unknown to find the new!
- BaudcWrc. hLe
\byage~J8

The ke:y to the: allegorical form in Baudelaire is bound up ~th the specific signification which the commodity acquires by virtue of its price. The singular debasement of things through their signification, sometlUng characteristic of seventeenth-cenrury allegory, corresponds to the: singular debasement of things through the:ir price as commodities. This degradation_ to which things are subject because they can be taxed as commodities, is counterbalanced in Baudelaire by the inestimable value of novelty. La nouueauti represents that absolute which is no longer accessible to any interpretation or comparison. It becomes the uJtimate entrenchment of art. The final poem of Fleur; du mal: "i.e Voyage." "Death. old admirn.!, up anchor now."I~ The 6.naI voyage of the 8aneur: death. Its destination: the new. Newness is a quality independent of the we value of the commod ity. It is the source of that illusion of which fashion is the ~Iess purveyor. The: fact mat art's last line: of resistance should coincide with the commodity's most advanced line of attack-this had to remain hidden &urn Baudelaire:. "Spleen et ideal"-in the title of this first cycle of poems in U.s Fleur! dll maL, tlle oldest loanword in the French language was joined to the most recent one.'" For Baudelaire, there is no contradiction between the two concepts. He recognizes in spleen the latest transfiguration of the ideal ; the ideal seems to him the first expression of spleen. With this title, in which the supremely new is presented to the reader as something "supremely old;" Baudelaire has given the liveliest fonn to his concept of the modem. The linchpin of his entire theory of an is "modem beauty," and for him the proof of modernity seems to be this: it is marked with the fatality of being one day antiquity, and it ~eals this to whoever

u.s

Haussmann's activity is incorporated intO Napoleonic i.mperialism, which favors investment capital. In Paris, speculation is at its height. Haussmann's expropriations give rise to speculation that borders on fraud. The: rulings of the Court of Cassation, which are inspired by the bourgeois and Orleanist opposition, increase the financial risks of Haussmannization. Haussmann tries to shore up his dictatorship by placing Paris under an emergency regime. In 1864, in a speedl. before the National Assembly, he vents his hatred of the rootless urban population. 1bis popu1ation grows ever largu as a result of his projects. Rising rents drive: the proletariat into the suburbs. The: quartim of Paris in this way lose their distinctive physiognomy. The "red belt" fomu. Haussmarm gave himself the title of "demolition artist." He believed he: had a vocation for his ....,ork, and emphasizes this in his memoirs. The centraJ marketplace. passes for Haussmann's most successful construction-and this is an interesting symptom. It has been said of the De de la Cite, the cradle of the city, that in the wake of Haussmann only one church, one public building, and one:: barracks remained. Hugo and Merimee suggest how much the transformations made by H aussmann appear to Parisians as a monWllenl of Napoleonic despotism. The inhabitants of the city no longer feel at home there: they start to become: conscious of the inhuman character of the:: metropolis. Maxime Du Camp's monumental work Paro O\\o'CS its existence to this dawning awareness. The etchings of Meryon (around 1850) constitute the death mask of old Paris. The true goal of Haussmarm's projccts w.l!i to secure lhe city against civil war. He wanted to make the erection of barricades in thc streets of Paris impossible for all time. With lhe same end in mind, Louis Philippe had already introduced wooden paving. Nevertheless, barricades had played a considerable: role in the February Revolution. Engels studied the:: tactics of barricade fighting. Haussmann seeks to forestall such combat in two ways. \oVide::niog the suc=ets will make the erection of barricades impossible, and ne ..... SttCCts will connect the barracks in straight lines ~th the workers' districtS. Contemporaries christened the operation "strategic embellishment."

II
The Bowery realm of decorations, The charm of landscape, of archileClUTc. And aU the effect o f sccnay rest Sold}' on the law of pc:npcctive.
- Frall.t Bohle, 71Iwln--CaluhismUJ (Munich), p. 74

Haussmann's ideal in city planning consisted of long straight streets opening onto broad perspectives. This ideal corresponds to the tendency-common in the nineteenth cenrury-to ennoble teclmological necessities through spurious

plantation owner among his slaves." If it was fatal for the workers' rebe.Uions of old that no theory of ~olution had directed their course, it was this absence of theory that, from another perspective, made pOssible their spontaneous energy and the enthusiasm with which thcy set about establishing a new socicty. This enthusiasm, whicll reachcs its peak in the Commune, at times won over to the workers' cause the best e1emcnts of the bourgeoisie, but in tlle end led the ....,orkers to succumb to its .....,orst elements. Rimbaud and Courbet took sides with the Commune. The burning of Paris is the wolthy conclusion to Baron Hauss mann's work of destruction.

artistic ends. The temples of the bourgeoisie's spiritual and secular power were to find their apotheosis within the framework of these long streets. The perspectives, prior to their inauguration, were screened with canvas draperies and un-

Con clusion Mcn of the nineteenth century, the hour of our apparitions is fixed fon:\-'o; and a1 ......ays brings w back til(: \lCI'f same ODCI .
- AuguMe BIanqui., L'ElmJill par kJ (lJfra (I'arls, 1872), pp. 74-75

veiled like monuments; the vicw ,",,'Culd then disclose a church, a train station, an equcsaian statue, or some other symbol of civilization. 'With the Haussmanniz.acion of Paris, the phantasmagoria wall rendered in stone. Though intended to endure in quasi-perpetuity, it also reveals its brittleness. The AVOlue de I'Optra -which, according to a malicious saying of the day, affords a perspective on the port~r 's lodge at the Louvre-shows how unrestrained the prefect's megalo.
marna was.

III

o Republic, by foiling their plots,


'lliur great Medusa face Ring<d by "" lightning.
-Picnc Dupont. CMnI dis (lwrim

Reveal to these depraved,

The barricade is resurrected during the ComuuUle. It is stronger and better de~igned than ever. It stretches across the great boulevards, often reaching a height of two stories, and shields the trenches behind it. Just as the Commul1u/ Manjfosto ends the age of professional conspirators, so the Commune puts an end to the phantasmagoria that dominates the earliest aspirations of the proletariat. It dispels the illusion that the task of the proletarian revolution is to cornple~ the work of '89 in close collaboration with tM: bourgeoisie. nus illusion had marked the period 1831-1871, from the Lyons riots to the Commune. TIle bourgeoisie never shared in this clTOr. Its battle against the social rights of the proletariat dates back to the great Revolution, and converges with the philanthropic move ment that gives it cover and that was in its heyday under Napoleon III. Under his reign, this movement's monumental work appeared: Lc. Play's OUI/nus europims [European \\brkersJ. Side by side with the oven position of philanthropy, the bourgeoisie has always maintained the coven position of class struggle.21 As early as 1831 . in the Journal deJ (lihatJ, it acknowledged that "every manufacturer lives in his factory like it

During the Conunune, Blanqui was held prisoner in the fortress of Taureau. It was the~ that he wrote his L'Etemi/i par leJ aJtm [Etemity via the Stars]. This book completes the century's constellation of phantasmagorias with one last, cosmic phantasmagoria which implicitly comprehends the severest aitique of all tM: others. The ingenuous reSections of an autodidact, which form the principal portion of this work, open the way to merciless speculations that give the lie to the author's revolutionary elan. The conception of the universe which Blanqui develops in this book, taking his basic premises from the mechanistic natural sciences, proves to be a vision of hell. It is, mo~ovcr, the complement of that society which Blanqui, near the end of his life, was forced to admit had defeated him. The irony of this scheme-an irony which doubtless escaped the author himself-is that the terrible indictment he pronowlces against society takes the form of an unqualified submission to its results. Blanqui's book presents the idea of eternal retw'I1 ten years before Zarath,J.Jlra-in a mrumer scarcely less moving than that of Nietzsche, and with rul extreme hallucinatory power. nus power is anything but triumphant; it leaves, on the contrary, a feeling of oppression. Blanqui here strives to trace an image of progress that (immemoria.1 antiquity parading as up-to-date novelty) rums out to be the phantasmagoria of history itself. Hc~ is the essential passage: The ~mire UIl.ivCrsc: is coDlpos~d of astral systems. To Cr~3(~ [hem. nature: has only a hundre::d limp/I! hodiu at its disposal. Despitc the grCiit advantage it d~ri\'~s from these resources, and t.he:: inllulll~rabk combinations that thes~ reSOun;:~5 afford its f~t), the result is nec~s5arily afoilr number, likc that or dl~ dements ulenl' sch'Uj and in order to fiU il.5 c:xpanst'. natun: must rcp<'at to infinif)' ~ach of il.5 &rigI'tyJ1 combinations or ty~j. So ~dl hea\'cnly bod}'. what~\'er it might be, exists in infinite number in time and spaCl:, not only in onf of its aspects but as it is at each ~econd of its existen~~. from binh 10 death. . .. 111~ urth is onc of thcs~ hcavrnly bodic.s. Every human being i5 thus et~mal at every second of his or h~r exi.ncoce. What I writ~ at um moment ill a ~dl of tile Fort du T.lUreau I havc wrilt~n and shall

write throughout all ctenuty-at a table, with a pen, clothed as I am now, in circumstances like these. And thus it is for everyone... . Tlle nlUllber of our doublCll is illfuutc in time and spatt. One tarulot in good conscience demand anything more. These doubles exist in 8c.sh and bone-indeed, in trowefS and jacket, in crinoline and clugnon. They are by no mearu phantoms ; they are the present eternalized. Here., nonethdcu, lies a ~at drawback: there is no progress.... What we: aU "pt0grC5s" is confined to each particular world, and vanishCli with it. Always and everywhere. in the tenTsoial arena, the same drama, the same setting, on the same narrow stage-a noisy humanity infawatcd with its own grandeur, believing iUiClf to be the universe and living in its prison as though in some immense realm, only to founder at an early date along with its globe. which has borne with deepest ~ the burden of human arrogance. !be same monotony. the same: immobility, on other hea\'Cllly bodies. The universe rqx:at! it.sdf endlessly and paws the ground in place. In infinity, eternity performs-imperturbably-the same routines.23

NVOLUTES

1bis resignation v.ithout ho~ is the last word of the great revolutionary. The century was incapable of responding to the new technological possibilities with a new social order. That is why the last word was left to the cnant negotiators between old and new wbo are at the hean of these phantasmagorias. The world dominated by its phantasmagorias- this, to make usc of Baudelaire's term, is "modcmity.HBlanqui's vision has the entire universe entering the modernity of which Baudelaire's seven old men are. the heralds. In the end, Blanqui views novelty as an attribute of all that is under sentence of damnation. Likewise in Cid et mftr [Heaven and Hell], a vaudeville piece thal slightly predates the book: in this piece the lomlents of hell figure as the latest novelty of all time, as "pains eternal and always ncw.n The people of the nineteenth century, whom Blanqui addresses as if they were apparitions, are natives of this region.

Over view

"

B
(;

Arcad~ , MagllJin.r dl N r JU utQuti J, Sales Clerlu 31 Fashion 62 Ancient Paris, Catacombs, DemOliriOOll, I)ccline of

'"

Fourier 620

X
" Z

MaJX 651
Photography 671 The Doll, The Automaton 693 Social Movement 698

Paris 82

o
E;

Boralom, Etcma1 Rc:turn

101

Dawnier 740
Literary History, Hugo 744

Haussmannization, Barricade Fighting 120

c
d

F
G H

lIon Consttuction 150


Exhibitions, Advertising, Grandville 171
~ Collector

e
I

g
b
I

The Stock Ex~, Economic

203

Hi5tory 779 Reproduction Technology. Lithogrnphy 786


llit Commune 788

I
..

TIle Interior, The Trace 212


Baudelaire 228

On:am Cit)' and Dream House, Dreams of the Future:,


Anthropological Nihilism.

I.
M N

Jung 388 ~am House, Museum, Spa 405

Ii. I
ID

The Seine, The Oldest Paris 796


Idleness 800

o
p

q
R
S

T U V

TIle flincur 416 On die Theory of Knowlcdb"C. llleOry of Progress 456 Prostitution, Gambling 489 1bc Srrc:cu ofParu !i16 Panorama 527 Mirron 537 Paiming,Jugtl'wtil, Novelty 543 Modes of Lighting 562 SainlSimon. Railroads 571 Conspir.tcies, <Am /Jagl107l1lngtl 603

o
p q r Anthropological Materialism, History of Sects 807
Ecole fulytedmique 818

"
u v

A
[Arcades, Magasins de Nouveautes, Sales Clerks1
1bc magic colunms of these palaces Show to the amateur on all sides,

10 the objectS their porticos display. TIlat industry i.o! the rival of the arts.
_MChruUOli

nouvelle," ciled in N DUW tJlIX t'ab/((JUx de PariJ, 011 OIJ~Til/j I1IMrirl rl USIIgtJ du Pansrnts /114 rom"",.,,(=,1 dll XIX' Jil(k (Paris, 1828), vol. 1, p. 27
liolU JUT

ItJ

For sale the bodies, die VoiCd, thc tttmendoU$ unquestionable ~a1th, what will ne...~r be sold.
- Rimbaud 1

I/.ln speaking of the inner boulevards," says the lIlw tratl'd Guide. to Pam, a complete picrure of the city on the Seine and its environs from the year 1852, "~ have made mention again and again of the arcades wbich open onto them. These arcades, a recent invention of industrial luxury, are glass-roofed. marble-paneled corridors extending through whole blocks of buildings, whose owners have joined togetbl!r for such enterprises. Lining both sides of these conidors, which get their light from ab~, are the most elegant shops, so that the arcade is a city, a world in miniature 0 Fl:lneur o, in which customers will find everything they need. During s udd~l rainshowers, the arcades are a place of refuge for the unpn::pa.red, to whom they offer a secun::, if restricted. promenade-one from which the merchants also benefit!' 0 "'bther 0 This passage is the locus classicus for the: presentation of the: arcades: for not only do the divagations on the Baneur and the weather develop out of it, but, also. what there is to be: said about the construction of the arcades, in an eco[AI . I] nomic and architecrural vein, would have a place here.
NUIIICII

uf lIIul!(uiru (Ip. tlOll lleuuh~lI: La f 'iUc jl ' IIQllllellr. La "rlllult, Le Page lllcQ IIsta nl . IAl Masq ue dt' F" r (Th ~ Irull Ma sk ) , Le P('Iil Cha l't' rull Rou!;t' <Lilde n etl Hidin@U UIII I ). Pt'tile N"III~ll e , La C h a llmi .~n: .,IIlmalld .. <The C"rma ll Cottllge) . Au MlIlTldouk . Le Coin .lll III RIIt ( On the S I rt:t'lc,'rn e r )-IH.m c~ thllt mustl y comt:
from suceeuful \'ilIHltl villcs. 0 Mytholugy DA g1uvt:r : Au Ci-Oevallt J e une Homm t. A confectiouer: Aux Armes de Wc.rtller.

" The n um e of t1w jcw(oic r Y lalHls ov'!r the ",Iwl' doo r in large irl'tl jtl letl er~-inl ai d wilh Iiiif' illlil:4Iion @"' IJJ ~ ." Edull r.l Krol uff. Sclliklerll nsefl IWI Pari.~ ( Ha mhurg, 1839). vol. 2 . p . 73. " I .. IIII~ Galcric Vi-rll- Dodnl, there is D grOCt!ry s tore; above itA door. o lle read y IIle ius(' riplio n ; ' Gas irullomie CUSmollOlile. The llll/h'iduu! c ha rarlers of the 8ign Itrc ("rmetl. in comic fashion , frOIl! l lli(H!I . phe asa n u , harel, alld en , lob ... ler s. fi sh. hird kitlner s. and so forlh ." Kruloff. Sch ilt/eruns en ClUI l~rj,. \'1,1. 2. p . 75. 0 Grllnd" illc 0 (Al ,2]

Names of a rc ade.: Pauage dee Pl,i no r amas . Pa~sage Ve ro-Dodat , Passage JII Deilir (leading iu earlier d ays to a houlle of ill repule), Pau age Colbe rl , Puslige Viv!C!lne. Passage till Ponl-Ne uf. Passage du Cllire. Puuage.de la Reunion , Passllge de l' Ope r a , Passage. de la 'frillite , Passage du Che val-Bla nc, Passage Pressiere cBessiere;;?), Pa~ ~ age tl u Bois de Boulugne, Passage Grosse-lete. (The Passage dee Panoramas was kn own at firs t a, Ihe Pailsage Mi res.) [Ala,2] The Pas.>age Ve ro-Dodat (built belween the Rue de Boulay and tbe Rue GrenelleSaini-Hono re ) " owes its na me to two rich pork butchers, Messie u rs Ver o a nd Oodllt . ",ho in 1823 unde rtook il ~ cOIJstructlon logethe r with tha t of the adjace.nt Iwildings-an immense de velupment , T his led someone at the time to descri be this a rtatle ail a ' Iovdy work u( arl fra nled by two neighborhoods. ' " J, A. Dulaure, JljJtoire p hysulue, C;I)"'~ el morole de Pa ris dep uU 182 1 jusqu 'iJ Ro.jour. (Paris, [Al a,3] 1835) , \ ' 0 1. 2. p . 34. T he Passage Vern-Dodal ha d mar ble fl ooring. The actre88 Raehe llived there for a while. IAla,4)

.<

t f ..

As business incrt~d , the proprietor would purchase stock fOT a week and, to make room for the goods being stored, would withdraw to the en~sol. In this way, the boutique became a 11Iugluin. [Al .3]

It was the time in which Balzac could write : "The great poem of display chants its sfanzas of color from the Church of the Madeleine to the Pone SaintDenis." Le Diable aPariJ (Paris, 1846). vol. 2. p. 91 (Ba.lz.a.c, ilLes Boulevards de Parisi.
(AJ")
"T he (10 ), 1111' wu n! $IJeci(l/t y was discoveretl b ), Her Majf'st y Industry, quee n of f'rlillce unci of neighbo rin g rcgion/! : 011 thai da y, il is sa id . Me rc ury, special god of mercha ni l o lind of ~evtra l ol her ~ ocilll &pecillltie& , kn ocked Ihree lim~8 with his t"a1! Ur.CU M O il the fru nl of thc S luck E:I>r.ba nge and sWllre h y the heard of Proseq ,ine thllt thl' w(ml wall fllle wi th him ." Mytho logy The word is ulle,! initially, how"ver, o nl y for IU:I>ury items. La Grande Ville: Nouveau Tableall de Pari& ( Paris, 1&14), vol. 2 , )1 .5 7 (Marc .' o ur nicr. ,Lt:s Spicialil&!! parisienoes" ), [AI ,5]

a
" The IIIU'rnw IIn'Cls surrllwlliing the O pera and the h azard s to wh.ich pe destrians ",'e re e:l>po~ed Oil clllI~rging (rom this theater. which is always bes ieged by ca rriages. gave a group of speculalOn ill 182 1 the idea of using some o( the s t.ruclures separating the new Iht'.lI ler from the bo w e v.rd . I Thii! e.nle rprise . a SOUN:e of riches (or iLs originliluril. wa a l t he sa llie time u( gre at benefil tu the Imhlie . I By way of a sma ll , lIurrow I'o \'ered a rcalle huilt of wood . on .. ha tl , in fact . Ilireet acCf!~, with a ll the set.'urit y of tlu: Ope ru's vestibule, to these galleries. a nd from the re to tbe iJo ule vanl. .. , AI,ov" the entahla ture of Do ric pilas teNi di vidin g the , hops ril!e 11'0'1) fi lIon of apar tmenls. OIU! aho \'e the apartmentll--ru nnillg tile lengt h of the galllrics-rcigu8 1111 enormous g1a ~ s - pullcl l roof. ,. J . A. Dlllamc. Ili, toire ph y, ii/lie, cillile e t marl/Ie de Pu ri&delmi&1821 j u, qu 'ci no' jour, (Pa ris. 1835) , vol. 2. pp . 2R-29. (Al ,6)

No. 26, Galerie Colbert : "The re, ill the guise o a femlile glover, s hone a beauty thai WRlI IIPllroachahle hut thai , in the mallcr of youth, attached importance only to iLs own ; she required he r favo rites tu suppl y her with the finery from which ilhe hoped to make a fo rtulle . . . . This young lind beautiful woman under glae;; ",'as ca lled ' the Absolute'; but philosophy would h ave wasted its time pursuing her. Her maid was Ihe one who sold the gloves; she wanted it that way." O Dons Prostitutes 0 <C ha rid) W euve, Les AncieRRe.t JUo uons de Poris, vol. 4 ( Paris, 1875), p . 70. [Ala,5]

Cour du Commerce: "H er e (using s beep) the fi rs t experiments were oollilucted wi th the guillotine; iLs inve nto r lived a t tha t time 011 the Cour du Commerce and the Rue de l' Ancienne-Comedie:' Lefc uve. Les Anciennes JUauons de Pom , vol.
,~ ,

p. 148 .

(Ala,6]

Ulllil \870. the clurillgll rul l'\l II .. sll'cets, O n the narro"," sillc:wu lks t he 1 11!1 1 t: ~ triull 1'0'118 c Xl r"mely (' r tlJnJlc.l . UIU! 8(1 ~ tl'(,lIill g l ook place princi pally ill Ille IIrl:uJ es, wl,il'" uffc l'tJ prolct'liull f"ulI) "ntl wl!utiler a nd from t h.: traffic . " O ur la r,.cr 1OII'Ct'l.!lll .lt l lOur witl '~I' s i l l c.wll l k ~ un' s ui led IlIthc s w(.' t1 lI i nc rie t ha i for u ur falh er , wa ~ iIl1PfJ ~l" ihl,' c ' XI"'pl in th~' arclh lt'i!. " 0 I-l inc ur 0 E dn wnd Be a u rt> Jlaire. Pri m d 'J.jer e ' "'(llIjcm r J'llII i : l..n C/lro ,. i(I'U~ de, rue' ( Pari.i , 1900), p. 6~, [A I a.l \

"The Passage du Caire ,~ whe re the main husiue58 is lithographic printing, mUilt h,1\'e d t.:ck..d ilse lf o ul in lights when Nal'1I1ellli 11.1 a bolished the sta mp dUl y un t'lIInllu:rciai cir culars ; this emum:ipatiull ma de the arcade rich , a nd it showed its apprI..'ciatioll wilh cXllc ndilu rcs rllr heautifica tilln. Up 10 that poinl, whe n if !'u incd , Ulnb rdl as hnd been llt:clle(1 in i t~ galle ries , ",hidl in several placci! lac kcd glass cllverin g." Lt>re u ve . Le, Allaic,trW5 MlIi,'iOru de Pari.!. "01. 2 , p. 233 . 0 Drea m lI olisCY0 Wea ther 0 (Egypliall urlia mClllutio n). IAIa ,7j Impasse l\taulH'rt , f(lf'IIII,ly II'Ambo ise, AroullIl 1756, a l NOll , 4--6, a fl uiso ner resided with her Iwu 118s iSl a nlll, All three we re fo und dClIl I one lUorruu g- killl. "tI Ihrougll inhalation of 10xlC fumc N. fA la,8)

Shops in the Passage Vbo-Dodat. Counesy of the MusCe Camavalet, Paris. Photo copyright C Phototh~ue des Musees de la Ville de Paris. See Al a,4.

Years of ~ckless financial speculation under Louis XVIII. With the dramatic signage of the magaJillJ de noulMautiJ, art enters the service of the businessman. [Al a,9]
" After the Pus8age de PallorUIlIII8, which went huck to t.he yea r 1800 and which had an e8tabli, lu:u !"eIHltation ill society, there was, b y way of example. the gaUery that was ope ned ill 1826 hy the hutcher s Vero allli Ood al an~1 t.hat was pictured ill Ihe 1832 lithogra ph hy ArllOilt. After 1800 we lIIust go a U the way to 1822 to meet with a new a rcade: it is bclwt:en this {late ami 1834 thai the majori ty of the~ singular pas8ugewllY' are cons tructed. The most importullt or Ihem II rc groul>ed in

GI:u, roo~ and iron girders, Passage Vivielllle. Photographer unknown. CoUCCOOIl or J oh3.lU\ Fnedrich Geist; courtcsy Prestd verlag, Mun.ich. See A la,2.

an area bounded by the Rue Croix-de Petit.8-Champs to the lOuth , the Rue de la Grange-Bateliere to the north. the BouJevard de Seb as tolH>1 to tile east , and the Rue Ventadour to the wesl. " Marcel Poete, Une vie de cite ( Paris. 1925), pp . 373-

374.

[Ala,IO]

Shops ill the Pal8age des Panoramas: Re&taurant Veron . reading room, music s hop . Marquis. wine merchants, hosier, haberdas hen. tailors, boolmaken, hosien!, bookshops. caricaturist. Theatre dell Varietes. Compared ,,";th tim. the Paasage Viviellne was the "solid" arcade. There, one found no luxury s hops. 0 Dream Houses: arcade as nave with side ch ape ls. 0 [A2 ,I]

People associated the "genius of the ] acobins with the genius of the industrials," but they also attributed to Louis Philippe the saying: "God be praised, and my shops 100." The arcades as temples of commodity capital. [A2,2]
The newest Paris arcade, on the ChampsElysoos . built by an American pearl king: no longer in busine". 0 Decline 0 [A2,3] "Toward the end of the ancien regime, there were altemplBto establis h bazaar-like ~ hOp8 and fixed price stores in Paris. Some large magaliru de nouveautu-such as Le Diable Boite ux, Le. Dew: Magotll. Le Petit MateIo!, Pygmalion- were foundl.-d during the Relitoration and during the reign of Louis Philippe; but thelle wer e businesses of an inferior sort compared to today'B establishments. The era of the de partment B toreR da teR, in fact . only from the Second Empire. Tbey have undergone a great deal of development since 1870, and they continue to develop." [ <mile> Levasse ur. Huloire du commerce de w France. vol. 2 (Paris, 1912), p.449. [A2.<]

Arcades as origin of depanment stores? Which of the magasins named above were located in arcades? [A2 ,5] The regime of specialties furnishes also-this said in passing-the historical-materialist key to the 80urishing (if not the inception) of genre painting in the rorties of the previous cenrury. With the growing interest of the bourgeoisie in matters of an, this type of painting diversified ; but in confonnity with the meager artistic appreciation initially displayed by this class, it did so in tcnns of the content, in terms of the objects represented. There appeared histo rical s(%nes, animal srudics, scenes of childhood, scenes from the life of monks, the life of the family, the life of the village- all as sharply defined genres. 0 Photography 0 [A2,6] The in8uence of conunercial affairs on Lautreamont and Rimbaud should be looked into! [A2,7]
" Arlother characteris tic de riving chiefly from the Direc tory [presumabl y until a round 1830??] would be the Iightllcu of fabri cs; un evcn the cold e~ t ,lays, olle was

The Passage des Panoramas. Watercolor by 3.uunknown artist, ca. 1810. Counesy of Agc:nce Giraudon. See A2,I .

, ee n o nl y r urcly in furs 'w warm o Vf:r cOaIS, AI the risk oflo8illg their II kin , womc n ,'lotiH:!ll du~ msclvell as Ilmngl, thi' hurs IUl C~~ of willtc.r no longer existed . a ~ tlwugh nnfUrl' h... j s udtlc.llly 11O.!ell 1,'un8furlllc,1 iulo an ete rua l p a rodi \le:' <J ulllI) G rundCU Ile,'c t. U $ EMgwlCfI;,~ d~ If) ' oi/e ff ~ ( Pa ris) . p . xxx h ', [A2,B]

land credit, Ie

gTrll

ErneJt;

th~ Italian revenue,

Ie pauuu Vrctor; the credit for


(A2a,3]

movables, Ie petit J ulu ," In Rodenberg < Leipzig, 1867>. p. 100.

Ra nge of a stoc kb roker 's fee: between 2.000.000 uin ami 1.400,000 fr<tn cs.

[A2a,4)

In other fCSpeCts as well, the theater in those days provided the vocabulary for articles of fas hion, H ats a la Tarare, a la Theodore, it Ja Figaro, a la Grande PretreSse, a la Jphigeruc, a la C alprenade, a fa Victoire, TIle same liio.ism't: that seeks in ballet the origin of the real betrays itself when- around 1830--a news paper takes th e name u Sylphe. oFas hion 0 [A2,9)
Alexandre Duma\l at II diulICT (.Iarty gi \'en by Prillo;cij ~ l\-I3lhilde. The v{'r se is

" The arcades, nearly all of which date from the Restoration ." Theodore Muret , L'Huto;re por k theatre ( Paris, 1865), vol. 2, p, 300. [A2a,5] Some details concerning Avont. pendant. et apres ( Befo re, Duriug, and Afte r), by Scribe and Rou gemont. Pre mie r o n June 28, 1828. The first part of the trilogy re presents the slIde ty of the ancien regime, the second part depic hl the Reign of Terror, and the third takes place in the society of the Resto ration pe riod. The main characte r, the Ge ne ral , has in peacetime become an indus trialist and indeed a great manufacturer, " Her e manufacturing replaces, at the highest level, the field worked by the soldie r-laborer, The praises of industry. no less than tbe p raises of lVurrior$ and laureoles, were sung by Restoration vaudeville. The bourgeois class, with its various levels , was placed opposite the class of nobles: the fortune ae~ quired by work was opposed to ancient heraldry, to the turrets of the old manor house. Thill Third Estate, having beeome the dominant power, received in turn its flatt ere rs ." Theodore Mure t, L. 'Histoire par le theatre. vol. 2, p. 306 . [A2a,6] The Galeries de Bois . " which disappeared in 1828-1829 to make room for the Galerie d ' Od ean~, we re made lip of a triple line of shop s that could hardly be called luxurious. There were two pa r allel la nes cove red by canvas aDd planks, with a few glass panes to le t the daylight in. He re one. walked quite simply on the packed earth , which downpours sometimes transformed into mud . Yet people callie from all over to c rowd into this place , which was nothing s hort of mag~ nifieeot , aDd stroll be tween the rows of shops that would seem like mere booths compared to those that have come after them . These shops were occupied chieRy by two industries. each ha ving il8 own appeal. There were , fi rs t, a grea t many m.iIlin er~. who worked 011 large s tools fa cing outward , without even a window to Sel)a rate them ; and their s pirited eX"pression9 were, for many strollers , no lunall part of the place's attraction. Anll the n the Gule ries de Bois were the center of the new hook tl"ade.' Theotlore Muret. L'Histoire par Ie theatre , vol. 2, I'P. 225---226 ,

aimed al Nafl,)leou Ill .

..

In thei r imperial SI)I.. ndor. The uucle a nd nephew arc equal : The .lIwlt seized the ca pitals . Th .. nephew sci1," ~ O llr cllpilal.
Icy s ilc nce fullowed . n eportcli in M/WlOires till comIc Horac.e de Vi f'I,C /J 5te15I1r le reglle. de /VCIIJo/e()II Ill. vol. 2 ( I'urili, 1883), p . 185, IA2,lO} " The c:o llliue~ b -Ua "lUlteed the ungoing life of the Stol; k Exchange. Here there wus nCl'e r clos ing lim('; the re was almost ne ve r oigIlt. When the Cafe Tortuni finally closcd iu doors. the O::OhUIIII of shu:k jo bLc rs wo ulti head acr oss thc adjacent houle varth a nd mennde" up and down the re. collecting io fro nt of the Passage de l'Ope ra'-' Julius Roclenhe rg, Paris be; Son'lellscheili lIIul l..nmpelllicht ( Leipzig,

1867). p . 97,
S I)OOILiation in railrfllHi s tOl'ks ulllie r louis PhiliPIlt!

[A2, Il ]

IA2,12]

"Of th.: sa me e.xtrac tio n . (urtlllwlIlore [that is, fr IJIIl the house nf Roth!u-hildJ. is
the IIl11l1ZiJlgly doque nt Mire~, wh(l need,. only to s peak ill o rde r II) l"ulll'inct: his c n.,]it,)Is tllal I"sses a.'e I'rofilll- imt whose nanlt: . aft er thc 8candalous trial agains l hinl . was !Iune tlldcss o blileralC,l frolll the Pllssag'>l\1ires . which thereupou b L"f:u m c the Passage des PrWI't!s (wilh thl; flllllOli S dining ft) i.lIII S of Pete r .. res t a u ~ I"Ullt) '-' lludl!lIllt'r g. p(lris bei SO lHumsc/H'iU ulld L.mlll)e ,.licht (Leipzig. 1867) ,

[A2a,7]
Julill ~ Rode nbe rg 0 11 the small reading room ill the Passage de )' Opera : " What It cheerful air this ~lII a ll. halfdarkened room has in my memory, with its high book shel ves, its green tables , its red hllirctl 8arr;on (a grea t 10ler of books , who was ul .... ays reading novels insteall uf hringing them to othe rs). ils German newspape rs , .... hich every Illuming glallJencd the heal"t of the Ge rma n ahroad (all exccpl the Cologne pa pe r~ which on ave rage mll,le an appea rance only unce in ten t.!a Yij). But when the re is a ny news ill Paris. it i~ here that one can receive it. SoftJy whi$pered (r ur th.: redhead keeps a sharp lookout to make sure that neithe r he nu r uther

p . 98,

[A2a, l ]

Cr y fl f Ihe vendo r>! of ~ t u ,: k~(:xchall g.. lists till the HI'eel : In Ihe c \'el1t uf II ri ~ c ill pricc ~. " Iusc in the 5t",:k markd l" ln till: o 'vent of" fall . -- Vul"iutio ng in tlw ~ I"c.k ma rkt"l !" TIlt! te rm " full "' wa ~ fo rhiddc n liy the poli r.I', {A2,a,2]

In its imponancc for tJ1Caffairs of tJle c()uluJI!, the Passage de rOpera is compara ble m the Kranzlercckc, Spccu!.uor 's argot "in the period preceding the outbreak lh e Germ a n war [o f 18661: the 3perccllt intCJcst was c;aHcd Alplwn.rr"lIe; t.he.

or

readers " 'ilI he Jisludled hy this). it ItaMlleR from lipR10 ear. paRselJ almnst iDlIH'.r+ 1'~ pLiltl y f rum p e ll lit pUJlc.r. allIl finally fro lll writ.ing desk 10 nearh y letle.rbox, The j.:ooJ (Ium .> till brl rtlUII has a fl'il~II"l y smiltl for 1111 , II l1d ,,"pcrs 1111(1 ~nve.lopcs for I'u rrd lllllllicnl!i. Tlw earl y mail is J is palCllc(1. Cologne and Augdmrg have their new,, ; und nuw- il ifl noontillw!- Io tllt~ tln e rn .' Rodenbe rg, Puris bei Sonllen[A2a,8) sch eill I/ml Lam/llm licht (Leipzig, 1IJ67\, pp. 6-7,
'"'The 1)"~lIage 1111 Caire ill highl y remini,.etml . 0 11 a smuUer IicalE'. of the PUIIl!uge du Su unlOn , which in the Jla61 exiilted on tlll~ Hue Montma rtre, 011 Ihe site of the IlI'esclIHluy Rile BachulInlont:' Pa Ld l...i:uUIIiLIII, " ViNlx Pa ris:' Mercure de fnlllce(O(:tober 15. 1927), p, 503. [A3,11

"Even ""!JIlII'n . wllf! wert furltid den 10 enter the Siock Exchange, asscDlhled al the cluelr in orJfr to J:lea n ~UIIIC ill(l.il' a tiltn ~ of markel pri ce~ /lIIIJlo rclay Iheir orders III Itr (Jk c " ~ thr(lU ~h L111' iron gr'uting. til 'frllluju rlll(l!ioll de I'lIri" SO U J te Se(;oll1l t,'mlJirr (a lliitors l'oeil.'.. Clumml , lIe.nriot) <Puris . 19 10).611 the occasion of the I,,dliililioll of till' lihl'a ry and till" hisloril'a.1 wo rks of the ci ty uf Paris, p , 66,

IA3,71
.. , \~ have no speciaJty"- this is what the weU-known dealer in secondhand goods, Fremin, "Ihe man with the head of gray," had written on the signboard advertising his wares in the Place des Abbesses, H c.n:, in antique brie-a.-brae, reemerges the old physiognomy of trade that. ill the first decades of the previous cenlury, began to be supplanted by the rule of the Jpicialili , TIlls "superior scrap-yard " was called All PhiJOJ()pheby its proprietor" What a demonstration and demolition of stoicism! On his placard wefe the': words: "Maidens, do not dally [AS,8) under thc leaves! " And : "Purchase nothing by moonlight."
E\'illcnll y 11t!1)lIle ! lIIoked in Ihe ar cades at a lillie wh('n il was nul yet customary to !nuke in Ihe s treet . " 1 lUost say a word heN! IIhout life in the arcades . favored hUllllt nf atroUers and smokers. Ilu~lI w r of ol'cratiullS for ever y kim! of smaU l.tlIsineu. In ear l! url'ode therl' is ut 11~3\l 1 olle cleaning eslablis hment , In a saloll that is as de~a lltl y fu r nished as il s inlended u lle permits, geutlemcn sil upon high 8100ls K II,I cornfort llbly pertMe u nc!W5pajler whil .. SOlllt'tme busily brushes the dirt off their d otlulIg Illld Louis. ,. Ferdinand vo n Gall . Porn und .5eine Salam , vol. 2
~O ld enhur~.

" Shll jltl 1111 Iht' 11111 mmld . devoted to trades fOlllll lllowherc else, liurmoun hld by a slIlaU , ol.l+fus hiolletl ml'uu nine "'ith windows Ilia I eadl hcur a number, on an csculch<-'QII. eOI'N!8lKtmling III a purlicula r slwp , From tilll \! to time, a doorway gh'ing Onlo a corritlor; lit lilt: end the corridor. a sIDaU s tairway Icullillg to these IIIczzaninciI, Nell r tiUI knoh of Ollt! of theiit! doon, thi ~ balulwriuen sign :

or

)'1111

Tilt! worker nt! J(1 door would be obligecl if. ill l'io!;:ing Ilu) door, rdr/l ill!!,1 frolll ~I u lllming it.
[A3~1

1845). PI" 22-23 ,

[A3,9]

A.Dotller lIign ill l'ilClI iJl th .. ~a nll' pill ee (Le/lut aud , "-viI'II" Parill ," Mercu re de f'rmlf.'e [l 92il , pp . 502-503): AAGELA

A fint willi eI' gllrt!t'" - Il g1anell-in II pace with flower beds. espalier s, aod fouotains. in pa ri untlergronnd-oll the 6po l where. ill Ute gardt'll of the Palais--Royal ill IBM (1l IUllodll ), as well?). Ihl! reservl,ir waS lucaled. Lui.1 uul in 1788, [A3,lO)
\'I'e see thl" first lIIug usinJ de nou vecuW!': La Fille Mal GarJee, Le Sold al Luhoureur. Les DCIl " MagvI8, Le ''I:til Saiut-TholJllls , u- GUb'lle-Dt! nier d'elmy Winningl!)." <Ludell) l)ul)('Ih ullil d)i (' rr~ ) IrEs pezl'1. lIi!Jlnire <ill Pu ris ( Puris . 1926), p, 360. [A3, 1] ]

211(1110M,

10

the right

[A331
Olll lHUlll' for tll'purtlllent ~ tlll'C!l : docks bOil ma rclle-Ihat ~. " llillCOtlllt II\leks." <S i gfri ed~ Git:tlillu , B(lmm i" Fnwl.:reich <Leipzig ttut! Berlin. 1928). p, 3 1.

" It is al Ihe ..ud of th t' Res toration llial


~8 Vcp r .., Siciliennc8 ,

u- Solitaire.

IA3,' 1
Evolution of the department Slore fro m the shop that was housed ln arcades, Principle of the dcpamueul store: "'The floors fo rm a single space, They can be taken ln, so to speak, 'at a glance,'" Giedion, Bmull in Frankrricn., p, 34, [A3,5] Gicdion shows (in Ballt:1l in FranArYicn, p, 35) how the axiom, "\ \elcome the crowd and keep it seduced " (Sciellct rt l'illl/IIJtriC, 143 {1925J, p, 6}, leads to COTnlpl architectural practices in the construclion of the deparulleul store Au Printemps (1881 - 1889). Function of commodity capitaJ ! [A3 ,61

" 111 11120 , . , IIII' 1'1l s~ llge Vi ull('t li nd 111I~ I'ussug" .Ies Deux PII \'iUOIlS we n ' opcned , 'l'hL'S f' arlal le!. werl' IIIIIIIIl I!; 1111' n Qvd til'~ of tileir J ay. The rt's uh of I'riwltl! inilialin'. Ihcy wl' r,' l'\I\'I'I'I'11 gull l'I'i c~ housing ~ llOpll ti ull fu~ hi ll ll llIade prosl'l'roll s, Till: /t1ll ' 1 1'1Imuu ~ "" as Iltc I'o ;;~ug(' l it'S Plllllll'II IlU IS. whil'll fl fl uri,~ hl'd from 1823 10 183 1. ' Un S Ullll ay ~ . ul'St'r\'clll'luh el, unl' "" 1'111 en mU SilI' "II) !.II+' llunorumus or d iil' t o Ih, l, u lIl,' vul'Il ~ , ' It wu s ahl(, I'rh'ute inili nti,'c Ihal crt'a lt'll, SOllll'whul hup+ 1I:ll';lI l'IlIy. I Itt' hOIll; illll lll'VI'lopm"llts kn uwu !I ~ l'i,eK. lilt' s hllrt strcctft ur IIt'ail cntl", Ituih III !IhUI"t.. 1 CXPl'U~I' hy II syllllic:II" of prOpC'rly U"'lll'l"S . ,. LUl'icn Duhcd l allli Pit'I'n' II' Espczl'1. lIi~fQirl! lIe /'"ri.. ( PMis. 1926). pp. 355-356, [A3i1. I]

In 1825, ope ning or IIII~ " PlU\lIogell Dlluphine. SlIuoelle. ChoiJieul" anll (If tJle Cite Hergere. ' tll 182i . . . th e Pa. u ogel; CoU H!rt . Cru u ul, lie I'Il1dUlilrie ... . 1828111W dlt~ ol>ening ... (lr till' P.II.1s a~t.'IJ Urlltly and deli Gr .llviUiers and the hepunillgs (If the Calt' rif' d 'Orleans al the Pll lai ~- n oYIII , which replace. I the w...... le n galleries 11111 II'Espczd. lJiJtoire c/e "uri!. tllal hue! burued d01O'1i thol )'I~ar.' Duhl:1'I1 0 PI" 357-358. [A3a,2] '''The IIIU:estor uf tile ,Iepartmenl 6tore!l, La ViU.~ Ilc Pa ris . 1I1'I)('a r(d III 174 Rue [A3a,3] Montmartre i.o 1843. " DuJ.H.:dl and d ' EIiezel. lIi",oire lie Puris . II. 389. me , illl I gll\'e one the slip in 11 11 IIrelldt:. Tht! rc II rt: a great many or these gla.!lIl-covered walkwuy" . whii'h uflcn l 'rOSS tlwough II,,: Mockll of buildings 111111 make 8evcral bronchings. Ihll8 afrO/'ding welcome ilhollcuts. Here and there Ihey a.re constructed with great elcgtllu:e. IIlId in had weather or after dark. when they a l'e iii lip "right as d ay. they off,'r promcnades-a nd very popular they are-pailt row" or g1illering shops." Eduard De nie DI , Hriefe 611.1 Paris (Berlin . IMO), p . 34 . [A3a.4] Rlle-gulerie.-"Th e $ Ire~I-8(,llery ... is tJle most important featul'e of a Phalaostery a nd ... cu nnot lie cOllceived of in civilization .... Slreel-gullericl! ... lire heated in ....inter a llil vl'utilated ill Slimmer .... The street-galler y. 01' cOlltinuow peristyle, extends Illong the 5et"lIl1d story.... 1'I1I)8e .... ho have seell the gallery of the Louvre ma y take it OIl It mood for the street.guIJe.ry in B a nnoIl Y." E. Siloorling, OicI;()lIflllire de sociologic IJh(l/(lflsterifllme Wuris. 1911). p . 386; citing <Charleu Fourier, TI, o rie de "unile IIni verselle ( 1822), p . 462 , unci Le NO UlH::att MOllde ill(/u,flrie/ 1'. 1 sociewire (1829), Pfl . 69, 125,272. In oJdition : Clllerie. "AU portions of th ... central ciliflee ra n be Ira\'t~rsed 1Iy meuml of u wide gallery which rllm along the sec:!lJnll flonr .... T hlls. ('\'t~ry lhi.ng is linked by a lIerie~ of passagewayil which ar e .. heltcrcd , elf'gu nt . lind cOllullrtalJle in winter thank ~ 10 Ihe help of hCll t c r~ allil ventiJatMs." E. Silherling. Oiclil)llttuire. PI" 197- 198; citing Fourier, Th eorie ",ix/e. au ~pec ut(lli tJe, el ~Ylltl!i!se roulilliere d(> f'lI ssrn;;fltion, p. H .I [A3a,5) The Passage Ilu Caire adjoining Ih. fornwr Cour .lcI Mirllcles. Built ill 1i990n th~ sit ~ of th!' old ga rden of tlltl CUllvt'nt of lhe D;t ugblcn of God. lA3a.6] Trade and traffic are the two components of the street. Now, in the arcades the second o f these bas effectively died out: the traffic there is rudimentary. The arcade is a strect or lasciviolls commerce only; it is wholly adapted to arousing desires. Because in Ulls street the juices slow 10 a standstill. tJle conmlOdity prolifcrlltcs along t.he m a rgins and emers into rantastic combinations. like the tissue in tUnlors.-The Bftn eur sabotages the traffic. Moreover, he is no burer. H e IAJa.7} is m erchand i.se.
' Rai.lI ~ h ower8 1111110)'

ror the first time in history, with the establishment or department storu, consumers begin to consider themselves a mass. (Earlier it was only scarcity which taught them that.) H ence. the circuslike and theatrical element of commerce is quite atraordinarily heightened. [M, l ]

With the appearance or m assproduced articles, the concept or specialty arises. Its relatio n 1 0 the concept of originality remains to be explored. !A4 ,2)
.. , grant tha i busineu at the Pnhli. R() yal has had ils d ay; bllt I believe Ihal this should Ire altributetiliot to the ab8l!nce of streetwalkcrll but to the erectioQ of new arcades. alliliO the enlargement and refurbiilhing of s .... ver al others. I will mention the Passugell d ... I' Opera, du GrandCerf, du 5allllloli . lit' W !ro-Dodat. Delorme, de Choiselll , alld des Panoramall. ,. F: F. A. Bcraud . LeI! I'"m es publiqlles de Pu,-u et to police qui Ie! regit (Paris and Leipzig. 1839), vol. I , p . 205. [M.3)

.. , du not know if bUlIiness at the Palais Royal has ~ally suffered froftltbe absence of femme. de debauche~ but ",hat is certain iii thai puillic deeelicy there has improvell enormously. ... It seellls to me, furthermore. thllt resp tllble women now willingly do thei.r ~hoppin g in the shops of the gaUeries . . . ; tJlis hlls til be an ad\'antage for the merchants. Fill' when the Palais~ R oYll l was invadt:d by a Iwarm of practically nude pro~titut es , Ihe gue of the crowd wlll lurllt'tl towa rd Ihem. and the pf'oJlle who enjoyed this IIH!t.'tacle were never the onf!S wilo patronized the local businesses. Some were already ruined by their disurderl y life, while othen, yield. ulg 10 the aUllre of li.bertini~ m. had no thought Ihell of Jlurchasing any goods. even IIc~e6ij ities. I helieve I r.an affirm ... that, during tb o~tl times of inordinate toleralice. sevcral shops at the Palui,Royal were c1olled , ulI ll ill others buyer l were rare. Thus. hUliut'u did not al aU prosper there, aotl it wOllld be more accurate to say th at Ihe I ta~a tion of husine8ll at thai time wall owing r ather to the free circulation of the flUes publiqlles Ihan to their absence. whid today has brought back iulu tht: gaUeries and the garden of thil palace numeroU il !>troUen ..... ho are far IllOre fa vo rahle tu Lusine8ll than prostitutes and Iibertinell." F. F. A. Beraud . Le. Pilles pllblil}ul!1 de Pari., Waris lind I...cipzig. 1839). vul. I . I'p. 207- 209. [MA)
The catk are. nll t<1 With ,oonnen. " 'jlh IlIIokenl; 'l'hll th ealenl are IJac ked Wilh eheerful speela lon. Tht' a rt.a<l es are dw.rlllill~
Wit" lu wk er s . ..i lh e lllhtl ~i ll~ l!i. Antl l!it:k"ockel8 wriltW t:

1J"i1illtllbc ftiineurs. E:n ner y a lul Le llllline . Paris In d ted in IJ . Guunl ull de Ceoouill uf, I.e, Refrui n. de In rue de 1830 ii 1870 (Pa ri . 1879). PI" ,1(.-47.- Ttl he " um plI''i~d willI Baudeiaire'iI "C rcl1u~ cul e ,Iu suir.... lA4a.l ]

,.lIi,.

" And thosi' who ctlllnol pay for , , , tI s helter ? They sleep whereve r they find a place, ill IlUssagt:ll. arcacil!s. ill \;orner/S whe re the police a nd the owners ICllve the m uluJiSlurlwd ," Frictlriuh Engels, Die L1I8e del' IIrl/eitclIJell Klr,sse ill E" g llw d , 21111 c.1. (Leipzig, 1848). p ,1(' (,' Oi" l/;rn u.:u Sllidtll" j,:i [A4a,2]
" Ill IlJI t he s h o)l~. like n unifo rlll , t ilt' oll k ('OlmtCI' is ud o l'llc,1 willi ,'uun tcrfd t \Jo ins. in every kim l of melal a nd in evel'y fo rma l , met'eilessly naile,l ill place like bird" of p l'l:Iy 011 a door- uniJllpca uhable evide nce of the IH'oprictor's scrupu lous honest y." Nadal', QIUIIIlI {itfl i:s IJllOlOgrapil e (paris <I 90(h), p, 294 (,. 1830 t:l en\'irons"), {A4a,3}

Fourier 0 11 tl,,' s tl'cel~gu l lt: ri es: "1'0 spcud U winter's day ill It Phalallstcry, to \'isit a lll'urts of it without I'xpus ure \(I tJlt~ cle me nt", to go to the Iheale r a nd the o pe ra in Light e11.thes a nd colo red s hoes without worrying about I.he mud a mi the (:0111 , would he II. c har m sllllo\'ellhat it WOlle wo uld s umee to make OUI' citiCii and castles St'1'1II dctcstablt!, If the P ha la nstc r y wCl'e put to I:ivilizcd uscs . tlte mer e cunven ience Iff its s hch el"c<l . heated , a nd vc ntilated passageways ..... o uld ma ke it e llor mous ly vu hlilhh', ~ Ii a pn)pcl'l), \'alue ' . . would he douhle l h ut of a nothe r buiidiug its size," E , Puissun , f ou r ier [AnlllOlogy] ( Paris, (932), p. 144. [A4a,4]

public halls will be located o n the ,,"ouod Roor. Tht:re will a lso be trap doors in the floors of the ,lining roo ms on the second stor y. ThuiI, the lables may be gel in 1111: kitchens belo w and simply rai~d through the t rap dOllrfl when il is time to ea t. T hese trap door~ will be particularly u ~eful during estivitit:s, such as the visits of traveling carava ns and legions, whe u tbere will be too man y pt:ollie tu eal in the o rdinary dining rOOIllS. The n doub le rows of tahles will be set ill the s t ree l -gaUcr~ ies, a nd the rood will be passed lip from the kitchen . I The principal public halls ~ h ould not he situa ted on the gro und Roor. There are two reason /S ror this. The fin t is th ll l the patriarc h, and children , who have difficulty climbing ~ t airs, , hould he ICjdged in the lowe r parts of the huilding. The second is that the children should 6e kepi in isolation from the no nindustrial activities of the ad ults," Poisson, Fourier [Anthology J (Paris, 1932), pp, 139-144, 7 [AS) Yu. parbl.eu! Yo u know the power oTibet , Implaca ble enemy of proml innocence, Hardl)' doci it alllJ-ea r than it carries away The bookk eeper'. wife and the burgher's daugh ter. The alern prude a nd the frigid coquette: It 8i!nal~ the victory of lovers; For ru hion tolerate. no resistance, And not to have il pUl ~ one to ahame. h~ fabric. hra \'ing the current bon mOl, SoflelU in ;18 fo ld~ the a rrows of ridicule; Seeing it, )'ou think of a magical taw man: It hraoes the Sljirilll and l ubjugales the beart; For it to appear is alrf.ady a triump h, itl coming a conquest; It reigns u conqueror, as lovereign, at mu ter; And treating ils 'Iui\'er as a burdtcn quite useleu, Love h u fu bioned ill bancieau of cashmere, Edouard [d ' Anglemont] , Le Cachemire, one~a ct comedy in verse, performed for the first tillle in Paris at the Theatre Royal de )'Odeon , on Dt:cember 16, 1826 (Paris, 1827), p. 30, rASa.!] De!vau on Chodruc-Ouclos: "Umler the re ign of Louis Philippe, who owt:d hilll uothing, he ... did what he had done unde r the reign of C ha rles X, who in fa ct owed him something, .. , His bone8 took 11101'1:1 time to rot tha n his uam ~ took 10 eraHe itself from the memory of me n ," Alfred Delva u , LeJ Lion.! du j Ollr (Paris, 1867) , pp , 28-29, [A5a,2}

'TiI .. st l'l'"Ct ~ gIl Ue l'ies are II 1II0d" of intCl'llU1 communicatioll which ..... o uld IlIQuC be
sufficient to inspire (listl uin for tilt: pa laces a lld greal d lics OJ( .iviliza tiun . , . , The ki ng of France is one of t he leading mo na rchs of el\'iii zatio n; he d oes lIot even have a porch in hi" Tui leriet P:lhll:C. The king, till! llueen , tile royal famil y, when t hey get into 0 1' ou t of thcir curri ages. are fOl'ced to gel. as wet ail all Y petty bourgeoit ..... ho SIlIllIlIOIiS II. cob be f', 1!"1). his slwJ>' Doubtless the killg .....ilI ha\'e on hand , in the event of I"Ilill , a good lIla ll Y foo tmc n a nd courtier s to ho ld 8U umbre Ua for him ... ; but hf: ..... ill .. till he lackillg a porch 0 1' a roofthat ..... ouJtl shelter his pllrt)'., .. Let U ll. describe the .s tree t ~gaU er i es wbjeh a re o ue Il( Ihe mns t dmnning and predous ft:lI. tu1"CS a Jlal uce of Ha rllloll )" ' , , The Pha lanx has !lU oulsi<1e st.reets or IlpCII routlwa ys cXJln~ell 10 the cle.me nts. All portions of the ccnlrll.l edifice 1:11.11 he tra\'c rsed b y lIIeau s of a ..... ide gallcl'y ..... hich rullS a loug lhe sccond fi l}()I' of the whole btliltl ing, At ('a('1i extre mity of this s pacio us corridor th >:I'c ure elevate,1 passages, slIPl'llrlcd by columllS, and a lsl> allrll uli~<e unrlcq;l"ollnd passages whi uh connect nllt.w parh ,,( Ihe Phalanx (md tlte acl j llining buildill g~. Thus. ,'\'erylhing is linked by II SIri,s uf passagewa ys which a re sheltercIl , 1'1 1 :g!lllt . ollli eumfurta ble in wiutl' r tlliluks 10 the help of Ilc a"'!'! alld vl'u til ntol"il .... The s lreNgaUc.")'. <II' cOIuimwu3 perisfyle. ('lIit'ntis a lo ng the Sl~ond slory. It ('o uld nOI be placed 0 11 till" ground Iltmr. siJlce 111I~ 10""(:1' parI uf Ih e building will be Ir:l v{'lso.:d by I:a rrillgl' UII ~ trauCeS .. , , T bc s lr~'e t ~gll lll' I'ics of a Phula nx willli aloug just (l Il C s i.le \If tllc CCIl tl'al cllifiee II. nd s lrCl(;h II) t.he 1 ;1111 fjf \'Ilc h of its WillI?'>' AU of t hesl' w ill g.~ "Olltuill a doubl,' 1'0 1'0' uf l'OOIll,i . Thll s. "III' n .w of I'()ums louks UII I upo n the fiel(l ~ lind gar,!t,us. ulUlthc "l lwl" looks Oll t UPOII t.he ~ 1 1('t'I ~l!a ll.'ry, The ~ 1I'"I -gall(, ly, th ull . will he Ihn'.' Sh'I'i" s It j~l l with wiml(,w5 .. II 1IIlt' ~ i(I . . , , ' TIlt' ki ll'Itl'IIJj and S(l IlII' of till'

or

,It was 11 0 1 until afte r the cxpeclilion to Egypl ,~ when lH::u pie in Franct: gavc thuu ghltll expanding the use o( precious cas hme re fah ric, thllt a woman , Gr!!ek hy birth , introduced it to Paris. M . Tcrnault , , . conceived the admirable project of raising Hindustani gllats in Fra nce. Since Ih!!n , ' .. there ha ve Leell p lc nty ,,( wur ke r!! 10 tra ill and tra,le" 10 e!!tahlis h , in order for us to compe te s uccessfttUy against produc ts re no wncd through su mun y ct:nturlt:s! Our mlinUfllCllll"crS are

heginlling II) I riumph . . . over WOffi('11 's prej udice against Frf' lIch 8 h uwl ~ .... We have mUlutgcl110 rnake WOIIII'II forget for a mornent Ille ridiculQus fahri c.dl~d i gn 8 of t.he Hindu8 lIy hllfJpil y Ieprotluc:.ing Ihe "j\'idlle88 anll hriJljanl ha rmony of the 1I0wers fOllnd in ollr own gllrdcns. There is U Look in whil:h 11 11 these inlcrcl!ling 8uhjeetoi ul'e d.isCUlIlltIJ bot h knowledgeahly and d egu lldy. L 'lIi.s,oire de.s .scil all.s. hy M. Hey, Ihollgh written for the IIlmwlllllUlufnclUrers of Puris. is guurulllt:cd to ca ptivll le WOlIIl'n .... This hook. together with its author'iI magnificent manufactured go...ds, will Ulllloubtf'IUy help to diu ipate frf'IICh l:leople's infaluation wi lh Ihe work of fol't' ig:ners. M . Rey. IIUlllllfuclurer of s hawls made of wool. cas hmere, d c . ... has hrought 0 111 ~ ve ral cashmeres ranging ill price from 170 to 500 [raIlCH. WI' OWf' 10 him . alllong other improvements .. . the graee[ul imitatiou of uative grown nowell! ill pluf'e of tilt' biza rre palms of the Orif'lIt. Our "raise woulllliOI he l'<lual to the hellcfi 18 he IIII!! helilowetl, ... nor could it reuder the high hOllor l.h at Ihis liUera tcur-lIIanllfactli rer d est'rves for his long rcsearch a nd his taleliis. We mus t hc cuutenl merely 10 name him." Chclloue and H. D., N otice.sur " expo! ition des I)rocl"j,s de l'illliu.strie el des (lrl. tlui a liell DOlla; etl 1827 (Donai , 1827), Ill" 24-25. [A6, I]

AIII:r 1850: .. It is during dUlse years that the department siores are crealed : Au 0011 Marl'lu}, Lc Lou\'re. La Belle Jurdiuihe. Tolal sales for Au BOil Marchb ill 1852 we re only 450,000 (runcs; b y 1869 they had r isen 10 21 miUioll ." Cisela FreulI~I , I..a P/lOlOg rtll,hie rill poi/lt rle v"e sociologill"e (manuscript , PI" 85-86); citing ul\'i8de. lIi.stoire de Prance. [A6.2]

A branch of La BclIeJardiniere in Marseilles. From Le },fonde il1UJtri. March 28, 1863. See A6,2.
" The pri nters ... ....ere IIblt' lo ap propriale, al the end of the eighteenth cenlury. a vaSl area: ... Ihe Passage du Caire and ils environ8.. " . Bul with theextellsioll of the houndaries of Puri!!. pr inlf'U ... were diilpt'rsed 10 1111 parts of the cilY.... Ala:!! A gllIt o priu teu! Today ....orkers corrupled by the spiril of speculatioll oughl 10 relllelUill'r thai . . " hrl ....een the Rne Saint-Denis IIlId the Cour ties ~lir aelee till're !!till t'~i ~ ts a long, s moke-filled gaUery .... here their trlle household godJJ Iif' orgollt-II . ,. Edollard FOllcaud , Pari.s irwenleur (P-.. ris. 1844), p " 154. [A6,3J Descr iption .,f the Puilll.uge Ilu Sillllllun , ...... hich . h)' wa y of Ihrt!e stolle sleps, opell(ollulllO thc Rue l\1onlorgalt'il. It wu 11 narro .... corridor Ilecoratt.,<l ....ith pilllJJlers ~ uJll'o rlill g a ridged gla ss roof ..... hich .... as liuer ed witb garhage thro.... n frolll I lI'i~hburill g houses. AI Ihe cnl ra nce. the signboard- a tin 8a lmoll indicati ng the muj n "'Illru tl~r i s l i l ' ~Jf tlH' I'l lI l'~: Ih., air was filled ....ilh Ihe s nwU of fis h ... li lld ulllQ Ille s nwllu gu rlit-. It WIIS Iwn . nlw\'t all . that thoSI! IIrri"ing ill l'ori8 fr('111 lite ilvu th of FI' llnl '~ ....ou IIIIIITung. 10 1111'1'1 .. . " Through the doors of Ihe 11110,,8,0111: s piel.1 Ihlllk)' ull'uvl' ~ whlTl' 1I0 lll c lim e~ II pit'ce of III1.hoga llY fur nilllrf' , till' dn ",~ k (IIr"illl"I' flf IIII' I'.. riUlI . wo ul,1 nuu mgl' III calell u ray of light. Furl lll'r on . II ilmull iJn r hllZ)' with IIII' 81110kt of 1"11II"c,, "iJlt'~: n s hop selling pro.luds from 11\1' l'o lol1il~S unll I'millill/! u l'Ul'ioUil fru gran.. "f t'xOlic plants. ~ Jli ct's. anti fru ilS; II lIullroo," UfiCII fIJI' .lunciuS un S l1n.l ay~ uml workdu y evellillgll : finall y the I'cnding r(HUIl of

Sieur Ceceherini. who offered to patrons his news paperil and his books." J . LucasDuhreloll, L 'AfJaire Alilxuu/. Oil Lolji.s-Philiplle trufJu e ( 1836; rpl . Paris, 192i), PI' 114-11 5. [A6a,l ] 011 the occasion of dis tu r hanccs IIUocia led with the hllria l of General Lamanlue 011 June 5, 1832 , the IlaSliage du Sanmoll waH the ~ce ll e of a hattie waged 011 barricades, ill which 200 worker &('onfronlt:d Ihe troops. [A6a.2]
" Murtill ; Busincss. yu u ~ee. sir, .. . is 1.111' rult-r of Ibc worltl!- Desgefl oi.s; I am of

r our .,))iniOIl. Monsieur Martin , but Ihe ruler alone is 1I0t enough: therc lIIusl be slIbjeltil. And that is ...here painling, sc u l"lu l't~ . mu ~ i c cumc ill .... - Mur,in ; A little of Ihat b IICCl'ssa lY. s urd )" . .. !1IIt! . .. I mysdf haw' encourage{l lhe a rlS. ll, I hud IIIUIlY paintiJlgs on Why, in my last es lahlis hment . tilt Cui: lie F,"a nC ulll'goricaJ s ubjecls ... . Whal is IIIUI'C, 1 t:lIgaged IIII1$icialiS for the e \enings .. Finally. if I ma)' invite yo u 10 lI el'ollll'III1Y IIIC . " ., YOII ....iIl 81 . lInder my pcrisl yle Iwo "cr y la rge. sCll ntil y alliretl ~ l a lu e8. cadi ...ilh a light fi Xlul'j> 011 ils hc'IlI.- De!ge rmi.s; A Light fi Xlure?-Mfirtill; Thllt ill. my illcR nf sculpt ure: il IIIII ~ I ~e rve SOllie purpose .... All th o~ statues wilh all 111'111 or 1.1 II'!; ill the ai r- wlml are they good

fo r, lIince they've had no pipe inl talled to carry gall? ... What are they good for?" Theodore Barrier e, Les Po risien.t, produced at the Theitre du Vaudeville on December 28, 1854 (Paris, 1855), p. 26. [The play illlct in 1839.] [A6a3] There wall a Passage du De8ir. <See Ala ,2.)
[A6a,4]

Chodruc-Duc1o&--a l upernumerary at the Palai8- Royal. He was a ro yalisl , an oppo nent of the Vendee. a nd h ad groundll for complaining of ingratitude under Charlel X. He protested by appearing publicly in rags and letting his beard grow. IMa,5] Apropos of an engraving that pictures a shopfront in the Passage Vero-Dodat : " One cannot praise this arrangement too highly-the purity of its line8; the picture8(lue and bnlliant effect produced b y the gaslight giobes, which a re placed between the capitals of the two double columns bordering each IIhop; and fin ally the sbop partitions, which are let off by reRecting plate p 88I1." Cahinet dell Enampes (in tbe Bibliotbeque Nationale, Pan S). [A7,1] At No. 32 Passage Brady there was a dry-c1earungel tablishment , Maison Donmer. It was (fa mous) for its "pant workrooms" and itl " numerous personnel. " A contemporary engraving shows the IwcH tOry bwlding cr owned by small mansards; female workers in great number. are visible through the windowlI ; from the ceil[A7,2] ings hangs the linen . Engraving from the Empire: Th e Dance of the Shawl amons the Three Sultanw. Cabinet d es Eatampes. [A7,3] Sketch and Roor plan of the a rcade a t 36 Rue Hauteville , in black. blue . and pink. from the year 1856. on siamped paper. A hotel attached 10 the arcade is likewise represented. In boldface: " P ropert y for lease." Cabinet de8 Estampel .

IA',' I
The firSt deparunent stores appear to be modded on orientaJ bazaars. From engravings one sees that, at least around 1880, it was the fashion to cover with tapestries the balustrades of the staircases leading to the atrium. For example, in the sto~ called City of Saint-Denis. Cabinet des Estampes. [A7,5]
-rIle Passage de l'Opera , with itB two galleries, the Galerie de I' Horloge a nd the Galeritl tlu Ba rometre .. .. The opening of the Opera 0 11 the Rue Le Peletier, in 182 1. brought this arC811e into vogue, a nd in 1825 the duehe88e de Derry came in I lt:r~on to inaugurate a ' Eurol'ama' in the Galen e du Bar ometre . ... The grisettel of the Restoration da nced in the Idalia Hall , built ill the basemen t. La ter. a cafe caUed the Divali ti l' " Opera was e8lablil hed in the arcade . .. . Also to he found in the Passage de r Opera wal the arms manufacturer Car on. the music publisher

llle Passage de l'Opera, 1822-1823. Courtesy of the Must!e Camavalet, Paris. Photo copyright () PhotOlhcque des Musl!:es de la Yule de Paris. See A7,6.

, .\

'''('he Passa ge de. IJa no ra maJi, so nllmc..,,1 in me mo ry of the t wo l' Anoramas tha t slood 0 11 ei the r !jill., of illl enl r a llcewa y a mi I.h ul disuppea retl in 183 1. '- Pa ul d 'Aris l.e, I--t) Vie et Ie mm ule ,/ .. boufevtlrd ( Purill) . p. 14. [A7,7]

T he bCliutiful upotileosis of the 'mane! of the Indian , h awl," in the section o n hlliiall IIrl ill Michllel 's lJiMe lie l'IuHtul/l i' e (Paris. 1864). [A7a,l }
An d J ehud a he n Iiall',,)'. In her .iew. wo uld II/u 'e bee n IlO nored Qui le eno ugh hy being kepi in ,\n,' l'rell y box of ea rdboard
Ara ht:~tIUe8 1 0

Wil" tome n~ ry B Wllnk y Chinese decorah: il . Likea bonbon box {rom Marq uis In I.he Pauage Panorama.

man.:ero. book 3 (cited in a lette r from Wiese ngr und).

Heinric h Heinc. flebra isclle Melodic,... " J e hud a ben 1 :lalevy," pa rt 4, in Ro[A7a,2)

Sign boa rds. Aft er the rebus s tyle came a vogue fo r lite rar y and military all usioDs.

" If 1111 e ruptio n of the hilltop of Montma rt re ha p pened to swallow up Paris, as


Vesuvius swalluwed up Pompeii, o ne wo uld be a ble to re<:ODstruCl from o ur signboards. afte r fift een hundred years, the history of o ur milita r y triumphs a nd of our lite ra ture." Vic to r Four nel, Ce qu 'O" 1I0il dmls leI rue' de Pam ( Pa r is, 1858) , p . 286 ("Enseignes et affiche8'). [A7a,3)

Chaptal, in his speech on protecting brand names in industry : "Let us not assume that the consumer will be adept. when making a purchase, at distinguish. ing the degrees of quality of a material. No, gentlemen, the consumer cannot appreciate these degrees ; he judges only according to his senses. Do the eye or the touch suffice to enable one to pronounce on the fastness of colors, or to detemune with precision the degree of fineness of a material, the nature and quality of its manufacrure?" ~eanAntoineC l au de) Chaptal, Rapport au nom d'une commission .speciall! charget fk I't!xamm du projl!! dl! loi rl!latif aux a/tiration.s I!! .suppositions tk nonu .sur II!S produit..s jabdquiJ { Chambre des Pairs de France, ses sion of July 17, 18241. p. 5.-The importance of good professional standing is magnified in proportion as consume.r knowhow becomes more specialized.
.~phbyOpitz., 1814. Courtesy of the Strttt 5CCIle in front or me Passage des Panoramas Li.. ",~. ~ Bibliotheque Nationale de France. 5 A7,7 .
U t nd 6nally the perfume shop of the Olle ra .. . . Ma rguerie . the p astr y chef Ro e ~ ,u re en cheveux - wltich is to say. man u[A7a,") " Wllll t lihall I s a y now of Ihal couli:ue whic h . 11111 con le nt wi tll ha rho ring a twohOur ill joga l sessiun 01 t he S iock Excha ngt-. s pawncll o nce agaiu nOllo n!; ago . ili l he open a ir, Iwo d e I1l O Il ~ lra lio ll ~ Ilt'.r d uy 011 Ihe Bo ule va rd 1 1~'8 italie n!!, a c rO~H from the PII~lUlgl' lie l' O,,;o ru o whe re fi,'c o r six 1!UIlIIt'cll malkcl ~ flf'clllal o'fi. fOIlIli.ng a CU'lIpnct lIIau, follo"" ed d U III~ il y in tilt! wa ke of !lomc fOIt y IInlict"uset.l broken, a U the whill' speaking ill low voices like co nfi pirators. while police office" prodded

". the re wu Lemonmcr, a T p , In lit t Ilion , . . . . . . 111111 (mlcr a l items made of hnir. au " fa e,uTer of halulkerd ucfs. rellqulme8 ~ 1830-1879 ( Parill ( 1930)) . PI" 14- 16. d ' Ari~ te. Lt. Vie S f i.e mo nds du b OilieV O {A7,6]

the m (ru nl beilinll tu get them to move on , IU one proos (al. tired shttJ.' !Icing ICIIto th .. ;;la ughte rholl sl" ,. M. J . DLII:o~ (de Couclrin). Camme rl', on lie rui" e (j 10 l.lo /lrJe (pari ~. 1858), p . 19 . [A7a.5]

the comed y of collllhm!!J"eS. (ClolI:1ltJ1 a.ul Val ell ~i. I.e Pori' de - IAl Comerlie Im.lIIoi"e.' p .37.) (A8A ]
I'a s~age
dll

COllullerc,,-Sailll -Alldri!: a readins

r(.HIIII .

(A8a, l ]

It was a t 27 1 Rue Saint.-Mllrtill , in t.he l'u ssage tlu C lu~vHI Itnulje. thai Lurcnllirf" committ ed hi ... lIIunlenJ. iA7a,6]
A sign: '-L'epe-scie" (The SlIwc tl-O(( EI,e{e]). '" [A7a,7]

From a prospectus: "Tu tJ'e inha bit.mll o( the Rueil Bea urcgarll, Bouriwll- Villl"ne U\'e, du Caire, lind de la COllr dell Mi racles .... A plan (o r two covered a r ell.tlea running frum the PllI.ce du Caire to the Rue Beaurega rd . elltlillg di rec tly in frunl of the Rue Sil inie-Barbe. ami linking the Rue Bllllr!.JolI- V a.llclleuvc with dlt: Rue Hauleville .... Centleme n , for some time now we ha" e bet~1I collt:erned aoout the fu tu re of this neighbo rhood , anti it pains us to 800 lhal prupe rties 80 close 10 the boulevar.1 carry a value so (lir bduw whlit they ought to ha ve. This s tute- of affairs would change if lilies o( communication we re opened . S ince it is impossible 10 construcl ne",' tlt n.-els in this Ilrea, due In tile greot unevenness of the ground , and 8ince the ollly "'urkable pla n i8 the olle we hove the honor uf submitting tu yu u here, we ho pe, Ccnll t>meo , that in your capacity Ill! oWllcn ... y<m will ill tu r n honor us with yOllr coope ratioll Bnd affiliation .... Eve ry par tner will be retluin!d ttl pay an installment of 5 fran cs o n each 250 fran c share in the (uture compally. Ali soon all a capital sum of 3,000 fra m:f is realized , tili8 pruvisionlll s ubscr iption will beeome fmal- nid 811m being judged at presellt suffi cient. ... Pa ris, this 20tJI of Octo"!!r, 1847." Prillte.1 pros pectus invilillg subscriptiolls. {A8,I)

"OIlC " t.he socialis l gO \'ermllcllt had hccomc t.he Ii'gitimut c o wncr of nlilhe h OIl ~es uf Paris , it halldell Ihem Ol'er to th~ a rchiteclJI wi th th ~ onlc r . . . 10 elilahlis h ~ 'rf't'I '8011e rie.s . . , ' The arc hit t.'(:ts at.'t;omplis hl,.1 the missio n e ntru.llle,1 to Ihem all "" cU as could ht, cxJ)ecleli . 0 11 the sccond stor), of .w('rr ho use.. t1lCY took all the rHU ms tha t faced the streel alltl t1elllolis ht'll the inten'cning par:titiuns; lhey the n opeued up la r ge ba)'11 itl the cJi\'iding walls, the re by o bt ai.1ling s trttl-galleries tha t Iliul the hl!igllt a.ml widlh of all o rdina r y room OJul that ut:cupied tile e ntire lellgth of a lJlOI'k of huil.lingd. In the newer (/Utlrtier$ , whcre IIcighbo rilig houses have thei r fl uors a t approxima tely the stille height. the galle riejj co uld be joined 10gt,the r Oil a fairly even level. .. , But o n olde r f treets , .. the 000r8 had to be t'ardull y raised or 1 0were.l. anti often the huiMeN had tv resib'll the mse1vcw to giving the floor a rather st eeJi s lant , or brea ki ng it up with sta irs. Whe n all the bloeks o r ho uses were tllUS lraver ilt.d b y galleries occuJl yi ng . . their lIt.'1:ond s tory, it relllainc.1 o nl y to connect thcse isolated sections It) o ne ano ther in ord er to cons titute a network. , . embracing the whole cilY, Tlus was easily J Olle by e reeting C Ol'l'red walkways across e ve ry s treet . . . . Walkwa ys of the B ailie sa r i, hUI muc h lo nger, we rc likewise put lip over Ihe vario us bouic va n]s , ovcr the 8<jUllrcs, a nd over the bridges thai c ross the Seine , so d ial ill the e nd . , , a pe rsou could 51rull through the e.ntire ci ty withollt e ve r being t'Xposed to the ele ments .. , , As 8t)01l as the Pa risiall8 had got a tas te or the new galle ries, they lo~ t aU dcsire to sel ft">Ot ill th t' streeb of old- whic h , they ofte n lIui.1. wel'e fit only for d ogs." Tony Moili n , " o.rU en 2000 ( Pa ris, 1869). liP. 9- 11 . [A8a.2J

ran

"1 .11 the Passage Choisew . 1\t. Comte. ' Physician to the King,' presents his eelc~ hows

brlited tro upe of ehiltl acWrs extnlOrdirw;re.s in tl.e inte rval betwet:.11 two magic ill ""hic h he himself pe rforms ." J , L. C rozc, "Qudques s pe(""tades d e Paris pendant r ete de 1835" (Le Temps, August 22 , 1935), [A8,2)

" At this tuming puinl in his to r y, tile l'ariliia n sho pket'"llCr mak e~ two discowries t hat r('volutloni1.:e the woriJ of i(l nmwerJUl e: the display o( guo.ls IUld tile male e mplo yee, The display, wlt..ich lead s him 10 d eek (Jut his sllop from fl oor to ceiling a nd 10 sac rifice three hUlldred yards of male rialto garlall(l his fat;ade like a fl ag H ilil); anti the male employee. who repluces the lieductio u of 111 .11 11 I,y W Olllal1something eoneeivetl hy the sho pkeep!!rs of the a ucien regime--with till' sechl("linn of woma n Ity mun , whic h is j>sycliulogillllily lIIore astute, Togt'llu:r wilh Ilw s~' come8 the flxcll,)rice. lhe known and .ullulegoliuhle cos t." II . Clo utol a nd H.-II . Va l c lI ~ i . l..e Par;, ,ie. '" l.,a Gomedie III/muine"; Hu/.";m c ~t $1'" !ollrniuellr, (Palis. 192(1), JlI' . 3 1-32 ( "l\1a ga~ in @ .It, 1I0U\' I'U UI CS' ). [A8,3]
Whl!lI a mORrlSin d~ 1I00wea llies re nted Ihe spacl': rurmeriy U""U I,i,',1 hy II c h:d. tilt' .:.lilOr uf to C01m~(lill l"mlllilw. B ~.lza(' wroll:: " 7'h l" liumlll! CQm eily IHI ~ yidded Ito

"The secund fl oor cont ains thl" s treet-galle rics. . AJollg the le ngth of the grea t a"e nues .... they fo rm sl rt.:e t salo us .... The. othe r, lIIu(""11 Jells li pacio us gaUeries a re de..- orated more modestl y. They have 1)Ct: 1I resen-cd fo r l"e tuillJus iliesse.s thai here .lisplay t heir merchaudi se in such II way tlla t Jlassers hy circula te no longe r in fro ut or the shoJls but in tht'ir interiur:' TUllY Moilin. 1'1Ir;ot en ron 2000 (1'aris. 1869), pJl. 15- l6 ('Maisons-motli:les"'). [A8a,3] Sale$ c1c rk ~ : " The n ' are allellijl 20,I){)O ill Pari.s .... A grea tllumhc r ,,( sales d e rk~ ha\'1l Oc" 11 educated ill till! " lassies .. , : Ulle ~Vt' ll fi nd a mO Il ~ the m paintc r a nti urr hitectli ullaffiliut etl with un y wfH'ks hop , wh .. ust! u gr,:ut d" al of tlld r knowlellg" ... of I hese lwo hrllndll:s of a rl in cl.mstruttillg lli ~ pl a)"~, ill I I ~ t t" rminillg tllf; d esign of II('W ite ms, ill dirt,,ting Ihe creatio n of (ashiuns. "' Pierrl' Laro u s~l' , Cnlnll Oic~ limllHlire IIni uer.scl till XI X' siecle., \,(,1. 3 ( Puri~, 18(17), fl . ISO (a rticle on "Cali 1'101 ") . [A9,1 ] " Why llitllhe uuthor tlf ";'.u/e$ III" lIlQellrs" ~Stu. li es uf !\llluners) .-110051' to I)reSell! , in a ""ol'k O( fi ction. lifelike p'H'trllil s of thl' notabl c~ of hi" d ll)'~ DUllht lC8!1 fur

hill own amUlIeme nl first of all .. Thill e:J[plaio&the dellcriptio ru. Fo r the direct cit aliom., a n d llie r r eason nlWit be found- and ",'e lee none beller tJl a n his IIOmiS taka ble aim of providing Iluhlicity. Bulzllc i, olle of the fi ra t 10 have divined the power of tile a dve rtiseme nt a nd. abo ve all, the disgu.i3ed a dve rtiiernent. In those d ays. , .. the newspapen were unaware of such power, . . . At the ver y ruM! , around midnight . 8 8 workers wer e fin i5hin~ up the layo ut dverti. in~ writen

either a fire is Iii nr th(" blinds llre Ic,wer("d .. .. 8cl"t."t'. n nine 8mllt'I1 ,,'dock Illis c1eanill5 is a ll cOlnpl,It'11. alld flll 8sln;by. UIII.ill.hcn feW Rml far bdw('cn _ hegi n to nppeul' ill grt'8 Iel' number". I';nl I'unce 10 Ihe gallerics is 8tl'ilt! y foriJidd elJ to ullyo,u' who is d irt y nr 10 t'ar r icrs of heav), lomb; smoking Ullli lipill.ing i1.re lik{'wisc !>rohihit('d here: ' To ny Moilill , llu ris en I'fW 2000 ( Ilaris. 18(,9), fi JI. 26-29 ("AsJ>>:'I t (I~ ~~ ,U e<i-gll llries" ). [A9a.l ] T he nlflwuin$ ele nOl/ veal/tes uwe tlwir l'xistent( til Ihl' frt"t'dom of trade cstah li81 1t.'tl by Na poll"OlI I. " or those establishmenlS. ramo us ill 18 17, \O'hich gave thcm~ ~ d,'t's lI alllt'll like LII Fille Mill Ca l'tlee. Le Oiallll: Boih'UX, Lc lU lI s~ lu e de Fer. or l .e~ Deux Magots. lin t IIlIe I('moins. Many ur thllst' whirh replacell then. IInder Louis I-'hilippe abo fU lImlcrcd lalcr on- lik .. La Ilelle FCl'nliere alld La Cha U 8&ee ,I'Anlili . Or els.- they were sold a tliUie prufit- Iike I.e: COill de Ril e and I.e Pau ... re Oiahle:' G. d'A",cul'l, " Le M ~u lli5l'lI e de III vie modl~ rll e." pari I : " lAls Gramls ]\llIga8iIl8." Revue des de,u mmldes (July 15. 1894) . fl . 3:14. [A9a,2] The office of PhiliJ>OII '/ii weekl y La Cur;CQlll re was in the Passage Vero-I)odal.
[A9a.3]

..

Ii

might sLip in lit the bottom of a column lIom e lines on Pite de Regnauh or Brazilian Blend. The ne WHpape r advertisement al such Wa.8 unknown . More unknown , till wali a proeen 81 ingenious at citation in a Dovid .. . . The tradesmen nllme d by Balzac ... a re clearly his own .... No one under . tood better than the author of Celar Birotteult the unlimited potential of publicity... , To confirm thil, one need only look al the epithe18 .. he attaches to his manufacluren and their productl. Shamelessly he dubl them: the renolVned Victorine: Plaisir, an iUwtriow h a ir~ dresser ; Staub . the molt celebrated tailor of ws age; Gay. afamow haberdasher . . . on the Rut1 de la Michodie.re (even giving the address!); ... ' the cu.illine of the Rocher de Cancale, ... the premier rel tauranl in Paris, .. , which is 10 lay. in the entire u:o,.ld ... H. Clouzot and R .~ IJ . Valent i. Le Pori! de "w Comedic humoine"; Bol.:::oc et se.lfourniueura (Paris . 1926). pp . 7- 9 and 177- 179. {A9,21 The Pa88age V ero-DOOat connlt the Rue Croix.d ell- Peti18, Cbamps with the Rue Jean-Jacques- RouMeau . In the latter, a round 1840, Cabet held his meetin pl in hit rooms . We get an idea of the tone of Ihese gath ering8 from Martin Nadaud'a Memoires de Leonard, ancien ga~on ~on ; " Fie was still holding in lli hand the towel anJ razor be h ad just been ul ing. He leemed filled with joy at seeing U I rellp tahl y attired. with a lerious air : 'Ab, Meslieu rs,' he said (he did not say 'Citizens'), ' ifyour ad ver sa ries could only llee yo u now! You would diu rm their criticismll. Your dress and your bearing are. those of well-bred men . .. Cited in Char les Benoist. " L' Homme de 1848." part 2, Revue de" deux monde. (February I , 1914). I'p. 64l-642. -1t was characteristic of Cabet to believe that worken nt,"ed not busy lhem5elves with writing. IA',31
S t rect -68 lo n ~: "1'he lar gest and mOllt favo rably siluated amon, these (street, galleries} were tUlefully decorated and sumptuousl y furnish ed . The walls and ct'.ilings were covered with .. . rare ma rble, gilding, ... mirrors. and paintings. Tlu' window! were adorned with splenditl hangings and with curtainll embroidered in marvelous patterns . Chairs. (auteuils. sofas ... offered comfortable sea tin ~ to tired stroUen. Finally, there were artistically designed objects, antique cabineUl .. . glass cases full of c uri08 itie~ , ... porcelain va ses containing fre8h fl owers, aquarium8 full IIf live fi sh , and avia ries inhabited by ra re bir tls. The!le completed t.he decor ation of the 1I1reet-galleries. which Lit up the evening with ... gilt t:alldelabr u and cry5lal lam ps. The govel'llment had wa nted the st~'UI helonging 10 the people of Paris to surpllss in magnificence Iht: Ilrawing roonlll of the mosl powerful sovert:igns .... Finlt thing in tllll morning, the IItreet-galJcries al'f' lunlt~ d o ver 10 atlenJ llnUl who air them out . IIweep them ca refully, hrush , dun, nlld polish the furnilure , a nd everywhere impose the most scrupllloull cleanlinellS. T lltln , depending on the lleason , the windowlI a re either llpe.ned or closed, s nd

Pa5sagc du Caire. Erecled afler apolcou's return frum Egypl . Contains l onle IwtlentiollS of Egy!>t ill the r elil'fll--8 f1h illx-likf' head s o\'cr the entrance. a mong ul lu:1' things. ''1'he ar("Ulles a re satl. gloomy, und al ....ay5 inh'.rsectillg ill a mllllller Ilis.agn.'eable to the eye .... They soom . . destined to house lithographers' IItll ~ ,lius and binders' IIhol1s, as the adjoi ning strL 'et iii J estined ror the manufacture of slrlll'l' IIIIIA; pecIcstrillllS gellerall y avoid them. ~ Elie Oe rllll~ l. " R"e el Passage d" Caire," Pflri.! chez lIoi (Pllris ( 1854)) . p. 362 . (AIO. l ]
;"In 1798 alld 1799. Ihe Egyptian campaign lellt frightful importance to the fashion

for 6hawls. Some generals in the expeditionar y army. laking IIllvantage of tJle lly I"'ox imit y of InJin, sell I hallie sll o....11> of casllmcre 10 Iheir wivcs a011 lO fricnds .... From then on. the di.!lease that Inight Le calle(1 cashmere fe\'er took on ~ignifi ("lI nl proloortiolls. It lwgan to spr('atl Juring tht., Consula te, grew greater " IHler till' Empire. lIeeume gigu ntic tluring the ltestlll'1l1ioll , r CIlr.hcd "olos8ul size 1Il1lltr the Jllly MOllllrchy, 8,HI hus fiu ull)' a,o;~ um ed Sphinx-lik .. dillU'lI ~ ion s s ill ('\! Iht' Fd,r ua,.), Ut'volution of I8<UI. " Prlr;.~ ell !!: soi ( Pa,.is), p . 1:l9 (A. Durand , "Chii ll!l!-CuchelllirCli iuJiclI:! ,'1 frall('a.is"). Contain! all inlcn itw with M. Mul'till. 39 nue Rich('lieu. prUllril!IUr of a stnn ' ('ulle,1 T he I"JiulIs: l-VpO,ts thai shilwl8 wllidl Cll rl i"'r ...... rc prh'ell Letwccn 1.500 allil 2 ,000 fl'IIII(" ~ ('all now h... boughl ro,. 8{)o hI I ,(\()() fran u . (AIO.2:) Fro!)) Brll 7.il' t, C aLri!'\. IIIl1I Dllm l' I~ IIII . l..es l~rl u f/se.~ .!111'.s r ue.s, \'lI utl{'ville in (lnl' prl'scnh'll for till' first lillll'. in Pa lis. al lhl' Th(~;ilre ll l:~ Va li.~ l c fi ll 1\1" '("h 7. 1827 (I'aris . 1827'), -U('gilln ing Ilf II W il l; by 1111" shureilUldl'r Du] ingol:
f'ur ..h .. Bn:g.leA. I rorn.

~iI' l .

Cnl1lillUal rdraill ~ uf Ihllnb:

In Ihe P....ge I>dom le I-Ye IIUIIi hunllrl'l d Iholleano rrIlIl C~. ( PI" 5-6)

Lutece arbil rale8 the diJ1e~n.'lI: " 'The affai r i8 settled . Gt'nics of ligili . hurkell to my voice.' (At Ihill mOlllcn!. IllIl wllllie ga ller y iJi ,mddcnl y illuminated h)' gaslighl .)" (p . 3 1). A hallt'l of , trCelli und IIrca(leM c()lIdudl'8 the va uJI'viLie. [A l Oa, I] " I do 11 0 1 II I all hesitate tu wl-itl' -as IIIll11str(lU S ns Ihis ma y St.'C1II tu st'riuulI writer8 0 11 Brl- th nl il wail the salC'll clerk wlln laulI ~' hel l lithography. _ .. Condemnw to imillitiuns of Ruphud . 10 Ori!;t'iscs hy Rcgll auh . it would perhaps have died ; tbe alt'll llerk sllved it _" Henri 801'1101. La LilllOg mlJhie (Pllris (IK95 , jJ. 5()....5 1, [All ,l [ In 1111:: l'asugf' Vi~ie lll'" She lold me: " I-m rrom \'i~nn a!' Anll ~ hc lidded : '- lli ~t: witl. m )' uncle. The hrolher or I~a l)a! I take caft IIr hi. ruruncleIt hu its charms, Ihis fllie. ,. I promised to meel the IllI mk lagain I.DIhe Paua,f' Bonne- Nouyelle: But in the Puaage Brally I waited in Yllin . '\

" I hear Ihey wlI. nl 10 roof all Ihe slreeU "f Puris wi th glalls. Tha t ""ill make for [AIO,3} loYdy IlUlhoust.'1I; we will live in tbem like mel"lIs" (V, 19 ).

From Girard , Des TombeUlu , o u De l'lnfllle'l ce des irutitlltioru jllnebres ! IH- /.e! mot'lIrs (Parill, 1801 ): "Th~ new Puuage du Caire, nellr the Rue Saint-Deni;!_ - ., ill paved in part with fun erary stones_ on which the Gothic in;!criptiolls and the emblems h ave not yel been effaCf:d : ' The author wishes to draw altention here to the decline of piety. Cited in Edoua rd Fournier, Chroniqlles et legendes des rues de P(Jm (Paris, 18M), p. 154. [A10,41 Brazier, Gab r iel. li nd DlImersa n _ /~s Passages et les rues. ou W Glle rre dec;laree, va udeville in ooe act , performed for the 6rs t time, ill Paris, at the Theatre dell Varie!! !S on March 7, 1827 (Pari". 1821). -The party of an:ades-adver sa ries is composed of M. Duperron , umh rella merch an t; Mme. Duhelder, wife of a carriage provider ; M. Mouffetarcl. hatter ; M. B1ancmanteau . merchant and manufllcturer of clogs ; and Mme. Duhae, r entier--each one wming from a differelll part of town . 1'11 _ Dulingot , who lias bought stock in the arcades, has championed their calise. His lawye r is M_ "llIlr; that of h is opponenl8 , M. Contre. In Ihe tlecond 10 lU I (fOllrteenth) scene, M. Conl re appears at the head of a column of stret!lB. which are decked with ban ncf'i proclaiming their names. Alnong them are the Rue aux Ours , Rile Bergere, Rue du Croissanl , Rue du Puils-qui-Parle, Rue du Cnnd-Hurleur. Likewise ill the next scene-a procession of arcades with their b allnen: Passage du Saumon, Panage de l' Ancr e. Passage du Grand-Cerf. Pusage du Ponl-Neuf, Passage de l' Ollers , Pauage du llanorama (.sic) . I.n the followillg scene , the last (sixteenth), Luteee ': emerges from the bowels or the earth , at firsl in the guil.!e of an old woman . In her pr esence. M_Contre ta kes up the d efcn ~e of Ihe slreets agll iost the a rcades. " Ollt' hUlltlred fort y-four arcades open thelT mouths wilie 10 deyour our custo mers, to siphon orr the ever-rising 80w of our crowds. both acti ve and idle. And yo u want us itreets of Paris 10 ignore this d ear infringemelll of our andenl righls! No. we demand . __ the inlerdiction of our one hllluired fort y-four oppunent8 and , in addition . 6fteen million . fi ve hundre;:1 thou~ sand fra ncs in damages and inlcrcU" (p . 29). The argumenl by M_ POllr in favor of the arcades tukes Ihe form of ver se. An extract : W e whom Ihey wo uld banish--we are more than uOj.C ful. Il a>'l=we nol, by virt ue of our cheerful ll8pecl, Elleourlilged all or Paris in Ihe fu hioll Of ha1.IiIsf'!!. IhoM' ml rlll &0 famou ~ in Ihe Eli!'! ,\nd whl l aft Ih~ Wllllll lhecrO'HI admirea? TheM. ,)rnamcnU. these columnll aJ,.we l ll? Y"l' ' ti think r Oil W"re in Attllma; and thi~ lemple I ~ cre.!I"d lu cmn/lu'rt'e ill' good ta8lfO:. (1'1)' 29--30)

Na rd ue Lebeau , dted by IIU . 4 16 (Ma rch 4 ,1 936)].

I~o n - Pa ul Far~,'ue.

"Cafi., de Paris," part 2 (in Vu. 9, [A II ,21

" There seems no rellson , in particular, althe first aud mosllitcral glance. why the litOry should be called afl er lhe Old Curiosity Shop. Only two of the characters lIa\'!! au ythillg to do wilh such a lihop , and they leave it for ever in the fi rs t few pages .. . . Out whell we fee llhe situation wilh more 611clity we realize that this title is !omclhing in the nature of a key to the whole Dickens romance. His tates always slarted fro m some splendid hinl ill the stn.-ets. And shops. perhaps the Ino!tl'oetical of all things _ often set his fan cy !alloping. Eve.ry shop. in raet . was 10 him the door of romance . Among ullthe huge st' riul schemes ... il ill a matter of wonder that he ne\'er started an endless pcriooica l called lilt' Th e Stree" and divided it inlO >i hopH . !.Ie coultllUlvl' written an u quil!ite romalU'e ('ailed 7'lIe Buker i Shop: II llother called Th e Chemist $ Shop: another called Tlt e Oil SIIOI)' to keel' t'OlllpallY with TIIt~ Old Cu riosi'y Shop ." G. K. C I I~il t crlulI , Dickel/s. tra ns. Laurent lind Marti n-Dupont (I'liris, 1927), PI" 112-83. 1.1 [A 11 .3]
"O IH~ lIIay wOllllt1' tn wllal ,')C h' nt Four ier him ~cU Iwljeve\1 in hi fu ntu sies. In hi ~

ma nuscripts Ilt~ j llmeL imes cnmpl uins nf crilics \0\' 110 tnkt Iilcl'lIl1y whal ill meant as fib"l.Uu tiYc, a nd wllu in ~ i51 IIIl1rC ()Ycr UII Slteuki ng of IIi!! 'stUlli"11 whims.' TIIl'r!' may have been a l least a modil'tUII of JdiJ,f'I'u tl' dlUrlulauism III WlJrk in 1111 thi_all II lIcmJlI 10 luunch Ilis lIyslem li y mellns of Ihe II-w lies of cOlllmerdu l udvertisin!.

wruch had begun to develol." F. Armand anti R. Maublanc. FOllrier (Puns, 1937), vol. I.p . 158. 0 E1I:hihition 8 0 [Al h.l ) Proudhou', confe!lsiO Il ncar tilt: end of his lire (ill his book De la jll ~ ljcell--{:;o lll "arc witll Fourier 's vision of the p halallstery): " It has been neces5ar )' for me 10 becoflle civilizl."41. Dul m:cd I approve? The lillie hit of civilizing I've rt!CeiveJ di!guSI8 mtl .... I hale houses (If more than one slory_ houses in which, by conll'ust with the social hierarchy, the mcck are r ai8et1 on biJ;h while tile grea t are lidded ncar the grollnd .'- Citell in Armand Cuvillier, Ma rx ct Proudllon: II ia 'limiere tlu MlIrx i& me. vol. 2, part 1 (Pun!. 1937), p . 211. [All a.2] Blantlui: " ' I wore, ' he say" ' the fi rs t tricoloretl cockade of 1830 . Illade by Madame Bodill in th(! Pa!sage do Commerce. '" Gustave Gtffroy, L 'Enferme (Paris, 1897), II . 2'W . [Alla,3] Baudelaire call still write of " a book as dazzling as an Indian handkerchief or Ihawl ." Baudelair e, L 'A rt romantilluc (Paril). p. 192 (" Pierre Dupollt"). 1. [AlIa,4] The Craur.ut Colk'1:tioll possesses a bea utiful rep roduction of the Pasub'C des Panoramal frolll 1808. Also found ther e: a prospectus for a Iltlotblacking I hop, in which it ill a question mainly of Puss in Boots. lAlla,S) Baudelaire to his mother 011 December 25, 1861, concerning an atlemplto (lawn a shawl: " I was told that , with the approach of New Year's Day, there was II glut of eashmerel in the stores, alld that they were tryi ng to discourage the puhlic from bringing any more in. " Ch arles Baudelaire, LeUreJ a Ja mere ( Parill. 1932), p. 198 . {All a,6] " Our epoch will be the link betwccn Ihe age ()f isolated forces rich ill oriJ;inai creativeness and thaI of the uniform bul Icvc(jllg forcc which gives monotony to its products . casting the.m in maUd, alld foUowing out one ullifyillg idea- the uhi1IIIIIe expression of lIocial eomlllunjticiI.'" H. tie Balzac. L '/filutre ClIIuJiJSrr rt, cd. Calmann-Le"y (Paris. l83i), p. I .I~ [Ali a.']

Sales at Au Bon Marc.he, in the years 1852 to 1863, rose frolll 450,000 to 7 million francs. The rise in profits could have been considerably less. "High rumover and small profitS" was at that lime a new principle, one tha t accorded with the {\\'o dominant forces in operation: the multirude of purchasers and the mass of goods. In 1852, Boucicaut allied himself" with Vidau, the proprietor of Au Bon Marche, the magaJill d~ nouueautis. "111e originality consisted in seUing guaranteed merchandise at discount prices. Items, firs t of all. \vcrc marked with fixed prices, another bold innovation which did away with bargaining and ....ith 'process sales' -I.hat is to say, "ith gau ging the price o f an article to the physiognomy of the buyer; then the 'return' was instituted, allowing the customer .to

Au Boll Marche departmcill store in Paris. \MxxICut, ca. 1880. Sec AI2,1.

caned his purchase at will; and, finally. employees were paid almost entirely by commission on sales. These wttr: the constitutive elements of the new organization:" George d J\vend. "Le M ecanisme de la vic modemc: Les Grands Magasins," & tJue de; tkux mondu, 124 (Paris, 1894). pp. 335-336. [A12 ,1]

TIle gain in time realized for the retail bwiness by the abolition of bargaining may have played a role initially in the calculations o f department Stores. [A12 ,2}
A chapter, "Shawls , Cashmeres;' in Borne's Indwtne-Au.JItelkmg im Louvre <Exhibition of Industry in the Louyre) , Ludwig Borne , GeJammelte Schriften (BarnLul'g a nd Frankfurt am Main , 1862), vol. J, p. 260. [AI2,3] The physiognODIY of the ar cade emerges with Baudelaire in a H:ntence at the beginni.ng of " Le J oueur ginerewt"': ..It seemed to me odd that I couJd have passed this enchanting haunt so orten without l uspecting that here was the enlran:." dlaudelaire. Oeu vres, ed . Y.-G. I.e Danlce (Paris, 1931 ),) vol . I, p. 456. 17 (A12 .4]

Ilebunked , I Had he wor n a penlke. he'd 1I0t be defunct : Another ... pit'ture , repn'!!leptiog a village maide n ali t he knee-II 10 receive II. & ur land of rU~I:!a--t(l k ell {I f her virtue--from the hands of a dlt~va li cr. urll H mellt ~ the door of a milliner '. shop." Lliliwig Burne. Schildenmgen (IIU Paris ( 1822 IHld 1823) . 011 . 6 ("Die Uden" (S h opl ~), in Gesammelte Schriflen (Hamburg and Frankfurt a m Main , IAl2aJ 1862). vul. 3. p". 46-49 .

On Baudelaire's "religious intoxication of great cities'!:' the deparunent stores arc: temples consecrated to this intoxication. (AI3]

Specifics of the department store: the rustomers perceive themselves as a mass ; they are confronted with an assortment of goods; they take in all the Boors at a (A12,5} glance; they pay fixed prices ; they can make exchanges.
" In those p ar llJ of the city wbere the theatera and public walks .. . are located, wht!n! therefore the majority of foreignera live and wander, there is hardly a buildin g witbout a shop. It takes only a minute, only II step. for the forces of attraction 10 gather ; II minule laler, a Ilep furth er on, and the pal&erb y iJ standing before a different shop . . . One'. attention is spirited away III though by violence, aud one has no choice hUI to sland there and remain looking up until it r eturns. The name of the shopkeeper, the name of his mer chandise, inscribed a daMn times 0 11 placards that hang on the door. and above the windows_ beckon frum all l ide.; Ihe exterior of the ar chway reflembles the exercise book of II .choolboy who writes Ille few words of a paradigm over and over. Fabrics are not laid oul in sampleR but are hung before door and window in completely unrolled bolt. Often they are attached high up on the third story and reach down in . undry foldt all the w.y to the pavement. The shoemaker hili painted different-colored shoes, ranged in roWI like Laltaliolls, acr08S thetntire fa\,ade of his buildin~ . The sign for the locknmiths i.ll a ~ iJo: -foot - high gold-plated key; the giallt gale!! of heaven could require no larser. On Ihe hosien ' shops are p ainled wrute sloclUoga four yard. high, and they will starlle y,'u in Ihe dark when they loom like ghOStR .. . But foot and eye are Il rre~ t ed in a nobler ami more charming fasbion b y the paintin g~ displayed before man y I!torefronu . .. . Th ~se painting" are, not infrequently, true works or art, a nd if they were to hang in the Louvr e, they "" ould inspire in connoisseur. alleast pll/tslIl'f' if nlJl admiration . .. . The 8hol> of a wigm aker is adorn!!'! with a picture I.hat. 10 he ~ 1I1'f:. is poorly executed hut distinguished by an amusillg cunception . Crm'" 11 I' rinct AJ ,~ alo m hangs by his hair frum a Iree and is pierced by thl:! lance of (u l l'lIemy. Undernea th runs the verle: ' Uereyou see Absalom in,hili hopeI quite

B
[Fashion]
Fashion: Madam Dealbl Madam Death!
-Giacomo Leopardi, "Dialogue bctwttn Fashion and Dcath~ L

loutish, measures the century by the yard, serves a" ~uin himself to save costs, and manages single-handedly the liquidation that in French is called rivoluHan. For ~ashion was never an . g other than the panxiy of the mod cadaver, and bitter COlloquy with deca w rovocabon of death throu the wo perc:d between sluill bursts of mechanical laughter. t IS as on. And that is wfiy s e changes so quickly; she titillates death and i" a.Jn:ady something differem, something new, as he casts about to aush her. For a hundrm years she holds her own against him. Now. finally. she is on the point of quitting the fidd . But he ~as on the banks of a new Lethe, which rolls its asphalt Stream through arcades, the annature of the whores as a battle memorial. 0 Revolution 0 Love 0
[B l ,' ]
S qullre~. 0 .quare in Paril . infinile 8howplace. where the mooillle Madame Lamort winds and bind. the restle.. w.y. of tbe world, thuee endle&t ribbon 10 ever-new crt.tions of bow. frill . Rower. cockade, . nd frnil-

Nothing dies; all is u-arufonncd.


- Honoridc Balz.ac, FhshJ, JujtlJ,jragmmlJ (Paris. 1910). p. 46

R. M. Hilke. Duine&er Eleg~n (U:ipzig, 1923), p. 23.2

And boredom is the grating before which the courtesan teases death. [Bl,l] Ennui 0

[BI ,5]

Similarity of the arcades to the indoor arenas in which one leamed to ride a bicycle. In these halls the figure of the woman assumed its most ~ductivt as~: as cyclist That is how she appears on contemporary posters. Chertt the palnter of this feminine pulchritude:. The costume of the cyclist, as an early and unconscious prefiguration of sportswear. corresponds to the dream prototypes that, a little before or a little later. are at work in the factory or the automobile. Just as the first factory buildings cling to the traditional form of the residential dwelling. and just as the first automobile chassis imitate carriages, so in the clothing of the cyclist the sporting expression still wrestles with the inherited pattern of d.e~c.e, and the fruit of this struggle is the grim sadistic touch which made this Ideal

"Nothing hae II p lace of ita own . lave fashion appointe that place." L 'EJpm d'Al phonJe Kurr: < Peruee&extraite, de JIM oeUL're' complelen (Parie, 1877), p. 129. " If a woman of la!lte, while undresling a t n.i&ht , ahouJd find ber~df con ~tituted in reality a8 she h al p retended to be during the d ay, I like to think ahe'd be diJcov~ ered next morning drowned in her own tears." AJphon~e Karr, cited in F. Th. Vischer. lt1o<le '''1<1 Zyni&mlu (Stuttgart. 1879), pp. 106-107. [B l ,61

With Karr, there appears a rationalist theory of fashion that is closely related to th~ rationalist theory of the origin of religions. The motive for instiwting long skirts, fo r example, he conceives to be the inte.ral certain women would have had in concealing an unIovdy <foob. Or he deno unces, as the origin of certain types of hats and certain hairstyles, the wish to compensate for thin hair. (Bl .7) Who still knows, nowadays, where it was that in the last decade of the previow century women would offer to men their most seductive aspect, the most intimate promise of their figure? 10 the asphalted indoor arenas where people learned to ride bicycles. The woman as cyclist competes with the cabaret singer for the place of honor on posten. and gives to fashion its most daring line. [B I,B] For. ~e ~hilosopher, the most interesting thing about fashion is its extraordinary aJ'ltlClpaoou,S. It is well known that art will often- for example, in picrures-pre. ccde the perceptible reality by years. It was possible to Stt sD'eeu or rooms that s~one in all sorts of fiery colors long before technology, by means of illuminated Signs and other arrangements, acwally set them under such a light. Moreover, the sensitivity of the individual artist to what is coming certainly far exceeds that

image of elegance so incomparably provocative to the maJe world in those days.

oD ream H o uses 0

(Bl,2)

" In these ),ear. [around 1880), not only does the Renaissance fa shion begin to do mischief, but on the other 8ide a new interes t in sportt-above aU. in equestrian sporlll-arise8 amollg women , and together these. two tendeoci.ea exert an influence on fashion from quite different directions . The attempt to reconcile these sentimen ta dividing the female 80ul yields results thai , in the year a 188Z-1885, are original if Dot always beautiful. To improve matters, dress designers simplify and take in the waist a8 much as ponible. while allowing the skirt an amplitude aU the more rococo ." 70 Jahre deutJche Uooe (1925). I'P. 84-87. [BI ,3)

Here fashion has opecankthe bwincss of dialectical exchange between wo~ and ware betwc"'CD -oteasure and the corpse. The clerk, death, tall and

of the gra"de Mme. Yet fashion is in much steadier, much more precise contact with the coming thing, thanks to the incomparable nose which the feminine collective has for what lies waiting in the future. Each season brings, in its newest creations, various secret signals of things to come. Whoever understands how to read these semaphores would know in advance not only about new ~nts in the arts but also about new legal codes, wars, and revolutions. 3- Here, surely, lies the greatest chann of fashion, but also the diffiru1ty of making the channing fruitful. [Bta,l ) "Whether you translate Russian fairy tales, S'o\-'Cdish family sagas, or English picaresque novels-you will always come back in the end, when it is a question of setting the tone for the masses, to France, not because it is always the truth but because it will always be the fashion." <Karb Gutzkow, Bn4e ails Paris, vol. 2 <Leipzig, 1842>, pp. 227-228. Each time, what sets the [One is without doubt the newest, but only where it emerges in the medium of the oldest, the longest past, the most ingrained. This spectacle, the unique self-construruon of the newest in the medium of what has been, makes for the true dialectical theater of fashion. Only as such, as the grandiose representation of this dialectic, can one appreciate the singular books of Grandville, which created a sensation toward the middle of the century. When Grandville presents a new fan as the "fan of Iris" and his drawing suggests a rainbow, or when the Milky Way appears as an avenue illuminated at night by gaslamps, or when "the moon (a self-portrait)" reposes on fashionable velvet cushions instead of on clouds~at such moments we first come to see that it is precisely in this century, the most parched and imagination. starved, that the collective dream energy of a society has taken refuge with redoubled vehemence in the mute impenetrable. nebula of fashion, where the W1Clerstanding cannot fonow. Fashion is the predecessor-no, the eternal deputy-ofSurrealism. [Bla,2)
A pair of lasciviou8 enV-avings by Ch arles Vernier entitled A Wedding on Wheelsshowing the. departure and the r eturn . The bicycle offered un8u..spectetl poasihili. lie8 fo r the depiction of the r aised skirt. [B l a,3}

Le Pont des planetts (Intcrplanclary Bridge). Engraving by Grdlldvillc, 1844. See Bla,2.
matte.r of far greater importance than ~ ordinarily suppose. And one of the most significant aspeCts of historic.-u costuming is that-above all, in the theater- it undertakes such a confrontation. Beyond the theatcr, the question of costume reaches deep into the life of art and poetry, where fashion is at once preserved and overcome. [Bla,4)

A definitive perspective on fashion follows solely from the consideration that to each generation the one immediately precc=ding it seems the most radical antiaphrodisiac imaginable. In this judgment it is not so far wrong as might be supposed. Every fashion is to some extent a bitter satire on love; all sexual perversities are suggested in every fashion by the most ruthless means ; every fashion is filled with secret resistances to love. It is worthwhile reflecting on the following observation by GrandCarteret, superficial though it is: "It is in scenes from the amorous life that one may in fact perceive the full ridiculousness of certain fashions. Aren't men and women grotesque in these gesturts and atti tudes- in the tufted forelock (al..ready extravagant in itsclf), in the top hat and the nipped-waisted frockcoat, in the shawl, in the grande; pamilaJ, in the dainty fabric b oots?n Thus, the confrontation with the fashions of previous generations is a

A kindred problem arose with the advent of new velocities, which gave life all altered rhythm. This lauer, too, was first tried out, as it were, in a spirit of play. The loop-the-loop came on the scene, and Parisians seized on this entenainment with a frenzy. A chronicler nOles around 18 10 that a lady squandered 75 fran cs in one evening at the Pare de Montsouris, where at that time you could ride those looping cars. The new tempo of life is often announced in the most unforeseen ways. For example, in POSters. '"These images of a day or an hour, bleached by the elements, charcoaled by urchins, scorched by the sun-although others are some.times collected even before they have dried- symbolize t"O a higher dCbrrce even than the newspapers the sudden , shockfilled, multifornl life that carries us away." Maurice Talmeyr, La Cile rill wIg (Paris, 190 1), p. 269. ln the early days of the poster, there was as yet no law to regulate the posting of bills or to provide protection for posters and indeed from posters ; so one could wake up some mOrning to find one's window placarded. From time inlmemorial tltis enigmatic need for sensation has found satisfaction in fas hion. But in its ground it will be reached at last only by theological inquiry, for such inquiry bespeaks a deep affective attitude toward historical process on the part of me human being. It is tempting to connect this need for sensation to one of the seven deadly sins, and it is not surprising that a chronicler adds apocalyptic prophecies to this connection

and roretells a time when people will have been blinded by the effects of too much electric light and maddened by the tempo of news reporting. FromJacques Fabien, Paris en JQnge (Paris, 1863). [B2. l )
" On October 4 , 1856. the Gymnasium Theater presented a play entitled Toifette~ TapaseJj~el <The Flashy Dresser s), It Wal the heyda y of the crinoline, and puffed-out women we~ in fas hion. The actreSi playing the leading role. having gr.sl)ed the satirical intentions of the author, wore a drell whose skirt. exaggerated by design . had a fullness that was comical and almosl ridiculous. The day after opening nigbt , she wall asked by more than twenty line ladies to lend her dreiS 8S a model, and eight daYl later the crinoline had doubled in II lze." Maxime Ou Camp . Paris, vol. 6 <Paris, 1875), p. 192. (52,2) "Fashion is the recherche-the alwaYI vain. often ridiculou sometimes dangerous quest- for a liuperior ideal beauty." Ou Camp, Paris, vol. 6, p . 294. [B2,3]

The epigraph from Balzac is well suited to unfo lding the temporality of hell: to showing how this time does not recognize death, and how fashion mocks death; how the acceleration of traffic and the tempo of news reporting (which conditions the quick successio n of newspaper editions) aim at eliminating all discontinuities and sudden ends ; and how death as caesura belongs together with all the straight lines of divine temporality.-\\Ue there fashions in antiquity? Or did the "authority of the frame"} preclude them? [B2,4] "She was everybody's contemporary." ( Marcel~ Jouhandeau , Prudence Haute contt7Tlporaj~ de tout k motUk-that is the keenest and most secret satisfaction that fashion can offer a woman. [B2,5]

D o ib.l du dtai_il. m... . 'll61t~lU tllli.j., to .

Fashionable courtcsam wearin . o lin Ii'" ca . . ... g cs. ulograpb by Honore Daumier, 1855. The ptlon reads. Ladies of the: derru-monde:, bill having no demiskiru." See 82,2.

o:m

chaume (Paris, 1927). p. 129. To be

A knit 8ca ri-a brightly striped muffler- WOn! also, in muted color s. by m~D .

{B2a,4]

An emblem of the power of fashion over the city of Paris: "I have purchased a map of Paris printed on a pocket handkerchief.' Guttkow, Briefi aus Paris, vol. 1 <Leipzig. 1842), p. 82. [B2a, l ] Apropos or the medical dilicun ion con cf!rnin~ the crinoline: Some people thought tu jUlilify its U 8e , together with that or the petticoat , b y noting " the agreeable and 8alutar y coollle81i which the limbs enjoyed underneath . . .. Among doctor s. [however,] it ill acknowledged that this celebrated coolness has already led 10 chills, and these have. ocealiioned the unfortunately )lremature end or a . itualion which it wa. the original purpose or tbe crinoline to conceal. " F. Th . Vi8cher, Krituche Gange. new llerics. no. 3 (Stuttgart . 1861 ), p. 100: " Yer niinftige Gedanken tiber die jetzige Mudc" ( R ~aso n able Opinions on Current Fa,bionJ). [B211.2]
It W:l K i'ouulne.. ror the Frellch fu hion8 of the Revolution and the Firat Em)lire to mimic Greek proportionli with clothi.n g cut ami sewn in the modern manner." Vi8cilcr, " Vernilllrtige Gedanken tiber die jetzige Mode," p. 99, [B2a,3]

.. .. . e s ng. Jer III ~, pllddling--or a rool or simpleton." Vischer Vernunftlge Gedllnken ilbt:r dic ,etzi,e Mode " p . '" . ' [B2a,S) political critique of fashion from the standpoint of the bourgeois: ounen the auth?r of these reasonable opinions first saw, boarding a train, a y Ig ~ weann~ the newest style of shin collar, he honestJy thought that he was ooking at a pnest; for this white band encircles the neck at the same height ~ ':" ~.kno~ ~llar of tJu: ~atholic cleric, and moreover the long smock was , 'aU reco~~g a layman 10 the very latest fashion, he inuuediatcly underSt00<1 that r 1-.:_ . thlS shirt collar signili ..... . '0 , lor us eve...... , Ul.U'g. everything is oneco~~ordats 10cludedl ~d why not? Should we clamor for enlightemnenr like "haU e you~? Is ~ot hierarchy more distinguished than the leveling effected by a s ow splI1tua1libe rallon. hielI m . the end always aims at disturbing the pleasw Ure of refined people?'- It may be added that . l.:. u . uu;, co ar, III tracmg a neat little

g :'lI , 8, .6sh fins. The movement or Ihese shapeless appendages resembles the . ". ... cu allon_lh lidi . k

",.~ have here are DO longer a rms but the rudiments of wings, Slumps of ~nguin

F. Th. Vischer on the men's fa shion orwide 81 eeves lhat raU below the wrisl. " What

~rtant

line around the neck, gives its wearer the agn:eable air of someone freshly beheaded, which accords 50 well with the character of the blase_" To this is joined the violent reaction against purple_ VlScher, "Vemiinftige Gedanken uber die jetzige Mode," p. 112. [B2a,6)
On tlle reaction of 1850-1860: " To show one'8 colora is con&idered ridiculou8; to be 8tricl i8 1 00ked on I I childisb. In l uch a 8ituation , how could dren not bec:ome equally colorlen, flabby, and , at tbe 8a me time, Darrow?" Vilcher, p. 117_ He thua brings the crinoline into relation with that fortified "imlterialiam which spread8 oul and puffs up exactly like ill image here. and which, a8 the 18.11t aDd Itrongest exprell8ion of the refl ux of aU the tendencie. of the year 1848, lettle. ill dominion like a hoop skirt over aU aspecll, good and bad, jU8tilied and unjusti6ed. of the revolution"(p.119) . (B2a,7} " At bottom, these things are l imultaneou81y free and unfree_ It is a twilight zone where neeeuity and humor interpenetrate. _ , . The more fanta&tic a form . the more intensely the clear and ironic consciou sness work. by the side of the servile will. And this consciou8nen guarantees thai tlte foUy will not last ; tbe more <:on8<:iou8l1e8s grow tbe nearer comes the time when it aCtl. when it turns to deed, [B2a,8) when it throw8 off the felters, ,. ViKber, pp . 122-123.

that of an upholsterer:' J . W. Samson. Die Fratummode der Ce8ern~art (Berlin and Cologne. 1927), pp. 8-9. {B3 .3J

No immortalizing so unsettling as that of the ephemera and the fashionable fomlS preserved for us in the wax museum. And whoever has once seen her must, like Anc:irt Breton. lose his heart to the female figure in the Musee Grevin wbo adjusts her garter in the comer of a l o~. (Breton,) Na4ja <Paris, 1928~, p. 199. 7 [B3,4}
"The flower trimmings of large white lilies or water lilies with sterne of rush . whicb look lIO charming in any coiffure, unintentionally remind one of delicate . gently /looting lIylphids and oaiadel . Just 80, the 6ery brunette cannot adorn herself nlore delightfully than with fruit hraided in graceful little brallchea---c:herriea, red rurrllnlJl , even bunches of grapes mingled with ivy and flowering graS8e8-0r than with long vivid red velvet fuch&ias, whose leave. , red-veined and as though tinged ,,;th dew, fornl a crown: auo at her disposal is the very lovely cacllU lpecW.W . with its long white 6lamenll. In general. the flowen chosen for decora~ the hair are qnite large; we saw one such headdres8 o( very picturesque and beautiful white roses entwined with large pansiea and ivy branches, or ra ther boughs, The arrangemen t or the gnarled a nd tendriled branches 1"18 so felicitous that it seemed nature itself had lent a hand-long branches bearing buds and long atcrJUI swayed. al the sidcs with the sligbtellt motion ." Ocr Bazar, third year (Berlin, 1857), p. 11 (Veronika vun G . "'Die Mode" ). {B3,5}

One of the mOSI important texts for elucidating the eccentric., revolutionary, and surrealist possibilities of fashion-a text, above all, which establishes thereby the colUlection of Sw-realism to Grandville and others-is the section on fashion in Apollina.ire's Pot/e a.ssassini (Paris, 1927), pp. 74ff.' (B2a.9] How fashion takes its cue from everything: Programs for evening clothes ap- ...... peared, as if for the newest symphonic music. In 1901 , in Paris, Victor Prouvt: exhibited a formal gown with the title, "Riverbank in Spring." (B2a,1O]

The impression of the old-fashioned can arise only where, in a certain way, reference is made to the most topical. IT the beginnings of modern architc:cture to s ome extent lie in the arcades, their antiquated effett on the present generation has exactly the same significance as the antiquated effect of a father on his son.
{Jl3,6)

Hallmark of the period's fashions: to intimate a body that


nakedncss.

~r knows

full

(B3,ll

In my formulation : "The eternal is in any case far more the ruffie on a dress than Some idea."I DDialectical Image D [83,7] In fetishism, so. does away with the boundaries separating the organic world from the inorganic. Clothing and jewelry are its allies. It is as much al home with what is dead as it is with living Besh_ The latter. moreover, sbows il the way to establish itself in the fanner. Hair is a frontier region lying between the two ~gdoms of sexus. Something different is disclosed in the drunkeTUless of pasSion : the landscapes of the body. These are already no longer animated, yet are .~ tiJl accessible to the eye, which. of course, depends increasingly on touch and smell to be its guides through these realms of death. Not sddom in the dream, however, tllere are swelling breasts that, like the eanh, are all appareled in woods and rocks, and gazes have sent their life to the bottom of glassy lakes that sllmlber in the valleys. These landscapes are traversed by paths which lead

"Around 1890 people discover that aillc. i. no longer the most elegant mate ial for j lret"t c1olhel; henceforth it is allotted the previoullly unknown function of lining_ l-' rom 1870 to 1890. clothing ill extraordinaril y expe n ~ iv e. and changes ill fHlhion are accordingly limited ill many cases to Ilrudent .... terations by which new apparel call be derived (rom remodeling the old." 70 Jahre deutsche Mode ( 1925), p . 71 . {Jl3 ,2)
" 1873 . . . , when the giallt skirts thai 8trelchtXI over Q ushions attached to the derriere. witJl tlu:ir gatJlered draperie" their pleated frills . their embroidery, and tbeir ribhons, seem to haVl: iu ued lell from the work. hop of a lailur thall from

~~ int.o the world of the inorganic. Fashion itself is only another medium enlJClng It still more deeply into the universe of matter. rro.8]
"'Tbi.. yellr. laid ~riuou&e . ' fa shi?n8 are bizarre a nd common . simple allli fnll of flillt uy. An )' material from nature s domain ca ll now ~ introd uce,1 illlo till: eompositioll of c.!othes. I saw a charming Jreu nu"de of co,ks. . .. A IIIUJor . . women', . . designer IS thinking about laun ching tailor-made-outfi t.!! made of old bookhindings done in caU.. . . Fish bones are being worn a lot on lJa t, . One often ~s de.lido uf> yo~ng girls dreu ed like pilgrims of Saint James ofCompostell8; Uleir outfil8. al ill fittmg. are studded with coquillel Saint-Jacque!!. Steel, wool, , and.sllme, and hie.. have lIuddenly entered the veslmentar y aru .. .. Feathen n ow decorate not ollly h alll b.ut shoes. and gloves; and next year they' ll be on umbrellas. They' re doi ng .shoes In Venetian glass and halll in 8accarat crystal. . . . I forgot to tell you tb al las t Wedn~day I saw 0 11 the buulevards on old dowager dressed ill mirrors stuck to fah~c. Tbe effect was sumptuous in the sunlight. You 'd have though t it WIIS a gold nunc out ror a walk. Later it atarted raining alld the lady looked like a silver mine . . .. "'as bio~ is becoming prActical a nd no longer look. down on anything. h ennohles everything. It doeR for materials whllt the Romalltics rnd fllr words. , .. Guillaume Apollinaire, I.e 4S1oSline, new edition (Paris, 1927), pp . 75--77.Q

quickl y a ltering, bUl aao quicldy reins ta ted. nuanCell: the length I)f the tnin , the height or die ooiffure, the shortnelS of the slt:eves , the fullnen or the l kirt , the placemenl uf the neckline and of the waist. Eyen rarneal revolutiolls like the boyi.'l h hairc.uts ra ."'li~'lIab lf' tod ay li re onl y the ' eternal re turn of the B ame. ,., EgoD Friedcll . KU/lllrge!Jcilicilte ller Neu..::.eit, vol . 3 (Munich . 19:H ). p . 88. Women '! faB hions ar~: t.hus distinguislled . al;l:ording to the lIutbor. frum the more diverile a nd more cattj;oril:a l fas hioll! for Illen . IB'.11

"or ullthe promises made b y <Etiellne) Cabet's novel Voyase en l carie <Voyage to
I ca ri a~. at least one has been realized . Cabet had ill fact tried to provei.n the novel. ...hich conUliJlI his l ys teUl . Ulat the communist state of the future cowd admit no proouct of the inlagi natioll ami cuuld l uIfer 11 0 ch ange in its institutions. He had therefo re h alilletl from ICllria all fu hioll-particularly the capricious priestel8cs of fas hiOn . the IIlOClilitell-aS weU os goldSmiths and all other profellions that ~ .. rve ItlXUry. allli had deman ded that tlreu, utensils, and the like showd never be altered ." Sigmund Englander, Ceschichle der JrafUosuchen Arbeiter[B4,21 Au ociationen (H amb urg. 1864). vol. 2. pp. 165--166.

P oe'e

(B3a,1]
A caricaturisl--circa 1867--represents the frame of a hoop skirt as a cage in whicb a girl imprisoru bens and a parrot. See Louis SOllolet , La Vie pa rnierme .ous Ie Secon d Empire (Parn. 1929). 1 1. 245 . [83a,2J

In 1828 the first performance of Lo. Mutlt( de Porh'ci took place. 10 It is an undulating musical extravaganza, an opera made of draperies, which rise and subside over the words. It must have had its suc:cess at a time when drapery was begin. ning its uiumphal procession (at first, in fashion, as Turkish shawls). 'Ibis revolt, whose premier task is to protea the king from its own effect, appean ;u a prelude to that or 183()-to a revolution that was indeed no more than drapery covering a slight reshuffle in the ruling circles. [B4,3J

" It was b athing ill tile sea .. . that struck the first blow against the solelllll and cllmhersome crinoline." Loui. Sonolel, La. Vie parnienne .OWl Ie Second Empire (Paril, 1929), p. 247. (B3a,3]

Does fashion die (as in Russia, for example) because it can no longer keep up the tempo-at least in certain 6e1ds? [84,4J
Grandville's works are true cosmogonies of fashion . Pan of his oeuvre could be entitled "The Struggle of Fashion with Narure." Comparison between Hogarth and Grandville. Grandville and Lauttiamont-What is the significance of the hypertrophy or captions in Grandville? (84 ,51
" Fashion . .. ill a witness, L Ui a witne8s to the history oCtile great world only. for in (: \'(' ry cuuntry . . . the pour peuple hllve rashions as little as the)' have u history. alit! their ideas . their tastes. e\'f' 1I their lives Lard y change. Without do"ht . .. Imillir lift: ill Ilegiuning to pcnetrlltc the poorer lIou,,:hnII16, b ut it ....i11 take time." Eugene MOlltlIIt:, Le XIX' $iiicie vee" pur dellx.frum;ui.~ (parill). p. 241. [B4.6J

"Fashion c~nsists ?nly ~ atremes. Inasmuch as it seeks the extremes by narure, there ~~ ror It nothing mo~, when it has abandoned some particular form, M Mode (1925). p. 51. Its than to g'J.Ve Itself to the opposile fonn." 70 Jahre deul,IC uttermost extremes: frivolity and death. [B3a.4]
"We took the crinoline to be the symbol of the Second Empire in FranCe-(lf its ~verblown lie., iu hollow and purse- proud impudence. It toppled ... , but ... J~ .st be~ore the rail of the Empire, the Parisian world had time to indulge a nother Side of Its temper ament in women '. fashio ns, and the Rt-public did not disdain to follow illl leud ." F. Th . VIseiler, Mode lind CynumWl (St uttgart , 1879), (l . 6. The new fu hion to which Vischer alludes ia explained : " T he dress is cut r1iagonully across the body lind I lTetched over . . . the belly" hI . 6). A little later he I Ilt:ak Nof the women thus attired as " naked in their c1othea" (p . H). [83a,.5J Friedell explains. with regllrd to women, " thlll the hi~ tor y of their 111't~u shows l urprisingly few varilltions. It is not much mlli'e thall a rcgulllr rotation of 11 few

The following remark makes it possible to recognize how fashion functions as camou8.age for quite s~cific ime~sl5 or the ruling class. "Rulen have a great aversion to violent changes. They want everything to stay the same-if possible, for a thousand years. U possible. the moon should stand still and the sun move 110 farther in itS cOurse. TIlen no one: would get hungry any more and want

diona. And when the ru1en have fired their shot, the adversary should no 1 0nF be penniucd to fire ; their own shot should be the last." Ikrtolt Brttht, "FUn! Schwierigkeiten beim Schreiben der Wahrheit," Un;l Zril, 8, nos. 2-3 (paris,
Basel, Prague. April 1935), p. 32. [B4a.l J

MacOrlan, who emphal izel& the analogiefl to Surreawm in Grandville's wurk, draws attention in thil conoection to tbe work of Walt Oil iley. un whidl he CO Qlmenu: " It ill not in the leaat morbid . In thill it di ver!,:es from the hUlllor of Grandville, which always bore within itself the M eedS of death ." cPierre. !'tlMcOrlan , " Grandville Ie pn:curMeur," Arts et meliers g rnphiques. 44 (December 15. 1934). <p o24). [B4a,2]

mOBt important maplIines ... have their own photo . tudios. which are equipped with all the latest technical and artistic r efin ement. , and wruch employ highly talented spe(:ialized photogra phers. _ . _ But tile publication of these documentll is nol pe rmitted until the customer ha. made her choice, aud that meKn, UlUKUy four tu six ","eek, after tbe initial showing. The reason (or this measure?-The ","oman who tlPJJetirs in society wea ring theae new clothes will berR df not be denied tJle effect of surprise." Helen Grund. Yom We.en der Mode, pp. 21-22. [B5.1] Accordin!,: to the aumma ry of the firat six iu ues, the ma!,:azine published by Stephane Mallarme. La Dern~re Mooe (Paris, 1874), contains "a delightIul l por_ live sketch , tbe r elult of a conversation with the marvelous naturaliat TOUl8enel. " Rcproduction of this . ummary in Miflotour-e. 2. no. 6 (Winter 1935) cp o27).

liThe presentation of a large couture coUection lasts two to three hours. Each time in accord with the tempo to which the models are accustomed. At the close, a veiled bride traditionally appears." Helen Grund, Vom Wm'll der Mode (Mu nich : Privately printed, 1935) , p. 19. 1n this practice, fashion makes rcfermce to propriery while serving notice that it does not stand still before it. [B4a.3J A contemporary fashion and its significance. In the spring of 1935, something new appeared in women's fashions : medium-sized embossed metal plaqueues, which wert wom on jumpers or overcoats and which displayed the initial letters of the bearer's first name. Fashion thus profited from the vogue for badges which had arisen among men in the wake of the patriotic leagues. On the other hand, the progressive restrictions on the private sphere are here given expression. The name-and, to be SUrt, the first name-of persons unknown is published on a lapel. That it becomes easier thereby to make the acquaintance of a Sb"anger is of secondary importance. [84a,41
" The creators of fas hions ... like to frequ ent suciety lind extract from iii grand duinp! an imprellllion of the whole ; tbey take part in ita artiatic life, are present at premieres and exhiliitiona, and read the boob that make II sensation . In other words , Ihey a re inspired by the ... ferment ... which Ihe busy prescnt day can offer. Bnl since no present moment ill ever full y cui off from the past , th~' lalle.r also will offer attractiolls to tbe creator, ... though only that which harmonizes wilh the reigning tone can be u lled . The toque tipped forward over the. fore hea ~I , a style we owe to the l'llanel exhibition , demunstrates quite simply Ollr new readiness to confront the end of the previoull century." Helen Grund . Yom Wesen der Mode. p. 13. [B4a.51 00 tbe publicity war between Ihe fallhion houi;C a nd the lashion columnists: " The fashion writer 's taM k ill made easier b y the fa cilhat our wiahell coincide. Yet it ill lIIade more difficult by tbe fa clthat no lIt'.wllpalJer or lIIagulIllne may rt'I!:H rtl as new whal another has a lread y puhlished. From this dilemma, we a nd t.he allhion writer a re Raved only hy the photographers allli designer il. who manage through the I~Olle and lighting 1.0 bring oot different aspecU of 0 single pieet'?f clol.hing. The

IB5.2J
A biological theory of al bion tbat take. its cue Irom the evolution of the zebra to the horse. as described in the abridged Brehm (p. 771): II '""This evolution spanned millions of years .... The tendency in horses is toward the cr eation of a first-class runner and courser .... The most ancient of the existing animal type. have conspicuously . triped coats. Now, it is very remarkable that the external ItripeS of the :u'.bn display a certain correspondence to the arrangement uf the ribs and the vertebra inside. One can alao detennine very clearly the arrangement of these parts from the unique StriPUI!,: on the upper forele!,: and up per hind leg. What do these stripe. l ignify? A protective function can be ruled out .. _ . The Stripel have been ... preserved d espite their ' purposeleSlineu and even unsuilablenet!lI.' and then:fore they mUl t ... have a Ilarticular signmcance. Iso'l it likely thKt we are dealing here with outward stimuli for mtemal relponses, M uch as would be especiaUy active during the matin!,: season ? Whal can this theor y contribute to our theme? Something of lundamental importance, I beLieve.-Ever since humanity IJaslied from nakedness to clothing. 'IICnaeleSli and nonsensical' fa shion has played the role of wise nature .... And insofar al (ashion in its mutationll . , . p rescribes a Cowtant revision of aU eleme.nlll of the figure . .. it ordains for the woman a continu~1 preoccupation with her beauty." Helen Grund. Vom Wf'sen der Mode, pp.7-8.

IB5.3J

At the Puria world exhibition of 1900 the.re was a Palais du CO~lume. in which ","!IX dolls arranged before II painted backdrop displayed the costumes of various peoples and the fashions of various ages. [B5a. l )

"Out a8 for u~, we see ... around us . .. theeffet:1I of confllsioll lind wasle. inflicted !' y the disordere~1 movement of the ","orld today. Art knows no compromille with hurry. Ollr ideals ar e good for tell yean ! The ancient and excellellt reliance nil the judgment of posterit y h ll;s been Siupidly replaced I,y the ridiculou.s superstition 01 lI ovelty. which al!!lignMthe mOM t WU.i Wry ClltiS to our ellterprise8. condemllino!\ tlll'lII to the crealion of what il most perillhaLle. of what must be perilillable by itl Itatun:: the senllation of newlleu .... Now. everything tu be Heel! here has bt:t!1I

enjflYet.i. hUll r hurmcd and (lelighted Ihrough the centuries, and the whole glory of il calmly lells WI: ' 1 AM NOT III ,,"'G N~;W. Time may weU s poillhe IDal.e rial in which I I!Xilil; hul fur so long a~ it doel! nOI delilroy me, I canllOI be deslroyed by the imliffcrNlcc or cOlllcmpl IIf a ny IIIUIl wtlrthy of the name:' Paul Valery. " Prcambule" (preface Iu Ihe calalogue of Ihe exbihition " Italia n Arl from Cimabue to Tiepolo," allhe Pdil Palois. 1935). pp . iv. vii. tJ [B5a.2) "The ascendancy of tbe hourgeoisie workll II change in women's wear. Clothing and hair8ly les ta ke on added dimenllions ... ; s.houldenl are enlarged hy leg-of-muuon &leevell . and ... it wall nOllong before the old buop-peuicuau came back into favo r and fuU skirts were the Ihing. Women , thus attOutered , appeared de8tined for a se(!Clltur)' lifc--fanlil y life--!lince tbeir manner of dr~lI had about it nothing that could ever su~es t or seem 10 further the idea of movement . It was jUlit theol)posite with the aelvent of the Suu nd Empire: famil y tiell grew IIlack. and an ever-l.ucr eas inl5 luxury corrupted morulll to liuch an extent that it became difficult to distinguish all honest woma n from a courlesan on the ba,i, of c!othin, alone. Feminine attire had thus been tra n..,foTlued from head to toe ... . Hoop sk.irl8 went the way oftbe accentualed rear. Everything that could keep women from remaining scated WQ S en co Llragcd ~ lmything that could have impederl their walking Will avoided. They wore their hair 01111 their clothell a81hough they were 10 be viewed ill profile. For the profLIe ill the "ilhoudle Of someone . .. who passel, who il IlhOUI to vanish from our sight. Dress became 1111 image of the rapill movement that carriC! away the. world ." Charlell Hiane, "Consideratiolls sur Ie velement dell femmes" (lnstitut de France. Oclohcr 25. 1872). I)P ' 12-13. [B5a,3) ''In o rder (0) grasp tire enence of contemporary fashion . one. need not recur to motives of an indh'idual nature, sucb as ... the desi~ for change. the R n se of beauty. Ibe "alision fur drcssing up . the drh'c to COliform . DoubtJe8s IIUW motive. have. at various time . ... played a pari ... in the creation of c1oth~ . . .. NevertJ.e1es , fa llhion, as we under Slund it tod ay, bas no individual motives but only a social moti ve. a nd il il an accurate l)Crception of tms social motive that determine. the fuU a ppretiBlion of fashion 'lI eSlience. Tms molin is the e(fort to ditltinguish the hig llf~r dnilsclI of society from the lower, or more t'8 1~ia Uy from the middle c!aues .... Fashion is the h a rrie~olltinuaUy railed anew becBwe continually tQrn dQwll-by whi('h Ihe ashiollable world seeks to segregate itself from the middle rt'gio n of lIociety; it ill the mad pursuil of that elan vanity dlrouy. wmch a single vhenolllcllull cndh:ssly repeats itself; the endeavor of one group to establish a lead, IwwC"er minimal , oVI'r itil purSlIer,. ami tht: endeavor of the other group to make uJl the dis.tance hy immediatel y adopting the newell fa shions of the leader s, The ch aracteristic fealures of cOlltemporary fa shion a re thus ex plained : uhnve all , i18 ori Kill1l ill Ihe upper cirdcli and its imitation in IIII' middle IItruta of SOf;il!ly. Fadliull mOVCe:I from IUP tn hollom , 1101 vice ,crsa .... An attempt hy the miclilJe c-I a;!~cs to introlhu:c Q lie.... fushion woulll ... ne\'cr succeed , though Iwtlting wuuhl Stl.;t lilt' tlpl ter cllI l'I.oJe~ Iwlter than ttl see Il,e form er wilh their own @f't "f fu shiOlIIl. ([Not,. : ) Whit'h ,Ioel< 110t deli'r Ihem fro m loukjng for new tleMiguli in the R ewer of

the Paritian dentimonde and bringing out fa shions that clearly bear the mark of their unlleemly origin IllI Fr. Villcher ... has pointed out in his ... widely ot"nsured but , 10 my mind , . .. highly meritorioull cReay on fashion. ) I]euee the UIl ceasing variation of fasmon . No sooner Ilave tbe middle classes adoPled a newly introduced fu bion than it ... loses iu value for the upper classtlil . . . . Thus, novelty is the indispe.Dl!Itble condition for aU fa shion ... . The duralion of a fa shion ill inversely proportional to the , wiftnel8 of itl diffusioD; the ephemerality of fasmonl hail incr eued in our da y at the meanl for their diffusion have expaudt!t.l via our perfuted communication, technique. . . . . The social motive referred to ahove explains. finall y, Ihe third characteristic feature of cOlltemporary fa shion : its ... t'franny. Fu hion compri.es the outwa rd criterion for judging whether or not one 'belongs in polite society.' Whoever dOt':s not repudiate it altogether must go along, even wber e he ... firml y refuses 1I0me new development .... With thi . a judgment is pa9scd on fillmon .. , . II the clane. that are weak and foolish enough to imitate it were to l5ain a &e:nse of tbttlr own proper worth , . . . it would be aU lip with fa smon , and beauty could once again assume the position it ha ~ had with aU those peoples who . , . did not feel the need to accentuate class differences through clothing or. where thitt occurred. were sensible enough to reape<:t them ." Rudolph von Jhering, Der ZlCIeck im Recht, vol. 2 (Leipzig, 1883), pp. 234-238. 13 [B6 ; Ma,l } On the epoch of Napoleon III: " Making mOlley bct:omes the obje<:t of a n a lm o~t se.llsual fervor. and love become. a finan cial concern . In the age or French Romanticism , the erotic ideal W all the working girl who give. her self; now it is the tart who sella henlClf.... A hoydenish nuauce came into fasmon : lame9 wore collal'll and craval., overcoata. drease. cut like tailcoats, ... jackets la Zouave, dolmans, walking sticks, monocles. u,ud, hanbly contrasting colors are preferred- for the coiffure as weU: fiery red hair La very popol.,..... The paragon or f. llmon is the 8rande dame who play. the cocotte." EgoD FriedeU. Kulturgeschichte der Netueit. vol. 3 (Municb , 1931). p . 203. The " plebeian charaeter" of Ihis fasm on represenu, for the author. an ""Ivasion ... from below" by the nouveaw: riches. [B6a,2!

"Cotton fabri cs replace brocades and lIatim , ... and l)Cfore long, thanks to ... the revolutionary spirit, th~ dren of the lower clallsell becomes more seeml y und agreeuble to the eye ... Edouard Fouc.II ud , Paru inventeur: Physiologie de l'illd/IStrieJrant;aUe (Paris, 1844), p . 64 (referrilll5 to the Revolution of 1789). [B6a,3)

An auemhlage whiell , on clUller inspection , JlrOVeH to be eOmp08Ctl O:lltirc!y of


picces of clothing together with unurled clnlls' head9. Caption; " Dolls on (chairll, mannequins with false. necks. faille hair, false aUracliults-vvilii Longchomp! " Cabinet des Estaml)Cs. [B6a,-I]

"ll, in 1829, we were to enler the shops of Delisle. we would lintl It muJlitllllt. of dive r~ fabric. : Japanese, Alltllmbrellque , coal'lle oriental, 8tocoliue. m l..otide .

sil,uiu" . :(.[I1:,;oliu(:. C hin c~e l1aga-zillkoff. .. . With the Revolution of 1830, ... the ~'"u l'l "f fU 8hioli Iliul l'I'O~iI~~~llht: Sdll .. Illllll.he Chuullllee d 'Anlill IUIII rcplaced the II d ,; lunuti,~ faubourg:' I'aul d 'Arisl(" Lfl Vie e' Ie lIIomle till bou. /evllrtl. 18,10IH70 d'aris. 1930~.1l' 227 . 860.5]
"Th.. "" cll-w-du buurgeois. lUI Il friend of order. P~YIi his ~upp ti crll at I("ast oncc U yt'ur; hut tilt' IIlU Il uf fu sh.ioll , tile so-called lion, pay& h.ill laiJllr t'very ten year!!. if he pays him ala ll." tic'" lhge in P(lru (Paris, July 1855), p. 125. fD7.1 ]

been C Olldcnmed for the grealer part of hi'lory deriveIJ their intimate relatioo with all that i.!l 'elitIIlCtltl ." GeorS Simmel , PhilolOI)I,uche Kultur (Leipzig, 19 11 ), p. 47 (" Die MlIdl'''). 11> 87,8] The following analysis of fashion incidentally throws a light on the significance of the mps that were fashionable among the bourgeoisie during the second half of the century. "The accent of atb'actions builds from their substantial center to their inceptio n and their end. This begins with the most trilling symptoms, such as the , . , switch from a cigar to a cigarette: it is fully manifest in the passion for travelin g. which, with its strong accentuations of depanure and arrival, sets the life of the year vibrating as fully as possible in several short periods. The ... tempo or modem life bespeaks not only the yearning for quick changes in the qualitative content of life, but also the force o f the fonnal atb'acUon of the boundary-of inception and end." Georg Sinune1, PhiJruophiJdu! Xu/fur (Leipzig, 1911), p. 41 ("Die Mode").11 [B7a.l ] Simmel assertl that kfaahioll! differ for different elassell--tbe falhioo, of the upIw.r strat um of BUcicty are never identical with thOle uf the lower ; in fact , tbey are ubantlulI~1 by t he former at soon 08 tbe hailer prepares 10 appropriate them." Ceorg Silnmel , Pllilo50plluclle Kuhar (Leipzig, 191J), p. 32 ("Die Made" )." [B7a,2] The quick changing offa-Ihion means " thai falhions can no longer be 10 expensive ... al they were in earlier times .... A peculiar circle . .. arisel here: the more an article. bet:ome& subjec. to rapid changee of fa shion , tbe greater the demand for cheap jlrlllluCII of itl kind ; and tbe clieal)C:r they become, the more tbey invite consumers Hod constrain producen til a quick change of fasbion. " Georg Simmel, Philusophische Kuitur (Leipzig, 1911), Pl" 58-59 ("Die Mode")." 87a,3] Fuchs on J h,-,- rillg'l alllliYlis of fllshioo ~ " It must ... be reiterated that the concern for segrl'gatillg the dallses is only one cause of the frequent variation in faeruons, und Ihllt a 8t:Cond cause--the private-capitaliat mode of production, whicb in the i.lllereslli of ii, profil margin must continually multiply the possibilitiea of lurno\'n-is of equal importance. Thill caUlle ha, escaped Jbering entirely, u bu a third: Ihe fun ction of eroti" stinmilltion in fashion , which operates moal effectively when the erotic altractiouil of Ihe man or the womao appear in ever new seltillg~. .. It~ ri cdrich \lischi'll'. who wrote IIbout fa shion .. , twenty years before J htlring, did IInl yet recognize, ill the genesis of fashioll . Ihe tendencies li t wurk to kecp tlu: c1aSSI:!! Ilividetl ; ... 1111 the olher hand, he wall fully aware of thtl erolic [Iruhlems of Il rc ~~. ,. EdulI rd fuchs, lflU.Jfrier ,e Siu engeschiclJ le 110m !t1ittelalter zu r Gegelltullrl: Das lIiirgerliche Zei,al,er. enlarged edition (Munich ( 1926 ?~), PII.53-54 . [B7a.4]

" It is I ""liu ill"'I~lIt ed lies. At p"'~,;e llt , thc iorguoll ha ~ replacl'd them .... Tile tic ill"''''''I'!; dnliing Ihe eye with a ccrtuiu movemcllt of the mOlllh uml II cCI'lain moveIIlI'lIllIfllll' 1'('81 .. _ . Tt.c fa ct> of an degant mall , houltl a lwuYII hll\e ... something ilritatef.l uuo convulsive IIholl t it. One 1;.1111 attribute thcse fa cilll agilatioDl! either to ," a natural ~a t.anilim_ III II..! f,,\..r of the p asiliQn.'!, or flnuU y to anytbing one IikeB Puris-l'il."t!ur. hy the aut hun ..( till' memoirs of HithO<luct [Taxilf" Dclord] (Pari" IR54). I)I) 25-26. [B7,2]
'1 '111: \'oguc for buying one'. "" a rdrobe in Lomlon look hllid o lll y umong men; the

fa shiun lilnunf!: wUlllen. eV I~1I fordglllrs. has always bt.'en 10 be outfitted in Paris," Chari,)! S,ignuIJtls. Ili:fluin! sillcer e de ia nlilia n fr(Hu,clise ( Pari ~, 1932), p. 402. [B7,' [ MIIITIlin , tlw fOHlIII"r of crinoline."

u!

Yif' Purnienne. hai set forth " the four age1l of the [B7,4)

Till' t' r inuline i:l " the unmiUllkalJle iymbol of reaction 011 the pari of an imperialism tllllt l!preadl! out alUl jluffs ulJ ... ,allli that ... seltiell it'llonUlliun like a hoop skirt lI\'er oil aspcc,s, good alld bad, j ustified unci ulljn s l ifi.~d , uf the revolulio1ll. .. . It Bet-IlUlII n l'uJlrice flf the 1II0IlU~ III, IIllfJ it has C l tnblit hed itself as the t'1IIi1l e nt uf II pIdud . lilt thc Secund of Dec~ml.HlI'."'1 F. Th . Visciu'I', cited in E, III:II'II Fuehs, Dip Knrik(ltur df>r ellrQ piii!Jcherr Volker (Munich <1921 , vol. 2,
.l~
III 1111" ca rl)' 18<10s. t.lwre is a nucleus of modistes ollt be nue Vi" ienlle,

[87.6)

Simmcl calls attention to the fact that "the inventions of fashion at the prescnt limc arc increasingly incorporated intO the objective sintation of labor in the cconomy... . Nowhere d oes an article first appear and then become a fashion; nuher. articles arc immduced for the express purpose of becoming fashions.~ ~nle contrast put rOlward ill the last sentenCe may be eorrelmed, to a certain CXICnt. with th.-.t between th e reudal and bourgeois eras. Georg Simmei. Phifruoplujt/u: KII/tur (Leipzig, 1911 ). p. 34 (" Die Mode").'} fB7.7J
Sill1l1lO'l "x plaill ~
j'lII .. .

',is

""""y

WIIIIII' II ill jtf' llI'ral are t.h.: ~ l u lI.l\c hl~ 1 a,lhcn' nt~ IIf fa s h w" lIkl1 ':s~

!'j p.cili/a li y: rrolll cliO'

(If the sucia l PII~i lion to w.hil'" WVlIlen have

[(IliaI'd Fllchll (lflllMrierfe Sillengelchich re IJQm Miuelulter II", ~ur Gegenwurt: lJu.J lJiirge rlid.e Zeitu l, er, e.nla r~ed ed .. pp . 56-57) cite8-witJIOut reference.-a

remark !ly F. Th. Vucber, Ilccorrung to which the gray uf men 'a elulhing "ymLfllizea tbe " utterly h1101.e'' characler of the masculine wurh.l , its duliJlen IUIII illI:rtia .

IBO, II
"One of tbe sure, t and moat deplorableaYlDptoms of that wf)akne88lo1ud frivo lity or characte.r which marked the Romantic age was the child ish and fala l nntiUIi of rejectin,; the deepest undentandin,; of technical procedurell ... the conllciousiy lustained and orderly carrying through of a work ... -all for the lake of the l p<lntaneou8 impuhes of the individual 5eD8ibility. The idea of creating worka of laating value lost force and gave way, in mOl t mind., to the delire to a~lOnis h ; IIort wail condemned 10 a whole seriell of brea ks with the past . There arose a n automatic a udacity, which became.1 ohligatory as tradition b ad been . Finally, that switching-at high frequ ency---()f the tastes of a given public, which ia called Fashion, replaced with iu esse.nti.l chlln,;eablt:neu the old hllbil of slowly formin,; styles, IIchools, and rep utlltions. To aay that Fashion took over the destinies of tbe fine arU is all much as 10 B ay that commercial interests were creeping in ." Paul Valery, PieCfJl l ur "art (Pari,), pp. 187-188 (" Autour de Corot").:Q (8 8,2] "The great al1ll fundameutal revolution has been in conon prints. II has re1luirecl the conlbilled effortl of acience and art to force rebeUious and lIn,;rate.flli colton fabri cs to undergo every d ay so many brilliant transformation s and to Il pread them everywhere. within the reach uf the poor. Every womao used to wear a lJIue or black dress that she kept for ten yearll without washing, for feur it might tear hi pieII. But now her husband , a poor worker, cover s her with a robe of fl owen for the price of a d ay's labor. All the women of the people who di~ pl ay an iris of a thoWiand color s on our promenadea were fonuerly in mourning." J . Michelel, Le Peuple (Paris. 1846). pp. 80-81.21 {B8.3]
Ult is no lon~e r a rt , as in earlier times, but the clothing businel! thai furnishes the prolo type of the modern man and woman .... Mannequins become the model for imitatiun , and the l oul becomes tbe image of the body." Henri Polles, " L' Art du commer ce," Vendredi, <1 2> (February 1937). Compare tiCI and English fu shioDs [88.4] for men .

study these things in tb emselv e~ and turn them iuto moral and philosophical question s, for these thiD ~ reprellent immediate reality in iu ket:nellt, mosl aggreuive. anli perhaps m()~ l irrilatin& guiile. but also al il il mosl generally e1t"perienced ." [Note:] " 8e ~ id el, for Hiludeillire, lhese mallen link UI) with hi~ important theory of (land yillm. wher e it ill question. precisely, of murality and modernity." Roger CailJois, " Paris , m ythe moderne," NoulJf!Ue RelJu.e!ram;aue, 25, DO. 284 (May I , 1937), p. 692 . [B8a.2} 'SeD8ational event ! T he belle. da me., one flOe d ay, dec:ide to puff up the derriere. Quick. by the thousand hoop factories! ... But what is a ' imple re~ment on ilJu5trioua cOCCyxed? A trumpe.ry, no mOn!: ... . 'Away with the rump! Long live crinolines!' And l udderuy the civilized world turns to the production of IImbuJa_ lory bella. Wby has the fair sex forgotten tbe deli8,hts of band bells? ... It is not enough to keep one', place; yo u UlWit make lome noise down there .... The qua,.. tier 8rftJa and the Faubourg Saint-Germain are rivals in piety, no leAS than in "Ias ten and ChignODI. They mi8,ht all well take tbe church all their model! At ve~pef8, the organ anel the cle(5)' take turna intoning a vene from the P lilims. Tbe fine lames with their little belli could foU ow this e1t"ample, words and tintinnabula _ tion hy turns spurring on the conversation." A.. Blanqui, Critique Jociale (Paris, 1885), vol. I , pp. 83-84 (uLe Luxe").-" Le Luxe" is a Jlolemic against the luxurygoods industry. [B8a,3]

Each generation experiences the fashions of the: one immediately preceding it as the most radical antiaphrodisiac imaginable:. In this judgment it is not so far off the mark as might be: supposc:d. Every fashion is to some extent a bitter satire on love:: in c:vuy fashion, perversiti~ are suggeste:d by the most ruthless means. ~v~ry fashion stands in opposition to the organic. Every fashion couples the livmg body to the inorganic world, To the living, fashion defends the rights of the corpse. The fetishism that succumbs to the sex appeal of the inorganic is its vital nerve. (B9,1] Where they impinge on the present moment, birth and death-the fonner tJu:ough natural cirrumstance5, the latter through social ones-considerably reStIlct the field of play for fashion. 1hi.s state of affairs is propc:rly elucidated through two parallel circumstances. The firs t concerns birth, and shows the Ilatural engendering of life "overcome" (aJifgehobem by novelty in the: realm of fashion. The second cirrumstanc:e concerns death : it appears in fashion as no less "overcome; and precisely through the sex appeal of the inorganic, which is something generated by fashion. [B9.2J !he detailing of feminine beauties so dear to the pcKtry of the Baroque, a process ~n which each single part is exalted through a trope, s~tly links up with the tmage of the corpse. This parceling out of feminine beauty into its noteworthy constituents resembl~ a dissection, and the popular comparisons of bodily parts to alabaster, snow, preciow stones, or other (mostly inorganic) fonnations makes

"One can elltimate that, in Hamlony. the changes in fas hion ... and til .. impe rfe('.tion8 in llIanufactu rin,; would occasion aD annuaiiosli tlf 500 fra nr.1l per per~tJ n , since. even the poon!:st of Harmonian! has II wardrohe of c10thell for e\er y sellSOli . AI fa r us c1ntrullg aud furniture a re f.oncerlled , ... I-I armony ... uims fo r infinite variety with the leasl possible cUDsumption .... The excellence ur the products of societary illliustry .. . entail perfection for each ulld every nlDllllrarlured object ,lo thai furniture and clothing ... hecome clemu!." <Fourier.) citl'll ill Armand and Mauhlullc, Fourier (Parill . 1931). vol. 2. pp . 196 , 198. [DBa. I} "This lasle for mudcrnil Y is devdoped 10 8\1ch an exlenl I.hul 8 audelaire , like Babal:, ex.teud~ it to the 1II0lti I.rifling details of fa ~ hjon and dreu. 80th writefll

the same point. (Such d ismembemlent occurs also m Bauddaire: "I.e Beau
Navire.") [Bg., )

LippI on IheMoml>er (:6UJI of men'. "Inthing: He think /! that " our gelleral avenion to hrif;ht colun;. t.'!Ipelially in c10thiug (or men , evinc:u very d ea.rly a n oft -uoted peculiarity of our cha racter. Gray is all theory; green-and not only Veen bUI also ret! , yeUow, blue-ill the goMell tn:e of life.%: In OUr prediJeclion for the various sluulell of gr ay . .. rU.llning tu IJlack , we find an unmista kable social reAecriori of ulLr tendency to privilege t111~ thenry of the fonnalioll of intellect above aU d Ie. Even lhe heautiful we clln 110 longer just enjoy ; ralher, ... we must finl llubjecl it tu crilic:iSOI , with the consequence that ... our i pirituallife becomell ever more cool aud colorless. " Thcodor LipPII, "Uber die Symbulik unserer KJeidung, n Nord und Sijd, 33 (Bres.lau and Bcrlin , 1885), p . 352. fB9,4]

case, the woman would have btt:n the four-footc=d companion of the man, as the dog or cat is today. And it seems only a step from this conception to the idea Utat the frontal encowlter of the two parmers in coitus would have been originally a kind o f perversion; and perhaps it was by way o f this d eviance that the woman would have begun to walk uprigbL (See note in the essay "Eduard Fuchs : Der Sammler und dc=r Historiker.,,)24 [810.2]

" It would .. . be interesting to trace the effects exerted by this 1liSItosilioll tu uprigbt pOllture o n tbe structure and fun ction of the rest or the body. There it uo
doubt that all the particulal'l of an organic f:.lltity are held logethel' in intimate cohesion, but with the IIresent state of our scientifiC knowledge we mUllt maintain that the eXl1'aordinar y influences ascribed herewith to sta nding upright CalUlot ill fact be proved .. , . No lignificant reperCUll8iOIi can be demonstrated ror tlle struc ture a nd (unction of the inner or gans, and Herder'iJ hypothesu--accordillg to ",hich aU force. would react differently in tbe upright lIostu re. and the blooil stimulate the nervel differently-forfeil all credibility al Boon all they are r eferred to differences manifestl y important for behllvior," Bermann Loue, lItikrokol mo. (Leipzig, 1858), vol. 2, p. 9O.!S [lllOa, l]

Fashions are a collective medicament for the ravages o f oblivion. The more short[B9a,!] lived a period, the more susceptible it is to fashion. Compare K.2a,3.
Focillon ou the phantasmagoria of fa shion : "Most often , .. it creates hybrids; it imposes 011 the human being thc profile of an auima). . , . Fashion thU!! illvenlll an artificial humallilY which is 1101 the pas8ive decora tion of a formal environment , but that very environllwnt itself. Such a humanity-b y turns heraldic, theatrical, raDtastical , architectural- ta kes , all its ruliug principle, the lwetics of ornament, and what it caUs ' linc' ... i3 llf.:rhal)s but a subtle compromise between a certain physiological calion . , , aud imaginative design ." B enri Focillon , Vie da /Omlf!' (Parill, 1934). p. 'lI .:3 [B9a,2]

A panage from a C08metica prospectus, characterilltie uf the fas hioull of the Second
Empire. The manufacturer recommends "a cosmetic . .. hy mean s or which ladie

if they .0 dellire. can pve tl.eir complexion the gJon of rose tafreta ." Cit ed in Ludwif;: Borne, Ce,ammelle Schriften (Hamburg and Frankfurt am Alain . 1862). vol . 3. p . 282 ("Die Indu. trie--AuuteUung im Louvre"'). fBlOa.21

Thue is hardly another article of dress that can give e."Pression to such divergent erotic tendencies, and that has so much latitude to disguise them, as a woman's hat. Whueas the meaning of male headgear in its sphue (the political) is smetly tied to a few rigid patterns, the shades of erotic meaning in a woman's hat are virtually incalculable. It is not so much the various possibilities of symbolic reference to thc= sexual organs that is chic=Oy of interest hc=re. More surprising is what a hat can say about the rest of the o utfit. H (dc=m Grund has made the ingenious suggestion that thc= bonnc=t., which is conlemporanc=ow with the crinoline, acrually provldes men with directions for managing the lanu. Thc= wide brim of the bonnet is rurnc=d up-thereby dc=monstrating how the crinolinc= must be mrnc=d up in ord er to make sexual access to the woman c=asiu for the man.
[B1O,l )

For the females of the species 'lOrno Jflpiens-al the earliest conceivable period o f

its existence-the horizontal positioning o f the body must have had the greatest
advantages. II made pregnancy easier for them, as can be dc=duced from the back-bracing girdJes and truSses to which pregnant women today have recourse. Proceeding from this consideration, one may perhaps venrure to ask : Mightn't walking crect, in general, havc= appeared earlic=r in men than in. womc=n? 10 that

[Ancient Paris, Catacombs, Demolitions, D ecline of Paris]


E.a.oiy the way that leads into AVl!nlUS.
_Vu-gil l

Even the automobiles have an air of antiquity here.


-GuillaulUe Apolli.uain-!l

this tiny spot on the earth's surface. Authentic guides to the antiquities of the old Roman city-Lutetia Parisonun-appear as early as the sixteenth cenrury. The catalogue of the imperiall.:ibrary. printed during the reign of Napoleon Ill, contains nearly a hundrt:d pages under the rubric "Paris; and this coUection is far from complete. Many of the main thoroughfares have their own speciaJ literature, and we possess written accounts of thousands of the most inconspicuous houses. In a beautifuJ tum of phra.!!e. Hugo von Ho&nannstha1 called <this city~ "a landscape: built of pure: life." And at work in the attraction it exercises on pc:ople is the kind of beauty that is propcr to ~at landscapes-mort: prt:cisely, to volcanic landscapes, Paris is a counterpart in the social order to what Vesuvius is in the geographic order: a menacing, hazardous massif, an ever-active hotbed of revolutiolL But just as the slopes of Vesuvius, thanks to the layers of lava that cover them, have been transfonned into paradisal orchards, so the lava of revolutions provides uniquely fertile ground for the bloS!oming of art, festivity, fashion. o Fashion 0 (e l ,6J
Balz.ac has secured the mythic constitution of his world through precise topographic contours. Paris is the breeding ground of his mythology-Paris with its two or three great bankers (Nucingen, du Tillet), Paris with its great physician H orace Bianchon, with its entrepreneur cesar Birotteau, with its four or five great cocottes, with its usurer Gobseck, with its sundry advocates and soldiers. But above all-and ~ see this again and again-it is from the same streeu and comers, the same little rooms and recesses, that the figures of this world step into the light. What else can this mean but that topography is the ground plan of this mythic space of tradition (Traditionsraum>, as it is of every such space, and that it can become indeed its key-just as it was the key to Greece for Pausanias, and just as the history and situation of the Paris arcades are to become the key for the underworld of litis cenrury, into which Paris has sunk. (el,7]

How gratings-as allegories- have their place in hell . In the Passage Vivienne., SQllptllI'C.S over the main entrance representing allegories of commerce. ICI ,I] Surrealism was born in an arcade. And under the protection of Whal muses! ICI .'I

The father of Surrealism was Dada ; its mother was an arcade. Dada, when the
two first mel, was already old. At the end of 1919. Aragon and Breton, out of

antipathy to Montpamassc and Mon~, transferred the site of their meetings with friends to a cafe in the Passage de I'Opera. Construction of the Boulevard HaUsSlllatlli brought about the demise of the Passage de 1 '0pera. Louis Aragon devoted 135 pages to this arcade; in the sum of these three digits hides the number nine-the number of muses who bestowed lheir gifts on the newuOn! Su rrealism. They are named Luna. Countess Geschwitz, Kate Greenaway, Mors. Cleo de Me.rode, Dulcinea, Libido, Baby C3dlffil, and Friederike Kempner. (Llstead ofCoumess Geschwitz: lipse?')l le i ,3J

Th construct the city topographically-tenfold and a hundrt:dfold-from out of its arcades and its gateways, its cemeteries and bordellos, its railroad stations and its ... , jUSt as formerly it was defined by its churches and its markets. And the mort: secret, more deeply embedded figures of the city: murders and rebellions, the bloody knots in the network of the streets. lairs of love, and conBagrations. o Flineur O [et,S]
Couldn't an exciting 6lm be made from the map of P-d.ris? From the unfolding of its various aspects in temporal succession? From the compression of a centuries long movement of streets, boulevards, arcades, and squart:S into the space of half an hour? And does the flineur do anything different? [J Aineur 0 [el,9J
"1'''' o81eps from the Palais-Royal. between the Caur dell Fontaine! and Ihe Rue NeuYe-d eM-Boltll-Enfanta , there it a dark a nd lorluou.; lillie arcade adorne.l Ll' II puLIir. 8cribe lind a greengrocer. It could restmLle the CIIYI: of Caeu8 nr of Tro-

C:.shil" u~ Ounnt'.

IC !.4]

Pausulliug 11IndUl..1 hi,; lopoj;:raphy of Crt.'t!Ce arollllli A.D. 200, a l u time whell the "'ult lI ih'~ lind nmlly htiler mUI1UIllf'nlll ha.l Legull 10 filII inln ru in. le i ,5J Few lhulgs Ul the hiswry of humanil'Y are as wcU known to us as the history o f Paris. -tens of thousands of volumes a rc dedicated solely to the investigation of

plwniu8, Lui it cuulll never rt:!lembl~ an arcade---evl!o with 81)(Jd wiD and gu light.iu.@j:'<Allrt.(hOdvllu . Le,DeuQIj.$ de Pori! ( Pam. 1860), VP . 105- 106. {CIa, I]

One knew of places in ancient Greece where the way led down into the under","Orld. Our waking existence likewise is a land which. at ccnain hidden points, Ic:aru down imo the underworld-a land full of inconspiruow places front which

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dreams arise. AlJ day long. suspecting nothing, we pass then by. but no sooner has sleep come than we are eagerly groping our way back to 1 05(: ourselves in the
dark corridors. By day, the labyrinth of urban dwellings resembles consciousness; the arcades (which are galleries leading into the city's past) issue Ulltt marked onto the stJ'ttts. AJ. night, however, under the tenebrous mass of the houses. their densa darkness protrudes like a thrat, and the nocturnal proestrian hurries past-unless, that is, we have cnboldened him to tum into the narrow lane. But another system of galleries runs underground through Paris : the Mttro, where: at dusk glowing red lights point the way into the underworld of names. Combat, Elysee, Georges V, Etienne Marcel, SolfCrino. Invalides, Vaugirardthey have all thrown ofT the humiliating fetters o f street or squan:::, and here in the lightning.scored, whistle resounding darkness are transfonned into m.isshapol sewer gods. catacomb fairies. This labyrinth harbors in its interior not one but a dozen blind raging bulls, into whose jaws not one Theban virgin once a year but thousands o f anemic young dressmakers and drowsy clerks every morning must hurl themselves. 0 Street Names 0 Here, underground, nothing more of the colli sion, the intersection, of names-that which aboveground fonos the linguistic network o f the city. H ere each name dwells alone; hell is its demesne. Amer, Picon, Dubonnet are guardians of the thrahold. [Cla.2)
" Doet!n't c"t-r )' qua rtier have its true apogee some time before it il rully built UI)? At thai point itl planet detJcrii>ea a curve as it draWl Dear bUlinesses, tint Ihe J a r~ and then the smaU. So l on~ 18 the street is l till somewbat new, il belong! to the conunon people; it gelS d ear of them only when it is smiled on hy fashion . Without naming pricel, Ihe intcre8loo parties dispute among Iheffisclvel for the right. to the 8maU houliel lUld the apartment but only 80 long all the beautiful women, the ont"1 willa the radiant degance thai adorns not only the salon hut the whole IlI)uae and eV fl.1I the streel , conlinue to hold their receptions. And shouJd the lady bef;ome II pedelilriu li . I he. will wa nt some "ho,, ~. and often the etreet must pay nol a little for u~'ceJill g t.oo quilkly to Ihi ~ wi~ h . Courtyards are made smaller. and man y are t!lItirdy dOIll' away with : II.e housell drllw do~er together . In the cud . Ihere cornell a New Year ', I)ay WIIl! 1I it is cUlisidered Lad furm tn lIa" e SIII:h all IlddrelS on one's visiting ,a"l . By tllt!1I the majority of tcuau Ls ar.. hllsinenes mdy, aml lhe gateway" of till' ncighhol'i.ond 11 11 longt'r ha\'l' IlIIleh to IO !le if !lOW and again tbey furnish asylum for olle of the ~ III It U I radeH I~o"le whlllie millera hle stall, have replact!(l the ~ ho p s ." ~C harl j>". ufeuve. us Ancil'rme. MaUQrlS de Po rn .01lS NUlloleon ffl (Pari, II ml Brllllllclt. Una ). vol. I. II. 482 . ' D Fallhiuu 0 (C h.3]

It is a sad testimony to the lmderd eveloped amour-propre of most o f the gKat European cities thai so very few of them-at any rate, none o f the Geml3l1 cities- have anything like the handy, minutely detailed, and durable map that exiSts for Paris. I refer to the excellent publication by Taride, with its twenty.two maps of.aU the Parisian ammdusrmmlJ and the parks ofBoulagnC' and Vmcenna. Whoever has stood o n a st:n=etcom er o f a strange city in bad weather and had to d.eal with one of those large paper maps- which at every gust swell up like a sail, np at the edges, and soon an::: no mon= than a liu..le heap of dirty colon=d scraps with which one tomlen ts o neself as with the pieces of a puzzle-learns from the stud y of !lIe Plan 1im'tk what a city otap can be. People whose imagination docs not wake at the perusal of such a text, people who would not rather dream of their Paris experiences over a map than over pho tos or travd notes, are lx:yond help. [Ch.,4]
Paris is built over a system of caverns from which the din of Metro and railroad mounts to the surface, and in which every passing omnibw or ouck sets up a prolonged echo. And this great technolo gical system of tunnels and thoroughfares interconnects with the ancient vaults, the limestone quarries, the grottoes and catacombs whlch, since the early Middle Ages, have time and again been reentered and traversed. Even today, for the price o f two francs , one can buy a ticket of admission to this most nocturnal Paris, so much las expensive and less hazardous than the Paris o f the upper world. The Middle Ages saw it differently. Sourcc:s tell us that then= were clever persons who now and again., after exacting a considerable sum and a vow o f silence, undertook to guide their fellow citizens underground and show them the Devil in his infernal majesty. A financial venture far less risky for the swindled than for the swindlers : Must not the church have considered a spurious manifestation o f the Devil as tantamount to blas phemy? In ather ways, too, this subterrnnean city had its uses, for th~ who knew their way around it. Its streets rut through the great rustoms barrier with whi~ the F~ers General had secured their right to receive duties on imports, and m the sIXteenth and eighteenth cenruries smuggling operations walt on for the most pan below ground. \I\e know also that in times o f public commotion mysterious mmors travded vcry quickly via the catacombs, to say nothing of the prophetic spirits and fortunclellcrs duly qualified to pronounce upon them. On the day after Louis XVI Bed Paris, the revolutionary government issued bills o rdering a thorough search of these passages. And a few years later a rumor suddenly sp read through the population that cenain areas of town were abou t to

-~

~,I)

'Ii, 1 'e,'OflstrUCI the cit y allio rr~1I1l illljorlftline8 (spri ngs. wells). "SUIRt! strct!l~ bave prciicrved tht'llc ill lIa nll:. ahhough the most eeichr.!lle(1 amun!; Iht'.rn . dlt~ Pllits I'AIIIUllr <W{U of Lt.",j' l . wlud. . wa ~ IUCIlIt.-d nol filr from the Innrketplllf'e on Ihe. t Hue d e la Trl1ll./ul tri~ . l.n8 h'~11 Ilri ~'tl . fiJI ". tI UJI, and sfllootlu:t1 over wil hulIl II trRee r,mai,ung. lIe lll.'e, lilt'r.-- is hunlly anyl hing I~ fl of the t:<:hoillg "" eUIi which iI"'\'id pd a name fur the Hlle du l'uitJi-q lu-Pllrl". or of tJUl wells whjeh tIn! tanner

Adam-I'flermite h lld dug in the quarrier Saint-Victor. We have known the RUe! de 8eil , du Puils-de-f 'er, du Puite-dll-Cha"itn:, du Puits-Ceri llin . du l' uits-MaIlCOD BOD-PuilS . lind fln aUy tJ,C Huc du PII.iU, wlliclt, afler being the Rue du Bout-duMonde . lwcame the Impaslie Saillt'-C l a lld~l onlm a rtre. The marketpi llce weu', t,he bucket-drawn IO'CUS. tJle wllter carrien a re all giving way 10 the public wells, a ll~1 our children, who will easily draw water even on the hlp Aoon of the tallest or 80 lon tJlese primihuiltlingJ'l in Paris, will be amazed thai we have preserved C ti\'t~ means of supplying one of hUDlankintl's mo ~ t imperious nl.."eds," Maxime du Camp. Pl.l rU: Sea urganef. sef!onctiuflf el sa vie (Parill, 1875), vol. 5 .11. 263. [C' ,'j

the boundary stone which, although located in the heart of the city, once marked the point at which it ende:d.-On the other hand, the Arc de: Triomphe, which today has become a naffic island. Out of the fidd of experience: proper to the threshold evolved the gateway that transfonns whoever passes under its arch. The Roman victory arch makes the: returning gene:ral a oonque:ring hero. (Absurdity of the rdie:f on the inner wall of the arch? A classicist misunde.rstanding?)
lC2a.31

A different topography, not architectonic but anthropoce:ntric in conception, could shmv us all at once, and in its true light, the most muted quartier: the isolated foum:enth arrondis.umml. That, at any rate, is how JulesJanin already saw it a hundred years ago. If you wuc= born into that neighborhood, you could lead the: most animated and audacious life without ever having to leave it. For in it are found, one afte:r another, all the buildings of public misc=ry, of proletarian indigence. in unbroken succession: the: birthing clinic, the orphanage, the hospital (the famous Sante), and finally the great Paris jail with its scaffold. AI. ni~ one sees on the narrow unobtrusive: benches-not, of course, the comfortable ones found in the squares- men stretche:d out asleep as if in the waiting room of a way station in the: course of this terrible joumey. [C2,3J
Th~ are architectonic e:mblems of commerce: steps lead to the apothecary, whereas the: cigar shop has taken possession of the comer. The: business world knows to make use of the thrc=shold. In &om of the arcade, the skating rink, the: swimming pool, the railroad platfonn, stands the tutelary of the threshold: a hen that automatically lays tin eggs COntaining bonbons. Next to the hen, an autO-mate:d forruneteUer-an apparatus for stamping our names automatically on a tin band, wlUch fixes our fate to our collar. [C2 ,4!

The gallery that Ic:ads to the Mothers' is made of wood. Likewise, in the largescale ralovabons of the: urban scene, wood plays a CODS Lant though evc=rshifting role: : amid the modem traffic, it fashions, in the wooden palings and in thc= woodm planking over open substructions. the image of its rustic prehistory. Iron 0 [C,.,4j
.. It is the obscurely ruinK dream of northerl y ' treeu in a big city-nol only Pari" perhap8, hut al, o Berlin and the largely unknown Lonnon---obllcurely rilling, in a rainlen twilight that is nonetheleu damp. Tbe streett grow n arrow and the hou," right and left draw closer toether ; ultimately it become.'! aD a rcade witb grimy shop windows, a gallery of glass, To the right and left: Are tholle dirty hilltros, with waitresse. lurkin in black-and-white silk blouses? It sLinu of cheap wine. Or is it Ihe ga ri, h vestibule oCa bordello? As I advance a little furth er, h owever, I see on both sides amall summer-green doon and the rusLic window sbutters tbey call voleu, Sitting there, little old ladie ~ spinning, and throuh the windows by the somewbat rigid flow ering plant , a8 though in a country garnen, I see a fair-, lUnned yOUDg lady in a gracioua apartment , and she sings; 'Someone is ' pinnin~ , ilk .... , .. Franz Hessel. manUicript . Compare Strinditerg, '"Tbe Pilot', Triah .-[C2a,S]

At the mo-ance, a mailbox : last opportunity to make some: sign to the: world one: is le.aving. [C2a.6]
Underground aigbtleeing in tbe sewers. Pref erred r oule: Ch iitelel- Maddeine. [C2a.7] "'The rulOS or the Church and of the aristocracy, of feudalisnl. ur the Middle Agefi. are sublime-tJley fill lhe wide-eyed victur' oC tod ay with admiration. Bul tJle ruins of the bour!wisie will be a n ignoble ddrillil oC pasteboard . plllSter, anti coloring," (Honore lie Bab ae and other authors ,) l..e Diable (i Par~ (l'P ris, 1845). vvl. 2, p. 18 (Balzac. "Ce qui map unil de Paris"). 0 Collector 0 iOa.S!

tn old Paris. there were executions (Cor exaoll.le, by hanging) in the olHm street .

[C',5j
Rodenber g .'! IJea ks uftbe "stygian existe.nce" or certain wOrthlC88 8eCllriti~ uc.b /ihare& ill die Mires fUIIlI - which lire 8 ~,ld by the "~ ruli ll -time crooks" of Ihe Stock Ext'lIange ill the hOlte of a " C ulu n! restlrrLion hrou~h l to Ila88 by the day's market Iluotation,." Juliu8 Rodenherg, Pa ris bei Sormen$chein ,HId Lompenlicht (Ucrlill. 1867 ), PI'. 102- 103. [C2a,1]
a~

Conscrvativc= tendency of Parisian life: as late as 1867, an entrepreneur conceived the: plan of having five hundred sedan chairs circulate throughO ut the ciry. [C2a,2] Conccm.illg the mythological lOpography of Paris: tJle character gi~n it by its gales. lJ11portant is their duaJiry: borde:r gates and triumphal arches. Mystery of

... All this, in our eyes, is what the arcades are. And they were nothing of all this. "It is orny today, when the pickaxe: menaces them, that they have at last become the: uue sanctuaries of a cult of the: ephemeral. the ghostly landscape of damnabk pleasures and professions. Places that yesterday were incomprehensible, and that tomorrow will never know." Louis Aragon, Le POJlan th Poro (Paris, 1926), p. 19.' OCollector O lC2a,9]

Sudden past of a city: windows lit up in expectation ofChristtna! shine as though their lights have been burning since 1880. [C2a, IO) The drt:am-it is the earth in which the find is made that testifies history of the nineteenth cmtury. 0 Dream 0
to

the primal
[C2a,ll)

These gateways- the entrances lO the arcades-are thresholds. No stone step serves to mark them. But this marking is accomplished by the expectant posture of the handful of people. Tightly measured paces reflect the fact , altogether unknowingly, that a decision lies ahead. 0 Dream House 0 Love 0 (C3.6J
Olher t!tlUrlli of nLiradf'1j be8i<it:!! Ihe one in Ihe Pau age du Caire that ill t:elebrutcd if.! NotreDame de p(lri~ <The ElLlLlchback of Notrt' Dame.) " In the aid ['oris neighhorltood of tile Marais. 011 the Rue del! TourneUee. lire tbe Palisuge ami the Cour drs Miracleli. Tl!ere were other CQtlrs de. lIIir(lck~ tilL the Rue Saini-DelLis, the Rue tlu U:II' . Ihe Rue de Neuill y. Ihe Rue ties CO<luilles, the Rue tie la JUl!8ie.lltle, the Hue Saint-Nicaue, an ti the promOlltory of Saint-Roell." (Emile de> Lab&lolliere J/iJtoin!. (des enviro"n dll. " OltVenu Pnri.'! (Paris <1861'1 , p. ; n . [The hiblicai plj u agcs afler which these courlll were nametl: Isaiah 26.1--5 and 27.J (C3,7J In referellce 10 Haul;smnDn', successes \o\' ith the water supply and the drainage of Paris: "The poetl would say Ihnl lIaU8 ~ mann was inspiretl mOl'e by the divillities below than hy the god, aIHlve.' Lucien Dubech and Pie!.'re d'E' pezel, Jli&toire de It.ri.s (Paris, 19'26), p, 418. [C3,8]

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Reasons for the decline of the arcades: widened sidewalks, dearic light, han on prostitution, culturt: of the open air. [C2a,12) The rt:birth of the archaic drama of the Grt:eks in the booths of the trade fair. TIle prefect of police allows only dialogue on this stage. "This third character is mute, by order of Monsieur the Prefect of Police, who pennits o nly dialogue in theaters designated as nonresident." Gerard de Nerval, Cabaret de fa M"e Sagflt t (Paris d927)), pp. 259- 260 (<OLe Boulevard du Temple autrdois et aujourd'hw"). [Cl,l]

At the entrance to the arcade, a mailbox: a last opportunity to make some sign to the world one is leaving, [C3.2]

The city is onJy apparently homogeneous. Even its name takes on a different sound from one disaiCllO the next. Nowhere, unless perhaps in dreams, can the phenomenon of the boundary be experienced in a more originary way than in cities. To know them means to understand those lines that, nmning along:side railroad crossing! and across privatdy owned lots, within the park and along the riverbank, function as limits; it means to know these confines, together with the enclaves of the various districts. fu tluuhold, the boundary stretches across street.'l ; a new precinct begins like a step into t..ht: void-as though one had unexpectedly cleared a low step on a fiight of stairs. (C3 ,3)

Metru. "A greal Illany of the 8tatiulls ha ve been given IIbsurd lJaDle!. The WONI beJollg 10 the one al tbe corner of Ihe Rile 8repaet and the Rue SailllSlihin, which ultimalely joined together, in the ahbreviation 'BregueI4Sahin ,' the name of a watcbmaker and Iht'l nume of a saint. " Dubech and d ' Espezei. Jlutoire de Puri.s. II. 463, [C3,9]
8t't!JIIS 10

\!\bod an archaic dement in street construction : wooden barricades.

[C3, IO]

At the entrance to the arcade, to the skating rink, to the pub, to the tennis coon:

pnuutJ. The hen that lays the golden praline-eggs, the machine that StampS our names on nameplates and the other machine that weighs us (the modem gnotIJi
~a u ton)/ slot machines. the mechanical fortunetdler-thesc: guard the threshold. They art' generally found, it is worth noting, neither on the inside nor truly in the open. They protect and roark the transitions ; and when one seeks out a little greenery on a Sunday afternoon, one is rurning to these mysterious Pentltt J as well. Dream House 0 Love 0 [C3,4]

June In~ urrettion, " Must of Ihe prisoners were Iransferred via the 'Iuames and Sublerranean pusages which Itrt 10cate,1 uliller the fortsuf Parill, anti wlLich are ~1I t'xh'nsh'e that IlaLr Ule populaliun of the city coultillt! conlailletl there. The cold in th(:;;e underground cllrridorl is so inlen8e that man y bad 10 run continllaUy or mov(" Iheir urmli ailoltllo keel' frOIll freezing, amino olle dart.'(llo lie down 011 tht: cultl ato nes . ... The prisollerli gave aU tbe pau ages namt's of Paris lIrt:eIJl , and whenever they mel olle a.ll olher. Ih(:y exchanged addrcsses," [npander, < Cesr.hichte tif'f fnlll::ij~i$cI"m Arb",ile ,-..AII5Ol!illtiotlen (HIlIllIJUrg, 11:1(1)), "'01. 2, I'p . 3 14--315. [C3a.IJ "The Paris slOIlt: (IUa rrics art u.11 inlcn:oIlIlCttffl . .. . 111 s(" 'eral place" pilJars hU\'e " CI'1t $d IIjJ 1i0 Ihul Ihe t'Oor !Iuel! lIot ea ... e in. 1Jl olher places Ihe waU" ha ... e beell rjinforcctl . Thc!le walls forlll long passages untler the ea rth , Jjke n arruw "trt.'i'tll. 0 " several Jlf thCIII , ul Ihe eml , numberli have hCi'1l illllt'riht'd 10 J)rcv"nl wrong tUIIt ~ , !Jul willlOul II guil1(' olle ~ lIot . . likely 10 "'{'l1l11l'e into Ihclle cxIIUU~If'd ,,,!tlltS of limeslollt' ... if olle Joes nol wi ~ h , . . 10 ri ~ k iltarvatioll. "'-."'1'111' legl'",1 a{'cunljJlg tn whit'h ulle can $t'f' the litll rli hy tl uy frilln llat Illllhlb of tilt Parili tlll llrri('8" lll'iginlltctl ill all old mille shaft " I.illit was cllveretl OVt'r UII til<' s urface by

The despotic terror of the hand bell, the terror that reigns throughout the apart ment, derives its force no less from the magic of the threshold. Some things shrill as they art" abollt to cross a threshold. But it is strange how the ringing becomes melan choly, like a knell, when it heralds depanure-as in the Ka.iserpanorama, when it starts up with the slight tremor of the receding image and announces another to come. 0 Dream House 0 Love 0 lea.5)

a B tunc 81ab in which there ts a Bma ll hole .ome Hi" millimeten in lIiameter. Through thill holt", the daylight . hines into the gloom below Like a pule , tar." J . F. lJt"II 7.~nbc rg. Briefe gellchrieben flilf d fl flr Reise n.ach Pari, (Dortlllund , 1805),
Yol. I, PII . 207-208.

(C3a,2]

" A tbing which 8nlOkellllllli dllcked on the Seine, making the noise of n 8wimming dog, wcnl allli came benealh the windows of the Thilerics. from the Pont Royal to tht' Pont Lollis XV; il was II piece of mechllnism of no grellt yallle. II sort of toy, the daydream of a yillionary. a Utopia-a 8teamboat. The Parisian8 looked upon the uBeless thing wit h indifference." Victor Hugo, Les Misernbks, p art I.' cited in NalJar. Quondj'elais photographe (paris d9O<h). p . 280. [C3a,3)

Pericles, of a Carthagc at the time of Barca, of an Alexandria at the time of the Ptolernies, or a Rome at the time of die Caesars . . .. By one of those keen intuitions with which a magnificent subject for a work Bashes before the mind, he clearly perceived the possibility of writing about Paris this book which the historians of antiquity had failed to write about their towns. H e regarded anew the spectacle or the bridge, the Seine, and the quay.... The work ofhis mature years had annoWlccd itself." It is highly characteristic that the modern administrativetechnical work on Paris should ~ inspired by classical history. Comp~ funhc:r, concerning the decline of Paris. Uon Daudet's chapter on Sacrt Coeur in his ParU viw (Experiences of Paris~. ' lOl)
T he following remarkable sentence from the bravura piece " Pari. ltOuterrain ," in Nadar ', QU-lmd j'elGis photogrflphe: ';11l hill hutory of sewer8. written with the genial pen of the puct IlI ntJ pitilo80pller, Hugo ment.ions at OD e poillt (after a deicr iptioD that he hall made m ure sti rring than a Ilrama) that , in China, not a single peasallt return! hurne , after !elling hi! vegetable! in the city, without bearing the heavy load of an enormous bucket fiU eil with precious fertilizer" (p . 124). [C4a,11 Apropo! of the gatea of Paris: " Until the moment yo u saw the toll collector appear between two columns, yo u could imagine yo urself before the gatel of Rome or of Athens." Biographie univerJeUe onciellne et moderne. Dew edition puilLished under the.directiuD of M. Michaud , vol. 14 (Paris, 1856), p. 321 (article by P.}O~ L. FOlilaille). [Ola,2]
" In a book by Theophile Gau tier. Caprices e l ::i&;:ogs, I find a curious page. 'A great danger threatens us,' it says. ' The modem Babylon will not besmasbed like the tower of Lylak ; it wi1l not be 1 08t in a lea of asphalt like Pentapow , or buried under the sand like T hebes . It will simpl y be depopulated alltJ ravaged by the rail of Montfaucon . Extraordinary vilion or a vague Lut prophetic dreamer! And it bas ill essence proven true .... The r ail of Montfaucon .. . have not entJangered l'uris; Hall8smann 's a rll of embelli! hment have driven them off .... But from the height! of b1ontfaul!on the proleta r iat have descended, a nd with gunpowder ami petroleum they h ave begun the destruetioll of PllIri&which Gau tier foresaw." Max Norda u . Am den! wahren Milliardtmiomle: /t,ruer Studien und Bilder (Leipl.ig, 1878), vol. I. pp. 75-76 ("Otlllt: yille" ). (C4a.3]

"As if an enchanter or lI @ tage nlanager, atthe tirstpeal ofth e whisl1e fromthe fiut IO(,IImotiYe. g.llve II B ignal to aU things to awake and take flight. " Nadar , Quond j'etllu pho,og rtll,he (Puria), p . 281. [C3aA]

Characteristic is the birth of one of the great documentary works on Parisnamely, Maxime Du Camp's Paris: SeJ orgarU:J, JU foru.tiOIU et Ja uie dafIJ fa jecoTlde moilit du XIX' siede, in six volumes (Paris, 1893-1896). About this book, the catalogue of a secondhand bookshop says: "It is of great interest for its documentation, which is as exact as it is minute. Du Camp, in fact, has not been averse to trying his hand at all sorts of jobs-perfonning the role of omnibus conductor, street sweeper, and sewerman-in order to gather materials for his book. His tenacity has won him the nickname 'Prefect of the Seine in partibw,' and it was not irrclevant to his elevation to the officx of senator." Paul Bourget describes the genesis of the book in his "Discours acad6nique du 13 juin 1895: Succession Maxime Du Camp" (AnlhologU de l'Acadimie Franfiliu [Paris, 1921), vol. 2, pp. 191- 193). In 1862, recotUlts Bourget. after experiencing problems with his vision, Du Camp went to see the optician Secritan, who prescribed a pair of spectacles for farsight~. Here is Du Camp: "Age has gotten to me. I have not given it a friendly welcome. But I have submitted. I have ord~d a lorgnon and a pair of spectacles." Now Bourget: "The optician did not have the prescribed glasses on hand. H e needed a half hour to prepare them. M . Maxime Du C amp went OUI to pass this half hour Strolling about the neighborhood. He found himself on the Pont Neuf. ... It was, for the writer, one of those moments when a man who is about to leave youth behind thinks of life with a resigned gravity that leads him to find in all things the image of his own melancholy. The minor physiological decline which his visit to the optician had just confirmed put him in mind of what is so quickly forgonen : that law of inevitable destruction which governs everything human .... Suddenly he began- he, the voyager to the Orient, the sojourner through mute and wury wastes where the ~ and consists of dust of the dead- to envision a day when this to\\'O, too, whose cnormou~ breath now filled his senses, \\-'Quld itself be dead, as so many capitals of so many empires wen:: dead. TIle idea came to him. I1mt it would be extraortlinarily interesting for us 10 have an exact and complete picrure of an Athens at I1le time or

In 1899, during work UII the Mi tro , foundu tions of a tower or the Bastille ""ere (C4a.41 discovered on the Rue Saillt Antoillc. Cuhinet des E6 tamJlt'~.
Halh of wille: "1 'lw warehouse, which cOllais18 plllrLly of ya ults for the spi('its and partly of wine cellars dug ou t of 8tone. forms ... , as it wt'rt:. a city in which the streets bear the na me, of the lIIost importa nt wine regions of France." Achl 'fage in Paris (Paria, July 1855), pp. 37-38, IOla,5)

" The cellura of till: Cure Anglaid ... extend qllite .. dialllllr,e lIuder IllIl boul.wards. furming the mual COUlI)licated d efil es . Tlu~ manllgement took the trouhle to divide them int o IItreets .... You hu ve the Rue du Buurgogne, the Ru(' dll 80rd,aux. du: Rue .Iu Bculllle, the Rile de I'Ermitage, the Rue {Iu Chamoortill , the "rll88road8 of .. . TOllneullx . You come. to a cuol grotto ... filled Wilh & hellfllih .. . ; it is the grollo for the willel of Champagne .... Tbe great lords of bygone tluys conceivl:d the idea of dining in their stables . ... Bllt if YOII wa nt to dine in II really eecentric falihion : uiue nt lei caws!" Tuile Delord , Paris-vive14r (Pa ris. 1854), lIP' 79--8 1, 83- 84. {C4a,6] " Relit assured that when Hugo 8aw a beuar on the road ... he I\aw him f()r what be i ~, for what he really i8 in r eality : tbe ancient mendicunt , the ancient l upl'liah 011 Olle of lIur cu nt , ... on the uncient road . When he looked at a n,arLle 81 mantle picc:t:8. IIr u cemented brick in one of our modenl chimneys, he saw it for whal it i8: the slone of the hea rlh . The andellt hearthstone. Whell he looked al a door to Ihe8trcel . a nd at a doorstep , which is us ulilly of cut slone. he di B tiugWsh..-d clellrly on Lbi B 810ne the ancient line, the sacr ed threshold, rur it is one IIlId the same line, " Charles Pcguy. Oeuv,.es completes. 1813-1914: Oeuvres e1e prose ( Pari.!! , 1916). PP ' 388-389 ("Vietor Marie. Comte Hugo") . [CS, I) aThe wine 8hol's of the Fauhourg Antoine resemble those tll\'crIlS on Mount A,cntinc. a bove. the Sibyl '8 cave, which communicated with thc dj~p and 8acre<! aff!atuiI; tavern8 whou tables were almos t tripotls . and where men drank what Enniu!! calls ' the l ibylline wine. ,,. Victur Hllgo, Oeuvre! COm lJfetes. IIOVelS , vol. 8 (Pari8, 1881 ), pp. 55-56 (Le8 Miserable! . part 4). 11 [C5,2] '1'ho.l!e ""ho have traveletl ill Sicily will remember the cele brated convent ""here, as II re,uit of the earth ', capacil y for drying and preseuing bodies, the monks at II certain time or year can deck out in their ancient regalia all the gra ndees 10 whom tllt': y ha ve accordetlthe hospilality of the grave: ministers. POIH!s. ca rdinal ~. warriors. untl kings. Plocing them ill two row!! wi thin their s pacious catacombs , they allow tim Imblic to pau between these rows of skeletons . . . . Well , this Sicilian convenl givcs U il an image of our society. Under t.he pompou s garb tha t adorns our a.rl and litera ture. no heart beats-there are only dead mell , who gaze at yOIl with staring t"yes. luSIerle5s lind cold. when you ask the century where Ihe inspiration is. wherc tbc aru, where the lilerature. " (Alfred) Neltement , Les Ruin C:If morale! et i"/ elle(; tue lle~ (pari~ . Octohcr 1836). p . 32. This 'lilly be compared with HIIgo'5 A l'An: d ~ Triolllplle" (If 1837. (CS.3]

dillc(Jvered belwee.n Ca lH! Horn and the lIouthern territories ill the yea r 2500"

(p.347).

(C'.'J

" There was . at the Chatelet ,le Paril, a broad 10llg cellar. This cellar was eight feet {Ieep below the level of the Sdne. It had ueither wi.ndows nor ventilators ... : men couJd enter, but ai r could nOI . The cellar had fur a ceiling a stune arch, and for a floor. ten inchetl of mud .. . . Ei~t feet above the fl oor. a lOllS manh'e hellm crossed tbis vault rrom side to Bide; from this beam there hUllg, at illtervaill. chains ... and at the end of thelle chain8 there were iron collar,. Men condemned to th t'. galleY8 were put into tltis cella r until the day of tbeir de parture for Toulon . They were pus bed un.ter this timber. wbere eacb bad his iron 8winging in the darkness, waiting for him . . . . In order to eat. they had to draw tht'.ir bread, which was thrown into the mire, up their leg with their heel, ~'ithin reach of their band ... . In tills hell-Bepuleher, what did they do? What can be done in a sepll1cher: they agollized. And what can be done in a hell: they 88ng .... In this cellar, almost all the argot song8 were burn. It is from the dungeon of the Grand Chatelet de Paris that the melancholy gaUey refrain or Montgomery come8: ' Timaloumisawe. timoulamison. Most of these 80ng8 are Ilreary; some are cheerful." Victor Hugo, Oeuvres comp~fe5 novels, vol. 8 (Pari!! . 1881). PI'. 297-298 (Les Mi! erables).'% DSubterranean Paris 0 [C5a, l]

011 the theory of thresholds: ''' Between those who go on foot in Paris and th08e ..... ho go by carriage, the ollly difrerence i8 the running board.' a8 a peripatetic pbilosopher haa said . Ah , the runnin ~ board! ... It is the point or deparlure from onecouotry to another. (rom misery to luxury, from thoughtlessness to thoughtfulnen. It is the hyphen between hinl who is noth.in~ and him who is all . The quetltion i8: where to put one's (oot." Theophile Ga utier, Ettules philosophique.5: Paris et lu ParisiefU au XIX" .riicle (paris, 1856). p. 26. (CSa,2]
Slight fores hadowing of tile Metro ill thill description of model houses of the future: " The basements. ver y 8pacious and well Iii . art all connected . ronning long galleries which follow the course o( the 8lree18. Here an underground railroad has been built-not ror human travelen, to be s ure, but exclUl;ively for cumbersome mercha ndise, ror wine . wood , coal. and 110 rorth , which it deliver s to t.he interior of the horne . . . . These undcrgroun.1 trains acquire a steadily growing imllOrtance.' TOllY Moilin , Puri! en Can 2000 (Puris, 1869). pp. 14-1 5 ("Maisons-modeles"). [C5a,31 Fragment8 from Victor Hugo's Utle " A rAre de Triomphe":

Th" IU511wu chapters of U'>o Claretit" s Pari$ 1 1epllu !e.r origine& jllsf/" 'e" 1'0" 3000
( Paris. 1886) an' cntitled " The !tllin8 of Paris" and "The Yea r 3000. ,. Tile first COlltains II I'aroplirast: or Victor Hugo's verses on the Arc de Triompill" The 8l'colI(1 rel'rodu ce~ a lectll.re un the alll.iquilies of Paris tllat are prClJervetl in the fal110us " Acad;;'mie de Floluima .. . lOCated in La Ceoel'ire. This is a new co'n tinent ...

Ah... YII Panl erie. aud mulle....

"

Whocan tell- unfat.hllmahlequeiuonWhat would be 10l t from the uni ver.. 1 c:lamnr On the day th ai ,>ani rell ~ ilenl !

III
Sile nt it wi lilw. II onetheletlll!-AIter 110 mlln y d llwnl, So m a n y mont~ a nd yun. 110 m a ny played-out nlurie.. When Ihill Lank , where the , Iream breaks again. ! the echo ing hridp ,

1, Ii,,,, ro be ... h;",h timt. p.~.:J. fr om tht. m Worth the one it pu u hll" k on .

II return ed 10 the modell l a nd murmurin g r eed!!; Willm Ihe Seine ~h a l1 flee th e ob~tructing atones, C(llUlurnin g some old dome coll, paW into ita depth. , Heedful of the !leotle breeze th at u rriel 10 the cloud.

The rui llinr; of the leave. a nd th#. IIOD8 Olf binI.; When it , h llll Row, al ni&ht. pale in the d llrkD_. Hapl)Y' in the drow! ing of itt long-troubled coune, To Iieten allast 10 the countlen voicel Pan ing indil linc ti y beneath the B tllrry Ilty;
Wh en thit city. mad and churlith aU- llnert'. Tha ' hu lenl the r. le reacrved for iu walla , And . IU m ing to d Wit under the biowl of ill h.allUMr,
CODvertJ! b rnn U! 10 coinA I nd ma rble to fl qllone.;

II i. time who ehisels a grOO Y t In an iOlligenl arch-.tone: Wh o r lllu hi~ knowing thumb On Ihe corner of. ha rren marhl e . Iab ; It i! l it: who . in co rrec ting till: work. IJltrod u L ~1 a living anake Midst the knots of a gra nite hydra. I think ' _ a Golhic roof 81a rt la ughin g When . from iu and ent fria e . Time r emOYe6 a 810ne and pllt8 in a IIe8t .

"Ill
No. IEvery lhing will be dlEad . NOlhinl!! lefl in th i. campagna But a va nished po pulation , lIiJI ar ound . Dul th.., dull eye of man a nd th il living t.ye of Cod, But a n ar ch, and a column , lind Ihere, in T he mi,l,ile or thia . ihered-over riYt.r. still . foam, A ch urch half-Ilranded in the mili t. February 2. 1837 .

When the r OOr8, th e bell the tortuous hi ve.. Porchu . I)",dimeo!" archei fu11 of pride That ma ke- ul' this dly. many-voiced and tumu1luou" Stiflio !!, inCllrieable, and 1 .mDl 10 Ihr- eye, When from the wi de plain alllh",e lhinp have paucd, And nOlhing r emain. of pyramid and p antheon 8uliwO !!r anile lowen buill by Char lema gne And II hron:Ee column raiBed by Napoleon . \'o u , th!:.n . will complete the sublime lriangle!

Victor Hu ~o . Oeu\.Ire. complete Poetry, vol. 3 ( Paris , 1880), PI). 233-245.

IC6; C6a.lJ
Demolition ~ it elJ: ~ ources for teac hin ~ the theor y of cons truction. " Never have circums tanceli been more fa vorable ror thili genre of IItu!! y than tbe epoch we live in IOday. During the past twelve yean, a multitude of buildings-among them, churches and c1oistera--bave been demolis hed down to the fi rst layers or their foundatiollS ; they have all proYitled . . . useful in. truction ." Chllrl es- Fran~ois Viel, De /,lmpu~~ance de~ mal"em(J.tiqlle~ pour on lLrer in ~oiidile des batimeM (Paris , 1805), pp . 43-44. (C6a,2]

IV
T hll,l, arch . you wilJloom elern al and intact When a ll th at the Seine now mirro ... in itJ llurfa ce Will have vanished forever , When of that cily- the equ l l, yet, of Rom __ Nothin l! will be left exce pt In I nl!ei . an elgie, a man Surmou nting Ihrff summi lll!

No . time ta ke. notbing away from things. More tha n one IlO rtico wro ngly va unted I.n it. "rotracted mellmorpholiU Come. 10 bea uty in the end . On the monumenlJ we !"evere T;me C &&I I II 80mber IIpell . SIn:I"h in8 (ron, fatade 10 al'lIf: N",Yer . thou!!h it crlleu and rulli ,

Demolition l ite8: " T he hi,;h wa1l8. wi th their biste ....c(llored Linea around the chimney Ruea, reveal, like tbe cro88-seclion of an architectura l p lan , the myster y of intimale di&l rihutiollll . . . . A curious spectacle. tlu:lJe (J pen houses, with thd r lIoorboardli l UBpen,)ed over the nb yu, their clJlorful fl owered wallpaper l till ~ howing the s hll ile IIf the r ooms .hcir s tairt:ascs leatling nowhere 1I 0 W, their edln r8 upen T o Ihe sky. their bizarre collapsed iuteriorli nnd haW' red ruins. It all relem I.l eli thougb without di e gloomy 10 ll C, Ihm e uninhahil nhle str uctu rea which Piranesi outlined wilh s uch feveris h inielliiil y in his etchings." Theophile Ga utier, Mo!ai'q ue d e ruir,e,, : Paris er ie. "a ris iell~ WL XIX' . i.ecle, " y Alexa ndrr- Dumas. Thcophile Gautier. Arlene lI ouu uye. Puul de M\J ~~et . Louii EnDuh . II..lld DIL .'uyl ( Puris. 1856), I'p. 38-39. (C7, I]

CUlldu,.ioll o( d .(Jui ~~ Lurinc'6 article "Le6 Boulevards": "The hC)ul e vanl~ will die o( Oil IHieurism: the explosion of g 0 8." P(Jri.f chez soi (Paris ( 1854), 1" 1i2 (anthulogy issllctl II)' Pa ullJoiza r(I ). [C7,2) Ba utlelaire to POlllt:l - M ll l a ~s i ~ Oil January 8. 1860. c:oncernillg Mer yo u : " In uuc of his large !lillles. lie Iitlhlltiluted fur iI little l.ilJI(){)1I a cloull of prcdalury hirlb . a nd wlwlI I poin tc,1 oul t o him thai it WIIS implausihle thai so mllny eaglell cUllld be f01l 1lt1 ill tI Parisian sky, he anlil'\'eretl tllIH it W IIS not without a basis in fact. since ' those nlt'll ' (the cml'(~ro r 'e gO\'ernmellt) had often reieB9t'd caglt."'fI to stud y the pn~.ugcs according tu the rites, lind that this had been rellorled in lile newspal}Cn-~_ven in Le Monitellr. "1 1 Cited in Gustave Geffroy. Cli arks Meryo ,. (Pa rill, 1926), Pl>. 126- 12 7. [C7.3) On tbc triumphal arc h : " The trillml'h was all institution of the Romall sta te and was Cflnllitioned on the Iw sliession of the field -commander's righi- the rip;bt of the milita ry imfJf~ rium~which, however. wall extinguillhed on the da y of the triumph . . . . Of the VIl.';OIlIl provisiollil attaching to the right of triumpb , the most important wall thai tile terrilorial bounds of the city. , . were 1I0t to be crossed prematurely. Otherwise the. commander would forfeit the rights of the a Ullpicell of war- which held olil y for olH!ratiollll conducted olltsille till: citY-liud with them Ihe claim ItJ triumph , . . . Every defilement . all guilt for the nlllrll e rO Il ~ haltle{and perhaps originally this included the da nger POtied hy the II pirit8 of the IIlaill). ill removed from the cl.lmlllll nder and the arm y; it remains .. , ou tside the lIacred ga tewa}'.... Such II conception ma k" it clear ... that the p o rIa triumpllUlis Will nothing less than a monument fo r the. glorification of victory." Ferdinanli Noack. 1'riumph IIlId Triumphbogen. Warburg Lilirary Lecturefl. vol. S (Leipzig, 1928), I'p. 150- ISI , 154 . [C7.4)
"Ed~ar Poe crealed a ch aracu. "r who wanders the streel8 of capilal citi!!!!; lib called him the Man of tllt~ Cr owd . The resllessly inquiring engra\'cr is the. Man of Stolle.. , , Here we Ila ve . .. an . , , artist who ,lid not stull y and draw. like Piranesi, the remoants of a bygone existence. yet wboile work gives one the 8ensatioll u( p1" 'lIi,;tent nostalgill .. .. This is Charles Meryon . His wurk a8 1111 cllgraver rCllrt'1lent8 one of the profoundest potmltl ever wrilten aLflul a city" ami what is trul y original ill all these &triking pictures is that they seem to he. the image. despite Iwing drawn directly from life. of things that are finished. that are Ilea,1 or almut to die. , .. Thi ~ imJlre88ion exists independentl y of the most scrullulous Hlld realistic reprOtlUt:liulI nf s uhj ~ t s chosen by the artisl , Tbere was sonwt hing of tile visionary ill Merynn . and he undouhtedly divined that these rigjd alld un yielding forms \'n :l'c I:phellll'ral , Illut tht:l>~ singular beautiell were going thr wa y of all fl esh . lie li"h!lIf'ti tn the language dPokeu h y st.rcels a nti alleys thill , since the ('arliest da YIi of the !'il),. wt're hcing continually torll Ull II n ti rt.'tIone. alld that is wh y hi" evoca ti\'e poctr y JakeH cfllll act with llll'" lolidtlle ,\ ges through tIle ninrlt..'t'lith-cciltury cilY, .... hy it ra;!iutcli eterllul nlelancilOly Ihrough the vision of illllllt"diatc appearllllcef " 'OM Parill ill gone ( II U IlUmall hea rt I c:.hal1ges half so (ast as II city's fa e,e) ,,It Th e~r

two linea by Baudelaire could .erve a. an epigraph to Meryon'li cutire oeuv re,," Gustave Geffroy, Chllrle, Meryon (Paria. 1926). PII . 1-3. [C7a,l ) " There i~ no need to imagine that the allcient porW triltmphllm was alr eady au arched gateway. On the contrary, l inee it served an entirely symbolic act , it would originally have lH:cn erected by the simple8t of mean&--namely, two posts and a straight lintel. .. Ferdin and Noack. Triumph urad Triumphbogen. Warburg Library Lectures. vol. S (Leipzig, 1928), II , 168. [C7a,2) The march through the triumphal arc h a. rite de pauoge: " The. ma rch of the troops through the narro .... gateway hae been ctlmpared to a ' rigorous passage through a narTOW opening,' something to which the significance of a rebirth attacheli:' Ferdinand Noack, Triumph und Triumphbogen , Warbur g illrary Lc.-clUres, \'01. 5 (Leipzig, 1928), p . IS3 , [C7a,3}

The fantasies of the decline of Paris are a symptom of the ract that technology was not accepted. These visions bespeak the gloomy awareness that along with the great ciries have evolved the mearu to raze them to the ground, [07a.4]
Noack mentionli " tbat Scipio'! arcb stood not above but opposite the road that leads up to the Capitol (adversus viam , qua in Capitolium ascenditur). , .. We are thus given insight into the purely monumental character of these structu res. which are without any practical meaning." On the other hand , the cultic significance of these structures emerges a8 clearly iu their relation to special oocasioll8 88 in their isolation : " And there, where mllny .. , later ar cheslitaod-at the beginning and end of the &tree!, in the vicinity of Lridgcs . at the entrance to the forum , at tile city limit- there was operative for the , .. Romans a conception of the sacred n boundary or thres hold ." Ferdinand Noack , Triwnph und 1iiumphbogen , Warburg Lihrary Lecture . vol. S (Leipzig, 1928), pp. 162 , 169 ,

(C8. ' )
Apropos of the bicycle: " Actually one II bould nol de<!cive oneself about the real purpose of the asmonllhle new mount, which a poet the other day referred 10 as the horse of the Apocalypse." t 'lllwLrCltion. June 12, 1869. cited in Veadredi , October 9, 1936 (IA ui" Cherolllld, "Le Coin ties vie ux"). [C8,2J Concerning the fire thai dt:8 tro yed the hippodrome: " The g08sips of the district see ill Ihis disaster a vi ~ itati o n o( the wrlltll of hea vell nn the guilty s pectacle of the velocipedes ," I.e Gauio i." Dctliller 2 (3?), 1869, cited in Vendredi. Octoher 9, 1936 (1.(1l1is Cheronnet , "i.e Coin IleJl vicllx"). Til(" hippodrome was the silt" (If ladic.' hicydr races. [CS,3] To elucidate Le, Myuer es de Paris a nti IIimila r works, Caillois refen to Ihe ronwn noir. in particula r The My&lerie$ oj Udlilphu . on account of the " p reponder-

ance of vaults and underground pan ages." Roger Caillo~, " Paris, mythe ruudcrne." NUlllIelk Revue !rmlliC1ue. 25 , no. 284 (May 1, 1937), p. 686.

[ca,.]

"The whole of the riveS6uche, aU the wa y from the Tour de Nesle to the Tombe .Issoire .. . , i@nothing but a hatchway leading from the surface to the depths. And if the moderll demolitions reveal the mysteries of the upper world of Paris, perhaps one day the inhabitants of the Left Bank will awaken startled to discover the mysteries below. " Alexandre Dumas, Le, Mohicaru rk Pam , vol. 3 (Paris. 1863) , [Ca ,5] " This intelligence of Blanqui's ... this tactic of ! ilence, this politic! of the catacombs, must have made Barbes hesitate occasionaUy, a8 though confronted with ... an une1tpected stairway that suddenly gapes and plllDges to the cellar in an unfamiliar house:' Gustave Geffroy, L'Enfenne (Paris, 1926), vol. I , p , 72, [Ca,']

added publicizing through images . Etienne Carjat phologra plu:-d the skelelolllJ , ' with the aid of electric light. ' , .. Mter P icpus. after Saint-laurent , at an intervaJ of ~o me dIl YS, tile Convent of the Aii!;umption and the Churcll of Not.re J)ame-desVir-lOires, A wave of madJleU (lvertl)uk tile capital. Everywhere peoVlc thought they were fmding Luried vaultlJ and skeletonil. Gilur ges laronze. lIilfoire de la Commune de I B7J (Parill, 1928), p . 370. [C8a,4j 1871: "The popular imagination could give itself free reign , and it took ever y opportunity to do so, There wasn' l oll.e civil-service official wlto did nOI seek to expose the method of treachery then in fallbion: the s ubterranean rut~lhod . In tbe prison of Saint-Lazare. they searched for the underground passage which was sahl to lead from the chapel to Arge nteuil- that is, to cross two branches of the Seine IIlId some ten kilometers as the crow flies . At Saint -Sul pice,the passage suppolledly ab utted the chateau of V ersailles. 'I Georges Laronze, flu toire de to Commune de 1871 (Paris . (928). p. 399. [C8a,5]
" A8 a matter of fact , men had indeed replaced the prehistoric wate.r. Many centurie~ after it had witbdrawn, they had begun a similar ovtrflowing, They had spread themselves in the same hollows, pushed out in the same directions. It was down there--toward Saint-Merri , the Temple. tbe Hotel de Ville, toward Les Ualles. the Cemetery of the Innocenl.ll . and the Opera, in the places where water had found the greatest difficult y el caping, 1 > laceli which had kept oozing with infiltrations, with subterranean streams-that men , too, had most completely saturated the soil. The most densely populated and busiest qltartwrs still lay over wbll! had OlU!e been marsh ." Jules Romain~ , Le, Homme' de bonne volonte.. Look I , Le 6 octobre (Paris <1932)) , p. 191 y. [e9, I}

<Regis> Messac in Le " Detective Novel" et l'injluence ch to

pen.,~ scwntifique

[Paris, 1929].> p . 419) quotes from Vidocq's Memoires (chapter 45): "Paris is a spot on the globe, but this spot is a sewer and the eJ!lptying point of all sewers:' [C8a, lj

fA Panorama (a literary and critical revue appearing five times weekly), in volume 1, number 3 (its last number), February 25, 1840, under the title "Diffirult ~estions ": "Will the universe end tomorrow? Or must it-enduring for all eternity-see the end of our planet? Or will this planet, which has the honor of bearing us, outlast all the othu worlds?" \hy characteristic that one could write this way in a literary revue, (In the first number, "To Our Readus," it is acknowl edged, furthennore, that fA Panorama was founded to make money.) The founder was the vaudevillian Hippolyte Lucas, (C8a,2j
Saint who each nighlled back The entire flock to the fold . diligent shepherdeu. When the world and Paris come to the end of their term, May ),ou, with II firm ijtep and a light hand, Through the last ya rd and the laMl portal. w d back, through the vault and the folding door, The entire Rock 10 the right hand of the Father. Charles Peguy. La Tapu,erte. de SainteGenevieve, cited in Marcel Raymond, De Baudelaire au Surreawme (Paris , 1933). p . 219. I ~ [C8a,3j Di8l.rUlil of cloi ~ te r8 and clergy during the Commune: "Even more than with the incident of Ihl' Rue P icpus, eve r ything I)Os8ihle was done to excite the popular inHlthnatiull thanks tu the vaults of Saint-laurent. To the voice of . , the preu was
~. ,

Baudelaire and the cemeteries: " Behind the high walls of the houses , toward Mont' martre, toward Menilmontant , toward Montparnasse, he imagines at dusk the cemeteries of Paris, these three other cities within the larger one--cities smaller in appearance tban tbe city of the living, which 81!tlmS to contain them, but in reality how nlllch more populous, with their cJosdy packed little compartments arranged in tiers under the gronnd, And in the samt" places where the crowd circulatt:l! tOllay-the Square des Innocents. for exa mple--he evokes the ancienl ossuaries, now leveled or entirely gone, 5wallowefl Ull ill thll sea of time with all their dllad , like shillS that have sunk with all their crew a board ." Franvois Porcllt~ . La Vie dOltloureu.!e de Clw.rle" Baudelaire, in series entitled Le ROlllnn cle~ Grande" E:r:i$Iencf!S , ntJ , 6 (Paris <1926)), pp , 186-187. [C9,2j Pllrallel passage to the ode on the Arc de Trio mphe, Humanity i, apostrophized:
Aa for yuur ci ti es. Bahels of nl{"",",e nt ~ Whe re all events clamor a l o nce. H o... ~ ub~ l a " tia l are Ih.:)" ? ArdIn . to"'erll. ",ramid;;I wuuld nut be s urprillfll if, in its humid iocandcfil:eflCC , The dawn n ne mnrni"g 8l1ddl:nl), rli ~~o l "ed them.

Along with lhe dcwdrol'~ on ~a&~ a nd th yme. And all your nubl l'! dwellinp, nll.ny-Lil'!rlld , End u,,11 8 helll'" of ~ tune and graM Whf'r" , in lhl'! M unli ~llt . t.ht" . uLd l'! !lCl1H'! nt /" 8&1':8.

Victor Ilugu. Lu Pin de Sa lan: Diell (l)arU , 1911 ), I'P. 475-476 ('''Dieu- LAnge'''). [CO,3}

o
[Boredom, Eternal Return]
Must the SUD therefore murder all dreams the pale children of my pleuure grounds?' Th~ day.! have grown so still and glowering. SatLSfactlon 1W"e5 me with nebulous visions willie dread malta away with my salvation~ as though I wen: about to judge my God.
-Jakob van HoddQ l

Leon Doudel on Ihe view or Paris rrom Sacre Coeur. " From high up y(m can see Ihis popuJa tion of palacel, monumentl, houlel. and hovels. whicb 8eem to have gatJ't'- red ill eJl:)leCllltion or lome cataclysm, or or 8everal CIltaclY8J1lll-meleorologi._ cal, pe rh a p ~, or lIocia l. , , . AI a lover or hilliop AanCIU anel, which never rail 10 stimulate my ound and nervel ",;Ih their bracing bars b wind , I bave spent bOlln 0 11 Fourvieres looking al Lyons, 011 NOire-Dame de la Garde looking at Marseille., on Sacre Coeur looking at Paris .. .. And , yes, at 8 certain moment I heard in myself 80mething like a 11M:8in , a strange admonition, and I 8aw thele three magnificent dtiell .. . threotenlld wilh coUaplie. with devaslation h y fire and flood , with carnagt'. wilh rapid erosion , like rOre8ts leveled en bloc. At otber timll8, I saw them preyed. upon by a n ohscure, 8uhterr aUl:an t'.vil , which IUldermined the mOnlUllenta and neighborhood 8, cau"ing entire sectionll or the proude5t homes to crumble .. From the 81andpoinl or theee p romontorie8, what appears most clearly is the men ace. The agglomer ation i5 menacin g; theenormOU8 1 abor is menacing. Fur man hae Cled8 to isolate need DC labor, that ie clea r, bUI he has other l leed S as weU .. , . He O himselr Ilnd lu rorm groupe. 10 cr y out and 10 revolt, to regain calm aod to submit .... FinaUy, the need for suicide ie in him; and in the lIociety he rO rIOlI , it is slronger than the instinct ror 8eLf-p~8ervatio n . Hence, ae one look, oul over Paris , Lyons, 0 1 Marseille8, rrom the heights or Saere Coeur, the J.' ourvie.ree, or Notre-Dame de la Garde. what astounds one is that Paril, Lyons , and Marseille8 have endured," Uon Oaudet , Pa ris veeu, vol. I , Rive droite (Pari, <1930. pp .220-22 1. [e9a,I]
" In a long Ilen e' or c1auical write" Crom Polybiul onward, we read or old, re-nowned cities in which the streets have become lines or empty, crumbling sheUe, where Ihe cattle Lrowse in forum and gymnasium . and the amphithealer il a sown field , dotted with emergent ~ I a tues and hernui. Rome bad in the fifth cenlury of our era Ihe l'0puJation or a village, but illJ imperial palace. were IItill habitable." Oswald SllCllgier, Le Dedin de l'Occit/ent <tranl. M. Tazerllut>. vol. 2. pI. I (Parie, 1933). p. 151.'; [C9a,2]

Boredom waiu Cor death.

-Johann Peter HebcP


Waiting is life.
- VJC1orHuF

Child with its mo~er in th~ panorama. The panorama is presenting the Battle of Sc:dan. The child finds It all very lovdy: "OnlY. it's too bad the sky is so =~-"That's wh at the weather is like in war," answers the mother. 0 DiGthe panoramas too ~ in fundamental complicity with this world of OUSt, this cloud world : the light o f their images breaks as through curtains of

.Thus..

ram.

[D l ,l }

"T I P . , li S a rls [of Ba udeiaire'l] is very different rrom the Paris or Verlaine which ~ I ..wlf has already raded , The olle ill somher and r ainy, like a Paris on w~ch the ;"1age of Lyons has been lIuperimpo/ied; the other i8 whitish and dUlity like a pastel Uaflhod. One if surrocaling. whereae the other 18 airy. with n~w huildinga ~"'a lt e red in F ' a W.ll8 IcIan d , am I lIot ra r away, a gale leading to withered arbors ," r.. u,ou; Porche. Lo Vie doulo urewe de Charle!l Baudelaire(Pari8. 1926), p, j 19.

[D1.2}

The me.re narcotizing effect which cosmic fortes ha~ on a shallow and brittJe PC:rsonality is attested in the relation of such a person to o ne of the highest and OlOs t genial manifestations o f these forces: the weather. Nothing is more charac-

J
'"

terisuc than that precisely this most intimate and mysterious affair, the working of the weather on humans, should have beco me the theme of their emptiest chatter. Nothing bores the ordinary' man more than the cosmos. Hence, for him, the deepest cOlmection between weather and boredom. How fine the ironic overcoming of this attitude in the story of the splenetic Englishman who wakes up one morning and shoots himself because it is raining. Or Goethe: how he managed to illuminate the weather in his meteorological swdies, so that one is tempted [Q say he undenook this work solely in order to be able to integrate even the weather into his waking, creative life. [01 ,3]
Baudelaire as the poet of Spleen de Pari!: " One of the centraJ motifs of this poetry is, in effect, boredom in the fog, ennui and indiscrimillate ha:r.e (fog of the cities). tn a word, it is spleen. " Frall~ois Porche. La Vie douloureu.!e de Charles Baadeluire( Parill ,1926), p. 184. [01 ,4]

first symptoms of the Revolution <of 1830) had broken o ut. When they came to prepare the room for the festiviti es of the young couple, the people in charge found it as the Revolution had left it. On the ground could be seen traces of the military banquct-candle ends, broken glasses, champagne corks, trampled cockades of the Games du Corps, and ceremonial ribbons of officers from the Aanders regiment." Karl Gutzkow, Briife aUJ Paris (Leipzig, 1842), vol. 2, p. 8Z A historical scene becomes a component of the panopticon. 0 Diorama 0 Dust and Stifled Puspective D [Dla,l ]
-' He explains that the Rue Grange-Bllteliere is pllrticularly ,lusty, that one gets terribly gruhby in the Rue Reaulllur." Louis Aragon, Le Pay.HJn de Paris (Paris, 1926), p. 88} [Ola,2J

In 1903, in Paris, Emile Tarrueu brought out a book entitled L'Ennul~ in which all human activity is shown to be a vain attempt to escape from boredom, but in which, at the same time, everything that was, is, and will be appears as the inexhaustible nourishment of that feeling. To hear this, you might suppose the work to be a mighty monument of literature-a monument ture perenniUJ in honor of the ltudium lIi/tu of the Romans.' But it is only the self-satis6ed shabby
scholarship of a new Homais, who reduces all greatness, the heroism of heroes and the asceticism of saints, to documents of his own spiritually barren, petty[01 ,5) bourgeois discontent.
" When the French went into Italy to maintain the rights of the throne of France over the duchy of Milan and the kingdom of Naples, they returned home quite amued at the precaution. which Italian genius had taken against the excesllive heat; and, in admiration of the arcaded galleries, they strove to imitate theln. Tbe rainy clinlate of Paris_ wiul its l:eJebraled mud and mire, suggested the pillara, which were a marvel in the old daYII . Here , much later on, was the imptltUS for the Place Royale. A strange thing! It was in keeping with the same motifs that. under Napoleon, the Rue de RivoU , the Rue de Castigliolle, and the famous Rue des Colollnes were constructed." The turban came out of Egypt in this manner as well. l..e Di(lhle ir Pam (Paris, 1845), vol. 2, )p . ] 1- 12 (Babac, "Ce Iluj disparait de Paris"). How many years separated the war mentioned above from the Napoleonic CXI:>editioll to Italy? And wher e is the Rue des Colonllcs located ?~ [01 ,6]

Plush as dust collector: Mystery of dustmotes playing in the sunlight Dust and the "best room." "Shortly after 1840, fully padded furniture appears in France, and with it the upholstered style becomes dominant." Max von BodUl, Die Mode Un XIX. Jahrhundert, vol. 2 (Munich, 1907), p. 131. Other arrangements to stir up dust : the trains of dresses. "The true and proper train has recently come back into vogue, but in order to avoid tlle nuisance of having it sweep the streets, the wearer is now provided with a small hook and a string so that she can raise and carry the train whenever she goes anywhere." Friedrich Theodor VlScher, Mode und zYnismw (Stuttgart, 1879), p _ 12. Dust and Stifled Perspective 0 [Ola,3)

The Galerie du Thermometre alld the Galerie du Barometre. in the Passage de l'Opera. [Ola,4J

A feuilletonist of the 1840s, writing on the subject of the Parisian wea ther. bas determined tbat Corneille spoke only once (in Le Cid) of the stars, and that Racine 8poke only once of the sun. He maintains, further. that stars and flowers were first discovered for literature. by Chateaubriand tn America and thence transplanted to Paris. See Victor Mery, "I .e Climat de Paris ," in Le Dinble ii Puris nol. I (Paris , [01a,S} l845), I). 245).
Concerning some la!reiviou8 pictures; " It is no longer the fan that 's the thing, but the umbrella-invention worthy of lhe epoch of the king's nstiol1aJ guard. The umbrella encouraging amorous fanta sies! The umbrella furni .shing discreet cover. The canopy, the roof, over Robinilon's island ." J ohn Grand-Carteret , /A! Oecolleteet te re ,rOWlSI! (Paris ( 1 9 10~), vol. 2, p. 56. [Dla,6]

"Rainshowers have given birth to <many) adventures.'" Diminishing magical [D1.7] power of the rain. M ackintosh.
As dust. rain takes its revenge on the arcades. -Under Louis Philippe, dust settled

"0 Illy here," Chirico once said , "is it possible to paint. The l;Itrl'etl! hllve such
gradations of gra y.... " [Ola.?l

even o n the revolutions. When the young due d'Orleans "married the princess of Mecklenburg, a great celebration was held at that famous ballroom where the

'I'hl:: Pa risian atmnsphere remindll CSrtl 8~ of the wa y the Ncapolitan coastline looks [D 1a,B] when the sirocco blows.

f ..

Only someone who has grown up in the big city can appreciate its rainy weather, which altogether slyly sets one d rtuning back to early childhood. Rain makes everything more hidden, ruakes days nOt only gray hut unifonn. From morning until evening, one can do the same thing-play chess, read, engagt: in argument- whereas sunshine, by contrast, shades the h OUTS and discountenances the dreamer. The latter, therefore, must get around the days of sun ...vith subter fuges-above all, must rise quite early, like the great idlers, the waterfront loafus and the vagabonds : the dreamer must be up before the sun itself. In ~c: "Ode ~ Blessed Morning; which some: years past he sent to Enuny Henrungs. Ferdi nand Hardekopf, the only authentic decadent that ~rmany has produced,

IJO ur the master of the houH e took his brea kfas t. ... After 1 had waited a quarter \If a n hour, he deigned to appear. . . . He yawned , 1 00kCiI sleepy, and 8ctmed continu ally on the puiot or lIodding off ; he walked like a somnambulis t. Hil fatigue had infttled the Wa UlJ or his mansioll . T he p ara keets s tood out like his separate thoughts . ealh O ll~ ma teria lized and a ttached to a pole . . .. " 0 Interior O<Julius) Bo.lcnherg. Paris bei Sotmen5chein und LampenlU:ht ( Leipzig, 1867) . pp . 104-

105.

[02,3]

confides to the dreamer the best precautions to be l:aken for

SurUly

days.'
(Dt a.9)

"Tu give

10

dUll

dU 8 t II

semblance of con, istency.

1111

Veuillot . Les Odeurs de Pa ru (Pa ri8. 1914), p . 12.

b y soaking it in blood ." LoW. [D l a.l0)

Fetes / ront;u.ilJes, 0" Pa ri.s en minia ture <French Fe8 ti~'ities, or Paris in Miniature>: prod uced by Rougemont and Centil a t the Theatre des Va rietia. The plot has to ,1 0 wi th the marriage of Napoleon 1 to Marie-Loui&e. and the conversation , 8t this point . concer ns the planned festivities. " Neverthele!!s," l ays one of the characters, "th~ weather ia ra ther uncertain ."- Re ply: " My fri end , you m ay r elit assured that this day is tbe choice of our sovereign ." He then atrikes up a long that begi n!:
At hia piercing I!la n ~ . douht nOIThe future i8 rflvu led; And when good "" u ther ia re<luiY'CId , We look 1 0 bia star. Cited ill Theodore Muret . L '1Ii.s'oire par Ie theatre, 1789-1851 ( Pam, 1865), vol. I , p. 262 , [02 ,4J "1'his d ull, glib sadness called ennui. " Louis Veuillot . Le, Odeurs de Paris (Pam, 1914). p . 177. [02,5] " Along with every outfil go a few accelsories ""hich show it off to best effect-tbat is to i lly, which cost lots of money because they a re 80 quickly ruined, in particular by every downpour." Thi& a propOI of the top hat . 0 Fallhion 0 F. Th. Vucher, Ve rnun/ rige Ged anken uber die j etzilIe Mode ( in Kriri.sche Giinse, new series. no. 3 (Stuttgart , 1861), fl . 124. [02,6]
\~ are bored when ~ don't know what we are waiting for. That we do know, or

Other European cities admit colonnades into their urban perspective, Berlin setting the style with its city gates. Particularly characteri~tic is the Ha?e Gateunforgettable for me on a blue picture postcard represen~g Belle-~cc P~t% by night. The card was tranSparent. and when you held It up to the light, all Its windows werc~ illuminated with the very same glow that came from the full moon up in the sky. [02,1]
"T he Lmihlings eonfl tr uctcd ror the new Paru revin aU the stylel. T he enJlemble it nut lacking in a certain unit y, however, lJec::ause a U the 8tylet he loDg to the catego ry or the u:d iou. -in ract , the most tedious or the tediou8, which il the e.mphatic and the aligned . Line up! Ere./ro nt ! h seellUi tha t the Am yhion (If this city iH a corpor al. ... I He moves great quantilie! of thing&---fihowy, &lately, colou al-and all of them are tedio us. He move! other thinp, extremely ugly; Ihey too are tediou" I Tlu!se gr ea l streetll, thele greal q uays, lhese great h OUM:II, these great lewers, their phYlliogn omy l}()Orly copie11 or )JOOrl y d reamed-aU h an a n inde.fin able 8o me~ indicative or unexpected alld irregular forluoe, They exude tedium." Veuinot , Le. Odell rll de Puris ( Pa ris, 1914 >, p. 9. 0 Haussmann 0 [02.2J PeJlelltll describes a visit with a king of the Stock E xchan ge , II multimillionaire: "Al I Clitcre{1 tllfO' cou rtya nl of the house. a squad of grooml in red vests were uccupied ill r ubbing down a half dozcll English h orse ~ . I ascended a marble stail"cuse hunS with a gia llt gi l~' ed chandelier, Ilnd ellcounler ed illl.he vestibule /I. maj ordomo with wltite crava t pm' Illllmp calve,. He led me into a la rge g.las~-I"oofed gaUery whOle walls were decorated entirely with eaJueliiall alld h oth oll ~ e plullt . Somcl.hillg like 8upp resse{1 lIoredom lay in thl:'! ai l"; ut the very fi rs t ste p . ~ou " rea tlll'd p vupo r as of opium . Ithell passed. between two rowl or pcrchc~ 0 11 wluch IJllrakecl8 from va rill ll ~ cuulllric8 were rouiting. T hey we re red , hIUl~ . p 'een , gr ay, yellnw, a nd white; hut all 81~nl ed to "uLfer fr om home.icklleu. At the eltlreme end of t11t~ galler y stl,H)d a 8mall ta ble oPllOsite II Renaisss nce-llyle fi re place. ror at thi.

think we know, is nearly always the expression of our superficiality or inatten


tion. Boredom is the threshold to great deeds.-Now, it would be important to know: What is the dialectical antithesis to boredom? [02,7]

Tbe quite humorous book. by Emile Tardieu. L'E'l1Iui (Paris, 1903). whose main thesis is that life is purposeless and groundless and that all striving after happiness and equanimity is futile. names the weather as one among many factors supposedly causing boredom. -lbis work. can be consid ~d a sort of breviary for the twentieth centlU')'. [02 ,8J
Boredom is a warm gray fabric lined on the inside with the most lusttous and colorful of silks. In this fabric we wrap oursdves when ~ dream. \o\t are at

home then in the arabesques of its lining. SUl the sleeper looks bored and gray within his sheath. And when he later wakes and wants to tt::lJ of what he dreamed, he communicates by and large o nly this boredom. FOr who would be able at one stroke to tum the lining of time to the o utside? Yt:t to narrate dreams signifies nothing else. And in no o ther way can o ne deal with the arcades-struc-

time, an indilfel'l"nt expcndirure of the all too quickly passing hours-these are qualities that favor the superficial salon life." Ferdinand von Gall, Pari; und seine Salo1lJJ vol. 2 (Oldenburg. 1845), p. 171. [02a ,7] Boredom of the ceremonial scenes depicted in historical paintings, and the dolu }Iv "i(1l1e of battle scenes with all that dwells in the smoke of gunpowder, From the imagts d'Epi"aJ to Manet's Execution if Emperor Ma:<imilian, it is always the same-and always a new-fata morgana, always the smoke in which M ogrcby
( ?~ or the genic from the bOltle suddenly emerges before the dreaming! absentminded art lover. 0 Dream House, Museums Oil [02a,8]

f
"

rures in which we relive, as in a dream, the life of our parents and grandparents, as the: embryo in the womb relives the life of animals. Existence in these spaces R ows then without accent, like the events in drams. Flinerie is the rhythmics of this slumber. In 1839, a ragt= for tonoises overcame Paris. One can "1::11 imagine the elegant set mimicking the pace of this C1UtllR more easily in the arcades than on the boulevards. oFlaneur 0 [02a,11 Boredom is always the extemal surface of Wlconscious events. For this reason, it has appeared to the great dandies as a mark of distinction. Ornament and
boredom. On the double meaning of the term tnnproin French.. {D2a,2]
[02a,3]

CI..:ss pill yeri a t the Cafe de la Hegence: Hit was there thai c1.,ver playe" could be set'n playillS with their back!! to the 1 ;IIC!lSholird. It Will! enough for tbem to hear the name of Ihe "it:1:e moved by tlulie opponent lit each turn 10 he aSlured of winning.'" IJiswire clef cufi. de Paris (Paris. 1857). p. 87. [02a,9] " In sum . clalsic urbll.n a rt , afler pre8entin5 ita maslerpie<:es, feUinto decrepitude at the time of tht> philosophes and the constructorl of IIY8tel1l!l . The end of the dghtccnlh century law the birth of illnunlt:rahle project. ; the Commifl8ion of Arti~1B brought tJU~ llI into accord with a body of doctrine. and the Empire adapted 1111: 111 withont ereative originality. The fl exible and animated dalSical Ityle 'Was succeeded by the Iylll;!ma tic and rigi d .,8Cudodul ical uyle... . The Arc de 1'ri* ompbe ~ h oe8 the gate of i..oujl XIV; the Vendume column i! copied from Rome; tlH ' Church of the Madeleine. thll Stock Exchange, the Palail-Bourbon are 80 man y Grllco-Homan temples," Lucien Dubech and Pierre d' Espezel, Hutoire <k Pnris (Paris. 1926). p . 345. 0 Interior 0 (O3,l l "The First Empire eOIJied the triumphal arches and monuments of the two clan i* cal centurietl. Then there was an attempt 10 revive and r einvent more remote lllooels; the Seeond Empire imitaled the Renaiuance, tbe Gothic, the Pompeian . Afler this eame an epoch of vulgari ly withuut style." Dub h and d' Espezel, Hi,, loire de Paru (paris. 1926), p. 464, 0 Iliterior 0 (03,2] AlIlIO UJlCenwllt for u hook h y Benjamin Gastineau , La Vie en chemin defer <tife 011 tht' Hailroulb:"La Vie en cltemin defer i 8 all entrancing prose poem . It ill an epir of modern life, always fiery and turbulent , lI. I)anorama of gaiety and leara PUhillg Iwfore 118 like the dll~t of the nib hefore Ihe window ~ of the coach," By U" lljamin Gastincau, Puris en rose (Paris, 1866), 1" 4. [03,3] Rather than p;lSs th e time, one must invite it in. To pass the time (to kill time, txpd it): the gambler. Tune spills from his every pore.-To store time as a battery Stores energy: the 8ineur. Finally, the third type: he who waits. H e takes [03,4] in the time and renders it up in ::altered fonn-that of expectation. ' ;'This rel:cndy d c pu!;it f!( llilll e~ t u lle--lh e hed on which Pa ris reliu-readily er llm h l c~ inlO u (l u ~1 which, like a illimcsluue dUIII, ill very flainfuJlo tJle eyel aDd l\ln p,

Factory labor as economic infrastructure of the ideological boredom of the upper classa. "The miserable routine of endless drudgery and toil in which the same mechanical process is repeated over and over again is like the labor of Sisyphus. The burden of labor, like the rock, always keeps falling back on the worn-out laborer." Friedrich Engels, Die lAgt dn- arhrittmlen Kla.ue in England ~2nd cd. (Leipzig, 1848) ~, p. 217; cited in Marx, Kapital (Hamburg, 1922). vol. I,
p.388.11 [02a,4]

The feeling of an "incurable imperfection in the very essence of the present" (sec: PitJi;irJ et Ie; jour;, cited in Gide's homage)l! was perhaps, fo r Proust, the main motive for getting to know fashionable society in its innennost n:ctSSeS, and it is an underlying motive perhaps for the social gatherings of all human beings. [02a,5]

u;

On the 118lonll: " AUfa ces evinced the unmilltakable Ira(:t!a of boredom , and cooversations were in gcnera l IIcarce. quiet , and aerioUI. Most of these people viewed dancing aa drudgery, to which you had to suhmit ~a u8e it waa BUlfl)()&ed to be good form tQ dance." Further on, the proposition tha t " 110 other city iu Eu rope. perhaps , dil plaYll lluch a dearth of satisfied . cheerful , Lively faces a l ihJ soi rees a8 Paris d oes in ils salons . . .. Moreover, i.n no other society 8 0 mueh as ill th.is one, and by rea8()n of fu hion no leu than real conviction, is the unhearable horedom 10 roundly lamented ,'" "A nalural consequeuw of thill is thai social affairs art! ma rked hy lIilcnce and r eserve. of II sort that at larger gat herinp in ot.her citiell wouJd 01 0 1 1 l:trtainly be d ill exception." FerdiualHI vun Gall , Paris lind "eine Salon&, vol. I (Oldenburg, 1844), pp. 151- IS3 , 1.58. [02a,6} The following lines provide an occasion fo r m editating on wnepieCC! in apartments : " A certain blitheness, a casual and even careless regard for the hurrying

A tiltJe r ain doe. nothing a t a U to hdp . since it LA im.medialdy a bsorbf:d a nd t he 8u ri'a Cl'l left d ry o nce again ." " Here i8 the I flurce of t he unp rc l)oUe8~ i n g bleached gray of t he hOU MCii . which a re a U buill from t he b ri llie lime!!tone Dlim:d m~a.r Pa ris: IIf; r e, too . th e oripn of the dun-co lored alate r oofa UI I I b la ck en with l oot over llll! yean, a l well a~ til l!! rush, wide c himneY8 which defa ce eve n the pUhlic Imild iogs ... and which in 80 me diatriclt of the oM city stand 80 cloet: IOgd her Ihal

peii . T hey have had to be exhumed wilh the hel" of a h rush . if no t a pickuxc." H. de Penc, Pam intime (Pa ris. 1859). p . 320. [03a.5] "The introd uction ur the Macullam 8y~ t em (or p aving the boulev a rd ~ gave rille to IIII OIUOU8 c:an call1rea. Cham & how8 the Pari, ian.8 blinded by dUSI, and he proposes 10 erect . . . H 8ta t\l(' with the inscr iption : ' In recugnition of Macadam, rrom the grateful oculists and opticians.' Othert represent ,Jedestnans moullted (i U 5tilu traver sing marshes and bog~. {'mis sous 10 Ri pu blique de 1848: lixpOIilion (II' hI BibliothetJue el des Tr al)OllX hUlonques de 10 Ville de Puri.! (1909) (Poete. Bl'llUrepaire, Clouto t, Hennol]. p . 25. [03a,6] E ngland could have prod uced cland yism. Fr ance is as ilHlalIBhle II( it a8 its neighhor it incapahle o( anything likl' our ... lions, who are as eager to please as the ,Iandies are d isdainfuJ of plcuing.... O'Orsay ... was natu r ally ali(I passionalelr pleb ing to everyo ne, ~\'cn to men. whereas the dandies pleased only in displeasing . . . . Between tbe lion and the dand y liC!! an ab yn. 8ut how much wider the abyss bctweell the da nd y and the (op!" Laroll88e, (Cr(w d Dicrionnoire Imi uerselle) d lJ dutu!u vieme siilcle<, vol. 6 (Pari8, 1870), p . 63 (articil' lin the da nd y . [04,1] In the seccJlld-to-la8t chapter o( his bOilk Po ri.!: From Its Origi"" to the Year 3000 (Paru, 1886), Let. Clarelie ' peaks of .II cr ys tal canop y th at would slide over tlle city in use of rain. " I.n 1987" is tbe title o( this ch apter . [04 ,2) With reference to ChodrucD udos : "~ are haunted by what w as perhaps the remains of som e rugged o ld citizen of H erculaneum who , having escaped &om his underground bed , rerurned to walk again among us, riddled by the thousand furies of the volcano, living in the midst o f death." Mimoim rh ChodrucDudOJ, <d,J. Ango and Edouaro GoWn (paris, 1843), vol. I , p. 6 (preface), The fin, Ilaneur amo ng the dic/aJJij. [04 ,3) The wo rld in which one ill borcd - " So wha t if one ill bored! What illJ1ucllce Clln it IJOssibly have?" " Wh at influeDee! ... What infi uC!lIce. horedom, with 1I.8? 8ut an cnormQII8 influence, . . . It deci, ive influence! For ennui , Y llU see, the Frenchman has a horror ver gin g 0 11 veneration . Ennui. io hill eyes, ill a terrible god with a dev utl'd cult following. It ill onl y in the gr ip of boredom tll(Jttllll Frenchlllllll call be SCriuII 8.' Edouanl PaiU eroR. J~ Monde ou I'on .s 'f:!nn llie ( 188 1), Act I . SCt:IIC 2: in l\iiJlcrQn . Thearre comp le r, v,,1. 3 (Paris ( l9 11 . p. 279 . [D4,4) Michdet " offer s a descri Plion . (1111 of inlelligence HIIII comp u,sion . IIf the r(mdition of tllf< fi rst specialized (al'Wry workers ur ound 18'&.0 . T here wt're ' trlll' h d l ~ of l,,,rcrI um' in UII' , pinn in g aud weu\'illg mills: "Eller. eVf!r, e ler. i ~ lhe ulI\'Brytllg l'ihrcl thu nder in g in your ears from the uull/malic l'lluil' lucnl which shukcHeven Ihe fl oor. O nc can never go:l u ~.,1 to it .' Orten the rema r ks of Mk hel.:t (for exam 1IItici vate . 0 11 all iuloi Ille. O il revlrie und tht: rll ythnlRuf ~ lirfcrcDt occupllliull1!l) 1
~ Only

i "

they almost b lock the view entirely." J . F. Benll:cnberg. Briefe gesd lrielHlfi auf ciner Reise nach ParU (Dortmund , 1805). vol. I , pp . 112. 1 11 . [03,51 " Engda told me that it wall in Pa ris in 1848, a t the Cafe de III Ri:gence (oue of the earlien cellters of the Revolution of 1789), that Man: first laid out for hjm the economic dcterminiJJ m of hU m aterialist theory of history." Puul Lafa rgue. " Pt:rllontiche Erinner ungt:n an Friedrich Engelll," Vie lIelie Zeit. 23, 0 0 . 2 (Stuttgart , 19(5). p . 558. [03.6) Boredo m-as index to particip ation in the sleep of the coUerove. Is this the reason it seems distinguished, so that the dandy makes a sh ow of it? [03 ,7) In 17S7 there were onl y three cafell in PllIr ill.

[03,,1)

Maximll of Empire p ainting: " The new a rtists accept onl y ' the heroic style , the sublime ,' and tbe sublime is a ltain~ onl y with ' the DUlle and d rape r y.' .. . Painters a re l upposed to flOd their inspiration in P luta rch or "Homer, Uvy or Virgil. lind , in keeping with Oavid '8 reconlmendation to GrOll, a re sup posed to choose ... ' subjects known to everyone.' ... Subjcclll taken rrom co ntenlpor ary lie wer e. bei!ause or the clothing styles. unworth y or 'grea t art.'" A. Malet and P. Grillet , X IX' siecle (Paril. 19 19}, p . 158. 0 Fashion 0 [03a,2) " Happy the man wh o is an observer ! 8 0redom, ror him , ill a _'ord devoid of sen,e." Victor Fournel , Ce qu. 'on lJoit d",u les rues de Pari.! (Pari,. 1858), p . 271. [03a,3] Boredom began to be experienced in epidemic. proportio ns during the 184 0s. Lamartine is said to be the firs t to have given expression to the malad y. It p lays a role in a little Story about the famous comic IXburau. A distinguished Paris neurologist was consulted o nc day by a patient whom he had not seen before. The patient complained of the typical illness o f the times-weariness with life, deep depressions, bo~dom . "There's no thing wrong with you," said the d octor after a thorough examinatio n . Just try to relax-find something to entertain you . Go see D cburau some evening, and life will look d ifferent to you ." "Ah. dear sir," answered the patient, "I am Deburau." [03a .4J II d urn from lllt"~ Co urses de 10 Ma rche: " T he d\1st ex ct!t:~leJ all eX Ilt:'C.tu tionli. Till: d ega nt ful k back frUIO the n eea a re \'irt uaUy en~ ru8t ~,j : Ihey r"mi~tl yu u of Pom

li ve level , the experimental KUBl yse/! of mode rn 1)8ych ologiatlf." Georgee Fried mann , lAI Cru~ dll 1 1rog r eJ (Pa ri!! (1936) , p . 244; quotation frum Michelet , Le Pl'llple (Paris. )B%) . p. 83 .11' [D4.S}

"'aire droguer, ill the ,;eose of loire auendre , "'to keep waiting," belongs to the urgut (If the: armies of the Rc:volution and of the: Empi n:. According to <Ferdinand> BrulIQl , Hutoi re de la (eHlg lle /rom; Que, vol. 9. La RelJolu.lWn et {'Empire ( Paris, 193i) cpo 99h [04,6]
Purls;an Life: "'The contClllpo rur y Bccne ill preserved , like a s pecimen under glalB, in II IcUer of recommcndation to Mt:l c:Ua given by Baron SlaniBias de Frascals to hia friend Baron Gondre.mnrck . T he writer, tied to the 'cold country' in whicb be lives. sigh s for the ch ampagne s lIp pe.n , Metella '8 sky-blue boudoir, the songs, the glamur of Paris . the gay a nd glittering cilY, throbbing with warmth and life, in whic.l. d.ifferenees of station are abolished . MeteUa reatls the leiter to the straw of Offenhlleh 's music, which s urrounds it with a yearning melancholy, as thou&b JlariBwere paradise- lost. and at the same time with 11 halo of bliss as though it were the paradise to come; and, us Ibeaction continues, one i8 given the impression that the picture given ill the leiter is beginning to come to life." S. K.elIcauer, JacqlU!S Off enbach and do s l'o.ru seiner Zeit (Amsterda m, 1937), pp. 348-349 .~ ID4a.1)

this idell ; for how can we be sure lhallh08e tribes which we call 'sllvage' may not in fact be the di.sj eclcl membm of !;Tenl extinct civili:tIl liona? ... It is hardly neees~a ry to say dUll wile.n M'IIll\ieur G. skelches one or his dandies all paper, he never fails 10 give him his lIi8111ricili personaU ty-hiJl lep:ndary penwnalilY. I would .'enture to say, ir we were lIot sl>caking of the presenl time and of lhinge gener ally cOlisidered fri,olous." Baudelaire, L 'Art romantique , vol. 3, ed . Rachette (Pa m ), pp .94....95. 1-

[05.IJ

"

Bauclelnirll ,Iest'ribcs the imJlre~8ion thai the. consummate d andy must convey: " A ri"h 111[111, perhaps. but more likely an oul-of-work Hcrcule. !" Baudelaire, L 'Art romllflfique (PHril). p. 96. 19 [05,2] Ln the eS!lIy on Guyt, the crowd appears as the supreme remedy (or boredoru : "'An y man . ' he said Olle day, in the counle of one of thMe convenations which he illumines with burning glance and evocalive gesture, 'any man ... who can ye t be bored ill th e heart of the mldtitude is a blockhead! A blockhead! And I despise him !" Baudelaire, L jl rt romantique, p . 65,!O [05,3]

Among all the subjects first marked out [or lyric expression by Baudelaire, one can ~ put at the forefront: bad weather. [05,4]
Ali attributed III II. cutain "Carlin," the well-known anecdote about Debur8u (the actor affii cle(l with horedom) forms the piece de resi8tance of the venified Eloge de l"mnlli <Encomium to BoredoDl>, by Charles Boiu iere. the Philotechnical Society (Paris. 1860).-" Carlio" is the oameo( a breed of doga; it comes from the Srst name of aD Italian actor who playt!.1.l Ha rlequin . (05,5]

" Rumauticism ~nds in a thcury of boredom, the characteristicaUy modern aentiment: that ia, it end, in a theory of l)Ower, or a t lean of ener~.... Romanticism, in effed. ma rk .. the recognition b y the individual of H bundle or in8tinclll which 80cidy bat a strong interest in o:pn:ssing; but. for tbe most pa rt, it manifeslll the ahdicll tion of th e struggle .... The Ruma ntic writer ... turll1l toward ... a poetry or refugt: aDd escape. The effort of BalzlIc and of Baudelllin: is exactly the reverse of this and tentls to integrate into life the postuJatelf which the Romantics were rcsiUled to working witll IInly on the leve.! of art . ... Their effort u tbuslinked to the myth according 10 which imagination plays an ever-increasing role in life." Hoger Cailloi ~. " Paris. my the mOOerne." Nouvelle R elluf! frarn;aue, 25, no. 284 (May I , 1937) . pJI . 695, 697 . [D4a,2]

or

"Mollotony feeds on the new." Jean Vaudal, I.e Tuble"" flair; cited in E. J.loux.

"L' Esprit lit's livrell," NO ltvell.e! litteruire., Nlivembllr 20, 1937.

[05,6)

Coumerpan to Blanqui 's view o[ the world : the universe is a site of lingering catastrophes. (O5.7] On L'E/~ili par Ie; wires: Blanqui, who, on the threshold of the grave, recognizes the Fort du Taureau as his last place of captivity, vmtes this book in order to o~n new doors in his dungeon. [05a.I) On L'Elmliti pur Ie; (Islrrs: Blanqui yields to bourgeois society. But he's brought ttl his knces with such force that the throne begins to totter. [D.'ia.2] On L'Elrrn ili par I~J aJlre;: The people of the nineteenth century see the StarS against a sky which is spread Out in this text. [05a.31

1839: " France is bored" (Lam artine).

[04a.31

Blludcluire in his essay a ll Guys: " Dalulyillm is u mysterious instilution , no leu pct'uliur than t he tlud . It is of greu.l ulltiquity, Caella r, Catiline, and Alcihiades prllviding us with dazzling ua mpl.s; and very wide~ prea d. Chaleaubrialld bllving ftllilul it ill the (ore~ t s and by the lakes of the Nt'w World ." Baudelaire. L'An rlmwnt;que ( Pari ~) , p. 91. 11 (04a,41
T he G II Y~ chapter in L 'Art ronUlntique. 011 dandies: " They li re all represelltutives ... nr th ul compelling nreil. 1I11IlI onl y 100 rure Iml ay. for comhating ami destroying triviality.... Dandyism is I.he lalll ' park of heroism IIlIIid ,le('IIc1t:llce: and the Iype uf .Iandy d.is(.'6vered hy uur tru vd er in North Amerit:a tl oe~ 110thing to invali~lIte

It may be that the figure of Blanqui surfaces in the "Litanies of Satan"; "You who give the outlaw that serene and haughty look" ( Baudelaire, OawreJ, > cd. Lc

Danu=:c, (vol. 1 [Paris, 193 1],) p. 1 38).~1 In point of fact, Bau delaire did a drawing from memory that sh ows the head o f Blanqui. {D5a,41

To grasp the significance of nourxQuti, it is necessary to go back to novelty in everyd ay life. \Vhy d oes everyone share the newest thing with someone else? Presumably, in order to triumph over the dead . TIlls only wh ere there is nothing really new. [05a.5] Blanqui's last work, written during his last imprisonmen t, has remained en tircly UlUloticed up to now, so far as I can sec. It is a cosmo logical speculation. Granted it ap pears, in its opening pages, taSteless and banal. But the awkward deliberations o f the autodidact are mOOy the prelude to a speculation that o nly t.h.i.s revolutionary could develo p. ~ may call it theological, insofar as heU is a subject of theology. In fact, the cosmic vision of the world which Blanqui lays o u t, taking his data from the mechanistic natural sciener of bourgeois society, is an infernal vision. AI. the same time, it is a complement of the society to which Dlanqui, in his o ld age, was forerd to concede victory. What is so unsettling is that the p resentation is entirely lacking in irony. It is an Wlconditio nal surren der, but it is simultaneously the mOSt terrible indicunent o f a society that p rojects this image o f the cosmos-Wlderstood as an image of itself-across the h eavens. With its trenchant style, this ...."rk displays the most remarkable similarities b oth to Baudelaire: and to Nietzsche. (Letter ofJanuary 6, 1938, to Horkheimer.}t'l [D5:.1,61 From B1anqui'a L 'efem ite par ks aslre,; " Wha t ma n d oes not fmll hinu elf sometimei faced with Iwo opposing courBes? The olle he declines would make for a fa r differeot life, while leaving him his p articular individ uality. One leads to miIIer y, shame, servitude; the other, to glory a nd liberty. Here, a lovely woma n and h appi !less; Ihere, fury and tlesola tion . I am spea king now for both sexes. Take your chances or yo ur choice--it makes no difference, for you will nol escape your destiny. But IlenillY finds no footing in infinity, which knows no alterllalive and makes room for every thin&;. There exist5 a world wh4'! re a DIan follow! the road thai , ill the other world , his double did not take. His existence divides io two. a g10he fllr each; it biIurcalea a aecond time, a third time, tho u ~a nd8 of times. He thus pOSBeues fuD y formed doubles with innumer ahle variants , whir h, ill In ulti plying, always represent him a8 a IJer aon but capture only fragment ~ of his tics tiny. All that one might bave been ill thil world , olle is ill another. M O llg with one's elilire existeoce from birth to death . experienced in a moltitutle of places . olle also liv!'lI, in Yl't olher placea, ten thousand llifferen t veuionll of it. " Citell ill Goslave Cdfroy, t 'Enferme (Paris, 1897), p . 399. [06,1] From the conclusion of t 'Eternite par les uslres: " What 1 wri te al thill mOllwllt in a cell of the Fort Ilu Tllureao I have written alld "hall write throughout all eter uily-Itl II tuble, with II pell, clothed ail J am now, in circ umst" n!!e8 like Ihese:' Cited in Gustave Geffroy, L 'Enf ermi (Paris, 1897), I). 401. Right It fl er th i~. Cd

froy writes: 'I. ! e th us inscr ibes his ate, al ellch in8hwl of its Iluration, a!!r OSS ~h e UUJllber leil~ IIta r@. Hi~ IIrlllon eell is multiplied to i.nfinit y. Throughoul 1 .lIe enbre . h . " the same confined m un thai he is 0 11 this ea rth , with his rebellious IIrtt ven t:, ~Irellgth a nd his freetlom of thought." [D6.2] From the conclusion o L 'eternili pu r Ie... (/S tres: " At the present time, t.he entire life of our "Ianet , fr om birth to death, with all its erimee and miseric~, is being Iive{1 pa rtly here and p artly tilere, day by day, on myriad kind red planelll. What we vu ll ' progreu' ie confined 10 each pa rticular world. and vauishes with il . AJ ""ay ~ and ever ywhere in the lerrestriailire na, the same ,Irama , tbe same selling. on the same lIurrow tage.-a noisy humanity infutualed with ils own grandeur, bt"lieving itself to be the univer ile and living in its prison &8 though in 80me im mense realm , only to foomler at an earl y date along with il8 gJobe , which has borne ",; tll II ~ pes l disd ain , the b urden uf human arrogance. The slime monotnny, the same inullobUily. on other heavenly bodies. T he ulilven e repeals iuelf endlessly and paws the grouDtI in plalle ." Ciled in Gustave Cefroy, L 'Enfe rme (Paris, 1897), 1" 402. [06a,11 B1anqui expressly emphasizes the scieutilic charHcler of hill th e~e8, which would have nothing to do witb Fourierist fr ivolitit': s. " One mUill coocede thai eac.h particular combina tion of materials and people ' i8 bound to be repeated thousa nds of time~ in order to satisfy Ihe demands of infinity.'" Cited in GeC froy, L 'Enfe rme [06a,2] (Paris, 1897) , p. 400 . B11Ul11Ui's misanthropy: "'The varialions begin with those living creatures that have" will of thl!ir own , or something lik~ eal'ricea . All soon as buman beings enter the 8CCntl:, inulgination enler t with them. It is not aa though thtl:y havtl: much effecl on Ihe plauet. ... T heir tur bulent activity never 8t'riou N ly disturhs the nalural progreniou of physical phenomena, Ibough it dis rup ts bumanil). It iMtherefore ;uh i sable 10 a nticipate thi, subversive influence, which ... tear s apa rt nution8 and hri ngs down empires. Certainl y these bruta lities r UII their course witllOut e,'en scr atching the terrestri al surfau. The disappearance of the disroplorfl would leave no tr ace of their self ttylcd sovereign presence, and would suffice to return nat ure to il. virtually unmolested virginity." Blantlui , L 'E' ernite <pa r le8 asfre. (Paris, 1872, pp . 63-64. [06a,3) Final ch apter (8. Uesome") of Blanllui's L 'Etemite p (lr Ie! fl 5Irp.s: "Till' entire tt nivt' r~e is composetl of alltral sylilems. To Cn)alc them, lIature has unly a hulltlrctl simllle bodies a t illl tliSJl08al. De.lpile thc great ad vantage it ,Ierives from thcse resuurces , and the i llnllmt~r a bl e combin8tions that Illest: resourcea aifurli i ~ feo cuntlity. Ihe resull is nl!1!euaru y afini,p. Illllnher, like thai of th., clellleliU tJu~ m lit:lvcs; and ill order to flU ils expanse , nature mUMt re ,,"~ LII to infi nity .. ach nf iu origi1lal combinations or ' ypes. I 5u each hea vt~ nl y Lotl y, whutcver it lIIiJ;ht bl', e"iu&in infillite num ber in time 8.nd sp ace, not mJ1y ill orle of i!! aspects h ut as it i& at eadl St..<cond of ill existcllt..-e, ronl birth to dealh. All the h1~in l;ll d istr ih ulW

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j ]

I ..

ac ru!!!. it ~ ~ lIrra ce , wilt:UII!r large or 5mull , living 6r inanima1t:. share the privilege of thi8 perpe tuit y. 1 1'111' ea rth ilf o ne of thclt! heavenly hodic8. Every human being ill lhull eh:rllul a l every ~el:o nt1 o f his Qr her existe nce. Whll.t I writfl at this mo ment ill a cell of t.il t' Fori ;Iu Taureau I IlIlve written ami shall wrile throu~ou' " II clc rllit y- at II table, with a pen . clothed a s I am nGw, in circuDl81a ncei like the.e. Ami thull it is for ever yo ne. I All worldl are engulfed. one after another, in the rtlvivifyillg fl ame, to be reborn from them and consumed by them once more-monotonoUII lIow of ao hourglass tbat ele rnaUy empties and turn, iuclIover. The new i8 a lway. uM. and the old alway. ncw. I Yet WQn ' , tbose who are interested in exl ra te rrcfilria l lifll emile a l a mathe matic al deduction which 8ccorda them not onl y immortality bot e te rnity? The Dumber of our doublel ill infinite in time and 811al'l:. One cannot in guod conscience demand an ything more , Th~ doublet uUt in fles h and hOIle--iudeed . in lToul er8 and jacket, in crinoline a nd chignon . They are by no meaDS IIhanloDls; tlley arc the present cternaLizctl . l Uc re. nonethelell8, Liel a great drawb ac k : tilere il no progress, alaI. but me rely vulgar reviaioru and re prinll. S uch a re the exempla rl, the ol tensible ' original editions,' of aU the worlds pasl .ll lId all the worlds to come. Only the chapter on bifurcationl ia atill Ol)\!n 10 bOI)\!. lei us nol forget : flU th(lt one mig ht have been in thu world. one u itl unutller. l in Ihil world , progrclli is for 001' descendanlll alolle. They will have morc of II chalice thall we did . AU the beautiful things e ve r leen on our world have. of course. already beeu set.:u- are being seen at thia instant a nd wiD alway. be &tlell- by our t1escenda n ll , a nd b y their doubles who have prec!cded and will fol low them. Scions of a fin er homanity. they ha,'c a lready mocked and re viled oor existe nt.'e 0 11 d ead ,,'o rldl. while ove rta king a nd l ucceeding U B. They continue to Icorn UI 011 Iht' Li ving worldll fT()m which we have fuappeared, a nd their contempt fo r UII will ha \'e 11 0 eud o n the worlds 10 come. I The y a nd we, aud all the inhabi ta nlli of lUir vlanet, are re born vri80nerll of the moment a nd uf the place to which dettin y hili auigned Oil in the serie8 of Earth'l avatan. Our continoed life de~d. on tha t of tbe pla ne!. We are merely phenomena that a re ancillary to ill res urrectiOIlIl. Men of tht' nineteenlh century. the hour of oor apparition. is fixed forever. a nd alwaY8 hrill g~ us bac k tbe very . ame onet, or a t mOil with a prospect of felici tous varianlll . The re is no thing her e tha t will much gratify the yea nling for improve menl . Wha l to do? I have-sought not al all my pleasure, hut onl y the truth. lIe re the rl) is ndthe r revelatilln nor prophecy, hut rather a s imple (Ieduc tion on the halOiJl of 81 M!ctra l anuJysis und La placia n cosmogony. The&e two discove ries mllke us ete rnul. Is it u windfall? ut us profil from it. Is il a mys tification? Let u8 rCl ip' (II1.,;:!" e8 10 il . I . .. I At bottom . this e te rnil y tlf the human being a mong the s tars is n meluncholy thing, a nd this seques lering of kindred wo rld ll by the iIlCJ(orubl{, harrie r of space i8 e vell mo n : s ad . Stl lIIallY identicul po pulaliolls paIs away wilhoul ~ u 8 pcc liJ1 g olle a nolhe r '& exis tence! BUI no--thill has finall y been tliscovc rcll , ill the niuet t."I!n th ccntury. Yet who iii inclined to IIdie ve it ? I Until no w, the pasl h'ls. ror us. nleant harharis m, whe reus Ihe future has aignified pro grl '~M . ~ .' i elll '''', ha ppinells, illus io n ! Tl, is l)a ~ l . o n a U 611r cOuulcl'J)art worlds, haR S('en th., mllSI hrillianl civil.i:!:al.io ns di.~a pJH' ar ....ithoulleaving a tra t.'C, MOll they will continuc 10 lL isulJllear willlOulleuving n trace. The rulurt" will wil.Aen yel apin , on biUiunlt M world t he ip1o ra nce. foll y, and cruelty of our bygo ne eral! I AI the

pretent lime, the entire life of o ur "IUIICI, from birth to death. with a U it. crime. miseries. is heillg li,'ed )lllrLl y herc ami portly ther e, .Iay h y d ay. 011 myriad kindrl~ 1 "lullet8. Wllut we c ull ' "rogn 'ls' i~ confilletl to eac h particular world , a ud vunis lu:!I with it . Alwa YIi a nd I" 'c r y.... he re in Ihe tcrrC H l.riul M rena . the Harne drama. the same selling. o n the ~a m e n il.rrow Il uge--u n oi ~ y huma ni ty infatua ted with ill own gruntleur. lw lif'\illg itself 10 lie thc univerle a Ullli \' ill~ ill its pril on as though in !lOlIIe immcme rt:Mlm . onl y 10 ro umll:r a t 8 n carly d M te along wilh its yobe-, which hah borD e wilh dCCI)e8t dis dain the hurden of hllWan arrogance. Thellame monot.0 11 )' . thl" /la me immo bility. (in othe r heavenl y bodiea. The uni verse repeau itself f'm:l1essly a nd paws till" gJ'uund in place, In inflnily. e te rnit y perforrns--impe.r. tur ha blY-lht' same mlllillc ~." Auguste B1amlui . L 'etemite par ie, wIre,: fly Iw tlli!Je tU t rfmo miqul! (poris. 1812), PI" 13-16. The elided paragraph !Iwells on Ihe "consolation" afrord l!fl by the idea thai tbe doubles of lo\ed ones departed fro m Eartb Ilre III this ve ry hou r keeping o ur o wn ,1(JuJJies company o n a nothe r
alld

"Iullc t.

[07; 0 7a]

"Let U ll think thi$ thought ill its most te rrilile form : exis tc nce 81 it is. without 'meani ng or aim . yet rec urring ille vitnbly withoul any fi.nal e into nothingness: the eternnl return [po45] .... We Ileny eRiI goalB: if ex.iate uee had one, it would have to ha\'e been reac hed ." Friedricll Nie tzsche. Cesam melte Werke (Munic h ( 1926, \'01. 18 (The Will 10 Powe r. hook I), p. 46 . [08,IJ "The doct linc of .. te rna l r('l!UrrllllCe would t.ave ,cholar/y pre!S uPpoH ilions." Nietzscllc . Gesummelte Werke (Munich). vol. 18 (Th e Will 10 Powe r, hook J), p. "9 .~' [08,2) "The old ha hil , however. of auocia ting a goal wilh e ve r y event ... i8 IiO powerful that it retluires a n effo rt fo r a thinke r not to fa U into thinking or the ve ry aimie.ll.ll1It. ' U or the world MI inte nded . T hi.!l notio n- tha t the wo rld inte ntionally a voids a goal ... - must occur to a ll thoBe .... ho wonM like to force on the world Ihe capMcity fo r eterntll /lo velt)' [ po 369J .... T he world . a8 fort.'e, may not be thoughl of all unlinliLed , fo r it Cflnnor 1M! 80 thoughl of . . . . T llUlf-the world also lacks the Cal)urit y for ete rnal nO\'elty," Nieu:uhe. Gesummelte Werke. vol. 19 (Th e WiU to Power, hook 4). II . 370.:'; [08,3J

", 'h.. world . . . U\'es nil itlll'lf: ill cxcr CIlI.. nhl arc ils lIuliris llllle nt. " Nie tzsche. G('~llIIlmelte U" l,! rJ.e. "'111. It) (TIll' IVilI to Po wer. hook 4). p . 3i l. t {DS,4]
'1'1 ... '''')rl" " wi thou t goal. 11111,'88 the ju)' of Iht' fird u is il~clf a goal: witho ut will , unlt's.o:. II ring ft"f;l ~ good willt llwur.1 iI H t:if.' Nich:sd,c. Ge,ammelte Werke. vol. 19 ('/'/'/, Will til l)fHIII'r. hOI!1i. 4), p . 314,2: - [OS,SJ
0 .. ~' I (' rna l O'CUrlt"I ...e: " 'I'll(' IIn'll l Il,o ught as u M cdu ~ a I,eu{l : all r..a lurf>S of 1.11, Wnr hl ht'colIIC' lII utioulcss. a fruzell Ilf'a l h thrut... Frit'tlri,I. N illzulle. Ge~mllmelt f! It .. rke (Munich d925, vul. ).J (UIIIJubfi$I! ed 1't'/Hlr 1882-1H88). p. 188.

[08,61

"We have created Ihe wdghtieal thuught- now let au creole the being for whom it ill liglll aud plcasillg!" Niet:uche , Gell(J mmelte Werkf! (Munich). vol. 14 (U'I/JUb[08.71 lilllied PfJperll , 1882-1888), p . 179.

murually colltnldictory tendencies of desire: that of repetition and that of eterl1iry~ Such heroism has its counterpart in the heroism ofBauddairc, who conjures the phantasmagoria of modernity from the misery of the Second Empire.
[D9,2]

Analogy between Engels and Blanqui: each rurned to the natural sciences late in
lif" [08,8]

'' If the world ma y be thought of Il6 a certain definite quantity of force and atl a certain defmilC number of centen of force--and ever y ulber representation TeIIIUinS ... we/eu-it followll thai , in the great dice game of existence, it IUU8tIl8SN through a calculable nlUJlber uf comhillationll. 10 iufinite time , every llOstlihle cornhination wuuld at some time or unother be reufu:oo; mort: : it would be r ealized all infinite number of timcs. And since between every comhin ation alltl ih next recurrence a U other l)Ou ible combinations would have to take place, .. . a circular movement of Itbllolutely identical seriea is thug demunstrated .. .. This cuocepLion is not simply a mechanistic COlIl.leptiOIl ; for if it ....cr e that, it would nOI condition an infinite recurrence of iclentiCll 1 cases hut It finlli l l.ate. Becawe the world has no t reached dlie, mechunistic theory must be considered lUI imperfect and merely pruvisional hypothesis." Nietzsche , Gestlrnmelte Werke (Munich <1926 , vol. 19 (Th e Will to Power". hook 4) , p. 373.::e [08a, 1]

The notion of eternal return appeared at a time when the bourgeoisie no longer dared COWl! a ll the impending devdopmenl of the system of production which they had set going. The thought of Zarathustra and of eternal recurrence belongs IOgethcr with the embroidered motto seen on pillows : ";On1y a quarter hour,"
[09,3]
Criti(lue of the doctrine of eternal recurrenCI' : "As naluru] ~citmti s t ... , NieLUche is u philosophizing dilettante, uud a8 founder of u religion he ill a ' hybrid of ! icklll!. u and wiU to power '" [llrcfuI:e to Ecce Homo] (p. 83).:!oj " T he entire doctrine thus seem.'! tu ~ nothing othcr t.han an experiment ur the human wiU and an lI t1empl to elernllli.ze aU Olll' doings and failingti , an atheistic lI urrugllle for religion . With this accords the homiletic style and thr. compo8ition of Zar"athwtrrJ , which dOwn 10 it., tiniest details often imitatell the Ne .... Testament" (pp. 86-87). Karl Lowith. iVietzscllell Plaiwsophie d er" cwige n Wiederklmfl dell Gleichefl (Bcrlin , 1935), [09,4]

~ the idea of ~ternal recurrence. the historicism of the nineteenth century capStzes. As a resuJt, ~vuy tradition. even the most recent, becomes the legacy of

som~~g that has already run its course in the inunemoriaJ night of the ages. Traditlon hencefonh assumes the character of a phantasmagoria in which primal history ent ~rs the scene in uJtramodem getup. [08a,2]

There is a handwritten draft in which Caesar instead of Zarathustra is the bearer of Nietzsche's tidings (LOwith, p. 73). That is of no little momenL It underscores the fact that Nietzsche had an inkling of his doctrine's complicity with imperialISm. [09,5]
Lowith cullHNiet:u che', " new divinatioll . . . ,he l!ynthesis of divination rrom Ihe 8!arl! ....ith dh'inatioll from lIolbingneu , " 'hich is the last verity in the deserl uf the freedom uf individual caJlucity" (p. 81). [09,6J From " Les Etuiles" (T he S ta rs ~ , b y LMlIIllrtine:
Thll ~ thelf~ g1ohe. of g01ll . t.he~e ;& Ia"d. of ligh t. SOllgll t in~ tinr.l;vely by Ihll dreaming eye. Fl.sh 1111 by Ihe !honsA n .1! (rom (ugitive sh. dow. Uk t ~li uc: ri ~ Il u ~t oPlhfl ttac k, of pight ; I\ od Ihe hrea lh of the evenin g th ai Rici in illf wake S.. ntb thenl swirlipg til rough Ihe rndiAnCt of ~ I,aee .

Nietzsche's remark that the doctrin~ of eternal recurrence does not cnbrace mechanism seems to him the phenomenon of the perpetuum mobile (for the worW wouJd be nothing e.lse, according to his lea.c.hings) into an argument against the mechanistic conception of the world. {08a,3J

On the problem of modernity and anti(llIily. " The exutcllce tha t has lust its IItabilily and its direction, a nd the world lhat has losl it! coherence and its significa nce,
~o me togetlu:r in the ""ill of ' tile elt'rnal recurrence of the ta me' as tht: attempt to

rClleat-(ln the pea k of moderllil y. in a symbol-the lire whidl tlu> Creeks lived within the li ving cosmOll of'il e visi ble worlel ." Karl Lowi th . Nietzsches Philosoph ie del" eU'igen Wifldflr"kuflfi dp.s Gleiche" (Berlin . 1(35), p . 83. (OHa.4)

L'Eternili par Its aJtrt:J was written four, at most five. yeaTS after Baudelaire's death (contemporaneously with the Paris Commune?).-TIUs text shows what the stars are doi.ng in that world from which Baudelairc. with good reason, excluded them. [09,1 ]
'11e idea of elemal recurrence coqjures !.he phamasmagoria of happiness from the misery of the Founders Years;n TIus doctrine is an attempt to reconcile t.he

All dUll WI' 8eek- lovc. trull, . TIII'~e fruil~ of Ihe.lky. (1111"11 on ell rth 's (> lIla te. Tl, ruIIghuul )'CUlr Lrillialltl"limr.! wo) 10llg to ~ee- NO lllri, h fore ... t r Ih ... r hildn n "f lif,.; And u n~ ,lay nlan l'.erh. I '~ ' hi. lit.ti n,- fulfill,.,I. Will rerl>ver in you aU lhc: Ihi np he lo u lo~ t.
<Al phon so d e) Lamartine . OeU lJrf's N IF"/J/et f!s , vul. I (Parill, 1850), 1'" . 22 1. 224 ( Mc(litfl t iml$). " Ili ~ IIwtHt litinn dO!lell with a reverie ill .... hilh Lalllurtim' iii pll'u~t:d 10 imagine lJ i m ~df Irull llfunn~J illtu a ~ Iar a llloug stU n!. [OYa, IJ

From kt. lnfini J a ll ~ lei cit:lu" dnfinit y in the Skit." by Lamartine:

MIlII . lIoncthdeu . tha i in,li8eovcr ll iJI e ill,;o(!l . C rawlinl! 11 .... "1 Ihe ho U... uf a n o h,ellre o rb . Ta kes Ihe meUllre of I.hf:llf: fie r)' "Ianeu. AlI8i gll~ t.he m th eir Ilia Ci: in the hellven8, Thinkill&. wil h handll that r.a mwi m llnaee the cu mpu". To ~ ift eun@ like Vains of ,and.

w .

"Etemal return" is ulcjimdamenta/foml of the urgeschir:htJichro, mythie eousOous, nesS. (My[hic because it does no t reflect.) [010,3] L I;.terttite p"rles uMrell hould be comparetl ",ilh till' spirit of '48, u it IIl1ilnllh' Heyn8ud 'i! Terre f!.t del. With rcgllrd to thill. Ca s ~oll : "On discovering bilj ea rthly dcdiny, Illall feeL! a sOirt of \'ertigo and cannot a l first rej'OIll'ile Illuillelf to thiB ,11'''iny alom: . He mllst link it up to the greatest 08~ i.hle immcilsil y of time 11 1111 ' pace. Only in till' cOlltext of its moat 8wl!t!ping breadth ,,ill be intoxi(,ll te ltimsdr with being. with mU"ement , with prop-e,s. Only thell ca n he in all cunfidellce and ill 1111 dignity pronounce the sublime wordlJ of J ean Reynaud : ' I hllve long millie a practice uf the uILi ve r~e. " " We rllld nothing in tile universe that call1UJt serve to d.,.vate 11'. lind we li re genuincl )' elevated ollly in taking advantage of wbat the IIni ver 5e offer s, Tilt' ~tar8 themselve8. in their suhlinlt' hierarr.1IY , a re hut a ,erie" of steps by ""hieh WI:! motlllt progreuively toward infinity:' c J ea n ~ Callsou, Quarmllehuit <Paris. 1939>, pp. 49.48. [0 10.4] Life within the magic circle of eternal return makes for an existence that never em erges from the auraec. [DtOa, l]

! ..

Anll Sa tnrn bedilnmerll,y itl di 8tanl ring! Lamartille. Oeuvre! cQmpletes (Pari8, 1850). PI' . 8 l -82 , 82 ( Harm onie. poetiques et religiell.lle8) , [09a.2] Dislocation of hell : "'A nd, 6.nally, what is the place of punishments? All ~gions of the universe in a condition analogous to that of the earth, and still worse." J ean Reynaud, Ta'Te tt ciel (Paris, 1854), p. 377. This uncommonly faruous book p~' scnts its theological syncretism , its philruophie re/igieuJe, as the new theology. The eternity of hell's torments is a heresy: "'The ancient trilogy o f Earth, Sky, and Underworld finds itsdf n=duced, in the end, to the druidical duality o f Earth and Sky" (p. xili). [09.3) Waiting is, in a sense. the lined interior ofbon=dom . (Hebel : bo~dom waits for death.) [09.,4J
" 1 alwaYB arrived firsl , It wall my lot 10 wait for her:' J .-J. Rousseau, Le!l Con!eJ-

As tife becomes mon= subjeet to administrative norms, people must learn to wd..it more. Games of chance possess the great charm of f~eing people from having to
wait. [01 0a,2]

. ions. ed . Hillium (Parill <193 L . vol. 3 . p. 115.][


Fir~ t

[09a,5]

The boulevardier (feuilletonist) has to wait, whereupon he really waits. H ugo's 'Waiting is life" applies first of all to him. [0101.3] The essence of the mythical event is n=rum. Inscribed as a hidden figure in such events is the futility that furrows the brow of some o f the heroic personages o f the underworld (Tantalus, Sisyphus, the Danaides). TIUnking o nce again the thought of etemaJ recurrence in the nineteenth century makes Nietzsche the figure in whom a mythic fatality is n=alized anew. (The hell o f eternal damnation has perhaps impugned the ancient idea of eternal recurrence at its most fonnida ble point, substituting an eternity of tormen ts for the eternity of a cycle.) [0 10a.4] TIle belief in progress-in an infinite perfectibility understood as an in.finite ethical task- and the representation of etemaJ rerum are complementary. They are the indissolu ble antinomies in the face of which the dialectical conceptio n of historical time must be d eveloped, In this conception. the idea of eternru return appears precisely as that "shallow rationalism" which the belief in progress is accused of bcing t while fai th in progress seems no less to belong: to the mythic mode of th ough t than d ocs the idea of eternal n=tum. [0 10a.5)

intimation of Ihe doctrine of eternal recurrence at the end of the fourth book of Die frohli.clle Wiuen8c1la!t: " Uow, if Borne day or nighl a demon were to Ineak aft er you into your loneliest IOlldineu and lay to you: 'Thill lire ait you now live it and ha\'e lived it , you will ua \'e 10 live once more and inllumerable times more; and ther.. ",ill be nothing new ill it , llUl every paul and every joy and every thou& ht and sigh and everyt hing immeasurably smaUOJ' great in yuur life must relurn to yonall ill tlt(. same IIl1cceuion and 1I1!lluence--evell this epider and this moonlight hetween the trees, and eve" this moment lind I myself. 1'hl"' eternal hourg.la81 of ...xi ~ te l1ct is turnell o",:r and over, ami yOIl with it , a dust grain of dll ~ t .' Wou l.1 you IIO t .. . cu rse the ,lenwlI wlio spokll thus? Or did YOII once eXIH:riem'l! a tremel!dIms mumelll whell you " 'tlllM hu" e ans" 't:red him : ' YUII a re a got! ami never have I hea rd uJl yt hlng mort: go .lI y ! '' ~ Ci tL'() ill wwith , NielzsdleJ 1'lliloJopllie der f'lciseri Wiederkmt/t ({leI Gleichell (Uerl.in . 1935 . 1 ). 5i-58. [010,1] Blauqw 's th eory as a ripititi()TI du my/he-a fundamental example o f the primal history o f the nineteOlth century. In every century. humanity has [ 0 ~ held back a grade in school. Sec the basic fomlUlation of d lC problem o f primal history, o f UrgeJchichit:, in N3a,2; also N4,1. [0 10,2)

E
[Haussmannization, Barricade Fighting]
TIle nov.~ry realm of decorations,

truted lite s pirit IIf tllf' linlr~s Q ~ a mi rro .. eOllcent ru te, IllI' ray~ of the SlIn , a book "" hieh lo'....er\!1J up ill lIIaj e~ l i e g1nry I tl the heuvens like II prime.val fore, l. II book in whid' ... u bouk fvr which ... fin ally, a book wh ich . . . by whjch and th rough which [ the n1ll8t lung-windt.-d SI}t!i'ifications follow] ... a book ... a hook . .. this IJilok was Iht Dilli"e Comedy.' Loud appla use." Karl Gutzko w, Brk/e Uu,f Pari.! (Leipzig, 1842), vol. 2, Ill" 151- 152. [E1,3]

11l(: chaml orlandsca~, of architccrurc:, And all the effect of scenery rest Solely on the law of pcTsp=ctlvc.
- FnlIll BOhle, 1At1l/rr-CaltclliJIIIIIJ, odLr ltu.,flristiJcJu Erll/anmg """. Kltitlimcr wniiglich im Biill1lnrkbrn iibliflln mmm. oiirtl'r (MwUcb), 1'. i4

I \'OlC7lItc the Beautiful. tht' Good, and all thing! great; lkautiful nature, on which great an resl5H ow it cndlaJ1Ui the car and channs the cyt!! 1 love spring in blossom: womCll and f'Q.'Ie5. -CJ,yrJJion d ',m 111m drot7l1lllitux (Baron HaUSlimarul, 1888)
11lt

Strategic basis for lhe perspectival articulation of the city. A contemporary seeking 10 justify the construction of large thoroughfares under Napoleon I I I speaks o f them as "unfavorable ' to the habitual tactic of local insurrection.'" M arcd Poete, V"e u;e de cit; (Paris, 1925), p. 469. "Open up this area o f continual disturbances." Baron Haussmann, in a memorandum calling for the extension o f the Boulevard de Strasbourg to Chatelet. Emile de Labedolli~re, it Nouut:au Pam, p. 52. But even earlier than this: "They arc= paving Paris with wood in order to deprive the Revolution of building materials. Out o f wooden block.s there will be no more barricades construaed." Gutzkow, Bn' nUl Pam, vol. 1, pp. 60-61. What this means can be gathered from the fact that in 1830 there wel'e 6,000 barricades. (E l.']
" In Paris . .. they lire fl eeing the IIrcade8. 8 0 lung in fa shiun , as one flees stale air. The arcades un' d ying. From ti me to time, one of them is closed, like the sad Passage Delllrllle, where, in Ihe wilderness of the galler y, fema le figures of a tawdry an tiquit y used tu dance along the shopfronls. as in Iht' scene, from Pumpeii inlf'rl'reted by Guerinon Henehl , T ire arcade Ihat for Ihe Parisian was .II sort of slIluuwalk . where yo u strollt.-d and smoked and chatted , is now notbing more than a species of refuge which yo u think of when it r aiu8. Some of the arcade!! main lain II cert ain a tt raction on acco unt of this or that fallled esta blishment still to be found the ..e. Bul it is IIle lena nt 's renown thai prolongs the excitement. or rat her the tlca th Uglllly, of lire plncc. Tire arcades have one grell t defect for moder:1I Parisians: yuu r.o uld say thut , just like certaill paintlngll dOlle from stilled perspecti ve!!. II,tfre in 1It!t!t1 of air." Jul,'s Clantie, La Vie Pari!. 1895lParil. 1896). PI" 47(,

breathless capitals
~

Opelled thcl15ch "CI to the cannon.


- Pim'c Dupont,
ChaN dtJ iludiotlb (PariJ. 1849)

nlC

characteristic and, properly sJ>(aking. sole decoration of the Biedcrmeier room "'was afforded by the curtains, which-e.xtremeiy refmed and compounded prefenlbly from several fablics of different colors-were furnished by the uphol. Mcrcr. For nearly a whole century aftez>vard, interior decoration amo wlts , in theory, to providing insuuctiolls to u pholsterers for the tasteful arrangonent of d r.lperies." Max von Boehn, Die Modr. ;111 XIX. Jahrhunder/J vol. 2 (Munich, 1907). p. 130. This is something like the interior's perspective on the window.
[EI ,I]

[E1,5]

P''-'I'f'/thul l'l,uraClcr 'IC lilt' 'Till"I]"". wilh


~i ... 1... l til'olll ~ Wl' I'C wo .. " ulul... 'lI'a lh.

il li

IIIUllif(llll

f101l1l ...1I.

AI I"ulIt fi ve to {EI ,2]

Th~ radical transfom13tion of Paris was carried OUt under Napoleon HI mainly along the axis running through the Place de la Concorde and the H 6tel d e Ville. It may be that the FlllllcoPrussian War of 1870 was a blcssing for the architectural . r Pan.5, seemg . th at Napoleon III had intend ed to alter whole d is. . wlage 0 Incts of the cit)'. Stahr thus writes, in 1857, that one had to make haste now to sec lht: old Paris, lo r "the new rulel; it seems, has a mind to leave but little of it standing." (Adolf Stahr, Jfac/tfiirifJaJjml, vol. I (Oldenburg, 1857), p. 36.)
[EI .O ]

l'I"' p -~ hi,)", l"iwlvri(. p,nil',ttivul figul't," "f ~ pef"c h : " '"ddt' nl ally, tile rlgure of

\::rl'ah' I .fT. ... I. l"lIlpluyt'cllJy all Frt'llI'll oralor8 fro m their p(H,l i lllll~ llulil rilrunes, lIuII II,I;; !,!"I'll y mu e h like Ihi g: ' Tllt'rt' Wll~ in tile Middle Ages a hOt)k which CUDce.n-

111e stil1cd perspective is p lush for tlte cycs. Plush is lhe material o f the age of louis Philippe. DDusl and Rain 0 (E 1,7)

Regardin g "stifled perllpecLives": "'Yo u can come 10 Ihe p"noramnlo do Jrswinp from nature .' David l uiIJ Ilill s tude llt8 . E mile de LahedoUiere, Le NUI/ IleU U Pam (Paris).!>. 3 1. [EI ,8)

Among the most impressive testimonies to the age's unquenchable thirst for perspectives is the perspective painted on the stage of the opera in the Musee Grevin. (This arrangement should be described.) [E1.9)
" Having, as they do , the a ppearKuce of walling-ill a UI 8l1iive eternit y, IbulSma nn', urban work~ a re u wholly app ropria te repl'esclitUlioli of the absolute gov_ ernin g principles of the E mpire: repressioll uf every ind ivid ual fo rma tion . every or gluu c leUdevelopment , ' fund amental haIred of aU individuality. ,,, J . J . H one~_ geT , Gnm tUteine ciner allt$emeinen Kulturgeschichte der n e~sten Zejt. vol. 5 (uipzig, 1874), II. 326. BUI Louis Philippe was alreatl y known all the Roi.-Mm;on <Maso n Kin g>. [E la,l ]
th ~ trall5fornla tion of the cit y unde r Napoleon III : " The SUb 80il hal been profoundly disturh(:d hy Ihe insta Ua tiou of gas nlailill a nd the construction o( sewen . . .. Ne\'er hefore in Paris h ave 80 nlany building s upplies been moved about . $0 many hOU HC~ and aparlllu:.llt buildings cons tr uc led. 80 man)' monume n18 res tored or e recte d, 80 ma ny fa\~ades dre81ed with cut ~ tlm e . ... It wa. necell8ary to ac t quic kly and 10 take advantage of properties al:ll" irell a l a ve r y high 0081: a doub le stimulus. In Paris. sha llow b a~menl il ha"e taken the place of lleep cellare, wlLicil r~ lui red excavations a full I tory deep. The use of COlu;r ete and cement , whic h was firilmad e p088ible by the Iliscovcries of Vieat. has contribUled both to the r eailonable COll i a nd to tlll~ boldne88 of thelle , ub ~ tru ctions." E. Levasseur, Histoire deJi ciaueJi ouvr wr eJi e l de l'induJl trie en Fnlllce de 1 789 1870 , vol. 2 (Parillo 19M) , pp. 528-529. 0 Arc ades 0 [Ela,2]

dise t haI ufH!n wall lIothing more tha n logs wrapped ill pape r. It wo uld .. ve il procure gro Upll of c us tomer! 10 fillihe shup 011 t he day thej llry nlade their prescribed \'isil. It fllhrif'a led leaM!~xlIggera l ed . ,xtended . a lltc(la tcd--t)1I sliceu of old puper be ll rin g offi cia l IIla mpli. which it hat! ma uagell to pn)(' ure. It would have stores nllwl y repa inte d lind daffed with improvised clcrkll, whom it (laid three francs a d ay. It was a 80rt of midnight gang Iha t r iflcd the till uf the city governme nL " Ou Camp , Paris . vul. 6, pp. 255-256. (EIa,4] Engels' c ritil(ue of barricade lac tics: "The 11I 08t that t he ins urrection caD a ctuall y implel1lt:llt ill Ihe way o l ac tinl practice is tJ lII co r recl cOlls tructio n a lld defe nse of p single h llrriclldc." Bul "eyen in t he d.llllllic period o st reel fightin g, . . . the ba r ricpdtl produced more or II mora l t han a ma te ria l eJfec.t . It was a means of ;;haking Ihe I leadfastne88 uf the military. U il held o n Wllililus was a u a ined. the n \'iG lory W iUI WOIl ; if not , there was de f~at. ' Friedrich E ngds. Ilitroduction to Karl Mar;.;:, Die KllU senkampfe if! Frcmkre idl, .18'UJ- 1850 (He rlin , 1895) , pp . 13.14. I (Ela.5)

i J
'"

On

. No less retrOgrade than the tactic- of civil war was the ideology of class suuggl.e. Marx on the February Revolution: "In the ideas of the proletarians, ... who confused the finance aristocracy with the bourgeoisie in general; in the imagination of good o ld republicans, who denied the very existence of classes or, at most, admitted them as a resuJt of the constirutional monarchy; in the hypooiticaJ
all these, the rule

phrases of the segments of the bourgeoisie up till now excluded from power-in 0/ the bourgroisie was abolished with the introduction of the

republic. All the royalists were transfonned into republicans, and all the million-

aires of Paris intO workers. The p hrase which corresponded to this imagined liquidation of class relations was fratemiti." Karl Marx. Die KitwenAiimpfi in FranRrnch (Berlin, 1895), p. 29.2 [la,6)
In a ma nifestu in which he proclaimll the righl 10 wo rk, Lamartine I pellks of tile "atl vcni llf I.he indus lrial Chri$I. '" l ournal des economiste.s. 10 ( 1845), p . 2 l2 .J Indus t ry 0 [Ela,7]

" Paris. liS wt\ bud it in t11t~ pe riod fo Uowing the Re vo lution of 1848, was abou t to heco m ~ uni nhabitable. Its populatio n bud been greatly e nla rged and unsett1ed by the illt"eS8a nl acti vity or the ra ilruad (wlwlIf! ra ils extenued furlber eac h day and linketi llp with t.hose uf neighboring countries), aod now Ihis Ilopulutio n Wail suffocaling iJI the narrow, hmglell , putrid alleywll.Ys in which it was forcih ly confined ." ~Maximtl) 011 Camp . l'(lr i.s, \'01. 6 <Parill, 1875>. p . 253. [Ela,3) Expropriatioll' uUtler Ha Uu malill . "Cert llin harri8tr rs ma de a s pecialt y of this kind of cuse .... They deellded real I:Ml.ltc f'x prop ria tio Il8. indUijlriul expropriations . II:II HIII exprOprill.lilJlIs. sentime ntHI f'x pro priHtiulIs; they s pok,~ IIf a roof for fa t1 u:rs allli II. cradle fur iufanls .... ' li ow did yu u make YUll r fortulle? a pnrvellu waij as k ~.I : ' I'''e be('ll ex propriated .' came t hc n-spu n!e .... .A III"W imlns tl")' was (' reu ted. which, (JII the lu't:lext of t uking in hand tile ill"'rclits of IIIC' expropriated . ditl nul s hrin k fro m the " lIs,, 1 fruml. . .. It soughl u ul ~ mall mlllluful'lurcril a mi cqlliPI'l.'1 lllic m wit.h tlt'luiled UI:CUI/III I!uuk ll. fuille i.ll vllIl oric;;, a lltl fuke mcrc han

'The reconst ruction of till" city ... . hy uhligiug 11m workers 10 find Iutlgillgs in .)utiying urrondiueme nll. h us dissoh'ed Ihe bo uds ur neighllorhootl tha t lIrevio us ly united t hem with I h~ bo urgeoisie.' U:.vasllcnr, Ili&toire d elf ciflsself ou "rierel et de f'indlllltrie e n Fran ce, "\'1.11. 2 <Pllri9. 1 9o"h. p . 775. (2 ,1} " Pa ris is (flllsty a nd dOlle. wuill V,,-ujJIut , I..es Odeurll d l! Puris ( Paris. 19 14). [E2 .2J p. I 't l.turks . illlu ure8. und puhlic ga rdllIs first inllta lletl u nller NII I'tlll'UII III . Bet'ween furt y uml fifl )' wl~ rc ITtatl:11. (2,3)

COlI.8lruclion in the fauhou rg Saint-A.llloine : Boulevard Prince E ugene. Bow&ya rd MIt'i/; all, lint! Bo ule va rd Rich urd Lenoir, alslrll tegie axel. [E2 ,4)

The heightened expression of the dull perspective is what you get in p;Uloramas. It signifies nothing to their detriment but only illuminates their style when Max Brad writes: " Interiors of churches, or of palaces or art galleries, do nOt make fo r beautiful pano rama images. They come across as Bat, dead, o bstructed." < M ax Brod,) Oiler die &Mnneit nIW/i,ner Bilder (Leipzig, 1913), p. 63. An accurate description, exupt that it is precisely in this way that the panoramas serve the epoch's will to expression. Dioramas 0 (E2.5)

nllu u mann and the C hll mhf:r uf Oc "utie~: " O ne tla y, in a u excess of terror . they u cc u ~t. ..d him or hll \'ing crealed a tll!Jcrt ill lilt' vc r y cente r of Paris! T ilUl ,ICliert W IIS the Bo ule va rd Se bu to pol. ,. Le C urhus ic r, Url!(llli&ml! ( Pa ris ( 1925)). I) 1 '~9 . [E2.9)
Vel'Y importalll : " H lt U 8s m a llll '~ ~'lui)lmellt"- i1Ju lO tra ti (J ns ill Le Corbu iiier, Ur150.5 Va r io us 1I1U1Vrls, pic ks . whe-elh urrowli. a nd so on. [E2,10)

b(l lI isme, p .

J ule8 Fe rry. CO mp,eJ!allllut;(I" eJ d 'lIWlu mu nn <Paris, 1868). Pa mphlet dirrtled


aga ins t B a usma nn 's a utocra ti, ma n ugem.. nt of finan ccs.
(E2. 11 )

On June 9 , 1810, a t the Theatre de III Rue de C hart reil , It play by Barre, Rade l, a ud Del fo nta iucli il given iu fir st perfo rma nce. E ntitled Moruieur DurelU:-f . ou Le. Embelli.lletnents de Pu ris. it prese nl e a eeriCil of ra pid l cellel as ill It rev iew, 8howing the ch a nges wroughl in I'ar isia n life by Na poloon I. " An archilOCI who ig the be are r (If (l ne o r thOle signific a nt names ro r merl y in use o n the IIl agt:. M . Olln:.lief, hU8 ra brica ted a minia tu re Puris, whic h he inle nds 10 e xhibit. Huving la bo red thirt y years on this proj ect , he thinks he has fin ished il a l lllst ; but suddenl y a 'crea tive spirit' tl l'pearH. Ilml proceed s to prune and sharpe n the wo rk , cr eating Ihe lleed fo r inf:e8!ialll cQl'rec ti ollij and additions:
Thi~

" T he a vcnues [BIIU88mltllll] eUI we rc c nUrr.l y a rbitrary: the y we re not based 0 0 strict deductio ns of the scit:nce or town 1 .la nning. T be measures he took wer e of II fina ncial a nd milit a r y c haratler." Le Corh1U;ier, Urbrmis ml! ( Pa ris). p. 250.

[2a.l ) " . .. the impossibility of obtaining permission to photograph an ad orable wax. work figure in the Musee Grevin. on the left, betv.een the hall of m odem political celebli.ties and the hall at the rear of which, behind a curtain, is shown 'an evening at the thealer': it is a WOnlan faslening her garter in the shadows, and is the on1y statue I know of with eyes-the eyes of provocation." Andrt Breto n, Na4ia (Paris, 1928), pp. 199-200.1 Very striking fus ion of the mo tif of fashion [2a.2) with that of perspective. 0 Fashion Q To the characterization of this suffocating world of plush belongs the description of the role of flQ\vCfS in interiors. After the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte , an attempt was made at first to rerum to rococo. But this was hardly feasible. The European situation after the Restoration was the following: IiTypical1y, Co~ thian columns are used almost everywhere . . . . This pomp bas something oppressive about it, just as the restless bustle accompanying the city's tranSfonnation robs natives and foreigners alike of both breathing space and space for reflection .... Every stone bears the mark of despotic povo'er, and aU the ostenlation makes the atmosphere, in dIe literal sense of the words, heavy and close .... One gymvs dizzy with this novel display; one chokes and anxiously gasps for breath. The feverish haste with which the \\'Ork of several centuries is accom plished in a decade weighs o n th e senses." Die Gremboit71,Joumal of politics and literature Leipzig,> 1861), semester 2, vol. 3, pp. 143- 144 ("D ie Pariscr Kunst ausstellung von 1861 und d ie bildcnde KUIl.'it des 19 .... Jahrhundel1s il~ Frankreich"). The aUlhor probably J ulius Meyer. These rem arks are aUlled at Haussm rum. D Plush 0 [E2a.3] Remarkable propensity ror stnlctUrtS thal convey and connect-as, of cour~e. the arcades d o. And this connecting o r mediating function has a literal and spaual as well as a figurati ve and Stylistic bearing. One thinks, above aU_or th~ way th~ Louvre links up with the Tuileries. ~TIle imperiaJ government has built pracu-

vast lind w~a hll Y <:al,ilal. Arlonled 1\; lh hiAlioe nl(mumt ols. I k p 88 a ca rdhoard modd in my room, Ami I follow I.h.. t mlK: llishmt OIf. 1 .1111 alwlIY I I find mY KIf ill arre.r.Uy m )' worrl , it's ~ttinll Je~ ptra l e ; Even in IIlinialurt. olle I:a oool do Whal Illa\ ma n dot. full-tc:alt.-

Tile pla y end ll .....ith a n a po theosis of Ma r ie-Louise . whuse port ra it the goo dellS of
the cit y lir PlI ria ho lds. as her lo ve liest o rna ment. high a bo ve the head 8 of the a llllk uL'tl. Ciled in Theodo re Murd . L 'His wire par Ie th eli tre, 1789-1851 (pari 18( 5), vol. J. pp . 253-254. [E2 ,6) Use or o mnibuileJi 10 Imild ha r r ic adea. The ho rses we re unha rnessef!' the IlB uenJ(ers we re Jlut off. thl' "ehicle wai lunlt"d ove r, a mi the lIag was fuste ned l u a n a xle.

[E2.7)
O n IIII' t xp ru pr iuliolls: " Befnre the war. tbere was tulk of de mulii hing Ihe Pallsage /111 Cu ire in urfl.' r to (Jul u ci rc u8 11111he sill'. Toda y the re ', a sllo rlag.. orrllnd~, li nd the profJril,to .. ~ (a ll rort y-fo ur of the m) ure hurd to pleast:, Le, '11 ho pe Ihere', Ii II hllrtuge of flJud ~ fo r a I Ullg tillll: III ':Ulllt~ a lltl the propric tors become II tili hartler 10 please. T Ill' hi,I,'o u8 ga p IIf Ihe Uuult:vart! 1 :l a ussnlllllJl al 1111:: co rne r the Hue Drouo t. wit.h a U th," c har ming IltJu ~ei! it has hro ughl !IIII'm . Iilwulll "oule nl U8 ro r the IIIl,ml ut . Pa ul LCll ui Il UiI . " Vieu"" Paris," Me rc llre de ,.' rtl flf;e ( O':l ull~ r 15, 192; ). p . 503. [E2,8)

"r

cally no ncw independent buildings, aside from barracks. But, then, it has been all the more zealous in completing the barcly begun and halffinished works of previo.u~ ccntu.rics .... At first si~t, it seems str.mgc that the governm ent has
made It Its bllSIl~CSS to preserve CXlsting 1ll0 nwnclllS .... TIIC govcnullent, however, does not aun to pass over the people like a storm; it wants to engrave itself lastingly in their existence .... Let the old houses collapse, so lo ng as the old monuments remain." Di~ Grt:mbol(1/ (1861), semestCT 2, vol. 3, pp. 139-141 (~ Dic Pariser KUTlStausstelJung von 186 1"). 0 Dre."UIl H ouse 0 [E2a,4}
Connection uf Iht, r ail r oads 10 fl aussmunn', proj ects. From a memorandum b y lI auu manll : "The railway Sialions un:' lod ay tJle prilll:illul enlr yways inlo Puris. To pul them ill f!nnllllUlliea lion wilh lhe cil y center Ity means of large arter ies is a fII'l!el!si l y uf Ihe firsl order:' E . de Lahetlolliere. lIu toire du no u veau PcJru, p . 32 . This aJl plies ill p81 'licu lar to Ihe so-called Boulevard du Centre: the exle,ulion of till' lJutdCl'UId lie Strasbourg to Ch il lell'! by what is Iml ay the 8 0ulevllrd Sf!h allw pu!. [E2a,5} ,Openin g uf lhe 80ultwa r d S ,~bast opollike Ihe Ilu vdling of a munumenl . "At 2:30 iu li lt a(II'rlloOI1 . ul Ihe IIIOIDent the [imperial) procell~ i o l1 WO !; uppruuchil1g (rom the Boult'.\uld Sa inI -DelLis. an imm en ~e seri ul. whid. hud mas ked Ihe entrance to tbe Buulevard lit' Seh aSlopol frmn this side. wu dr8Wl1 like 0 curtain . This drapery IlUd h t."t'.D I.. ,ng IJt'.I ~'eell Iwo Moorish ('oillmns . 0 11 Ihe pcdelltals o( whiGh wl!re Iii, 'lll'cs Ieprcsenl.illg the artll. Ihe scienccs, iudustlY. and commerce:' Labcdollii-re. f1i~ t oire (/u fI(.l u veuu Pu ris. 1" 32. [E2a,6J

u(len tiillhm ct' alulU! tlta l, into!r"('ning bclweeu plun a mi w'lI'k. !'ua lil"8 Ih., pla n Itl he realized . fE3. IJ 8 uroll Ha usslllullll lIt1 n lllcell tllJo n the drt'lI l11 cily Ihul Pllri il still wus ill 1860. From an article uf 1882 : " There we re hill. i.1l Pa ris, e\'ell 0 11 the Bo ul cl ard ~ .... \X'e lac ked wa ter, mar kets. lighl in those remote times-s';I1 ...:d y thirl y yea rs ago. Sume gae jets had begull to al'peur- Ihat is all . We IUf'ke,J C hllrc.l1i:~. too. A DUIll he r or lhe IlIore a ncielli llneli, including the mosi heaulifllL wer e ser ving 88 slores, barrllcks. ur on icr-s. T he othe ... were wholly concealed by a gro" "lh of lumllledown ho\e!s. Still , the Rllilroatis exisled ; ellcll fi ay in Paris they discha rged tor rents o( Irul,c1ers who eould neither lodge in our h u u ~es nor rou m through ollr lortuulls st.reell. I ... He [ilaussmanu] demolis hed some qlUJrtierf--(J lle might SIlY, eutire towns, T here ,,'ert' cries Iha l he "'ould b ring 0 11 the plague; he tolerated such oulcrie8 alld gave liS instead- th rough ltis wcll-considert'(1 a rcilitl!clllral hreakthrough s-air, health , lind life. Sometimes it Wll 8 a Slreel till!.! Iu:. f'rellled , sometimes an Avenue or Boulevard ; sometimes it was a Sllua,e. a Public Carllen , a . Prumenade. He establis hed !I olll.ital", School" Ca ll1JlIISes. li e gave us u whole :le dug magnilict'.lll sewers. " Memoiref rill Baron IllllusnUl"If , vol . 2 ( Parill, r il'er. 1 1890), Pt>. x. xi . Extr ucts (rom un a rticle by Jule. Simon in L.e C(wioil. Ma ) 1882. The lIumerous ca l'itlilieiters a ppea r 10 be It ch ar acteristic urthogrll phie inte rventio n by l:Ia ussmltnll . [E3,2J
ilo IlO"

H aussmann's predilection for perspectives, for long open vislaS, represents an attempt to dictate an fo rms to technology (the technology of city planning). 'Ibis always results in kitsch, {E2a,7]
1.I 0 \l ~S m 1LOII 0 11 himsdf: " Born ill Paris, in the old Faubourg du Roule, whieh is juin,',1 no,,- 10 Ih, Fa ubourg Suinl -liollure at tile poillt where the Boulevard II UlIss nlU ll1i I'utls ami the t\\'CIlII C d., Friedl nlld be9flS; studen l a l the CoUege 1l "nri I V ami till' 01 .1 Lyci-e Na poieull. which is situaled on the Mont agne Sainte(;1.' 1lI ' \' i \~ \'I. wl1('.re I laler s tll (lit~d at Ihe Inw sehoul und , at odd mOl/wnlS, al the S.. ..J )Ot Ill It! II lJd tilt' College II., Frll llce . I took walks, mort'Over. thrlJ ugh all paris o ( 1111' f' il y. alllil ",' IU u(lell a luur h"II , du rillg my yo ulh , ill prolracted ('onteml'lutiuli "f II 111111' o( Ihis lII ull y-sidl,,1 I'aris , II mup which reveall:d tu me wea knesses in the lIelllO"IIIk 1)( I)ultli .. ~ lreC I li'. I n" li pit: m y lung reliidellG " ill Ilu~ provinces (110 leslI Ih:lI1 1IIO"t'IJty-lwu )'t'a r!J!) . I Ita v.' 1I111f1 l1gl~d In rNa ill my nh~mo ri~s lind illlprf" !Jion,; .. f ('lInlt. tillll'!! ...'I thaI. ",' 111"/1 I ,,'as "'/lI,II'lIly callell UpOIl . so me days ago . IcJ flin'Ct tht II'u nsfo nnaliull of lilt' Cll pitlll of ti lt' Empire (u" t' r which lile l 'uileries IIIltI City lI ull lll'" "III'/"l'lltly ulif'i;S,el"ill'!l rlll), I f,1! llI y ~elf. in fucl. I.ell<:r prcpu rclilltllll fi ne m i~!tl 1 111\'(' ~ Ul'pust'f l I ~, fllifill tllis eOlllpltx fIl i s~ i o lf . IIIltI relill y. in uny cae. 10 ~' Illo 'r IJUld ly illlo) till'" h!'a rl of II... pl'(,iJlelllJl 10 be resolv,..1. ,. Mp.ltf fl j"e~ du Huro n 1l,IU.UIII(l1I11 . ,.,,1. 2 ( Pa ris. IIWO). PI'. 3j~5. Demull stru tl~S vcry ;"" 11 how il ill

From II cOIl\'er sation , luter on . helween Na polt:OlI 11.1 alld Ilausslllalin . a poleon : "How right yo u are tu mainta in Iha l tbe People o( France, who a re gcner ally th uught 80 fi ckle, are at Imttom the mosl routine peo)lle in Ihe WOI"lII! ~ "'Y es, Sire. Ihough I would add : with rcga rd 10 things! . . I luys.-lf 11111 char getl with the double uffense of having undul y dis turbed Ihe Populati611 of Pllri~ by bOfl fever santo b y ' buuleva rd.i%illg: almost all the qlw r liens or Ult: cil y, and o( having aJ, 1 0"" 00 it to keep the Ilame profil e in ule aa me setting (or too 1 0Ilg.' Memoire5 dfl B(lrOn II llUssmann . vol. 2 ( Pari ~, 181)(}) . Jlp. 18- 19. (Compa re E9. 1. > [E3,3] From a diseuu ion between Na poleon 11.1 and lIa ussmann on Ihe laller 'S ailsllming :la uu mann : " 1 would afld Ihal , ahhough the population of his dutic. ill Paris. 1 Puri8 as II whole. was ~ y mputhetj c 10 Ihe pla ns for lhe tra ll ~fo l'lllati oll --ll r. as il was cll lled then, the 'emhellishllll'llt ' --{If the Capita l of the Empi re. till' ~ea tf.'.r part of Ihe Lourgeoisie 8 n,1 allllost a ll Ihe aris tol'rary I'O',' rl' hoslile. " Wh y though? [E3 ,4] .1Iemoirr.f rlu 8(J rOlI HmJ.5slIIrUln . \' 111. 2 ( Pa ris. 1890). p . 52.

" I lefl Munich u n tlU' ilixlh o ( Fdlrua r y. S p Cll1 te n (I a y~ ill arl' hil'Cii ill Ilurl.lll'rn 111l 1r. and arri\ed in Rome under a pouring rai n . I fu und 1111' n uu...... llluu f)izatiofl uf the city wf'U ad va llced.' Hriefc t:O Ff Fertli,,(Uld Gregllrol"ilu 1111 de.1l StllflfuckrNiir Her-III /tim VO II TMIe., t,1. lI ermanl1 \'1111 Pell',slio-lf'ff (8 erli.n . Ifl91 .), p . 110.

[E3.5]
Nicknllmc for H a u s~ m u lln : " '")ash a Oijnlan ." III.'. himself Illll k.'!! Ihe c,)mlllf'lIt , with ref erence III his providing Ihe city with spring waleI' : " I musl build mytIClr all

IHIUClluel .'" Allotllt~ r hOIl mol : " My lilies? . lioni8l .,

[E3,6]

from the liurraCC1l below. and Ihe fli ckering or fl ameli frvm the fi ve hundred tll 0 1lsa nd jets or g80!l." GI.'O rge8 Laronze. fA! Baro" IloIU.fwfl n" . p. 119. 0 Fliiueur Q [E3a.5] On Haussmann : " Paris now cened forevcr 10 be a conglomer ation or timaU W"' ns, each wi th il8 d istinctive physiognomy and way or Iire--when : une was born and where. one died , whcre. a ile nc\'er dreamed of lea ving home. a nd where nuture and history had floUahora ted to realize variety in unit y. The centralization , the megaloma nia , created an ar tificial city. in whil:h the Par i8illll (and this i ~ the crucial point) no longer feels Ilt home; and so, as lIoon as he call , he leaves. And thus a !lew need arises; the cr avi ng ror holiclllYs in tile country. On thl! ot her hand , in the city Ileserted by its inhabitant8, the roreigner arrives on 80 ' pecified tlate-the s tart or 'the season .' The Parisia n , in his uwn town , which ball hecume a cosmopolita n crossroads , now seems like one deracinated ." Lucien Dubeeh and Pier re d ' Espezei. <llutoire lIe Pa ris (Paris, 1926)., PII . 427-428. (E31,6] or the time. it was necessar y to resort to" jury of expropriations. It! memo bers, ca\'i!ers from hirtll , adversaries on principle. & howed themselves generOU 8 with fund s which, 85 they supposed, cost thelll nothing and from which each wall hoping one day to benefit. In a ilingle session where the city might ofrer a million Ilnd a half, the jury wo uld demand from itllearly three million . The beautirul field of speculation! Who .....ouldn t wa nt to do his part? There were barris te rs specializing in the mailer ; there were agencies guaranteern@;(in return for a commission) a serious profit ; ther e were operatiolls ror simulating a lealle or It commercial transIICtiOll , and ror dOCIOrrn! account books." GCllrgell L.arllnze. fA! Baron 1l(Ju.umann (Paris, 1932). liP , 190- 191. {E4,I] From the f..amentution5 raiseO agai nst II . U8Mmann : " You will live 10 sce the city grown desolate and bleak. I Your glory will he great in the eyes of rutu re IIrchaeologislS . bUI your lu t days will he sad llnd bitler. I ... I And Ihe hea rt of the city will slowly freeze. I ... I Lizardil, stra y dogs. ami rats will ruJe over this magnificence. The injuries inflicted by time will accumulate on the gold or the balconi ~s , and on the painted mu rals . I .... I And loueiillt:lls, the tedious godden of deseru. will come and settle upon this ne... empire yOIl wil l ha\'e nlade for her hy so rormidable a labo r:' Pari.! desert: Lamen'1I1ion5 d 'utl Jeremie hau.umannise (Pa ri!!, 1868), I'p . 7-8). [E4 ,2]
" ~t ost

" 111 1864 . 111relHling the ariJitrary dlltracter or the city's government . [ Ha uM_
tII llIlllj il4loptell a tone or ra re boldne!!!J. ' for iu inhabit8l1 t11 . Paris is either a great lIIa lkctpl/.U'c fir cons umption . a gianl llioekyard or labo r, all arcna or ambitions, or di mply a rendczvous or pleas urcll. It is nol their home . . _ .' Then Ihe 8tatement that pl,lcmicis tll wi ll au ach to hi, reputation like a stolle: ' If there arc a grea t many wllo 1'01111' to filld 811 honorable 8ilualiOll in the ci l y, . . . then' are also other8 \'crlllliJle nomads in the mith t of Parisian 8ociety, who li re a bsululely Iles titute municipal sentiment. ' And , ret!alling that everything- railroads, admi nistrative networkll, hranc he!l or national activity--e \'entually leads 10 Paris. he concluded : It is t.hus not surprising that ill Fr ance, countr), or aggregation and or order, the cllpitala lmost a l"'aY8 has been placed, with regard to its communal organi.z.ation, Ulldt'r all emerlllenc), regime ...' Georgefi L.aronze . fA! Buron lIauumann (Paris . 1932). 1 11'. 172-173. S peet:h or No \'ember 28, l864. [E3a,I]

0;

Polilicill ca rillOns r~ l'n!se nt ed " Paris aB Lounded by the wha rves of the Englis h Channel and th""f' nr the IIQ uth or France , liy the highways of the Rhine valley Ilild of S pain ; (Jr, according 10 Cham , li S the city which gels ror Christmas the houses in tilt' suhurhs! ... One ca ricuturt: s how8 the Rue de Ri"'oli s tretching to the h ori:UlII ." Georges Larooze. I..e Buron lIuu.umann (Paris, 1932), pp . 148- 149. [E3a.2]

,
"'New a rteries .. , would lillk the l.'e:uter or Paris wilh the railroad &lations, reducing co n gl~s ti on in the la lter. Others would take part in the battle a5ain&! poverty li nd revolution ; they w01l1d be strategic ro ute8, breaking through the sources of ('onl nb-to n 1111(1 the centers of un rCNl, and permitting. witb the influx or hetter air, Ihe arrival of a n a rmed force, h ~ n ee cOllne.:ting, like the Rue de Turhigo, th~ goverllmenl with the bllrrac ks, alld , like the Boulevard du Pri.nce-Eugene. the barratks with tile subu rbs." Georges L.aronze, Le Bar-on lIauuman n, pp. 137131::1. [E3a,3] "A n iIHlt'lH'tlIlcllt tleru ty, th ~ comte dc Durrort-Cinac, ... objeeted that these III',,' huulc\'arcis, ..... hk h were. s up posed to aid ill rep reu ing Ilisiurbances, would alsv Inuk,: them mon: likely bCIaust'. ill order to cons truct Ihem, it was necessar y II) Il S,Wlllhlc II mass or wOIkerB. ,. Georgeil Lalonze. fA! /Jaron l IallU rtHmtl . p . ] 33 . [EJa,4j IInu!ilima nn cIldJraleil Ille birthllay-ttr name day (Apri l 5)!'-or Napoleon Ill. " lhllluiul; II", Ie.ngt h of the C h a mIJ~- El ys&!iI. rrom lh ~ P lace de hi COllcurde 10 Ihe F.I,oile, thl'rl' waij 11 scaUOlted Uon'n ur 124 sculpted a rcatl u r,,,+tiiing Oil a double I'll'" uf (ohu11n". -It iii a r~mini 8CI' n Ce . L.e COIl.flillj/ iQ 'Hl e l !!Ought to elC Jllain , ' or ConlovlI IImlt"e Al hamb ra. ' _ .. T he \'isual efrecl wali thuli vcry illriking, with the liwirling " ra mhes uf the. fiftY-lix gn:-at Mrt.'e llights a long the avenue, the refl ections

" Tiw prohleln the embdlishmc nt---or. more precisely, of Ihc I'cgencl'lItio n--(lf Pa~ i s Itrost' about 1852. Until then , it had ht.'i!lI possible to lea\'e this great city in its stale of dilapillation . but now it hecanlt' nccessa.ry to Ilelll with the mutter. This ..... a~ because. by It rorl uitous cuincidence. France lind Ihe count rie..; around it Wf'rt: ,~o ml' l e l ing the cllnSlruCI.ion or Ihose long lines or railroad I rack" which cr is8cr os;! Europe." Paris IIOlI l.lellU juse par lin flune u,. ( Parill , 18fl8), p . 8 . {E4.3]
,. , read , ill a lmo k ..... hid1 enjo yed grca l SlI ce:ess lUI yea r. t.hat the stn:eLs or Paris had been elilarged 10 l)ermit icleas to circulate and , above .. n, regiments to paIS.

or

This maLicioull 81alemenl (which comet! in the wake of mht'r .) ia I.be t:tluivalenl of lIa ying thai Paril! has been 8Iralcgicali)' cmbelljs.hed . WeU. oJO be il .... I tlo nol hesitate to proclaim tllal IItralcgic emhellillhml!nl!! are tile 111 (18 1 adrllirahle of em hcllis hmenhl." Par~ n o uJ,-e1J1I jugi. pnr unJUine"r ( Paris, 1868). pp . 21 - 22.

SUled .... The cit y .. . has had 10 pay ellormous , unforeseen indemnities." Cited ill Ferry. CII"'IIIc~jalltrJ.Stjqllel. p . 24. (E4a,3] " I...ou.is-Nllpoleon 80nupBrte felt Ius "Ileulilll! to be the securing of the bourgeoi~ onl('r. ... Industry and trade, the affair!! of the hourgeoisie, were til prosper. An immell.'ie number of concenioos were. givcn out 10 the railroads; public s ubventions were granted ; credit wall orgallized. The wealth and luxury of the bourgeois wo rltl illcreaSdl. The J850, saw the ... !Jf'ginmngs of Ihe Parisian department s torCK: Au Dj)o Marche. Au Louvre. La Belle Jardiniere. Tbe lumove.r at Au Boo M a rch ~which. in 1852 , was only 450,000 frao c.-rose. by 1869 , to 21 million." Gisela Fn:u lld . " Elltwicklung der Photographie in Frunkreich" [manuicript].'

IEI,' 1
" They say that the city of Paris has condemned itself to forced labor, in Ib e sense that . if it ever ceased iu varioull cOllstnl(]tion proj(,l:ts and forced its nunterous workers to re turn t(, their resptlC tive pro\inccs. from that da y forward its loU revenues would diminis h consider ahly." Paris 1I01.IlJe alt jugi. par 1111 Mlleur ( Paris, J8(8), p . 23. [E4,51 Prtlvo"alto link the right to vole for the Paris municipal council to pruof of at lea81 Mlcen months' resi(lence ill the city. Part of the reasoning: " If you cxamule the matter closely. yo u will soon realize that it is precisely during the agitated , advenIUrou" and turbulent period of hill exis tence ... that a ma n ret!idell in PariJ," Paris nOllveuu juge pur IHlfltmcllr. p . 33. [E4,6} " It i" mlllerstOOtl that the folli e~ of the city promote n:ason of IItate," Jules Ferry. ComptelJ jamalJtiqlU'.1J d 'IIIIUlJIJmarlll ( Parill, 1868), p . 6. [E4 ,7] "The concessions. worth hundred s of millions, a re apportioned suh r08a . The principle of public adjudication is ect allide, as ill Ihat of cooperatioll." Ferry, Compte' jnntfUtiqllt!J. p. 11. [E4a,1] Ferry allalyzf!1I (pp'. 21-23 of his ComptelJjantalJli(/Uell) the judgment. rendered in cllSes of expropriation-judgments which. in the course of Hau8snlann 'l projeds, tOllk on a tendt'IiCY unfavorable to the cit y. Following a decr ee of December 27, 1858--which Ferry r ega rdl as merely the nornlalization of an ancient right, but whicll Ha uu mann rega rds as the eslabLidmlent of a new right- the city wal denied the pOlsihility of expropriating in their entirety Jlropertiell which lay in the way of the new arleriel. The expropriation wulimited to those portions inunedialdy retluired for the COI18lrucUon of the strt!et&. In this way. the city losl 0111 on the profits it had hoped to make from the sale of remaining plots of lallll , whOM! value Wa driven up b y the construction . {E4a,2} From Hau,umann ', memorandum of Decenlber II , 1867: '"There is a deep -rooted a nd long-"ta nding conviction Ihal the last Iwo methods of acq uisition did not by uny meulls aUlumulit:aUy te rminale the lenllnt,' occupancy. Bul the ellllrt of Allpeab has ruled . ill varioul dt."Cision8 spanning tbe period 1861-1865. tbat. viI-a. viII the city. the judgrn t!nt retJuiring the conliellt of tilt! seUcr. taken togetbcr ,",' ith till: pri"ale Cunlruct , hal the ~ffccl ip~o JUTe of Iliu ulving the leaiie of IIle lenanll. A a COnk'tlucIiC e. mBIl)' of the lenants doing bUliineu in hon kS aCll uired for the city hy mutual HKr~(' IIIt:nl ... hu ve IIctcd t!i annul I.hcir lease,. Ldllrt the dute of cxprnpl'iulion anel hll ve IlcmlUuled 10 be inlnlediatdy evicted a nd compcn-

[E4a,4]
Arount! 1830: "The Rue Sainl- Deuis and Rue Saint-Martin are the principal at'teries in this qu.artit!r, a god8t'.lId for rioter a. The wa r for the streets was deplorably t!88Y there. The rebels had only t.o rip lip the pavement alltlthen pile up various objecls: furniturt frum Ileighhoring houses, crales from the gr ocer 's, and. if need be, a pallsing omnibus, which they would 8top , gallantly helping the ladiell to disembark . In order to gain these Thcrmopylaes . it was thull necessary to demolUh tJle hOllses. Tbe line infantry would advance into tbeOIH!n , heavily armed and well \-"q uipped . A handful of i"surgenu behind a barricade could hold an entire regiIlIClit at bay." Dubech UIIlI tl'Espezel. HiJtoire de Paris ( Paris. 1926), pp . 365-366.

IE",51
Under Luuis Philippe: " In the inlerior of the city, the governing idea &eems to have been 10 r earrange the strategic lines thai played 80 important a role in tbe historic days of Jul y: th ~ line of the llilays. tile Ime uf the bouleva rd .. . . Finally, at the center, the Rue de Ramhuteau , gralldsire. of the BauJ& monnized thoroughfare.: it presented . at LeI HaU~, in the Marais, a breadt h thai seemed considerable then- thirteen mcterll." Ouboch lind d ' Eslczel, Hilloire de Paris (Paris, 1926). 1'1'.382-383. [E5, I]
Saint-S im oniall ~: " During the cholera epidemic of 1832. they called for the demoLition of crowdC4l , clollely built neigbborhoods , which was exct:.Ueol . But they demOlllled thai LuuiJ Philippe and l.afayette lit:! the Ilace with shovel and pickaxe. the workerll were s upposed 10 work under thr ru n:c tion of uniformed Polytechnieiall!! , aOllto the sound (If military music; the mOBt beautiful women in Pam wt're to come. Plul offer their encouragemcnt ." Duhccll and d ' Espezd. lli, toire de Pam. 1'fI. 392--393. 0 Imlustrial Dcvelopmelll 0 Sf!t':rt't Socil:u t's 0 [E5,2]

"AII cffMIlI notwith"tufHling, the newl y constructed buildings ,lid not s uffice to
u('co nlmodate the expropriated . The fCl! uit was a grave crisis in ~OUl : they douLlel\. In 1f!.51 . tile po pulatioll was 1,053,000; aft er the annexation ill 18(m, it illcrCBIICl1 III more than I ,H25,OOO. AI t11(~ cud of the SecolUl Empire, ['Brill had 60.000 bouse~ ami f112,OOO AI)arlmeullI, of which 481 ,000 were r ented for leIS than

500 franc,. Buililillg8 grew laller. but ctilillgtl became lower. The government hlld

to "au a IlIw ralluring II minimum ceiliulS height of 2 meter s 60 Oubech und d ' Espczel . PI" 420-421.

('~ntimet er8."

{E.5,3\

'' If we hud to Ilefin e, in a wonl , I.he new s pirit that WIIS CHilling 10 I're~ id e uv,' r the Irallsfornlati on of Pari..'!. we would hllve 10 {'a ll it IllegalunllIllia. The emperor' lllld hili preff:cI aim IU ma ke Paris tht' capitalliut unly of Frll nce bU I IIf till" worll!. , .. CO~lII opll l itan (Jari.'! will h~'lhe result ," Dubecll und d 'Esl'czd, p . 404 . [E.5a.2) " Three fa cts will duminate the projt"(;t to transform Paris: a s trategic fact tll at demand" at the city', centcr, the break-up of the ancient capital alul a ntw arrangemelll of the huh of Pari,>;; a naturul fa ct, the pusll westwa rtl : and II fact entailed by the !ystemalic megalomania of the idea of unnexing Ihe 8uburhll." Dllhech Ilnd d'Espezel , p. 406. [E5a.3] J .. 11!8 Ferry, upponent of lfall8smallll, at the lIeW 8 of the sUI'I'Clider at Se(lan : "The II rmies of the t'- rnperor a re defeated !" Cited in Dubech alld d' EII!)flzci , p. ,130. (5 41 " Until flau lsmllnn , Pa ris had been a city of moderate 41imcnlliollS, where it WDS l ogi~:al to let experience ruJe; it dCl'e1oped according to prt-8Sures dictated by nature. according to laws inscribed in the fll cts of his tory a lld in the face of the landscape. Brusquely, Haun mann aCl.'t;lleratetl ami crowns the work uf revolutionar y and imperial centrilliza tion . . . . All Mrtificial IIl1d inordinate creation , emerged like Minerva from the head of Jupiter, born amid the abuse of the s pirit of Duthority, thiM work had need of Ihe spirit .If au thority i.ll ortlc. to develop according to its own logic. No sooner Will it burn , thlln it was cut 0(( at die stlUIce .... Here was the p aradoxical lipectar.le of a construction artificial in principle but a bandoned in fact olily to ruJes imposed by nature." Dubeell and tl'Espezei. pp.443-444. {E.5a,5! " Hauu mann cut immenlle gaps right through Paris. and carrit.'ii out Ihe moet startling operations. It seemed li S if Paris wouJd ne\'cr endure Ilili surgicill ('x veriInellIS. Aud yet , tOO M)" docs it not exillt merel y III a colIsl!qllence of hill d uring lind courage? Hill equipment wu meager: the Iho\'jI , the pick , the wagn n , the trowel , the wheeUlarrow-t he lIimpit' tools of every race. , . before the mech lUliclli agl.'. His achievement was trul y admirllble." LA! Cor hll ~ie r. U rb(/fli~ me (pari .. <1925. p . 149 .~ [ESa.6)

" Scandalous fortunes were anllu";ed by thos~' ill the prefect's iUIlt' r circle. A It'gend attributes to Madame Ha \ls;;mann a nah'e remark in II lIalon: ' It is curious that eVl.'ry time we buy a hou;;e. a boult:vard (HI"1OC8 through it. '" Oul>ech a nd d ' Espezcl. p . 423 . [ES,4!

.g ~

"

'"

"At the e ud of his wide avenues, HaullHlllann constructs-for the sake of pcrsptletive--va riou s mOllument.: a Tribunal of COlllmerce at the e lltl of the Boulevard Siballtopol, and bastard churches ill aU styles , s uch as Saint-Augustin (where Bahard copies Byzantille structures), a new Saint-Ambroise. and Saillt - Fran ~o i8Xavier. At the end of the Chau811t!e d ' Nltin . the Church uf La Trinite imitatell the tyle. while Saint-J ean de Ren aissance style. SlIillte-Clotiide imitatell the Gothic H Belleville, Saint-Marcel , Saint-Bernlml, and Silint-Eugi!ne a r~ all products of iron con~ tru ct-ion and the hideous ... mbrllllllreS of false Gothic .... Though Hauu mann had s om ~ good idea8, he realized them badly, Ue de pendetl heavil)' on perspectives, for example. and took ca re to pili nlOlIIlJIlen!& at tile end of hill rectilinear streeU. Tht' idea was exceUcnt . but what awkwardne811 in the !Xl."t;ulion! The Doulevard de StrlU! bourg fra mes the enormOU8 fli ghl of s tel" at the Tribunal of COIIIIUerCtl. lind the Avenne de l' Opera providell a vil;la of the porter ', looge at the wu\re." Duhech ami d8pe7.el, pp . 416, 425, [E5,5) " Above all. the Pa rili of the Second Empire ill crueUy lacking in beaut). No t out: of these grcat straight avenues has the chMrm of the mllgllificent curve of the Rue Saint-Antoi.ne. and no hOllse of th.iil period Mfford/l anythi ng like the tender delight. of an eightcenth-c~tury fa~ade . with illl rigorous and gracefuJ order s. FinaU y. thi ~ illogica l city is struclllraUy weak . Alread y the architecu an:; saying that the Opera i8 cracked , that Ltt Trinite is ennnbling, and that Sllint-AlIglIsUn ill britt le," Duhec:h and d 'Es()ezel. p . 427. [ES,6)

" In Hauilsmann's time, there was a need for new roads, IllIt not ne(:essaril y for the
new rQad a he Imih. ... The 111081 u riking featu re of Ius projecu is their scorn for historical eXIH'.rience, . .. HaUilsmann lays Ollt all a rlificial city, like something in Cannda or the Far West . . . . His thuruughfares ra rel y pU8liess any utililY and IH~vel' an y belluty. MO$l a re ali toniah.ull! architectural illtrullion8 that bepn jus t about an ywhere allil cnd lip nowhere. while dClltroyi ng el'er ything in their path ; to c urv~ thcm would ha ve been enough to pl't:St!r\'e prt.-ciouti old huildillg@ ... , We IIIU!!t nOI accuse hilll of too mucll I-I aulls ma llnizatioll . hut of too little. In spit e of Ihe megalulIJoniu of Iii;; theolies. his visiull .....as , in Ilrll clic~, lIul large enuugh . No wher e 4 1id he Bnticipllte the future. Ilis ViiltU8 lauk 1II11I'IiIudt: hi!; st l'eelS art! too narruw. Ilis I!llIIcclltion is gramliolle bill not grlllUl ; IId tller ill it j u ~ t or pruvidl" nt. ,. Dllbedl li lld tl ' Espezel. PI" 424-126 . . [E5a, l]

The mighty seek to securt: their position with b lood (police), with cunning (fashion), with magic (pomp). [Sa,7}
Till' widtnillg of the 8treelS, it was ~a id . WIIS nt:t.'t'lI8itllted by the crinolinf'. [E.5a,8)
Manlier of life II III O ll g th .. mu nns, ",ho often ('allle fr om Manhe 0 1' Limousin . ~The tleseriPliull dat ...!> rrom 185 1- lIerore till' grell t influ x of this lI(}(:iul SII'allllll ill t ilt! Wilke of lI ao ~lI rnanll '" wQIka .) " The m aSO Il ~. whuile wa y of life ili lIIo re Ilistin('t than thHt of othcr emigrant', bt"iolll; on linarily to famili cs of 8 1111111 fal'llle r llVo ~dlVlr1t'r8 estllhlillhed ill the rural towll8hi!lh Dud provided wilh imli vidual pM.'! lurBKe. all"w-

OJ

1
g .=
~ ~ :c
.~

s .., '"
~

himself more s usceptible to feeLings of j ealousy toward the upper clanet of society. This de pravi ty,to which he s uccumbs far from the influence of hi, famil y... and in which the love of gain develop' without the counterweight of reiigiollilentiment. lead s l ometimes to the lort of coarst'- nen found ... a mong the sedentar y workers of Parill." F. Le Play, Les Ouvrier. eu ropee~ ( Parill. 1855), p. 277. [E6, I ) On the politics of fm ance under Napoleon Ill : "The fill ancial policy of the Empire has been consis tentl y guided b y t,..o main concerns: to compenn te for the in l uf6ciency of normal revenueJI and to multiply lhe constr uction proj ects that keep capital moving and provide jobs. T he trick was to borrow ,..; thout opening the ledger and to undertake a great num ber of works without immedia tely overloading the budget .... T hus, in thesl)ace of lleventeen yea", the imperial government h as had to procure for itself, in addition to the na tural products of ta xation , a l um of four billion three hund red twent y-two million fra ncs. With the gathering of this enonnOUI subsidy. whether b y di rect loans (on wlLich it was nece88ar y to pay interest) or b y putting to work availa b le capital (on ""hich revenue. were 1081), there h as re,ulted from these cxtrabudgeta ry operation' an increase of debu and liabilitiell for the s tate." Andre Cochut, Ope ratio~ et tendance.. fi nanciere. du Second Empire (Paris. 1868), pp . 13,20-21. [E6,2) Al ready at the time of the June Insurrection , "'they b roke through walls so al to be able to p all from one house to another." Sigmund Englander, Ge.chichre der Jranzosuchen ArbeiterA.I.Iociationen (H amburg, 18M), vol. 2, p . 287. [E6,3) " In 1852, ... being a Bonapa rtis t opened up aU the pleasur es in the world . It wall these peop le who, humauly s peaking, were the most avid for life; therefore, they conquered . Zola W 88 agitated and amazed at this thought ; 8udden1 y, here W ills tbe formula for those men who, each in hit own way a nd from hil own vantage point, had fo unded a n empire. Speculation (chief of the vital functions of this empi.re), unbridled telf~nri chmeDt . pleaBure seeking-all th ree were glorified theatricall y in exhibitio ul and festivals. which by degrees took on the a81 ,ed of a Babylon . And along with these brilliant masse8 taking par t in the II pothco8i8, close behind them ... the obscure maileR who were awaking and moving to the forefront ." Heinrich Mann , Geut lind TCi t (Berlin . 193 1), p . 167 ("Zola"). [E6a, l ) Around 1837, Dupin , in the Calerie Colbert , iu ued a lIeries of colored Lilhographll (signed Pruche <?>, 1837) re presenting the theatergoing public in va rioull P08tU re&. A few plates ill t.he series: Spectator. in High S/)irjl", Specta tor.. Applauding,

..

Tools used by Haussmann's worken. Artist unknown. &c 5a,6.

Lng for the maintenance of al leasl one dai r y cow per famil y. . . . Dur ing hia .~ jOllr" in Paris. the mason lives with all the economy that i8 consistent with an unma rr ied situation ; hi, provisionli ... come to ap proximately thirty-eight franc. a month ; his lodgings . .. cost onl y eight fr anc! a month . Worker. of the tame profession or.lilll.lril y share a room. where they sleep 110'0 b y two. This ch amber is barely h elilcd ; it is lil by meaDS of II tallow candle. which the lodgers take tur ns in buying . . . . I-Iavillg reached the age of fo rt y-fi ve, the m1l80 11 . . . hencefor th remains 011 his prove rt y to cultivate il himself.... This way of life fo rnl s II marked contrasl to thai of the sedent ar y 1 )Ol'ulaLion ; neverlhele.8 . aft er some yea rl. it tends visibl y to alter ... . T hus, d uring ILis 8tay in Par is. tile yo ung maso n IlIIOW I him8e1f more willing th illn bdore to cont rac t illegitimate unions, to spend money 0 11 d otlling. a nd to frtliluent variolls gathering places allli placea of pleasure. AI he becomes leu ca puhle of elevating hiJlIsdf to the colltlition of prov.rictor, he. find s

SpectCl tor. Ilitriguing. Spectators Accomponying tIle Orchestro , Atfentive Spec [E63,2) to tor., Weeping Spectutors.
Beginnings of city planning in Boissel', Di$collrl contre lei ..ervilllde. IJllblique. <Discourse agains t P uhlic Ellsemcnlll> of 1786: "Since tile natural community of goods has been broken up and Ili8tributed , ever y individual propert y owner Iial built as he plca8es. In the pllst . the social order would not have suffered fronllhis

trelltl , but now Ihlll urban comltrllction proceeds a t the entire di!lcretiun . anllto tile enlire a("anlage. IIf the IIWnerl!, tllere is no longer a ny consideration al "II for Ihe securit y. health. or comIort of society. This is particul arl y the case in Parill, where clmrchell and palal:e., huulevards and walkway!! are budt in abundance. while hOUSUlg for the great majority of inhabitants is relegaled to tile IIhadows. Boiu d des{'ribe" in graphic d etail tile filth and perilll that th rea ten the poor pede trilln Oil the strctll.. of Parill .... To this miserable arrangement of street. he now turns his allentioll, and he effectivel y solves the proLlem by propm ing to Ira.OI form the grollnd noon of houses into airy arcadet. which would offer protection from the vehides and the weather. He tbus anticipates Be.l1amy'a idea of 'one umL reUa over all h eadll.'''l~ C. Hugo, "'Oer SOJlia!illQlus in Frankreich wiihrend der groasen Revolution ," part I . " Fran~ois Boissel." Die ne ue Zeif, Il , no. 1 (Stuttgart , 1893), p . 8 13. (E6a,3] On Napolt!Qn 1.11 arouud 1851 : " Be is a socialist with Proudhon , a reformer with Cirardin , a reactionKry with T hiers, K moderate republican with the l upporters of tbe republil:. Knd an enemy of democracy and r evolution with the legitimist.ll. Ue promises everything and s ubscribell 10 everything." Friedrich Sy;arvatiy. Parill. vol. I [the uuly volume to appear] (Berlin, 1852). p. ,WI.. (E6a,41 " wuill Napoleon , ... thil representative of the lumpenproletariat and of every type of fraud and knavery, dow)y draws ... aU power to himlelf.... With glad elan , Daumier ~mergell. He creates the brilliant ftgureof Ratapoil. an audacious pimp and ch arlatan . Anti thill ragged marauder, with his murderoul cudgel for ever concealed behind hill back, becomes for Daumier tbe embodiment of the downfaUeu Bonallartist idea." Fritz Th . Schulte, " Honore Da umier," Die neue [E7, ' } Zeit , 32, no. I (Stuttga rt <19 13-1914, p. 835. With reference to the transforlnation of the city: "'Nothing lellll than a compallll il req uired . if you are 10 find yo ur wa y." Jacques FaLien , Poru en !onge (Pari 1863). p . 7. [E7,2J The follllwing remark . by way of contras t, throwlI all interesting light on Pa ris: "Where money, industry, allil riches are present , there are fa~adell; the houlles have ul!swned fa ces that lIerve to indicate the differences in clallll. In London , more llulII clscwhere, the di staJll'e~ a re pitilessl), marked .... A proliferation of ledge. , bow windows. "orllilles, columulI--8Q mun y columns! The column ;8 nobility." Fernalltl Leger. 'LOllllres." LII . 5, 110.23 (June 7, 1935).11 . 18. {E7,31 The Jislllninalivt: or Ihl'< age-()IJ Ma rais Ra rely seu root in the Quartier d ' Anlin. An d (rOIn Menilmonlanl , I:a lnlluokollt puint , HI! . urvr.y. Parle u (rom a heillht: lI i~ d,rlrt and (ru!! .. lity won' tlel him budge From d,i. ' 11Ot where Ihe flUII'" hll\r. d rol'llCd him.

[LeO Il Guidall , J fA! 7'riomf,h lJ r1p.~ omnibu.5: Poeme heror-comique (Pari~, 1828), [E7,' ] p .7.
" Hundred s of thoul ancls uf familiel, who work ill the center of the capital, sleep in Iht" outskirts. Thil movement re&eml,les t.he tide: ill the morning the worken slrea m into Paris, and in the evelling the ..a me wave of peol'le Rowl out. h is a melanchol y image .... I would add ... thaI it is the brsl time that humanity hal a!lsi5ted in a spectacle .0 dis piriting for the people." A. Granveau , L 'Ollvner devont 10 !ociele (Paris. 1868), p . 63 ("leI Logementl a Paris"). [7,5J Jul y 27.1830: "Out8ide the IIChoo!. men in shiruleevetl were already rolling cask.; othe rs brought in paving 810nel and B and by wheelbarrow; a h arricade was begun .'" G. Pinel . fli.f'oire de l'Ecok I)oly,echnique (Paris. 1887), p . 142 . [E7a,I] 1833: "The plan 10 surround Pari, with a he lt uf furtifi cations ... aroused pa8~ ionate interest at this time. It W 88 argued that detached forts would be useleu fur

the defeullt: ufthe interior, and threateni.ng only to the Impulation. The opposition ....as UIUVeI:8111. ... Steps w.... re takl~1I to orgallill:e a large popular dl'lmODstration on Jul )' 27 . Informed of theMe preparations. , . , lhl'l government abanduned the projet;t . . .. Nevertheles8 . . . on the da y of the review, numerous cries of ' Down with thl'l forts!' echoed in advance of the proccssion : 'A blu U!!fort, r.retachi,! A ba! Ie! baMille, f' " C . Pinet, lIi,toire de l'Ecole polytechnUiu.e (Paris, 1887), pp . 2 14-215. T he government ministers took their r evenge with the affair of the "Cunpowder Cons pirac),.'ll (E7a,2J Engravings rrOIll 1830 show how the insurgent. threw all .orlll of furniture down on the troopl from out of thl': windows. ThU was a reature e6pecially of the battles On the Rue Saiut--Antoine. Cabinet del Esta mpes. [E7:&,3] Rattier in\'okes a dream Paris, wweh he caLla " the false Paris"-as distinguished from the real one: "t he purer Paris , ... the truer Paris, ... tbe Paris that dOClln', exist" (p . 99): "'It is grand . at this 1II0DIent in time, to set weUguarded Babylon wa bing in the arms of Memphis, anti to aet London dancing in the rmbract: of Peking. ... One oftllellt: fine morning8. Fra nce will bave a rude awakening when it realizes it is llonfllled within the wllolls of Lutetia , of which she forms hut a cr088'oatl" .... The nexi dll Y. haly, Spllin . Denntark , and Russia will be incorporated h y decree illto the l'Brisian municillalil),; three daY B late r, the city gates wiU be pushetl huck to Novu)'a Zcml ya and 10 the Land of the Pal)llans . Paris will be the world. and the ulliverije v,iJl be 'a ris. The savannahs and the pampall and the DIad," f'orelll will compose the Jlublic ga rdelll of litis greater Lutetia ; the AlI)S, the P),renees, the Andes, the Himalayas wi.ll be the Aventine and tht:: scenic hiUs of this iu(lomrara hle city-knolls of pll:asllre. stull y, or solitude. But all this is !ltillnllth ing: Parill will OIOWlt 10 tlte . kicM a llli ca le the firmament ..rflnnamentll; it will an nell'. as suhurbs, the "I,,"eu alld Ihe sta .... Paul Ernest tie Rattier, Pu,u n '~i.'e

pal ( Paris, 1851) . PI" ,n-49. Thei l' ea rl y fanta sics s hould I.e compared with th t'

High d aily allowa nces for the de pulies IIlItler Nupuleoll

n I.

[Ea,S]

sa l.irell on Il llussmulIlI I)uhlis hed len yea rs lalt...

[E7a.4J

c .g
.~

Already Raltier a 8i1igns to hitl false )'am " 8 uni(IOe Hnd 8 imlJl~ lIys te'" of traffic control that links ~eo metrically, and in paralld line!i, IiIU the a venues of this false Parili 10 a single ceDter. the Tuilerics-Ihis being an admira ble method of d efeose a lld of m a intaining orde r." Paul- ErnfOS! d e Raltie r , Pam II 'existe pr" (Parill. 1857), p. 55. [E',I) ''The fal se Pan8 has the gUOII lasle to recognize that !lothing is more useless or more immoral than a riol. Though it may gain the upper halld (or a few minutes. it is (Iuclled for se"cral centuries. InSlcad of occupying itself with 1H>lilicI, .. It I ii peul:eahly absorbed in questions of economy. .. A prince who is againJit fraud . .. knows . .. Ycry well ... thai gold , a grea l deal of gold , is rr quired . . . on our planello build a slepladder 10 Ihe s ky. " Paul-Ernesl de Rallier, Paris n'exute p tu ( Paris. 1.857), pp. 62,66-67. [E8,2] Jul y Revolution: "Fewer were fell ed ... by bullets than by olher proj N": til e~ . The large squareil of granite with which Paris is paved were dragged up to Iht' top flo ors of the hous!!!! alld dropped on Ihe heutls uf Ihe soldiers:' Frietlrich von Raumer, Uricfe aUl Paru und Fr",~krcich in! Jahre 1830 (Leipzig <1831, vol. 2, p. J45.

" Tbe 4.054 b arr i clld~ of Ihe 'Three Gloriouil l)aY8' were mad c front 8 ,125,000 pavilll; s tOllo': i!. " l..e Roman/illite [.: " hiLitioll !'alalttgu e (at the Biblioliteqllc Nutiollule), J aliliury :?2- l\1 arc.b 10. 1930; ex pla na lory note to no. 635, A. de Grandsagnc and M . Plant , Revolution de /8:10. pia" de~ combats de "uris]. [ES,'] Wllell. las t )'ear, thOtlsumls (If workers llIurcllt.'d tllrllugh the stret:lH of tllc capitul in a menacing calm ; wllcn , at a time of peal:e lind conllll('rcial prosperit y. they interru)Jtell the coursc of their work . , . , the government 's firsl responlO ihilit y was 10 hike forceful nll'lISUrcs agai nst a Ilis turhance that was s lltlle more IlangcrllllS fur nol knowing itself as s uch ." L. de Carne . " Puhlicalions democr atillut:s el cOlmnunistea," ReV Ile des deux nwndes. 21 ( Paris . 184 1). p . 746 , [ESa, l ] " What fate docs the prellf:1I1 movemenl of socit!ly have in store for arcrut(.'Ct urf:? 1 .....1 uil look arolilltlus, . . . Ever more monUDlCIiU . evt'r more palaces . On all sillea , alld everything tends towa rd Ihe solid, the Iteal'y, tlte rise up grea l 'shme hiol:kA \ulgor; tlte genius of art is imprisoned b y s uch Ult imperative. ill which the imagilIalion no longer has any rOom to "lay. can no lunger he greal, bUI rather is exhausled in representing .. , Ihe tier ed orders on fa.;ud es and in (it:coralillg frieze>f and the Ilorllers of window framel . In the intf:rior, (tnc finds s Lili more of the court. more of the peristyle . . . with the little r ooms more ami more confined , the s tuflies and boudoir exiled 10 tile niches untler the spiral staircase, . .. where they constitute pigoonholes for people; it i!! the cellular s yslem upplir.d to the family group, The proltlem Itet:omes how, in a p Vt:1l spa(."e, to ma ke Ulie of the least 11 1111111111 of maleriala and 10 pack in the greatest IIItIIlher of l)eople (\O'hile isolating them all from one anolh t: r) . . . . This tendcll cy-i ntl C(~(I , this fait accompli-ill the resuh of progress ive s ubdividill A: . . . . 1 .11 a word , ea clt for ltim!elf and Cflch by lIint.selfhas increasingly ht.'Come the guiding principle of SOciel)', while the puhLic wealth ... is M:atlered and B(IUandered. Such ure the callses. at this moment ill France. for the demise of mOllumentaU y scaled residential a rcltitet:turt. For private. hahilationlf, as they become narrower, are a ble to s uslain hut a ua.rrow uri. The a rtis!, la"king s pace . is r,.ducoo 10 ma iling statueltes and easel paintings ... . III tlte prest-lilly em.. rgi ng elillditions of sOI:icty, a rt is drh"n inlo 11.11 impa 88~ wlt en~ il suffocates for lack of uir. It is alread y s ufferillg lite effl:cls tlf litis ncw f1 0rm of Iimilt. ..1 .. rtisli!: facllity. which certaiJl 801l1B, suppllstdl y 1.II l va lll~ed , Sl;!cm III l't'gurtl a ~ the goal uf II ...ir philanlhropy... , III an:hite,t luc. w,' dll 1I0t mak"ur t for ar( , sake; we d u IIot rai;;c monuments for the sol" PUfPlliC (If Il-Ct:llpying the imagination of archil ects and furni shing work for paillli'rll allil sculp to rs . " 'hat is ''':I.. sliury, thell. is to UPI)ly the 11101l1l1ll('lIlallllod" uf const ru(:tillil . , 10) alllhe t'lcmenu of human tl\OcJljllg. \lI" mus t make it pussible 1101 on ly fur a few )Jrivileged il1tlivilillab Itul for all peuplc to live in I)aluct.-s. Alld if OIlC is 111 III'CIII')' a puhw,.. mit' sllO ulil ,.rOIk.rl y Livf: there t ogetllt~r witb tither s. in (,onos of uuoc.ialioll ... . Where urt ill t'oncernOO . tllerefore . il is only 1111" IIsstlf'iutioll of nil c.lemt'.l1l11 of the eommunit )'

[E8,3]
Report of a third party. in Raumer', book: " I saw a group of Swi.u , ,,'ho had been III1 W the stripped bodies of the gravely woullIled thrown roniemptllouilly onlO tile Itarricades to make tbem higher." Friedrich von Rallmer, Bricf c (lUl Puril uml Fr(l1lkreit:!h in Jahre l B30( Leipzig, 1831 ), vol. 2, 1'. 256. [E8,4]
kn~lin g a nd begging for their live killed amid j eering. and I

Desc riptions of barricades of 1830 : Ch . Motte, R evoltHio,,,, de I'u rn, 1830; Pia" Ji8uratif del barricade. ainl i (Iue de. pOlitioTU et mOl.ll1cmen's d e, cito,-enl armea et dell troupes ( publis hed by the author (Paris. 1830 . [E8,5] Cal)tion for a plate in l.es Ruines de Paris: 100 plwtQ8 ruphie by A. Lielrerl ( Paril , 1871) , vol. I : "Barrkade of Ihe Federa les, C(lilstructed by Gailla rd Senior... [EU]
" ~rh en

the empcl'or . .. enterij his I;apital, the fift y horse uf hill l'a rringe arc III a

~:tIlO I); belween Ilu' Gateway Qf Pari8 and his Lou vre , he paU ij e~ IIndl'r t,.o tllOlI~ a lldlriumphal arc heI alld )Ianci before fifty colossi erected tn hi" image .... And this illolizing of the sovereign h y his s ubjects ca uses !W1l1t: tlillmay a lllon ~ the la tlcrd ay pious. to whom it occurHlilal their idols wert' never It'ci pit'llhl of lI ul:h humage. " Arsene Houssayt:. "Le Pari" fulllr": in (Dllma ~. Caluicr. Houllsaye. alit! hillers,) Pori.! et kl Po ri.!ie,uall X/,'{- sieck (P."ris. 1856), p . 460. [E8.7J

IllIlt can lauucl, Ihe immense development we are outlining:' D. Laver,lant. De la ",i.uiOll lie "tlrI et dl! r81e des artistes : S"/oII de 1845 (Parill, 1845). (rom the ufllee!> IIf Lo I'lw/twge. pp . 13-15. [ESa,2] " For H.llle lillll' now, .. there have
lif.."t!I.1

Gaetan Niepovic, Etude& plly,iolo8 iques , ur leJ g rande, MO). PI' . 201- 204. 206. occidentale: Puru (Paris, L

nlf; 'ropole~

{lll l'E;urope [E9.3J

efforts to discover whcre this word

1101l/evord could have come frolll . As for m e. I a m 6nally 8Sti8fied a5 10 the etymol.

ogy: il is merel y a \'ariant of the word OOlllever.!emenl (commotion , u plu~avab." E(louard Fournier, Ch roniqllel e. tegentiel des rues de l'oru ( Parie. 1864), p . 16.

[E',ll
" Mnnsieur Pit'orfl, attorney for the city of Pan s ... has energetically defe nded Ihe int ere~ t s of Ihe city. What he has been presented with in the way of antedated least'S at tile momcnt of expropriations, what he has had to contend with in order to nullify falltasljc tiUeli ami rC(luce Ihe claims of the expropriatC(1 is a lmo~ 1 heyu nd belief. A collier for the city one day placed befor.. him a lea&e. antedated sume years, on IJa per bearing o6cial s taml)s. The simple man believed himself alnady in p068ession of a ~t.'ighty sum for his shanty. But he ilid not know that thi. paper bol"t!, in ilS watermark. the date of its manufacture. The attorney raised il to the light; it hUtI heen made thrt.. -e yeare after the date !!tamped ." Augu8te Lepage, I~:I CafoJ poli.'i(llle~ et lifteraires de Pam (Paris ( 1874, p. 89. [E9,2)

A hllrricaflt:: " At the entrllnce tu a "arrow street , all olllllibllll lies witll itll four wlll!els inlhe ai r. A "Beof crales. which had served perhaps to hold urlillgU, risC8 to the right and to the lefl . lind hehind tJlem, between the rims of the wheels and thl' oJlenings. snlall firC5 are bla:l!ing, continuall y emilti.ng small blue douds of dmoke." Gaetan Niepovie, Etudes physjolog iqltes ~ ur le, g randes m e.ropo/es de rE/lrope occidenta le: Pu m ( Pa rill, 1840). p. 207. [E9a, I)

1H68: dea th of Meryon.

[E9a,2)

" II lias httn said that Charld and Raffel by thcmst:!\,eil pre parc(1 the way for the Sccond Empire in France." Henri Bouchot , /..(1 UtilOg r(lpilie (Parill (1895), pp.8-9. [E9a.3J Fronl Arago'. letter on the encirclement or Paris (Assucia lions Nationaleli CD F~\'eur de la Prellse Patriote) [elliract from Le Na .ional ur Jul y 2 1, 1833]: " All the projected forl8. with regard 10 distance_ wuuld give access 10 the 1110. t pOJlulous (Iistricts IIf the ca pital" (p. 5). " Twl1 uf the forts, those of Italic ami Pussy, would be (' nuugh to set fire to aU section! of Paris on the Left Hank uf the Seiue; ... two others, Fort Philil)pe and Fori Saint-Chaumon t, cuuld cover t.he rcst uf the city [E9a,4J with their circle of fire" (p . 8).
III Le FiBaro of April 27. <1936 .) Gaetan San voi8in cites thjll remark by Maxinle Du Camp: " U Ihere were only Parisians in Puis. there would he no revolutionar[E9a,51 ies." Compare with similar statements by UaU88111an n .

Observatiollll on Ihe phyeiology of the uprising, in Niepovie', book : "'Nothing has I> hanged on the surface. uut there is somcthing unus ual ill the air. The cabriolets. omnibuses. a mI hackney coaches seem to have quickened their pace. and the flri\'ers keep turning I.heir heads as though l omeone were after them. There are more grOU I)8 standing around than i8 115ua1. ... People look at one another with II IlXjO U.o; illilrrogatioll ill their eyes. Perhaps thi B urchin or thi B worker hutening lIy will know 1011ielhing; and he is stopped lind quel!tioned. What ', going on ? ask the 1'8Ssersby. And the urchin or the worker responds. with a smile of utter iJldifference, 'Tltey are gathering al the Place de la Butille: or ' They are gathering IIcar the Temple' (or somewhe.re ('Ise), a nd then hurries off to wher ever the.y are !;!llhering. . . . On the siles themselves , the .cene is p(1:lIy much all he said : the Jluplilatioll 11118 massed to such an elltent thai you elln hurdl)' get through . The pa \'cmcnt is s trewn witll s heel!! of p alter. Whal is it ? A proclamation of Le Monileur rI?publicain , wh;(h dates from the Year 50 of the one ami indivisible French rl'l'"hlif. People han: gathered , YOIl are told , to disf'u8if the proclamation. The simp!! hll\'c not yet been closed; sholS have not yt:l llcen fired .... Now tlll:n , Iw hol.l the ~ "vi o r!' . . . . All of a sudden. the holy " a ll aLion has halted before a house. a lit! . j,u t as quickl y_ Ihe third-story windows are thrown open anti packets of ('artriII j;e$ min down .... The di ~ triblltion is acco mpliJlhed in the twinkling of all cy.. ",14 1, wilh that . Ihe hattaLioll iR tlis patl'iu!d 011 the ru.n-a portion 10 one ~ ill c. a portinn 10 the otill'r.... Ve hidcs are 110 longer pussing 0 11 the st.reels; tllI:re is less lIoi ~ I. Aud that 's why nne cun Ilear. if I do 1I0t deceive myself .. _ Listen , they' re beuling t.he drum. It is the call lu a rnls. The lIulhorilies lire rOllsed:'

"A one-act play hy EngellJ, written ill hasle and pcrformed in September IM7 al the Gennan Alliance for Workers in Brussels, already represented a hattle on the barricadell in a Cerman petty . tate--a baltle which entled wilh the abtlication or lile prillce and Ihe proclamation of a repuhlic." C ustav Mayer_ Friedrich Engels. vol. I , Friedrich Engeu in Jeiner Frjj]'zeil. 2nd ed . ( Berlin (1933), p . 269. 12 [E9a,6) Ouring the 8upp reuilln of the J line Ins urrection , a rtiUcry cam' to be used for the first lime ;n Sired fightin g. [E9a,71

Haussmann's attitude toward the Parisian population recalls that of Cuizot to ward the proletariat. Guizot characterized the proletariat as the "external popula tion." (See Georgi Plekha.nov, "Ober die Anfange der Lehrt vom Klassenkampf," Die neue Zt:it, 21 . no. 1 (Stuugmt, 1903). p. 285. [E9a ,8}
The building of barrira(les uppeurli in Fourier impassione(1 work ."
lI iI

a n cllumple or " nOlisalllricd "ut IE9a,9J

T il" IIraeth.'t! of hamhoo7.ling lilt: munici pal exp ro p ria tiolll COnJminee btea me a n ill chllrtl'Y under I1 IIU U Dl iUIII . "S m il il i ru d e r~ and ~ h Ollkl.:e pe rli ... would be I UPplied \O; lh (alse Imokl Plld invt:llloriC:!! . D"d . when lI eces~ ary, lltei r premiseli would (it IlIrlu :d out) lIe newl y n -d':1!ol'"at..d a nd refurnisheol; while d uri ng Ihe vi8it uf the l'lllllmitlef' to Ihe p r .. mi se ~, 11 conslollt strea m of unexpt'cted t:lIslnme1'"8 wo uld pour in ." S. Krocollcr. Ja cques OjJenbflcll um l das Pari!! sei"er Zeit (Amstcrda m , 1937). p . 254.'J [E 10.l ) City planning in Fourier : " Each avenue, each street , IOholll<l open onto some particula r pr~ IH!i. I , whellU ' r Ihe I:o ulllry"ide or a public mOllumt! nt. T he cuSlom of civiJizt'd nations-where streets cumc 10 an end wil.b a wall . as in fortre8sc8, or with It hea p of t!urth . as in the newer sections of Ma rsd llt!s--d lOuld be avoided . Evt-ry hnuse Ihol faces the slree t "huultl I.e obliged to have ornamenla tion of Ihe fi rst ciass, in the ga rdells a8 well as on Ihe buildings." Charles Fourie r, Cile. O/l vrii re,: lJe. modifica liomc ;, i" troduire rlmll " architeclure ties viUe!! (extract. [Ulm La PhfdlHlse, (Par is, 1849), p . 27. [E IO.2) In co nn ~tio u with l-I uLlsslllann : " The mylhic siructurcdcvelopi ra pidly: opposing the vall city ill Illc legendar y her o destined 10 conquer it. III fac t , there are h ardly uny wo rks of Ihe period thai do nul conlain some invocation illl pin!d by the ca pital. and the celebratefl cr y of RustignUI,H is of unus ual implicily. .. , Tbe h",roes of POIlSUII (\11 Ter rail are more lyrical ill Iheir inevit able a pllBtrophe to the ' ,mKler u Babylon ' (Ihis is alwaY8 the n ame used for Puris). See. for example, that ... of the . .. false Sir Williams in tht' Ilovell.e Club de!! VIIlets de coeur; ' 0 Pariii, 1~lI ri s ! You are the true Uahyloll . Ihtl true a renll of intellectual battlll , the true lellip le where evil h as itH cult and its prieslhood ; a nd I a m 8Ure Ihal the hreath of Ihe al'change! of IIhudows pan es over you tllf' rnall y. like the winds over the infi nit y of Iht' seIlS. 0 motionless tempest. ocea u u( slone, I waDt to be Ihul dllr k ea&le ""hi,h. amid you r angr y ""ave!, disllai ns Ihe li, htning a nd , Ieeps cheerfull y on the thu nder storm. hil grlla l wing extendcd . I wu nl to be Ihe gellill8 of Ilvil, the vultu re uf the lIellS, of this 1II0st pe rfidious a nd tempelilUous J oea 1111 which the human pas8iOlls 1055 a nd ullfur l." Roger Caillois, " Paris . Iu yth t- lIIul.lerlle," No uve lle UevlleJrulIf;aise. 25. 110. 284 (May I . 1937), p . 686. [E IO,31 llIall(luiSI re \'oll of May .1 2 , J839 : ""He hlHI wailt!<1 II week 10 pr ofi l fro m the inl tallation IIf IU'W Iroops u nfa miliar with Ihe ma)l.'e of Paris litree ts. The thousantl lIIen UII wlmlll he ('Olilltl:<I (ur till" ellgagellleni ""I're supposed 10 aSllt"lIIble helwL't:1l lhe HtII Silint-Denis unci Ihe Rue Suiul l\1 arljn . Ulld ~ r a magn ificent SUIi , .. 111wll l"Il Ihrt:e in Ihe aftcrnuun . in the midst of a b urgconing Sund ay cr owd , Ihe rC"ululjoll ary Lund a ll al onre musters und 8PI>ears. Immedi alely a vacllum . sil" III:'-. lif;tli ill a roll lllililf'm ," Gu;;;hlv" Gf'ffruy. ,~ '/;nferme ( I~ari;;. 1926). "01. I. 1 111.81-82. [E 10a.l)
J II 1830, ro p l~
W IIij

Ra8tignac'B fa muus chalh:nge (citl!:fl ill Me8S1lc <Le " Detective Nove' " et "influence d e IfJ J.H!ruee ,ciclIl jfiqle ( Pari.s. 1929]), liP , 4 11J.-.4.20): " Eugene , IlOW alone, walked a few steflll 10 the tupmO SI part of the graveya rd. He saw Pa ris, s pread wi ndin~y a lung tl u: IWII banks of the Seine. Lights were ~gi nnin g to twi nkle. His gaze fixed i t~df aLmo!!1 avidly on the space belween the column in tbe P lace Ve nd3me uud IIII! cUJlula of Les IlIvaBdes. There li ved the world inlo which he had wished to pellctrule. He fa ~ le ned on the murmurous hi ye II. look that 8eemed alread y 10 he sur king the honey frolll ii, allli utten!d Ihelle wurll,: ' Now I' m read y for you! ''''; (EIOa,3)

To Ihe Ihelles ofH IlUllmaDn corre&ponds Ihe tabulation of Du Camp . according to


which the population of Par is during the Commune was 75.5 percent (nreigner8 [E I0a,4) nnll provincia ls, For the Blanquist putsch of August 14. 1870, 300 revolvers and 400 heavy dag gers were made available. It is characteristic of the street fighting in this period that the workers preferred d aggers to revolvers. [EIOa,5} Ka ufmanll places at Ihe bend of his chapter entitJed " Archilectural Autonomy" an epigraph from Le Corlfrat social: "a form . , . in which each is uniled with all, yet olleys onl y himself a nd remains as free all before.-Such is the fund amental problem thai the lIocial contract solvel" (p . 42). ' In this chapter (p . 43): " [Ledoux] jU 5lifi e:s the sep ara tioD of the buildinp in the 8C(:ond proj ect for Ch aux with the wo rds: ' Retu r n 10 principle .. . . COll8ull nature; man is everywhere isola ted ' (Architecture. p . 70) , The feudal principle uf prerevolutionary society .. . can have 1111 furth er yalid.ity now. .. The a utonomously grounded fo rm of ever y object makes all stri ving after Iheatrical effect appear sell8eleu ... , At a stroke. it would seem , , , , the 8 ar Gqut' art of the prospect disappeare from sight." E . Kaufma nn, VO rl LedolU bis Le Corbu, ier {Vienna a nd Leip-zig, 1933), p . 43 . [EIOa,6J "1'he n!lIuncilltion of Ihe pictu resllue has its a rchitecillral fl:(lwvalent in the refun l udden diffu8ion of the of ull pr OS I~cl - a f't . A highl y lIignifieaut symptom is the R silhouette ... , Sleel ~ngravin g and wood engraving supplant the meu otin t. which had flu uri ~ h ed ill the Ba roque. age .... To anticipate Ollr conciusioDII, ... let it be snidtha l the a utonfllUO US p rinciple retains its effi cacy _ . . in the 6"1 decadell after the ar.:hil ecill re of the Revolution . becomi ng ever weaker wilh the passage of time Ulilil, in the later decades of t.be nineteenth centu ry. il i8 virtually unrecognir:~ lI ille." Emil Kaufm a nn , Von l.edou:c bi!! Le Corbll, ier (Vienna and Leipzig. 1933), prl, 4 7, 50, [E ll ,l ) Na puleoll Cllill llrti : builder of till: nl i~ l y ba rricade Ih al . in 187 1, stood al the [E II ,'J ~ nlrallce uf Ih ~ R II~ Ruya le a ud the Rue de Ri vol. i. " AI th~ corller of the Rue d., la Ch auuee ...I'AJltin Il llllllll~ Rue Basse-d o. Rampart , there sih 11 house. lhat is rema rkable for Ihe carya tid, on the fatao.le facing the RII Il

lI ~el l .

am ong oliler lliiulo;&, 10 ba rricade Ii1Calr't" ls.

[l::lOa.2)

Basse-du -Rampart. Because this latte r street must disappear, the magn ifif:ent ho use with the caryatids. Imilt o nl y twen ty yeura ago , i ~ going to be .Iemolished . The jury for expropriatio ns granls t.l1e three "lillion fran(: ~ tle luanded by the owner a mi approvell by the ci t y. Thrt:e millio n! What u 1II1c.fuJ and prolluctive expenditure!"' A uguste Bla nqui , C ritique sociflle , 1101. 2, f'rtlgmenl!l el 1IOICS ( Paris . 1885). p . 341. [E II ,31 "Aga inst Paris. Obdurate scheme It) dear out the ci l~.. to dis perse its population of wurkers. Hypocritic alJY-(j1l a humanitarian IH'etex t- lhey pl'opose to redistribute thro ugh uut the 38 ,000 townships of France the 75 ,000 workers affec ted by unemployme nt. 1849." Bla nqui, Criliqllc socifllc . \ul. 2 , Fmgmcllt.y el nolCI (Paris,1885).p.3J3. [E 11,41 the strategic tlleol'y of civil war. The troops mu~t neve r he a Uowed to .'I llcnd "Hle h lime in tilt' main a r eas of disturbance. They are l~l)rrllpted by cuntact with the re hels and refuse to fire freely when re fl res~ ion be(:omcs necessary . ... The best s ys tem : construct c ita dels dominating the sus pect towns and rcully at any moment 10 um h them . Soldie rs mUlil be kept gar riso ne d , a .... ay (rom the popular contagion." Auguste Blanqui, Critique !lociflle, 1101. 2 (Paris, 1885 ), pp . 232-233 (" Saint-Etienne. 1850" ).
011

Crilique sociule , vol. I . CrJ/Jital el lruvuil ( Paris. 1885). vv. 109- 111 (co nclus io n of " Le. LUJ[e"). The fo rt~wo rd to Crjllilut el trrllJllif is dat ll,l Ma)' 26. 1869. [Ella ,11
" The illusions ahout the fantastic "truttures a rt dIspelled. N,w,'he re ore tlwrc ma te rial" (Jther tillm Ihe hUIIJrt'11 simple borlic.~ . .. . It iii with Ihis meage r assort lIle nlthatthe unillene is necessarily madc a llli remade, willl(>\ll respite . 1\1 . Hallssmalin had just al! milc h 10 rebuild Puris with ; he had precisely the"e m a l ~riul s . II is 1101 lIariety that sta nds o ut in Ilis constnlctiollS. Na ture . whidl a lso de lnoli);he>l in order to recolls truct. d ocs a little bettcr witll tile tllings it c reateS. It kn ows how to OIake !'I uch goml use ufitll meager resourct's t.hat one hes itates to sa y ther e is a limit to the urigina lilY or its works." A. Blanqui , L 'fl emile I )Clr /.es ustres: Hypothese ast rollomitlUe (Paris. ) 1172), p. 53. [Ell a,21

"A Monsieur d ' Hallrinco urt rceelltly expounded

[E II ,51
"The HaU8l1maniZUOOli of Paris and the provi nces is one o( the great plagues of the Seco nd Empire. No one will el'er kn ow IIOW ma llY tho uSUllds of unfortunates halle lost the ir lives as a con8eIJue lillc of deprivations occasionelJ by these scnseJeSll constructions. The del'o uring of so mon y millions is One the principal cau ses of the prpsent dis tres~ ... . 'Whe n building goe~ ....ell, everything goes well ,' runs a po pular adage, which has attained the s tatus or ecollomic axiom . By this s tuntlard , a hundred pyra mids or CheoJJs . rising together into the clouds. wo uld allest to overflowing prosperity. Singular calculus. Yes, in a well-ordered state , where thrirl did not strangle exchange, construction would be the true measure of puhlie rortune. For then it would reveal a growth in pupulatio n a nd an ext.'C8S of labor that ... wo uld lay a foundation ror the rU lllrl!. til allY o ther circ umstances, the trowel merely betra ys the murde rous ra nt nsies of a bsolutism_ which . .... hen its rury fo r war momentarily slac ke lls, is tleized by tile fury r(lr Iwilding . . . . A ll mercenar y tonguell halle ht:en loosed in a chorus uf eeltlbr ation (or the great works tha t are renewing the race of Paris. No thin l; so sad. so lacking in social spolllune.ity. as this Ya8t shifling of stones h y tile hand of d c~ po tis m . The.re is no more dis mal synl)itom of decade llce. In prOI'IIrtioll as Ro mc collapsed ill agony. il s mOnumenl1l grew mure numerous and more culoss a l. It was Luilding it" OWl! IIcpultlle r a nd making really to die glorio usly. But IlS for Ihe modern .... odd- it h a~ nu widl til die. a nd human siupidity is lIt~ ar in g its cnd . People are wea/'y of grandiose hlJ mici.JaI act". TIU' proj ects thai ha vc so dis rupted Il u l r.ap ital. Nlrulitio nt'd us they :n:e 011 repressiOIl and \'lI niI Y , ha ve failed flU' futul'e lin leRR tllau l ilt' pI"C ~I nl. " 1\. Bi a nq ui ,

Die neue Wtltbiihne~ 34, no. 5 (February 3, 1938), in an essay by H. Budzislawski, "Croesus Builds n (pp. 129-130), quotes Engels' "Zor Wohnungsfrage" <On the H ousing Qyestioru of 1872: "In reality the bourgeoisie has only one method of settling the ho.u sing question after it.s fashion-that is to say, of settling it in such a way that the solution continually poses the question anew. This method is called 'Haussmann.' By the term 'H aussmann,' J do not mean merely the specifically Bonapanist manner of the Parisian Haussmann-cutting long, straight, broad streets right through closely built working-class neighborhoods and lining dIem on both sides with big luxurious buildings, the intention having been, apan from the strategic aim of making barricade fighting more difficult, to develop a specifically Bonapanist building-trades proletariat dependent on the government, and to tum the city into a luxury city pure and simple. By 'H aussrnann' l mean the practice, which has now become gencral, of making breaches in the workingclass neighborhoods of aUf big cities, particularly in those which are centrally situated .. . . The result is everywhere the same: the most scandalous alleys ... disappear to the accompaniment of lavish self-glorification by the bourgeoisie . .. , but-they reappear at once somewhere else, often in the immediate neighborhood." 11_ With this goes the prize question: Why was the mortality ratc in London so much higher in the new working-class districts (around 1890?) than in the slums?-Because people went hungry so that they could afford the high rents. And Peladan's observation: the nineteenth century forced everyone to secure lodgings for himself, evcn at the cost offood and clothing. fE 12. I}

IIt:U(

Is il true, as Paul WCsthcim maintains in his article "Die neue Siegesallee" (Di~ Welthiihlle, 34, no. 8, p. 240), that H aussmann spared Parisians the misery of
[EI 2.21

large blocks of8ats?

Haussmarul who, faced with the city plan of Paris. takes up Rascignac's cry or "A nous deux maintcnant! " [EI 2.3}

" Tile uew boulcyartll! lI aye introduced light and air into unwholeeome districts, IHlt IIIIY(: dune 110 h y wiping out . alollg their way, almost aU the eUllr tyards ami g:lrdc nll-whif;ll lIIoreoyer have Lt!clI ruled out hy the progressive rise in reol ,'sl.ah' lu';"CS." Victor r' ollrnd , Puris 'IOIIL'e<Ul ct. Pnri.s fulur (Paris. l868), p. 224 ("Conclusion "), [EI2,4-J The 0111 Paris hcwailiJ the monotony of the uew streets; whereupon the lIew Paris l'eSI)ond s: Why alllhe~ n:proaches? .. , TlulOks to the straight line, the calle of traYei it affordll. One ayoid" the ~ hock of many a veILic!II. Ami . if one'll eyes are good , une likewise avoids Till: fools. the borrowen , the hailiffs, the bores; LUi but 1I011easl, down the wholr. lenglh oCthe IIvenue, Elicil paslw.rhy now avoids the others. or nods from afar. _ M. Barthelemy, Le Vieux Pari.! et Ie nOlweau (Paris, 1861 ). pp. 5-6.

"They .. ' transplallt the Boulcyard d es lIatiens ill its entirety to the Montagne Sainte-Gellevlt!\,t!--with about as much utility anll projit as II hothouse flower in the forest-ami they create Rues de Rivoli in lite an{'ient city cellter, which has no need of them. Eventually this cradle of the capillil, haying been demolished , will comprise at most a barrac ks, a church . a hospital . and a palace. ,. Victo r Fournel, Pari.s nOltvefJlt et Pam jllfur (Paris, 1868), p. 223. The last thought echoes a stanza from Hugo's "A I' Arc de Triolllflhe ." [Et 3, I]

Haussmann's work is accomplished today, as the Spanish war makes clear, by quite other means, [E13,2]
Temporary tenants under Haussmanll : " The industrial nomads among the lIew ground-floor Parisians fall into three principal categories: commercial photographers ; d ealers in brie-a-brae who run bazaars and cheap shops ; and exhibitors of curiosities. particularly of female giants. UI) to now, these interestin g p ersonages have number ed among tbose who have profited the 1II0st from the transfonnation of Paris." Victor Fournel , Pam nouveau et ParisJlttlir (Paris, 1868) . pp. 129-130 ("Promenade pittoresque i trave rs Ie nouveau Paris"). (E13.3] " The covere.l market of Les HaJJes, b y ulli\'ersal COllsent, constitutes the most irreproachable eonstrtlction of the past dozen years .. , . It manifests one of ulOse logical harmolues whieh satisfy the mind by the obviousuess of its sigJufication, " Victor Fournel, Paris tlOlweau ct Pari.sjutl,r, p. 213. [E13.4-] Already Tinot invites specula tion : "The city of Paris is supposed to make a series of loans totaling hundred s of millions of franc s and, at the sallie time., purehase the better part of a tlUartier in order to rehuild it in a manlier conforming to the requirl!ments of taste, hygiene, and ease of communication . Here is matter for spt!(!u1ation ." Amedee de Tissot , Puru et l.Amdres cnmpnre6 ( Paris. L830),

[EI2., IJ

The old Paris: " The rent de\'ours all , ami they go without nleat." M. Barthelemy, Le Vieux Pn"';s el U! nouvenu(Paris, 1861 ), p, 8 . [E12a,2] Victol' t~ourllcl , in his Paris flouvea" el p(lri~ jutllr (Paris, 1868), particularly in the section "UIl chnpitre des nunes de Paris mooerne;' gives an idea of the scale on ..... hkh J-I aussmanll engineered destrnction ill Paris . " Modern Paris is a parvenu that goes back 110 furth er in time than its own begiunings, and that razes the old jJalaces and old churches to build in their place heautiful white houses with stucco ornllments ami p asteboard statues. In the previons century, to write the annals of the monuments of Paris was to write the annals of Paris itself, from its origins up through each of its epochs; SOOIl , ho .....eyer, it will be ... merely to write the annals (If the last Iwelil y years of our own ex.istence'l1 (pp , 293-294), [E 12a,3) Fournel, in his eminent demonstration of Haussmanu', misdeeds : "From the Faubourg Saint-Germain to the Faubourg Saint-Honore, from the Latin Quarter to the cnvi"ons of tbe Palais-Royal , from Ule Faubourg Saint Denis to the Chaussee d 'Alltill , from the Boulevard des haLiens to the Boulevard du Temple, it seemed, in each case, that you were passing {rom oue contin ent to another, It aU made for so many distinct smaU cities within the capital city-a city of study, a city of hlllllllcrce, a city of luxury, a city of refuge, a city of movement and of popular plea:>ures-all of tllt!m nonetheless Linked to onc a nother b y a host of gradations ami tl'ansitiOlls, And this is what is being obliterated , _ by the construction e\'I'I'ywhere of t.he 8am!! geometrical and r ec.tilinear street , with its unvarying milelung perspective and ib contiUIlOUH row ~ of hou!If:s Ihat are always the same house." Victor Founle1 , Puris "OIwer/U et PfJris fidur. pp. 220-221 ("COIl.. tusion '). [E12a,4-)

pp.4647 .

[E13.5J

In Le Passe. Ie prellent , Covenir de la Reprtblique. (Paris. 1850), p . 31 (cited in (jean) Cassou , Quumnte-huit (Paris , 1939>. pp . 174-175), Lamartine already speaks of the ""nonladic, indecisive, and dissolute city dwellen who are corrupted by their idleness in public places and who go whicheve r way the win(l of fa ctiollalism Illows. heeding the voice of him ..... ho shouts the I(ludest .' [13a. l ] Sta hl on the Purisian tenement houses: " It was already [in the Middle Ages] all overpopulated metropolis Ulat was squeezed within the tight belt of a walled fortification. For the mass of people , tbere were neither single-famil y ho uses lIor separately oWlled houses nor even modest cottages. Bllildings of llIan y stories ,",'ere erected on the narrowest or lots. generally allowing only two , often oltiy one, front window (though elsewher e three-windo ..... hOllilCS were the rul(). These buildings usuaUy rcnUlilled wholly unadorned , ami when they did not simply come to a stop

al Ih~ lop, tlJf!rc was ill 1II0si a singll' guhll' affixed there, . , , On the rOO(M, Ihe situa tion wall jjlrHll jo;e ellough , with unallsuming Superslruclure, and mall8arilcli nestJed lIe,,1 1(1 Ihe chimney !IUI>S, which wen;:. pluo'!l,<1 eXl remel y dolle 10 one anol lll'r." Sla hl SI'CS. ill Ilie frl!t!tlom o( the roofiug slruclures-II (retd"m 10 which moflern arr hilecU in Jlllris lik .. wise allhere--" a (ilntas tic and tho roughl y Gothic [EISa,2) element ," Fritz Slil hl . P(lrj.f (Berlin (1929), pp. 79-80. " Everywhere , , , tlte peculiar clLimneys lien 'c only 10 heighten the disorder o( Ilwsl' form s {lhe mallsa rdes].This is ... a trai t COmmon 10 aU Parillian houses, Even Ihe oMesl o( them bavt' thai high waU from whicb the 101" of the chimney nu t's ~" t t'ml. ... We ilre far rt!llIO\'etl here from the Roman slyle, which hll' been laken In he lite fOllud atinn o( Pllrisian a rchitectu re. We are in fact nearer illl opposite, the Gothic , to wbidl the chimneys clearl y aUude .... IJ we wan t 10 caU Ihis more loosely a " northern IItyle:' then we can see that a second , , , northern clemenl ill prt:s~ 1I1 10 mitiga te the Roman character of the streets. This is none other IlllIn Ihe modern houlevurtls and Inenues. . , which are planted, (or the !I1osllla rl , wilh trees; . , . and row, of trees . of course, are a feature of the north ern cil),," .' ritz Siahl , P(lri.J (Berlin), pp. 21- 22. [E13a,S) In Paris, llle mndern hou se has "developed gradually oul of the pree"jsting one. This could ha ppen because th t preexisting Ollt: was alread y a lar ge 10wnllOlll(l of the type cr eated here, .. in the sevcntc..-enth century 011 Ihe Place Vendome, wheN; Imlay Ihe resitit'lltiull}alacel o( form er times ha ve come 10 harbor busine8l! e8tablishmcnt l of every kind- wilhout having s uf(erefl the lealit altera tion to their fa{adc, . ., Frilz Sta hl. Pori.! (Berlin ). p . L8. (14] A plea for Hauu mann : It is well knuwn thai ... the nineleenth centur)' entirely lost . togt'ther with otller fundamental concepts of art, the concept o( the city as . , . u unified whole, Ht'nccforlh there was no longer any city p lanning. New h uildinga ....ere introduced into the old nelwork of Slret!ts without a Illan. ami they were t'x-panded ~;lh olll II pla n , . , . What can properly be called the a rchitectural bUtory of II city ... was in Ihill way everywhere terminated . Paris is the only excep tion , IIllll as s uch it was greeted with incomprehension and disapproval" (I'P 13-14). " Tlu't"e generations (ailelilo understood what city plallniug is, We know wllllt it is, hut ill our case Ihi ~ knowledge generally brings only regret for missed 0Plwrtunities, .. , These considerations make it possihle 10 lIppreciule the only city plulIIlI'r of gelliu ~ in the modenl world- a 111811 , moreover, whll inllirecdy cl'I'ated all till: Anlt'!'ican nl('tropolisel" (pp. 168-169), " It is solely in thill pcrspec Ii V!: , thcll , tlilit H ll u~s mlil1n '8 grea t tll(>I'ollghfa res take on their relll mea ning. With them, IIII' lIew city . , . illleM'('ncs ill the old and . ill a cerlain ~ I'1I 8e, draws on the 0111. without ndlel'wiije violuling its cllaracter. Thus. lht:Sc lllUrollgllfarc'!l lIIay be i oid IIIIIlIVC, 1I 1 0llg with their utility, an aesthetic eiect . s uch thai the old d ty and the ne \'\' are lint Idl ~ tlllliling opposite each oilier. as is the 1!llse ev!'r ywllt:re clse, but a re drawli IOgclhc r into une. The momeni you come OUI of some ancit'nt lane unt o line o( I-lallu _ milllll's avenues, y<tu're in contact with lhill newer Pnris--the

Paris of the past three cCJlIurie6, For Uau" mann took over nol ollly tbe (orm of the a vellue alld houle-v"rli hut ,,1 80 the (or!l1 o( tile house (rom the imperial capital laid out by !Auill XIV. Thai i, ""lIy hillltreehi can perform the (unction of making th l" city inlO a cOIISJliCUOlI! unily. No, he hal not d estroyed Paris; ~alher, he h ili! brought it to completion .... Thia mll ~ t be ackno ....ledged e\'en when yo u realize how much heaut y wass8crificed . , , . Il aussmann waBassuredly a (an atic-bul his wod ccouJd be acco mpLished onl y by a fa natic.-' Fritz Stahl , Paris: Eine Stadt KunstlCJerk (Berlin). pp . 173- 174. (EJ4a]

au

,~

"

F
[Iron Construction]
Each epoch dreams the: one 10 follow.
- Midlekt. "Avenirl Av.::llirr~
(Eu~,

(!!Cd r a.ny t YI)e of wood, S hortl y afl er 1&10. fully padded funulure appear. in Frallct". 111111 wiUI it the up hols tl'rW IItyle bt!come" lioOlillllnt ." Max von Doehn, Die

MOllf' illl XI X. )lIll r IIllFIIlerr. vol. 2 (Munich . 19(7), 1>. 131.

[FI ,a)

73, p. 6)

The lWO great ad vances in technology-gas' and cast iron-go togetha, "Aside from the great q uantity of lights maintained by the merchants, these galleries are iUuminated in the evening by thirty-four jets of hyd rogen gas mOWlted on cast iron volutes o n the pilasters." The quote is probably referring to the Galerie de l'Opera. J. A. Dulaure, H uto;'" dt ParU . , . depuu 1821 jUJqu nru jOUTl, vol. 2 Paris, 1835), p. 29>. (F 1,4]

Dialectical deduction of iron construction: it is contrasted both with Greek construcrion in stone (raftered ceiling) and with medieval construction in stone (vaulted ceiling). "Ano ther art, in which ano ther sUltie principle establishes a lone even more magnificent than that of the other two, will struggle from the womb of time to be born .... A new and unprecedented ceiling system, one that will naturally bring in its wake a whole new realm of art forms , can . . . make its appearance only after some particular matcrial-fo mlcrly neglected, if not unknown, as a basic principle in that application-begins to be accepted. Such a material is ... iron, which our ~tury has already staned to employ in this sense. In proportion as its Static. properties are tested and made kno.......", iron is d estined to serve, in the architecture of the (urure, as the basis for the sys~m of ceiling construction; and with res pect to statics. it ill: destined to advance this system as fat beyond the Hellenic and the medieval as the sysu:m o f the arch advanced the Middle Ages beyond the monolithic stone-Iimel system of antiquity... , If the static principle o f force is thus borrowed from vaulted constructions and put to work fo r an entirely new and unprecedented system, [hen. with regard to the art forms of the new system, the foruml principle of the Hellenic mode must find acceptance." .(um hU';l{krijiihng~ GthurtJtag Karl Boettichm (Berlin, 1906). pp. 42, 44-46. (The principle of Hellenic architecrure and Ger manic architecture as carried over into the architecture of our rime.) (FI ,1J Glass before its ~ , premature iron. In the arcades. both the most brittle and the strongest materials suffered breakage; in a certain sense, tlley were d cfl ?we~d. Aro und the middle of the past century, it was nOt yet known how to build wuh glass and iron. Hence, the light that fell from above, through the panes between (FI,2] the iron supports, was dirty and sad .
''The mid- IR30s set' [he ll"p~llrallce uf IIII' fi rti l ir(H1 fUrnilUrt', ill the furm of Ledltcads. t huir8 . smull l a bl ~!I, jllnJinierf'J: and il i ~ highl y cllaraclerislil' of tbe CPOeil d, al II,is funlilure wall prl'ferred IJccli ulie it I:ould lJe lII urle to imilule pc.....

"The stagecoach gallops up to the quay. by the Seine. A bolt o f lightning Bashes over the PoOl d 'Austerliu. The pencil comes to rest," Karl Gutzkow, Bri.efi aUJ Paris, vol. 2 <Leipzig, 1842>, p. 234. The Austerlitz. Bridge was one o f the first iron structures in Paris. With the lightning 8ash above, it becomes an emblem of the dawning technological age. C lose by, the stagecoach witll its team of black horses. whose hoofs snike romanticsparks. And the pencil of the German author who sketches them : a splendid vignette in the style of Grandville. [F1.51
" In reali ty, we kllO w of no bellutiful thea lers, no beautiful ra ilroad elatio ns, DO heltllliflll e,.hihitioll bails. nu bea utiful cosinos-thal j..; to say. no bllulltiful hOUlles of indu B lry 0 1' of frivolity." Maul'ice Talmeyr, U I eire du sang ( Paris, 1908),

p. 277.

[FI,6]

MlI.gic of ('ust irun : ' nll.hIJlIc' .... as a b le then to cOllvince himself Iha l the ring urI)Uml utiJi planet ....as nothing olher than a circula r lullcony 00 ",b..it;h the inhabi. tlm U of SlItlirn strulll'ti ill the eve ning 10 get a In~ lIlh of fres h air." Grand ville, Un (/Ilfre 11Io"de (Paris d84-<b). p . 139. 0 H II.~ hi!i h 0 (F I,7]

In mentioning factories built in the style of resid ential houses, and o ther things o f this kind, ",1: must take into account the following parallel from the history o f architecture: "I said earlia that in the period of 'sensibility,' temples were erected to friendship and tenderness; as taste subsequen tly turned to the classical style, a hosl .of temples or templelike buildings immediately sprang up in gardens, in parks, 011 hills. And these were d edicated nO[ o nly to the Graces or to Apollo and the Muses; farm b uildings, tOO, including barns and stables. wae built in the style Of telllplcs." Jacob Falke, Gmn;cll/t tin modernen Gmhmadu (Leipzig, 1866), pp. 373-374. nlere are thus masks of architecture, and in such masquerade the architecture of Berlin around 1800 appears on Sundays. like a ghost at a costume ball. fFla ,l ] "Every tra.desman imitates the materials and meulOds of others, and thinks he

has accomplished a miracle of taste when he brings out porcelain cups resem
bling ule work of a cooper, glasses resembling porcelains, gold jewelry like leather

thongs, iron tables with the look of rattan, and so on. Into this arena rushes the confectioner as well-quite forgetting his proper domain, and the touchstone of his taste-aspiring to be a sculptor and architect." Jacob Falke, GMch ichtt: del modt:rnt:1I Gmhmadu, p. 380. This perplexity derived in pan from the superabundance of lechnical processes and new materials that had suddenly become available. The effort to assimilate them more thoroughly led to mistakes and failures . On the other hand, these vain attempts are the most authentic proof that technological production, at the beginning, was in the grip of dreams. (Not architecture alone but all technology is, at certain stages, evidence of a collective dream.) [Fl a,2)
" With iron constructioD-a secondary genre , it is true---a new art was burn . The east-llide railroad station designed by Duquesnay, the Gare Ill' ('Est, was in this r egard wo r thy of architects' attentiun. The use of iron greatly increased in that period , thanks to the new l:omLinations to which it lent itself. Two quite difrerent but equall y remarkable works in this genre deser ve to be mentioned 6rst : the Bihlilltheque Sainte-Genevieve and the cental marketplace, Les Hailes. The latter is ... a veritahle archetype: reproduced several times in Paris and other citiell , it proceed ed , a8 the Gothic cathedral had IJone, to appear all over France . ... Nutable improvcments can be obscrved in the details. The munumenta) Icad-wurk has bceome rich and elegant ; the railings , candelabras, and mosaic flooring alltC!ltify to an often succenruillucst for beaut y. Technological advances have mllde it pussihie to sheathe cast irun with copper, a procen which must not be abused . Advances in luxury havc led, even more s uccessrully, to the replacement of caH t iron by bronze. something which has turned the streetlarupll in certain puhlic places into objets d 'art." 0 Gas 0 Note to this passage: " In 1848. 5,763 loll.s of irun entered Paris; in 1854, 11 ,771; in 1862 , 41,666; in 1867, 61 ,572. " E. Levasseur, Hisloire des classes ouvriere~ et de l'indwtrie en France de 1789 1870. vol. 2 (Paris, 1904), pp . 531-532. [Fla,3}

Halles hlUl not let ull since 1851 , yct they are , till flul fini shed .' Maxime 011 Caml', Pn ru (Paris, 1875), vol. 2 . lip. 12 1- 122 . [F la,S) Plan fur u truin station intended tu rephu~ .. the Car c Saint-Lazare._COl'lwr of Place de III Mutlclcinc 8nd Ruc Tronch!!!. " Accorlling In tile report. the nils-supported by ' e1egu lll ea 8 t~ il'on arches !'ising twent y feet a bo\'e the !wound , ami having a 1 ,lIb 'lh uf 615 IIlclcrs'- wou.IJ huve crossed tile Rue Saint-Laza r e, the Rue Saint _ Ni(:(j IIl B . tin- Rue d es Malhurins, alld the Rllc Castellanc , each of which would ha ve had ilS own IItation . " 0 Flaneur. ltaiJroad stati un n ~a r <?) the streets 0" ... Mcrely b y looking at them , we call see how little Ihese pillns actually anticipated the future of the railroad s. Althuugh descrihed as 'mon umenta!" the. fu~a de of this train stlltion (which , fortunatel y, was Ilever built) is of uJlus uall y small dilnension8; it wtHlhi 1I0t evcll scrve to accummudate oue of th o~e shops that Ilowaday!! extend along the corners uf certaul illten.eetioll!!. (t is a lIurt of halianate building, th ree Slories lugh. with each stney Ila vingcight windows; the main entrance ill marked by Ii slairway or twent y-rour stepll leailing to a semicircular porch wide ellough ror nve or six persons to pass through side b y side." Du Camp , Pu rL,. \' 0 ) . I , pp. 238-

~Q

The Ga re de l' Ouest (today?) presents " the douhle aspect of II raclvr y in uperation and a ministry." Du Camp , Paris , vo). 1, p . 241. " With your back tu th tl three tllnuds that pau under thc HouJevaril des Batignolles, YO Il can take in the whulc of the Irain stuliun . You Se(.' that it almust has the shulte (If an unmcnsc mandolin: the rail Mwou ld ronn the strings, und tile signal j)()sts. placed at eW'ry crossing or tbe truck.s. ",ou.lll fonn the pegs." 011 Cllmp, H,d." \ ' 01. 1, p . 250. [F2,2] "C baron .. . rUlll tld by the in ~ talla tion or a wi.le footbridge ovcr the Styx," Grandville, Uri autre mOllde (Paris, 1844), p . 138. (F2,3] The first act ofOffeIlLat;h 's Vie purisielllle takes plare ill a ra ilroad station . "The illdu6trial movement seems to r un ill the bl ood or this generation- to slIch all extent that . fur exa mple, Flachat has built his house on a plol of land where. on ei ther side , trains 11.1'1; always whistling by." Sigfried Giedion , HlJmm in Frunkreich (Leip7.ig and Berlin <11)28 , p . 13 . Eugene Fla chat (1802- 1873). huilder of rail[F2.4) ruad s. d e~ ignc r. On the Gllicrie ll' Orliians 'ill Ihe Palai8-Ruyal (IB29-1831): " E vell Fontaine. one or tile originators of ti m Empire styl,;. is cUllvt!l'led ill lalllr years to thc lIew material. III J835- 1836. 1II00"t:llvor. bt~ "'phll'ed the woode'l fillo r ing of till' Galcrie deB BlitHillc~ in V,;rslIilles witb all iroll IIssl'mM y.-'I'bcse galleriea. like those ill tbe Palnis- Uflyal, wt:rc sUhlle(IUfmtiy Ilcrfectcd ill Italy. fur \I~ . tlIC), a l'e n point or ,Iepartllrc for II ",,,,' urcllitetturlll prul,lems: tl'ain ~talilnU:i, ;ulIl thl! lik ... : Sigfricd [F2.5] CictiiulI , Huu en in f 'nmkreicll , p . 2 1.

" Henri LaLrouste, an artist whose talents are sober ami IItlvere. SU CGcssfully inauguratcd the orllilmental use of it-on in the COllstructiOIl of the BihliutLellue Sainte-Genevii':ve and the Bihliotheque NatiOllalc." Levasseur, lIistoire des [Fla,4] ClaSSflS outJriere$, p . 197. First COllstructiun of Les Hailes in 1851 , long aftcr lht' proj ect had hoon approved by Napoleon in 1811 . It met witlt gen eral disfavor. This shme stnlcture wu ~ kllown as lefort de 1a lIaUe. " It was an unrortunate IIttempt which will not be repclltcd . _ . . A mode or CUlllltruction better 8uited to the en t! propused ",ilIl1uw be sought . The glassed sectiuns or the Gare d e rOuest and the memo ry (If the Crys tal Palace, which had housed the wur ld elthibitioll at London ill 185 1. were no doubt re~ pu n sihle for the idea of using glllS!! and cast iron almost exdusivdy. Today we ('a n sec the justification for turning 10 s uch lightweight materials. which , betler tha n any others , fullill ed thl' j:ollditiulIlI laid down fur these eslahliM lullcnts. Work nil Lcs

'"The complkaled ~:nnll trlll:tinn (0111 of iroll lind COPI)er) of the Corn Exchange in 1811 wus Ihe wOl'k of tl .., Qrchit\.'Ct Bellangii Iln~1 the engin eer Brunei . It ill l.he fl ul lime, lu our knowledge. t hul urchilpct a nd e ngineer are no longer united in one 11t1 $(Jn . . . . Hill o..!r. the builde r of the Care du Nord. gOI ilL. insight into iron CllnBlrnc tinn from Uellunge. - ' atUJ'ully, il is II mutte r more of un application of iron t hall U l!lln Slrllctio n in inln . Tec:hniquci of wood cons lruction were H imply transposed lu i.rlJu :- Sigfril':d Cicdion , Bnuen in Frmlkreich , 1 1. 20. [1"2,6] Apropos of Vcugny'j cO"e red mllrkel hu.ilt in 1824 nea r the Madeleine: " The s len(I"rneu of Ihe d elicate Clut-iron columns hrings to mind Pompeian waU paintinp. ' Thc conll tructio n , in iron 8111.1 callt iro n , of the new marke t near the Madeleine i. une of the mOllt gracefuilic hievemeu ts in Ihis gen re. One cannot imu Yne a nYlhing mort' e1I'gant or in bclh:r tallte. .' EA:k. Traile ." S igfried C ie~Jion _ Bamm in Frrlllkreidi. p . 21. [F2,7]

Railroad stations ~Btlhnhiift) used to be known as EisenhaJmhijft.3

rF2a," )

'''The most important 8tel' toward iudllst.riaLization: mechanical Jlrda bricatioll of


~ Jlt:cili c

furlllll (lIt:etiolls) o ul of wrought iroll or s teel. The field s inte rpe ne trate: ... in 1832. railrultll workc r~ hcgan 11 0 1 with lauililingeolllpollcnts hut. with rails. l:Ie re i@ the I)oinl of dc parlul'c fo r ~ec.ti o llal iron , which ill the Imsis of iron construction . [Nute 10 thi l\ paunge: The lIew method s of construction penetrate slowl y into industry. Doulale-T irOIl wa s II s~ 1 ill fl ooring for the firs t time in Parill ill 1845. when tile maSOll8 were o ul un strike alld the pril;e of wood had risen due til increased construclion 111111 large r I panll.]" Ciedioll , BOllen in Frankreich , p. 26.

There is talk or renewing art by beginning with rorms. But are not rorms the true mystery or nature, which rt:5ervcs to it:sclf the right to remunerate-precisely through them-the accurate, the objective. the logical solution to a problem posed in purely objective tenus? When the whed was invented. enabling continuous forward motion over the ground, wouldn't someone there have been able to say, with a certain justification. "And now, into the bargain, it's round-it's in thefimn ifa whee!.'" An:. not all great conquests in the 6dd of forms ultimatc1y a matter or tedmical discoveries? Only now ~ \\'e beginning to guess what forms-and they will be determinative for our epoch-lie hidden in machines. o;To what extent the old rorms of the instruments of production influenced their new ronns from the outset is shoWJlr . .. perhaps more strikingly than in any other way, by the attempts. before the invention of the present locomotive, to construct a locomotive that actually had two feet. which, after the fashion of a horse, it raised alternatc1y from the ground. It is only after considerable development of the science of mechanics, and accun1Ulated practical experience. thai the fonn of a machine becomes settled entirely in accordance with mechanical principles, and emancipated from the traditional foml of the tool that gave rise to it." (In this sense, for example, the supports and the load, in archi.tecrure, are also "'fonus.") Passage is from Marx. }(apilal, vo!.l (Hamburg, 1922), p. 347n.' [F2a,5] TIrrough the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. architecture is linked with the plastic arts. "'That was a disaster for architecture. In the Baroque age. this unity had been perfect and self-evident. 10 the course of the nineteenth century, however, it became untenable." Sigfried Giedion, &lIrn in .Franll.reidl <Leipzig and Berlin, 1928>, p. 16. 1bis not only provides a very important perspective on the & . roque; it also indicates that architecture was historically the earliest field to outgrow ~e concept of an, or, beuer, that it tolerated least well bdng contemplated as "an"-a category which the nineteenth century, to a previously unimagined extent but with hardly more justification at bouom, imposed on the creations of intellectual productivity. {F3.l ] TIle dusty fata morgana or the winter garden, the dreary perspective of the train station. with the small altar of happiness at the intersection of the tracks-it all ~oldcrs under spurious constructions, glass before its time, premature iron. For III the first third of the previous century. no one as yet understood how to build with glass and iron. That problem, however, has long sin ce been solved by hangars and silos. Now, it is ule same with the human materiaJ on the inside or ~e arcades as with the materials of their construction. Pimps arc the iron bear II1gs of this street. and its glass breakables are the whores. fFd.2]
'''The new 'arehit t'Ctlire' <&lIt1l> has itll o rigin in the moment lOf indus try'll forlllatio n . 81 'ouud 183l1--l.he mOmt.'nt uf lIlulal.iclII f,o Ul the c r afl l ma nl y to the illllllSlrinl prutluction pruee..... Cietliun.lJmum in ,"' r tlnkreich . lJ. 2 . [F3 .3J

[F2,8)

The first stnJctures made of iron served transitory purposes: covered markets, railroad stations, exhibitions. Iron is thus inunediatdy allied with functional moments in the life of the economy. What was once functional and transitory, [F2,9] however, begins today, at an altered-tempo, to s~m fonnal and stable.
"Les Hailes "olls isl of two grQups uf pavilio ns j oined to each other by covered IlIlIes . It is a 8cunewiaa t timid iron s tructure thai avoids the gene rous 8pllOS of B Ul'eau und Flaclla t allli o b viously keep s to the model of the greenbuuse." Giedioll . B(luen ita FranA'reich , I" 2H. {F2a. l ]

On the Gare tlu Nu nl : " He re they ha ve elltirely avuided that II blllul ll l1l:e of Ipace
wlli~ ' h is fOlllld in wlliling
,'01)111 8. clllryways, alul rc~taurants IIroulid IBHO . lind which I"d to the pr,) hlell1 of the rllilnlllti station alii exaggerllh:d bal'ollue palace." Giedioll , Bfl/len ill FrIll/ I.' reid,. p. 3 1. (F2a.2]

"Wherever the nineteenth celltury reels itself to be unobserved. it grows bold." Giedion, &lUen in Fmnk,.d,h, p. 33. 1n fact. this sentence holds good in the b'Cneral fonn thai it has here : the anonymous art or the illustrations in family magazines and dUldren's books, ror exanlple, is proor or the point. [F2a,3)

"Railroad tracks," with the peculiar and unmistakable dream world that attaches to them. are a very impressive:: c.x.ample of just how great the natural symbolic powcr of teclmological innovation a n ~ . In this regard. it is illuminating to learn of the bitter polemic waged against iron rails in the 18305. In A 1Tl:atUt in Elr.mr://fllry Locomotion, for example, A. Gordon argued that the steam carriage (as it was called then) should run on lanes of granite. It was deemed impossible to produce enough iron for even the very small number of railway lines being plalUled at tha t time. [F3,4] It mlls t ~ kept ill mind that the magnificent urban views opened up by new COnstruCllOIlS in iroll-Giedion, in his &lIen in Fran/mien (illustrations 61-63), gives excellent examples with the Pont Transbordeur in Marseilles-for a long rime were evident only to workers and engineers. 0 Marxism 0 For in those days who besides the engineer and the proletarian had climbed the steps that alone made it possible to recognize what was new and decisive about these structures : t.hc feeling of space? [F3,5]

pouibiliuC'8 ." A. G. Meycr. Eisenballten . p. 11 . iron material!

II lI

revolutionary building [F3a,l ]

Meanwhile, how it looked in the vulgar consciousness is indicated by the crass yet typical utterance of a contemporary journalist, according to whom posterity will one day have to confess , "In the nineteenth century, ancient Greek archi~c cure o nce again blossomed in its classical purity." Europa, 2 (Stuttgart and Leipzig. 1837). p. 207. [F3a,2] Railroud ~ Ialion .~ a6 "ahodeil of art." " If \\'iertz had hall a t hi ~ dispo8al ... the pu1>lic lIIonumcnl8 of mo(lcrn eivilizatjoll- r ailway statiolls, legisJative chamberl , univ('niIY leclure haUs. marketplaces . town haUs- ... who can say what bright and dramatic new worlds hl' would ha\'e traced upon his canvas!" A. J . Wie.rtz, Oe lwre~ li/feruires (Pari.8, 1.870), pp, 525-526. [F3a,3]

The technical absolutism that is fundamental to iron COfL'ltruction-and funda


mental merely on account of the material itself-becomes apparent to anyone who n=cognizes the extent to which it contrasts with traditional conceptiofL'l of the value and utility of building materials. "Iron inspired a ~ distrust just because it was not iuunmediately furnished by natun=, but instead had to be artificially prepared as a building material. 1bis distrust is only a specific. applica tion of that general sentiment of the Renaissance to which Leon Battista Alberti (De ( I: tudjficaton'a [Paris, 1512}, fol. xliv) gives expression alone point with the words: 'Nam est quidem cujusquis corporis pars indissolubilior, quae a natura CODocta et counita est, quam quae hominum manu et ane conjuncta atque, compacta ese < For theK is, in each thing. a part that is the wor.k and the assemblage of nature, and that is mOK indissoluble than that which is produwl and assembled by the hand of m an with his am." A. G. Meyer. E isenhau fen (Esslingen, }.907), p. 14-. {F3a,4J It is worth considering-and it appean that the answer to this questio n would be in the negative-whether, at an earlier period, technical necessities in architeeture (bUt also in the o ther arts) detennined the fonns, the style, as thoroughly as they do today, when such techno logical derivation seem s actually [0 become the signature of everything now produced. With iron as a material, this is already clearly the case, and perhaps fo r the first time. Indeed. the "basic fonns in which iron appears as a building material are ... alread y themselves, as distinct syntheses, pat11y ncw. And th eir distinctiveness. in large measun=, is the product and expressio n of th e natural properties of the building material, since such properties have been technically and scientifically developed and exploited precisely for lh~u fonus. The systematic industrial process whidl converts raw material into immediately available building material begins, with iron, a t a much earlier stage than with previously existing building matelials. Between matter and material, in this case, there is a relationship quite different fro m lhal bctween stone and ashlar, clay and tile, timber and beam : with iron, buildingmatcriaJ and structural

In 179 1. Ihe I.erm ingcniellr begun 10 be UliW in France for those officers .skiUed in
IIII' a,'''1of fnrtifu;uliun and siege. "At the .same time. and in Ihe same country, the hetween ' COlllilrllctioll' alld 'a rchitecturc' hegan to make itself felt: a nd I)('fort' long il flgurell in lH!nloual attacks. Thill untithcsis had been entirely unkn uwn in iiII' past. ... But in the illnwnerable adllhetie treatises which after Ihe stomls of t lie Revolution ~uidetl French art back into r egular cha llneL1I, . . the conslrllclellrs stood opposed to the llecorul ellr~ . luul wilh Ihis I.he furth er question arOlW: l)ililiO I lht: illgelliellrl , as 1111: UUidl of the form er , ne.:ellsa rily occupy with thcm. ~oda ll y speakiur;. u ,listinct camp?" A. C. Mf>YIr. Eise"bmlle" (Esslingen, 1907) .11. :t {F3,6]
ol'pH ~ ilioli

"'The let'hnillue (If stone arehileclurc ig I!ter eotomy ; that of wood is lectonic!!. What dlws U'1I1i construction IUn'e in I;ommon wilh the one or the other"" Alfred GollhoM Meyer. Ei.Jenlmuten (Esslingen, 19(7) , p. 5. " 1.11 !!tone we feel lite natural II I)ir it of the mass. Iroll is, for U9, only artificiall)' cfllnpreuetl (Iurability and t('lIsti ly" (II. 9). " 'rOil ha ~ a tell sile strength for ty times grea ler than that of stone lind 1<'11 tillt e~ greater Illun tlll.ll of .0'0011 . "llhough ilMtlct wdght is olily four times Ihul uf UOlle ami (lill y eighltuncs lhut of wood. III comparison with a w tllne mau uf Ihe !UI.OIe dilllclIsilJns. thcrdore. a.1I iron body l)OueueiI. ""ith only four timet; the w('ight. a Ivad limit (orty limes. higller" (p. II ). [F3.7) ill its fl n t hunJrcd yea rs, has IIlready undl'rgooi' l'~SC lltial tru lI s~ f(JI' maliun!l--i~ a ~ 1 iron. wrought iron. ingot irOn--1l0 thut tOOay til.(' cngillt. ' er htl.s ut Ilil' Ili ~ IIU S Il I a huilJinlt lIIa tnial t'Ounpl"lely Jifferenl fcolII thul of 80llle fill y yean Uj::O In tht' IWNlw/'live of hiSlorical rd lectioll , Ihesc are ' ferment,,' of It Jis(lui. "Iill ~ illsllI l,ilit y. No "dll'l' building mlllclinl offerllu nYl hing rC llwldy similnr. We ~ lnll.J 111' 1'1' III Ih~' b" ginning of u ,I"vd",mlt'nt Ihul i ~ " u rll til I'rlll,t'll lIl Il furiull s puce .. . . '1 '1 11' ... ('(lIItJitionll of tJu: muterial ... lire volatilizell UI ' Umitlcu
"Thi ~ m ah~ lin l.

form are, as it were, more homogeneous." A. G. Meyer, EU(1lhulen (Esslinge.n, 1907), p. 23. [F3.,5]
1840-1844: " The construction of fortifi cations, inspired by Tiller s. . Thiers . who thought that railroads would never work, had gates cons tructed in Paris at the ver y moment when railroad stations were needed. " Duhech and d ' Espezel, flistoire de Paris (Pans, 1926), p. 386. [Fla,6]

"From the. fifteenth century onward, this nearly colorless glass, in the form of window panes, rules over the house as well. The whole development of interior space obeys the command : 'More lightl'~-In sevente.enth-century Holland, this d evelopment leads to window openings that, even in houses of the middle class, ordinarily take up almost half the wall... . 1The abundance of light occasioned by this practice must have. . soon become disagreeable. Within the room, curtains offered a relief that was quickly to become, through the overzealous an of the upholsterer, a disaster... . 1 The development of space by means of glass and iron had come to a standstill. I Suddenly, however, it gained new strength from a perfectly inconspicuous source. I Once again, this source was a 'house,' one designed to 'shelter the n eedy,' but it was a house neither for mortals nor for divinities, neither for hearth fires nor for inanimate goods; it was, rather, a house for plants. I The origin of all present-day architecrure in iron and glass is the greenhouse." A. G. Meyer, Eisenbauten, p. 55. o Light in the Arcades 0 Minors 0 The arcade is the hallmark of the world Proust depicts. Curious that, like this world, it should be bound in its origin to the existence o f plants. [F4,l )
On the Crystal Palace of 1851: "Of aU the great things about this work, the greatest , in every sense of the word, i8 the vaulted central hall . ... Now, here too, at fint , it was not a space-articttlating architect who did the talking but a-gardener .. . . Thi8 i8 Literally true: the main reason for the elevation of the central h all was the presence, in this 8ection of Hyde Park , of magnificent elm trees, which neither the Londoners nor Paxton himself wished to see felled . Incorporating them into his giant glass house, 88 he had done earlier with the exotic plants at Chatsworth , Paxton almost unconsciously-but nonetheless fWldam entally--enhanced the architectural value of his construction. " A. G. Meyer, Eisenbauten (Es81ingen , 1907), p. 62. [F4,2] In opposition 10 the engineen and builders, <Charles- f'ran ,<ois) Viel, as architeet, publishes his extremely violent , comprehensive polemic against static calculation , UJlder the tide De l 'lmplliu ance des mathemariques pour auurer ill solidite des biitiment5 <On the U6eleu neu of Mathematiu for Assuring the StahiLity of Buildings> (Paris. 1805). [F4,3] The following h olds good for the arcades, particularly as iron structures: "Their most essential component ... is the roof. Even the etymology of the word 'halI'6 points to this. It is a covered, not an enclosed sp ace: the side walls are, so to

Interior of the Crystal Palace, London, from a photograph by William Hcruy Fox Talbot. See F4,2.

speak, 'concealed.'" TIlls last poi.nt pertains in a special sense: to the arcades, whose: walls have o nly secondarily the hmction of partitio ning the hall ; primarily, they SCfve as walls or fa/?des for the conuntrcial spaces within them. The pas sage is from A. G. Meyer, Eurnbullten, p. 69. [H ,4]

manner.... Eae::h of the twelve thousand me::tal fittings, each o f the two and a half million rivets, is machined to th e:: millimete::r.. .. On this work site, one:: hears nO chisdblow liberating form from stone::; here thought reigns ove.r muscle power, which it tranSmits via cranes and secure scaffolding." A. G. Meyer, EiJenbauten, p. 93. 0 Precursors 0 [l-'4a,2]
" HaU8sm1 UIII Y!'tI ~ incapahle of huving what could be 1!lI l1 ed a policy on raiin)ati lilations ... . Dc~ pit e a directive from till': emperor, who jll ~ tJ y baptilted kllMurell ' the new gateways of Pam ,' the COlltinUed developmellt of t.he r ailroadM surprised rveryone. SlU1Jlluing aU expectations .... The habit of a certain cmpiricism was nOI easily lJ\'ercolllr ." Dubech and d' Espeltei , lIiJlloire de Purill (PlIri.!l , 1926),

TIle arcade as iron cons truction stands o n the verge o f horizontal extension. That is a decisive condition for its "old-fashioned " appearance. It displays, in this regard, a hybrid character, anaJogous in cenain respects to that of the Baroque church-"the vaulted 'hall' mat comprehends the chapels only as an extension o f its own proper space, which is wider than ever before. Nevertheless, an attraction 'from o n high' is also at work in this Baroque hall-an upward.tending ecstasy, such as jubila~ from the &acoes on the ceiling. So long as ecclesiastical spaces aim to be more than spaces for gathering, so long as they strive to safeguard the idea of the eternal, they will be satisfied with nothing less than an overarching unity, in which the vertical tendency outweighs the horizontal." A. G. Meyer, EiJ~lIbatltt71, p. 74. On the other hand, it may be said that something sacral, a vestige of the nave, still attaches to this row o f commodities that is the arcade. From a functional point of view, the arcade already occupies the field of horizontal amplitude; architecturally, however, it still stands v.ithin the conceptualfidd of the o ld "hall." [Fol,S]
The Galeric del Mllchines, built in 1889 ,: was torn down in 19 10 "out of artistic liadism." [F',' I Historical extengion of the horizontal : ' From the palaces of thf: Italian High Renuissance, the ch ateuux of the French kings lake the ' gIlUery,' which- as in the case of the ' Galler y of Apullu' pt the Louvre and the "GaUery of Mirron' at Versailles-bel'urnes the emblem of majesty itself. ... l it !! new triumphal advance in thf: nineteenth centu ry begills under tbe sign of the purely utilitarian structure. with tiaO!le halls known a8 wardlOlises and markets, work!;hops and fa ctorieM: the problem of railroad St.atiOl18 lind , aho.!c aU, of exhibitions leads it back to art. And everywhen : the Ilemulul for continuollil horizon tal extensiull is .110 greal Ihat the slone a rch und thl.' woodell eeiling can bllve only " ery limited applications .. .. UI Gothic Ur ll ctllrl"~ , the waUIi turn inlo Ihe ceiling, wh e rta~ in iron halls of Ihe ty pe ... rCl'rcsf nted by the Galler y of Machinf:! in Paris, the ceiling slide.!! O\'er tlle wull!! wilhout inlerruption ." A. G. Meyer, Huell/mulen . "" . 74-75. [F4a, I}

p.419.

[F4a,3]

Eil'fel To\,er. " Greeted at first by a lilorm of protelt , il has remained tluite ugl y, though it proved useful for reliC_nh 0 11 wirelcss telegra phy, ... It has lK.'t: 1l said thlll this worllltxhibitioo marked Ihe triumph I)f i.ron construction . It wUlLld he truer 10 Illy that it marked ill bankruptcy." Duheeh and d 'Elipezei . f1u toire de Pori", PI" 461-462. [F4a,4] 'Around 1878. il WU Ii thought lblll liulvation lay in iron construction . It!! ' yen rlling for verticulity' (a8 Salomon Remach put it), the predominance of empty B I)acel over filled spacel , and the lightneu of iii visible frame raised hOI)e8 that a styh: W aH emergillg in whieh the essence or the Gothic geniu!! would be revived lind rejuvenated b y a !lew spirit aDd new malcriaJs. But when eligUlL't:r s er et:tcil the Galerie des Ma c hinc~ und the Eiffel Tower ill 1889, people IleSpllirl!d of tlle art of iron . Prrhaps 100 soon ." Duhet:h and d ' Espezel, H illtoire de Parill. p. 464. (F4a,5] Beranger: " His , ole reproach to Ihe regime of Louis Philippe was that il I'"t Iherepublic to grow ill II hothou ~e ." Franz Diederich , " Victor Hugo:' DU! neue Zeit , 20, DO . 1 (Stuttgart , 19(1 ), p . 648. [F41l.,6] " The palh that lead" from tlle ElIlpire form of the first locomotive tu the fin ished objective alld fUli ctional form or today marks an eVllhllion :' Joscph Aug. Lux , " Ma.schineniistbt: tik ," DU! lIeue Zeit , 27 , no. 2 (Stuttgart , 19(9), p . 'l39.

[F4a,7]
"Tbu!;e cndowl!d "lith 1111 et>r1 eciaUy fin e artistic COn&ciCIICt' have hurlNl down , frum Ilu' altar uf urt, curse aftf'I' I!urse 011 the hu.iltling 1 !lIginccn . It !iunice" tn mention Ru ~ kill ." A. G. Meyer, EUelibultl en (EilSlil1gclI , 1907), p . 3. [FS, lJ COllccrnillg tlil' arti~ ti c idea of Empire. On DUlimicr : "lie d is played till: grea t!,';1 elllhusiasm for mllSIJwar cltcitatio";!. Tirelessly his pellcil exalts lh.~ t en ~ ion aull mO\'cmellt IIf mllscle.'! .... 8uI the Jlllhlit of which he Ilreamcil WII' pru portiollt'd ,IiCferellti y frum tllis ignoble , .. ~ UIil'ly of lihllpkceper li . li e yea rnl'd fll r II 8(wial ntiB,," Illal would 1I11ve provided , like that of Hon{Jienl GI....'1!ce. a bust! fnull ",hiclt

Neve... before was the crilerion of the "minimal" so important. And that includes the minimal element of quantity: the "litue," the "few." These are dimensions that were well established in tcdUlologica1 and architectural constructions long before literature ma de bold to adapt lhem. Flmdamentally, it is a question of the earliest manifestation of the principle of mo ntage. On building the Eiffel Tower : "'llms, Ule plastic shaping power abdicates here: in favor of II colossal sp .'m of spiritual energy. which chrumcls the inorganic m'H~rial ene::rgy into the smallest, most efficient fonns and cOluoins these fonns in the:: most effective

..

poople ,,,"It.! raise dll'm s. l v~j. H!! from II Il.e clcsta l, ill vigoroull heatH y.. .. A gro''';;'l ue .li!!ln rlio n mu ~ 1 . .. r Ci li1t wile n!h" Lourge.>ii ie i8 vit' wed from the II ngleo( s uch id ell ljl. Dau lllie r 's ca rirllturc8 wc re thus the ulm ust illvo hllltary Cll n.~etl" ellce of a 1 0fl Y IIlIIl>it.ioli !hitl failctl in its uim of a tlullcnwnl witJ, tile miildl.-clasj; rubIi" " .. III IM35 . 1I 1l 1l1li'lII pt UII th e lif,' {If the k.ill t I1n:....' IlIl'l l un . . u Pl)Orlllllity to " lIrlllil ... th ... holdncss of the pres!!, which had bt:e.n Iluhtid y Llamed for the deed , 1'.llil iclll curica tu r e I" 'caille impossible .... Elence. the dnwings of la wyer!! done in Ihis pe l'jod are ... hy for Ihe most p llJIliunate and luuma ted . T be courtrUoOm is Ihe olll y pill e t: where pilchI'd haltles ClUJ still be waged ill 11.11 their (ury, and luwyers un: the o lil y IH"Opie ill whom lin emph uticully muscula r rhe loric und u profe8S ion~ ully dramutic pose h uve mude for all d ll borate pbysiognomy of the hody," "'ritz Th , Schuh e. " lI oll o ~ Illlwnie r:' Die n 4'lIe Zeit. 32. no. I (S tUtl ~ rt <1913 ,

like the

tOII ~

of Boucher ', !;atl':1l." Edollard Foucaud. Paris iflllenle /lr: Phy.iologie

de l'industrie frulI(;(lue (pllri8. 1844). pp. 92- 93 .


Th('
S{IU III'C O ll JlO~ i t('

(F5a.2)
i ll

the C are du riord

Wil S

known

noubni~ .

1860 as the Plpce de [F5a,3]

In engrll vin!;l1 of the IJerioll, horlSeS a re pranc ing aCr6U railroad statio n espla. Illulell. IIl1d S((lg{'coaclu,:s roU by in clomb of d ust. [FSa,4j CHptio li fo r a w~llxlcut representing a ca tllfalqul! in the Care du Nord : " Last rf'l\ pecu puid 10 !\1eyerht.. 'Cr in Parill al thesnre de chemin de fer du Nord." [F5a,S) Factories wi th gll ilerics inside a nd winllillg iron staircu&e l . Eurly prospectuses and ilIus trutio nllho w p roduction rooms und dis play rooms. whic h are often under the sume roof. fo mUy rcp l'f!8cntcd in crOSS~8ection Like doU hnuses. Tbus a prOtipectul of 1865 fur lhe fuutwellr C OmlJany Pine l . Not infrequentl y one sees ateliers. Like those of .,hologrupher s, wi th sliding shalles in front of the skylight. Cabinet des
Es ta lll pe~ .

PI" 833-335.

{F5.2J

The miscarriage of Ba1tard's design for Les Halles. built in 1853, is due to the sam(' unfortuna te combination of masonry and ironwork as in the original proj. eo for the London exhibition hall of 185 1, dIe- work of the Frenchman Horeau. Parisians referred to BaJtard's st:ructure, which was subsequently tom dO\vu. as Ie fort de la Halle. [F5.3}
On till' C r ys tal Palacl. with tht> elm' iu itll midsl : " Under these
arc.he8, tbank;; to uwningli. V Cllliluto rs, and gmhing foullluim . visitors re vel in a delicioWi t oo iliells. In the wQrlb of Olll! o b ~erve r : ' You might think yo u were under the L.iB uws uf lIome fa hulous riVI!r. in th...:ry8l ul pa la ce of a fairy Or nlliad . , .. A. Demy, "';u(li ltiMorique ($ llr feJ t'xpo$itionJ IInilie rJeJft'J de llu ru ( Puris. 1907)., I' . 40.
~ IUII

[F5a,6J

[F5.' ]

The Eiffel Tower : " It is clulracle ristic of this m051 famo us conSlructio n of the e poch thill , for a ll iu gigan tic ~t a ture , . . . it neYerthelc8I feels like a knickknack . which .. . 8peaks fo r the facl t.hal the 8ccond~ra t e a rtistic sensibility of the era could think , iu gcner a l. only within the fram ework of genre Ilnd the teehnitlue of Jiligree." Ego ll FriedeU. Kltltnrs eJchielite der Neltzeit. vol. 3 (Munich , 1931 ). p. 363 , [FSa,7] "Michel C he valier Belli do wn his drea ms of the ne ... lemple in a poem:

"After the closing of the London Exhibition in 1851 , people in England won dered what was to become of dIe Crystal Palace. AlLhough a clause inserted in the deed of concession for the grounds required , . . the demolition . .. of the building, public opinion was unanimous in asking faT the abrogation of this clause. .. . The newspapers were full of proposals of all kinds, many of which were distinctly eccentric. A doctor wanted co tum the place into a hospital; an other suggested a bathing establishment. . . . One person had dIe idea of mak ing it a gigantic library. An Englishman with a violent passion for Bowers msisted em seeing the whole palace become a garden.n The Crystal Palace was acqutrm by Francis Fuller and transferred to Sydenhanl. A. S. de Doncourt, U j & posib'ol1l ulIiu('rJl'lleJ (Line and Paris <1889 . p. 77. Compare F6a, 1. Tne Bourse could r~pmellt a nything; the Cryslal Palace could be um l for a nYlhing. {F5a,l j
" Furn itun' ma kin g in t ulJlllllr irOIi . . . riva l" furwlurt' making in 100'(1111 1, 111111 e l't:.l1 S UI'I I:I ~!<" S it. FUl'nihuj " r Iilldl i.rOll . wil l, IHlk ... 'i.i 1)1I culor . . .. ena mell,{1 wilil Row e rs " I' ",'itl! flall e rn l! imi tilling thOllt' .,f illlllilJ WOOl!. is , ' I.'g~ 11t and nicely tur m'll.

I woul cl have you see. my tl!ml'le.

Ih ~

Lord God said.

T hc C1}\umns of the tl!mple \'(Iere strong beamB: Of hollow c a ~l irun (:o lunm8 Was Ihe orga u o flhi ~ new temple.
The frv. llI<" wurk Wll' of iron , of molded ~ Ied . Of ('Opper IIml of liron]!c. 1'111' nrdlile.'1 11111111111:11 illilluilihe cuhlmlUI Lik!' . 81ringed in81rllmcIII "1>011 II w()/j{lwilid .

F ro;lt .. Ille tl!mpll' "aln.... mo rl:{l\'cr. a' "ad. mome nt uf Lht' ti llY.

1'1... ~r!Un'la uf a l it." " ha rmony, 1'1 11' ~ lcn,l c r slliro< rru/! "I' like ll lighining ro.l ; [I re a ch ~tlt o thr drill/Is,

artS-a view which is, unhappiJy, dttply rooted in him and deeply pondered." Victor Hugo, Ot UllffS compleltJ, novels, vol. 3 (Paris, 1880), p. 5.~ [F6,31 Be.fore the decision to h.uild the Pabis de l'Indusme 'o was made, a plan had eJOstcd to roof over a section of the Champs-EJys~es-along with its trees-in the maImer of the Crystal Palacc. [F6,4j
Victor Ilugo, i.1l NQlre-Dome de Puris, on the Bourse: " If il be Ihe r ule that Ihe ar(" hitetu r e of a ImiMing shotlld be adapled to ils fun ction , ... we can hardly wOllllel' cllough III 11 monumenl which mighl equall y well he u king'l palace, a house of commolls . a 10WII hall , a college, a rilling sellOol. all acade my, a ware.houlIe, a law COIIII. It museum , a harrack., a sepulcher, a lemple, or a thealer. For the preen t. it is a slo.:k excha nge .... It is a s tock exclumge in Frollce jusl all it would !III VI' bcell II temple in C reece . . . . We have the colonnude encircling the monument , beneath which. 0 11 days of high religious solemnity. Ihe theor y of s tockbroker~ and jobbers can be maj eNticully expounded . These, for s ure, arc very I ta tely , monuments. if we add to them many fine streets, ail am using and di verse as the Rue de Ri voli , t.hen I do not deSI)air but that one d ay a ballooll's-eye view of Paris will offer U ll tha t wealth of lim:s .. .. thai d iversity of aspect , that somehow ... tUlcxpech."C.1 bea ut y, whic h charac terizes a checkerboard." Victor Hugo, Oeuvres COII/plele" 1I0 VelS, vol. 3 ( Paris, 1880), PI" 206-207 (NOIre-Dome de H"Jris).1I [F6a.lj

---. -~

La CasJt-tilt-omanit, ou La Fllftur dujour (Picru~ fume Mania, or They're All the Rage These

Days). S: F6.2.

To ~k there e1eclric rorce; S tunus have charged it wit h vit a lity ami tCD8io n .

At the lop oflhe minareu


T he Ielegra ph ,,'U waving iu armll. Bringi ng from all parts Good neW 8 to the J)fflple.

! D' AUemagne. Le, SOifil-SimofliclI'. 1827-1837 (paris, 1930). p . 308. Henry- Relll

[F6,11

The "Chinese puzzle," which comes into fashion during the Empire, reveals the century's awakening sense: for consnuction. The problems that appear, in the puzzles of the period , as hatched portions of a landscape, a building, 01' a figure are a first presentiment of the cubist principle in the plastic artS. (To verify: whether. in an allegorical representation in the Cabinet des Estam pes, the brain teaser undoes t.he kaleidoscope or vice versa.) [F6,2j

"Paris it. vol d 'oiseau" (A Bird's-Eye View of Paris)-NQtre-Dame (Ie Paris, vol. 1,
book 3-condudes its overview of the architecntml histOry of the cit)' with an ironic characterization of the prcsem day, which culminates in a description of the architecwml insignificance of the Stock Exchange. The importance of the chapter is underlined by a note added to the definitive edition of 1832, which says: MThe author ... enlarges, in one of these chapters, upon the ClllTCIlI decadence of ardlitecmre and the now (in llis view) aL most inevitable dCLllisc of this king of the

Sec F6a, l.

"fbe Pari, Stock Exchange, mid-Ili.llc:u:c:nth CCJltu ry. Counc:5Y ofthc: Paris Stock Exchang,

11'0'0 wo rds can meet" (p . 25 ; it remains 10 he determined whethcr this l a~ t selilellce is mea lit ironieB Uy. or whctller it di ~ lill glli 8 h e~ hetwt.'C1l algehra and malhcmBtieS). The lIuthor criticizes tht' r ont ,Iu Louvre un,1 tilt: r ont de III Cite (both hridge8 rrom t803) ill accunla llct' wilh the prind plelJ uf Leon Dlluistu AUlerti. [F6a,3] A.:cording to Vid. the fi N t bridge. to be built on a constructi vc basis woult! have fF7. 1] been underta ken a rountll 730.

III 1855. the [lotd du Uouvre was constructed a t a ra pid tempo, 80 a8 10 be in place fo r the oJICuing of the world exhibition . "For the Arlit time. the entrepreneu r!! used electnc lighl on the site, in order 10 double the d ay's lahor; some ullexl~ ted ,ldays occurred; the ci ty was jUl t coming out of the amoul! carpenter s' strike, which pUI an end to wood-frame structures in Pans. Conse<luently, the Hotd dll Louvre possesses the ra re distinction of having wedded , in il8 d esign, the wood puneling of old h ouses to the iroll fl ooring of mo<lern buildings." V" G. d ' Avenel, " Le Mecanisme de la vie modcrne," pa rt l. "Les G rands Magasins," RevlU! de, del/X montles (Jul y I S, 189,1), p. 340. [F7,2) " III Ihe begilluing, railroad carll look like stagecoaches, autobllses like omnihuaes , electric ligh tl! like gas duuu.ldicrs, allil the lalll like petrolclun lamps." Leon Pierre-Quint . "Signification Ilu cinema ," L'Arl cillemCllographique, 2 (Parill. 1927), I). 7. [F7,3] The: Palais de: I'lndustrie: at the: world exhibition of 1855. Sc:e F6a,2.
Apropos of the [ lIlpire style of Schinkel: "'The building that hrings oul the I~ cation , the substructu re Ibat embodielJ the t.rue lIeat or invention, . . . these things rl!5emble-a \'eb.icie. They convey architectural ideals. which on.ly in thill 80rt of wa y can stili he ' practiced ,'" Ca rl Linfert , " Vom Ur sprung gTosser Baugedanken ," Frankf llrter Zeitung, January 9 , 1936. (F1,4] On the ....orld e:dtihition of 1889: "We ca n say of trus festivity that il bas been celebrated , abol'e aU , 10 the glory of iron , ... Ha ving undertaken to give readen of I.e Co rrespondtlnt a roUYI idea of industry in connection with the EXI)()sition du Cham p de Mal'S . ....e have ehosell for our thenle ' Metal Structures and Railroadll.'" Alhert de Lapl'arelit . Le Sii d e dll fe r (Paris, 1890), I'P , vi.i-vili . [F7,5] 0 11 the Crystal Pnluee; "The arc hitect , I'axtoll , umll.he cont rac tors. M es~ rs . ..~O )( li nd Hcmlerson . had systclIlatil:aU y resolved nol to use purts ....ith large dilucnsions. The heavieSI were hollow clist-il'OIi gil'llerll . eight meters long. nOlle ofwhicb wdg hed mon : than II 1011 . . , , Theil' chief merit wus that they w!'rc ecoliOluicul. ... MurcO\'er, tht' excl'ulioll of till' plllll was l'clIlllrkahl y I'u pitl , sin ..e a U the part!> were (Of a SUI'! that the fa ctorics could ulul('rlake lu deli vcr quickly." AII,ert lie LapI'ar1'111 . Le Sied e dllfer (pa ris. 1890), p . 51) , [F7,6j
(...a ppare nt dh'i;ies iron s tru'~ tun's ilil o Iwu . la ~S 'II: iron struetu.res with stolle facings amllru!! iron slructures. lie ph,,!cs the follo ...iug exa mple amoll/!: the fi n l

PaJais de l'lndustrie: " One u struck by tbe elegance and lightness of the iron framelo\' ork ; yet the engineer, . , . Monsieur 8arrau.h , has shown more skill than taste. As for the domed yaSii roof, . , . it is awkwardly placed , and the idea evoked ... ill ... thllt of a large cloche: indu.stry in a hothouse .... On each side of the entrance ha ve heen placed two s uperb locomotives with their lender s." Tills last arrllllgc.llIenl presuma bl y occasioned by the distribution of prizell which closed the exhibition on Novemhe r 15. 1855, Louis [nault, "Le Palais de I'lndu8lrie," in [Jflri.! e' Ie, Pnri.sien.! (III X IX' !iecle (Parill, 1856), pp , 3 13, 3 15, [F6a,2]

FrOIll C hurl c~ - )o~ rllll~oi8 Vie! , De l"IIIPlliuullce des ma,hemCl'iquell l)OUr (u,urer la lj(Jlidile (Jell bii,ifrlfU/U (Paris, 1805): Vie! distinguishes ordonllfJ.nce <pla nning. lay 0 111> from cOllstrue/ioll lind fuults I.hc yo unger a rchilects IIhove all for in ~ uffi cienl knowletlge "f lhe formel. Uh illlll lel y responsible is " the lie'" direction th ut Jlublic illstruct.iun in this uri has !ak~' II . in the wake of our politicuilempcsis" ( p. 9), " As for Ihe geometel's whu pructice are hil ecturt:, their buildings-m; regu rds iuvcntion ami CUlIstlIIf'lioll- PrcJV, Ihe nullity of mutll eln u lj c ~ wl.ere O rnf)1U1 (1 I1 Ce 1IlIIl lItruc Itlrul stuhililY are COllccrnc,r' (p . 10). "The mathematicians, .. claiJII 10 huve , . ' ~o n cil eoJ b.,ldncu witll Ijtal,ilit y. II ill only under the lIegis of algl'hru thai these

IIOrt. " Labrousle ... in 1868 ... gave to tile public tlte reu.lillg room of Ihe Bihliotlll-;que Nationale .... It iii difficuh 10 imagine anYl hing morc sa tisfying or more harmonious thall this grellt cha mber of 1, 156 S((lIure mlllel. with ilH nine fretted cupolas. incorporating a rclll!~ of iron lattice ulld reliLing on sixteen light ca~ t -i ron I;olumns, l ....eI\e of wh.ieh are set againsl the wa lls , wlLile four. completely free-standing, rise from the floor on pedesta l, of the 8Bllle melal." Albert de Lapparent, Le Sieck dllfer (Pa ris . 1890), pp . 56-57. [F7a,1] The engineer AJexis Darrauh , who with Viel buill the Palace of Indus try ill 1855 , was a brother of Emile Darrauh . [F7a,2) In 1779. the firs t cut-iron b ridge (that of Coalbrookda le). I.n .1788. iu builder!! was awa rded the Gold Medal of the English Society of Arts . " Since it was in 1790, furthermore , that the architect Louis completed the wrought-iron framework for the Theatre FralU;uis in Paris, we ma y say t.hal the centen ar y of metal cOllstruction coincides almost exactl y with that of the French Revolu tion .'" A. de Lal)parent , Le Sieck du fe r (P ari 1890), Pi>. 11- 12. [F7a,3) Paris, in IB22 : a " woodwork strike." [F7a,4]

00 the subject of the Chinese puule, a lithograllh : The Trif.lmp/l of the Kaleido3COpe, or the Demise of the Chinese Game. A reclining Chinese man with a brainteaser s pread out on thc gro und hefore hilli . On his s houlder. u fe lliale fIgure has planted her foot. In one hand, she carries a kaleidoscope; in the other. a paper or a scroll with kaleidolicope I)atlerlli!. Cabinet des Estampes (daled 18I B). [F7a,5]

" The head turnl a nd the heart tightens when, for the fIrst time, we visit those fairy halls where polis hed iron and dazzling COPI)er seem to mo\'e and think by themselves, while pale and feeble man is om y the humble servun l of those s teel gianu." J . Michelet , Le Pel/pie (Paris, 1846), p. 82 . The author ill 110 way fCUT!! that mechanica l p roduction will gllin the upver ha ntl over hUlllall beings. The individualism of the consumer seems to him 10 spea k agai nst tlus: each " man now ... wants to be himself. Consequentl y, hc will orten ca re It!8s for products fa bricated by clane" without any individuality that speaka to lLis OWII" (ibid . p . 78).13 [F7a,6)
" VioUet-le-Duc ( 181 4-- 1879) s hows thatlhe archile.:!s of the M.iddle Ages were also engilll.."CTM and resourceful iuvenlOni." Amedee OZl!nfa nt . " La Pdnture murale," Ell cyclopediefrtr/U;aise. vol. 16. Aru CI fjll ~r(jmres dUllS fa s(Jcihfi conlem/)Oraine, part I , p . 70, colulIIlI 3. [F'.II P rolest against t.he Eiffe1 Tow('r : " We COllie . IIIi writers. pll inten , 8clllJll or~. architects . . . in Ihe 1I11 1llC of Frl'lIl'h IIrt li nd French hi ~ tllry_ hot h of which II ". ' threul" lied , ... 10 prole" againSllhe .'olliltruction . in t.hl' "cry h"ln'l of (Jllr eapilill. of Ihe uselesli alul lIumstrOllll Eiffel To,...:r . . . . It ~ barha rOIiS lIIass o\'erwllcllllil Notre- Dame. the Sainle-Chalk.Lic, Ihe Tower of Sainl-J u.eq ue.... AJI our monUllleliU

Le Triomphe drt ~a1iidOJcope, ou U 7Om/Jt(l.u du jeu chinois (!be l iiumph of die Kaleidoscope, or TIle Demise of die Chinese Came), 1B18. Councsy of the Dibliotheque Nationale, Paris.

See F7a,5.

an- tlebased . our arehitC<!ture diminis hed ." Ciled in Loui! CherOllnel , " Les Trois Grll ll(l-mcres dc I'ex position ." Vendredi, April 30. 1937. [F8,2] Supposed ly therc wcre IrtCS within !\1l1sard's " Harmony H all ," on the Boulevard MOlllmarlrc. [F8,3] .. It was in 17B3 , ill tlu: constrm:tiun of the 'I'hcu tl'e Fram;uis , tltat iron was C IIIploreJ ror t.he firs t time 0 11 a large scale. by till' architect Louis. Never l)Crhaps. It a ~ II wQt'k iiU amluciolls (,I.~ n allempte.1. When , in 1900 , Ihc theater was rcbuilt in Ihe aftermath uf II fire. it WIIS wi th a wdght of irun one huml red times greater than Ihlll .... hich the urcilitecl Louis hutllllw,l for till' illimil Irll8swork. COlliltruction in il'un hll~ pro\itle.11I ~ 1II ...e8siun uf IJllihlingti. uf which Ihe grelll reallint; room of the llilJliuthe..lue Nalionaic (,y LuIJrotUle was tile firiit, and one of Ihe most suceeS8filL . . Dut iron rl.'(luircs costly mai ntenu. nee ... _ The wurld exhibition of 1889

marked tllC triumph IIf c"l'oMc~1 i roll"'ork . . ; at t.he exhihitiou of 1900 . ncarly a U tilt" irlln f" a mes wei.... co vered wilh pl us terwurk .' L f;ncrcllJfJcdiejrulIf.ojsl!. vol. Hi. 1("",(*1 . pp . 6-7 (Auguste Perrcl. "U:9 BeslJills ,,"Ilcctifs t:I r al"l'hitecturc").

W8,41
The "'triulllpl. l1f cxJlo~cd irOliwork" ill the age: ofthegc nre: " It ma y he . .. tile ... e nthu siaslU for mac.hille techllology 1I 11~1 the failh in the sUI>crior dnrllbilit y of its malcljall! tha t explains why the auriLute ' iron ' is used ... whe ue ver ... power IIlHlllccellsit y lire slipposed to be ma nifest. Iron are the laws of nature. a mi iron is till' ' st ride of the work!!I' haltulion '; the . . . union of tb .. Cermllll empi.re is supposedly made of iron , lind 50 is ... the chanccUor himSelf." Dol( St!!rllbergcr, PanorO lllo (H a mburg, 1938), p. 3l. (F8.5] The iroll ball'nlIY. " In its mostl'igorous fo rni , tbe house has a unifo rm fUliade . ... Articulatio n resu.its only from doors and wiDtlows . In Frunce. the window is, \\; thollt exceptlo n , even in the poorest hOUli~! . II porle-jelletre, .II ' French window' o pe ning to the lIoor.. , . T his makes a railing III!t:l!ssary ; in the )Qorer h ou~s it is a pluin iron bar, bill in the wealthie r ho uSi!s it is of wrought iroll .. . . AI II certain Siage . tllC rlliling becomes lUi ornamCllt .... It furtber cuntrihutes to tht: artlcuJ lItlon of the fa{ade by ... acce nting the lowe r line of the willll!)w. Ami it fulfill s hoth funiltiOlls without breaking the "lane of t he fa~ade . For the great architectural mass of the modern house, witll its insistent lateral extension. this a rtlcuilition COIII~lllot pOS8ibly s uffice. The II r chitec tli ' Lu.ildwg-sense demanded that the ever stronger horizontal tendency of the house ... be givell exprellsioll .... And they discovered the m ea n ~ for thi~ intire traditional iron griUe. A cro~s the enti re length of the huildi ng front , (III Ollt' ()I' two ~ t ori es , tlle y set a b alcollY provided with an iI'oll grating of tllis type, which , being black, s tunds o ut \'c ry distinctl y und makes It "igorolls wlp ression . These bal'::orues, . . . ujllo the lIIust recent pel'iod of huilding. wen! kept ve ry ua rrow : a nd if lilrollgh theln tile sev!!rit y "f the ~ nrface i~ overl:ome. what can he Gall!!tl the relief of d m fa-;ad e re mains no netheless ,)wte fial , overcQming the t'ffectof the wall as little as dOt:s the sculpted ornamentation , likm"i ~c hpt fl at. In the eillie of adjoining h o usc~, these balcony raili.llgs fuse with one a n o tlu~ r illld liolisillilla tt' the illlpre~s i o n of a walled st reet ; and thi ~ effec t is hf! ighte ned hy t he fac t thUI, where \'t' r the uppe r .. tories ure used for commercial I'lirpusm;, tile proprie tors )JUt up . .. not s ignboa nls but matc hed gilded leltcl'S in "'H II UII "tyle. which. when well s lll1lled II llr uss the irOnwo rk. ap pear purdy decor atin:," Fritl. Sta hl. Puril (Be rJiIi ( 1929). PV . 18- 19. (F8a]

G
[Exhibitions, Advertising, Grandville1
les , when all the world from Paris to China Pays heed 10 your doctrine, 0 divine Saint-Simon,
The gloriuus Golden Age \\ilI be reborn. Ri vers will Bow with chocolate and tea, Sheep roasted whole will frisk on the plain, And S auteed pike ....ilI swim in the Seine. Fricasseed spinach will grow on die ground. Garnished with crushed fried croUlOns; The trees \Vi1I bring forth apple compotes, And fanners \Vi1I harvest boots and coats. It will snow wine, it will rain chickens, And ducks cooked with turnips will fall from die sky.
- Ferdinand Langit and Emile Vanderburch, Loui.r-BrllTlu d k &;111SiT/t/lflim: P4rodi~ tie Louu Xl (ThtilrC du PalaisRoyal, February 27, 1832), cited in Thbxion: Mun:t, L'HiJ/l1irt par k tMatTe, 1789-1851 (Paris, 1865), vol. 3, p. 191

Music such as one gets to hear 011 d ie pianofones of Saturn's

ring.
- Heclor Berlioz, .A Irtlvus dUlllis, authorized German edition pn:. pared by Ridlard fbhl (Leipzig, 1864), p. 104 ("Beethoven im Ring
dcs Salum~J

From a European perspective, things looked this way: In all areas of production, from the Middle Ages until the beginning of the nineteenth century, the development of technology proceeded at a much slower rate than the development of art. Art could take its time in variously assinUlating the technological modes of operation. But the transfommtion of things that set in around 1800 dictated the tempo to art, and the more breathtaking this tempo became, the more readily the dominion or fashion overspread all fields. Fiually, we arrive at the present state of things: lhe possibility n ow arises that an will no longer find time to adapt somehow 1.0 tech nological processes. TIle advertisement is the ruse by which the dream fo rces itself on indusrry. [G 1,1J Within the frames of the pictures iliat hung on dining room walls, the advent of whiskey advertisements, of Van Houten cocoa., of Amicux canned food is her-

aided. Naturally, o ne can say that the bourgeois comfort of the dining room has survived longest in sm all cafes and other such places; but perhaps o ne can also say that the spacc of the cafe, within which every square meter a.nd every hour arc paid for 1U0re punctually than in apanment houses, evolved Out of the latter. The apartment from which a caU was made is a picture puzzle ('fxiN"bild> with IGl ,2] the caption: Where is thc capital hiding? Grandville's works an= the sibylline books of pub/jdti. Everything that, with him, has its prelintinary foml as joke, or satire, attains its true unfolding as adver tisement. [GI ,3]
HUlllihill of a Parisiall lextilelf denIer from the 1830s: " Ladies alltl Gt'litiemen : I I ilsk yo u I II ClIst lU I illtl ulgenl eye on the fo llowing ohservations; my desire to COIl ~ IriL \lt~ hi )"our eterlln l snlvnlioll impels me to address YOII. Allow me to djrect yo ur atten tion 10 the study of t he Holy Scri p tur es, R8 Wf' U as to the extremdy moderate pril:c~ which I b a\l~ hlcn the first to intr oduce into tile fidtl of hosier y, cottoo goods. nnd n'lutt'd p .UdIiChl. No. 13, Rile Pave-Saint-Sau ve ur." Edu nnl Kroloff, Schilderll ugell IlIU Puri. (Humburg, 1839), vol. 2 , pp. 50--51. [CI,4] Superposition lJm l atlyer tiH ing: " III ahe PalaiB- Royal, 1101 loug Ilgo. between tbe COhlllll18 Oll the uPI)cr ~Iory. I h n pp(' n~ 1 to see a life-sizcd oil painting repr~ IIt': lIting, ill very li,'t'l y colorB, a Frcnch gCIlf' r al in full -dreu uni(orm , I tuke out my 8 pect al ll~ 10 I'xallliut:' ilion closely the hi:ltorical ~ ubj ect of the pictu re. and my general il! l!illi ng in a ll arnllhair Iwltti nJ; !lut a bare foo t: the podialrist . klleeling hefon' him , cxciseS lhc corns." J. F. Reicbllrllt . Vertraute Briefe (utS Pa ru (n nm~ burg. 1805), vol. I. p. 178. IGI,S]

course, in the end, the law according to which an action brings about an opposi.te reaction holds truc for J ugendstil. The genuine liberauo n from an epodl, that I!I, has the structure of awakening in this respeCt as well : it is cntirdy ruled by cunning. Only with cunning, nOt without it. can we work free of the realm of dream.. But there is also a false liberatio n ; its sign is violence. From the beb..uming, it condemned JUgt'ndstillo failure. DDream Structure 0 (GI.7} hmcnnost, decisive significance of the advertisement: "Good posters exist ... only in the domain of trifles, of industry, or of revolutio~." Ma~ce TaIrneyr, ~ Ci/l tlu sang (Pa.ris, 1901), p. 277. The sanle thought WIth which the bourgeo1S hcre dctects the tendency of advertising in its early period: "In short, the moral of the poster has nothing to do with its art, and its art nothing to do with the moral, and this defines the character of the poster" (ibid., p. 275). lCI,S] J ust as certain modes of presentation-genre scenes and the like-begin, in the course of the nineteenth century, to "cross over" intO advertising, so also intO the realm of the obscene. The Nazarene style and the Mak.an style have their black and their ..colored lithographic cousins in the 6dd of obscene graphics. I saw a plate that, at first glance, could have passed as something like Siegfried's bath in dragon blood: green sylvan solitude. crintson mantle of the hero, naked 8esh, a sheet of water-it was the most complicated embrace of three human bodies, and it looked like the frontis piece of an inexpensive book for young JXople. This is the language of color characteristic of the posters that 80urisbed in the arcades. 'When we hear that portra.its of famous cancan dancers like RigoJeue and Fricheue would have hung there, we have to imagine them colored like this. Falser colors are possible in the arcades; that combs arc red and grttn surprises no one. Snow White's stepmother had such things, and when the comb did not do its \\"Ork, the beauciful apple was there to help out-half~ , half poisongreen, like cheap combs. Everywhere gloves playa starring role, colored ones, but above all the long black variety on which so many. fo H owing Yvette G uilbert, have placed their hopes for happiness, and which will bring some, let us hope, to Margo Lion. And laid out 0 11 a side table in a tavern, stockings make for an ethereal meat counter. [G l a,lJ The writings of the Surrealists treat words like trade nanles, and their texts are, at bottom, a foml of prospectus for Cl1lcrprises not yet ofT the ground . Nesting today in trdde names arc fib '11lcnts sllch as those earlier tllOught to be hidden in the c."l.che ofhpoetic" vocables. [Gla,2]
In 1867. u Wa ll plIl)Cr dca lll put ul l hiM Jl(l~II: IiI Hli till' cululllilii or hridges.

In 1861. the first lithographic poster suddenly appeared on walls here and there around Londoll. It shO\\led the back of a woman in white who was thickly wrapped in a shawl and who, in all haste, had just reached the top of a ilight of stairs, where, her head half turned and a finger upon her lips, she is ever so slightly oJXning a heavy door, through which one glimpses the starry sky. In this way Wtlkie Collins advertised his latest book, one of the greatest detective novds ever written: The Woman in White. See Talmeyr. La Cirt tlu JIlng (Paris, 190 1),
pp.263-264. [CI,6]

SOOD afterward in architecture 100, whereas in the street, with the poster, it often found very successful solutions. TIus is fu U y confimled in Behne 's disceming critiq ue: "By no means was Jugendstil lidiculous in its original intentions. It was looking for renewal because it clearly recognized the peculiar contradictions arising between imitation Renaissance art and new methods of production determined by the machine. But it gradually became ridiculous because it believed that it could resolve the enonnous objecuve lcn!lions fOlmally. on paper, in the studio." 0 In terior 0 Adolf Belme , .NeueJ Wohnm-Neufj Bau~ (Leipzig, 1927), p . 15. Of

It is significant th at J ugendstil failed in interior design , and

[G I a,3}

Many years ago, on the streetcar, I saw a poster that, if things had their due in this \\"Orld. would have found its admirers, historians, exegetes, and copyists just as surdy as any great poem or painting. And, in (act, it was both at the saDlc time.

As is sometimes the case with very deep, unexpected impressions. however, the shock was too violent: the impression, if I may say so, struck with such force: that it broke through the bottom of my consciousness and for yean lay irrecoverable some:where in the darkness. I kne:w only that it had to do with "BuUrich Salt" and that the original wareho~ for this seasoning was a small cellar on Aotrn'C:U Strec:t. w~ere for years I had circumvented the temptation to gc:t out at this point and mqwre about the poster. There I traveled on a colorl~s Sunday afternoon in that northern Moabit, a part of town that had already ontt appeared to me as though built by ghostly hands for jwt this time of day. That was when, four rears ~go, 1 had come to LUtzow Street to pay CUStoms duty, according to the ""'eight of Its enameled blocks of houses, on a china porcelain city which I had had sem from Rome. There wen: omens then along the: way to signal the approach of a momentous afternoon. And, in fact, it ended with the story of the discovery of an arcade, a story that is too berJinu,h to be told JUSt now in this Parisian space of remembrance. Prior to this incidem, however, I stood with my two beautiful companions in front of" miserable cafe, whose window display was enlivened by an arrangement of signboards . On one of these was the legend "Bullrich Salt." It contained nothing else besides the words; but around the:sc Wlilten characters there was suddenly and effortlessly configured that desen landscape of the poster. I had it once more. Here is what it looked like. In the foreground , a horse-drawn wagon was advancing across the desen. It was loaded with sacks bearing the words "Bullrich Salt." One of these sacks had a hole, from which salt had already trickled a good distance on the ground. In the background of the desen landscape. two posts held a large sign with the words "Is the BesL" But what about the trace of salt down the de:sert trail? It fanned leners, and these letters fanned a word, the word "Bullrich Salt." Was not the prttstablished hannony of a Leibniz mere child's play compared to this tightly orchestrated pred~rination in the desen? And didn't that poster fumish an illla~ for things that no one in this morta.! life has yet experienced? An image of the everyday in Utopia? (Cla.4)

goods? 111e answer is very simple a.nd, what is more, very logical: each finn is always larger than the others. "You hear it said: 'La Ville de Paris, the largest store in the-capital,' 'Les Villa de France, tile largest store in the Empire:; 'La Chaussee d:A.nrin, the largest store in Europe.' 'Le Coin de Rue, the largest store in the world: -'In the world': that is to say. on the entire earth there is nonc larger; you'd think that would be the limit. But no: Lc:s Magasins du Louvre have not been named, and they bear the title ;The largest Stores in the universe.' The universe! Including Sirius apparently, and maybe even the 'disappearing twin stars' of which Alaander von Humboldt speaks in his Kosmru.'" Here we see the connection between capitalism's evolving commercial adverrising and the work of Grandville. -Adolf Ebeling,> Lebel/de BiMer aus dem modernen Paris, 4 vols. (Cologne, 18631866), vol. 2, pp. 292-294. [G2,11 "Now then, you princes and sovereign states, resolve to pool your riches, YOUT resources, your energies in order to ignite, as we do our gas jets, long-extinct volcanoes [whose craters, though filled with snow, arc spewing tom:nts of in8ammabie hydrogen]; high cylindrical towers would be necessary to conduct the hat springs of Europe int.o the ai.r, from which-so long as care is taken to avoid any premature contact Wlth cooling waters-they will tumble down in cascades [and t1~creby warm th.e atmosphere]. Artificial concave mirrors, arranged in a semiarcle on mountallltops to reflect the rays of the sun, would suitably augment the tendency of these springs to heat the air." F. v. Brandenburg, Victoria! Eine neue Welt.' Freudevoller Ausrufin Bnug darat{, daBal!! urumn Planeten, hesoruim a'!!dn~'I UfU bewohlllen nord/i,hen HalhAugel eine totale 'femperalllr.vminderung hinsichl lIeh der Vmnehrung tier atmruphiirisehal Wlinne eingdreten ist;" 2nd expanded ed. (&din, 1835) <pp. 4-5,. Gas 0 1bis fanatasy of an insane mind effectively constitutes, under the inBuence of the new invention, an advertisement for gas lighting-an advertisement in the comic-cosmic style of Grandville. In general, the close connection between adverrising and the cosmic awaits analysis. (C2,2)

"'!be store known as La Chaussee d~Jltin had recently alUlounced its new inventory of yard goods. Over two million meters of baregc. over five million of grenadine and poplin. and over three million of other fabrics-altOgether abont eleven million meters of textiles. Lt 1intamarrt now remarked, after reconmlending La Chaussee d'Antin to its female readers as the 'foremost house of fashion in the world,' and alsu the 'most dependable': 'TIle entire French railway systcm comprises barely ten thousand kilometers of cracks-tllat is, only ten million meters. TIlls Ol/e store, therefore, witll its stock of tc:'(tiles. could virtually stretch:1 tcnt over all tile railroad tracks of France. "which, especially in tlle heat of summer, would be very pleasant.'" 11m!': or four other C5L'lblishments of this kind publish similar figures , so that, ,vith all these materials combined, one could place not only Paris . .. but the whole dlpu.rtnnmt of the Seine under a massive canopy, ' whidl likewise would be welcome: in rainy weather: But we cannot help asking: How are stores supposed to find room to stock tills gigantic quantifY of

E~bitions. "~ regions and indeed, retrospectively, all times. From fanning and nUllIng, from mdustry and fro m the madtines titat were displayed in operation, to raw materials and processed materials. to art and the applied arts. In all these we see a peculiar demand for premanlre synthesis, of a kind that is characteristic of the nineteentll century in oUler ~as as well: think of the total work of art. -:p~rt from indubitably utilitarian motives, the century wanted to generate a VISion of the human cosmos, as launched in a new movement." Sigfried G iedion, &/llen in Franltreich (Leipzig and Berlin, 1928), p. 37. But these "premature syntheses " also bespeak a persistent endeavor to close up the space of existence and of developmem. To prevent the "airing-om of the classes." [G2.3]
Ap rol'otJ I)r th ~ t!x ilibitjQn or IM7 , I)rgu.ll i):lld lu!cording to statistic al principles: '''To take a tu rn aho ut this plat.'e. circ ula r like tbe equa tor, ill literally 10 trll Vei

a r(llilullhe wo rld . fo r a U IlIlliu nll IrQ\'t! come he re; e ne mies are ~oe x.i s tin g ill Iwace. JU81 as, at till: ur ib oln of thin gs. Ihe di vi ne spirit wus IltlVcring o ve r till' orl! of llll' wate r ll. ~ o flU'" if Ilovers IWI', til i.. orb o f irUIl "" 1. '1:.I."1'I)II;,io /l Un ;lJcr lfeUe de / 867 il/u..Hrf:e: P"b/icillion iTJIcrnll,ionule fllltorisee 1m,. fn commj.njml iml~ri(lk. vol. 2. p _322 (ci led in Gil'dion , ( BaUnt in Fnmltrtith,) p . " I). (C2.41

DInterior 0

menu, marble statues, and bubbling foun tains populated the giant halls. 0 Iron [G2a,7]

In t:f) lIllcc;tion wilh the exhibition of 1867 . On OffenlHlch . " For' the 1'0$1 lell yea rs .
liUs ve rve of the comic author and this joyo us illsl)iralion 1111.' cumpOst!J' ha ve heen vying wilh roch other (or ranla8tic and sercmlipiloUB effec:llI : bU I onl y in 1867. tile yea r of the Universal Exposition . did they IIl1 am till' height of hila rity,

ur

The design for the Crystal Palace is by J oseph Paxton, chief gardener to the duke of Devonshm, for whom he had built a conservatory (gn=enhouse) o f glass and iron at C h atsworth H o use. His design provided for fireproofing, p lenty of lighl, and tJle possibility o f speedy and inexpensive assembly. and it prevailed over those of the London Building Committee, whose competition was hdd in vain.1 [G2a,8]

"

the. uhimuteexilreu iun of I heir exubera llce. J The SU C1;f' 88 of thia thCloI ter cOllIlJa ny, already so great . IIecame tleliriou8--8ometiLing of whicll our Jl~ lt y "ictories or toda y ca n fu rnish no id~a. Paris. that summer. suffered 8unstroke:' From the speech before the Academic Frll.n~,a i se by Uenri Laved an, D ember 31 , 1899 (on the d l'cfioll of Mcilhuc). [C2a, l ]
Advertising is emancipated in Jugendstil. Jugendstil posters are "large, always figurative, refined in their colors but no t gaudy; tJley show balls, night clubs, movie theaters. They are made for a frothy life-a life with which the sensual curves of Jugendstil are well matched." Fran/rfurter <elung, signed F. L. On an ahibition of posters in Matmheim in 192Z 0 Dream Consciousness 0 [G2a,2] The firsl 1...oll(lon ell.hihition hrings together industries fro m ur(luml the world . f ollowing this, the South Kensington museum is foumlcd . Second world exhibition in 1862 . likewise ill Wildon . With the Munich e"hihition of 1875 , the GemlBn [G2a,3] Renaiuu nce style comes into fa shion . Wiertll on t.he occasion of a world exhibition : " Wh at , trike" one al fi rst is not at all the !lLings people a l'e making today Lilt the thing5 they will be making in the future. I The humall spirit hegill8 IlJ accnlltom itself to tbe power of mat ter." A. J . Wiertz, Oelwre, littertlire., (PariS. 1870), p . 374. [G2a.4] Ta lmeyr c a U ~ the po~ter " the art of COlllorrah .' La Cile dll l UllS (Paris. 1901 ), p. 286 . 0 JIIgclHh!til 0 (G2a ,5] lndusoial exhibitions as secret blueprint fo r museums. Art : industrial products projected into the past. [G2a,6) J oseph Nash painted a series of watercolors for the king of England showing the Crystal Palace, the edifice built expressly for London's industrial exhibition in 185 1. 1ne first world exhibition and the. first monumental structure in glass and iron ! From th esc watercolors, o ne sees with am azem ent how lh t: exhibitors took pains to decorate the colossal i.nterior in an o rientalfairy-tale style, and howalongside the asSOrtment o f goods that 6lled the arcaded .....-alk.s- bronze mo nu-

'Yes. long live t.he

Lt~r of VicIIIIB! Is it native IlJ this lantl Ihat prodm:es it? Tn trut h , I tlo 1I0t know. Out of one t.hing, there ca n be no duubt : it iii a refmed and comfo rting brew. It il not like the hen of Sirasbollrg ... or Bava ria . . . . h is di~ jn e beer ... clear HI tbe thought of a poet, Light a s a swallow in flight . robust a nd alcohol-charged as the pen of u Gemla n philosopher. It is digested like the purest water. and it refres hetl like ambros.ia ." Ad'ertiseme.nt C or I-~ an ta Beer or Vte.nna . No. 4 , Rue l:Ialcvy, near the Nouvt'l Ol~ra , Nt'w Yea!:'s 1866. Almanuch i,ldiculeur parisien (Paris, 1866). p. 13. [G2a.Q]

"Another new word : lu (advertisement). Will it ma ke a fortu ne?" Nadar. Qlland j'etai.! photo8rtlpile (Paris <1900, I)' 309. IG2a,IO] Between the February Revolution and the June Insurrection : " All lhe wlllls were cO"ered with revoilltionary 1 )()IIeri which, lome years laler. Alfretl Delvau reprinted in two thick volume. under lhe title us Muruilk s relJolurionnairu. 10 that tooay we can R illl get some idea of this remarka ble. lIoster litera tllre. There was scaree.ly a palace or a church 0 11 which these notices couJd 1I0t he seen . Never hefore wal Illch a multitude of placa rds on view in any city. Even t.he governme.nt made 118e. or tlLis medium to l'uhli811 it!! deer ees alld proclamations, while thousa nd s of,olher people res(lrtedto (ifJicile!J ill orller 10 air Iheir views publicly on all I)()ssihle questions. As the time for tIlt: OI)cllillg of the National Assembly drew ncar, tile la ngu age of the poste.r11 grew wilder and mort: pa ~s ionate .... The Dumhe.r of public criers inert-ased t v~ry Ilay ; thousa nds and thousandl of Parisian s, who had ntlthing e1~e to 410, became news velulors." SigmlUl(l Englander, Gescll icllte d e r jrtlll;:o!J;, d,e,. Arbeiter-A6MJcif.tiotien (Hamburg. .I864), vol. 2, !Ill . 279-280. [G3.l J "A ~ l l()rt merry pit'(!e thnt iii cU .'I ttlnllll"ily prest'nled here before tile pt;r-fo rmance (If a III'W play: I/ urleqllill uffidlellr <Ha rlequin the BiII -S tkk e r ~. 1 .11 O Ii C tlojte fuon y alld cl,arming !ij!ent', a 1 }Ol!ler for tile comedy il ~ tu(' k Oil Cuillmbine's house." J . F. R4il'hardt . Verlrculle IJrieje fIIl & l~ri!J ( n a mhur ~. 1805). ~ll i. I. p . '\.5i . {G3,2) " These d ays, u good mUIl Y hO Il ~es in Pari5 appea r I II Le dcroratccl in the l lyle of Harlequin's CO Slume; I nwan a pa td lwurk.-r lurge gr een , yellow. l.a word illegible] and pink pir.i!cS of pa l)Cr. The hill -sti ck er~ wrangle over the wall~ a.nd cOme ttt

recw.me

I,luws o\'cr a strech;(,rllt>r. The lH"81 of il is Ihal aU I"Cie po& wn; I:o\'cr olle another up a l lcust lell timl:8 u (Iuy." Eduanl Krolofr. S<=ililderlmge n (U U Pu ris ( lf a mlmq~:, 1839). vol. 2, p. 57, [G3,3) " I)uul SirliUllill , horn in 1814. has hCf'1I 1I1'live ill tht' thcater !linc,' 1835; he hlls 511pplc'IIIcnied Ihill acti vil y wilh practil:a l efforts in Ihe fidd of confectionery. The rellul18 IIf I.h e~e efforlll lH::t!kon no lelll tenlplingiy from the- large dis pl ay window in thc Ru t' ,Ie la Paix than the ij ugar almonds, Lonholl8, hOllcy cakes, amI IIW eel erlickcrlI offered 10 th e public ill the form of Olle~lI ct dramatic ~ k ct ch Cll 01 the Pa lai,,~ Ho ya l. " Rudolf GOlll dlall, " Da8 Theater uml D"ama des Secoll,i Enlpire," in Uruere Zei, ; Deutsche Revue--MontllUchrifl ZUni Conver:sa tioll slexicon IG3,4] (Leil'zi!. 1867), p , 933 . From COllpi'fO'l spcf'I;II 10 the Academie Fralltaise (" Hesponse to Hercdia ," May 30 , 1895) . il can be inferred thai a s trange sort of wl'itleli image coulrl form erly be lIeell ill Paris: "Ca lli~raphie masterpiece8 which . in the tlld days . were exhibited On every I!tT'f'Ctcorncr, Hud in which '\IO'e could admire the portrait of Berangcr or ' The Taking of Ihe Bas tille' in the form of I'aravbll" (p. 46), [G3 ,S}

( Pari~. 19(0). vol, 2. " , 5 10 ("Une Heelume lie parfum,",ur I!n 1857"). 5

WitJl0llt the !!.Iightesilictrimenl ," (Cit ed in ) Charlee Silllollli . I'flru de 1800 if 1900 [C3a. l ]

"Gravely, till' 5lHHlwieh, ullIll bear s his duuble burdell , light us it is, A yo ung lady ,",'llOs" ro hlflllily is onl y telllp,lrary limill's a t the walking Iwsler. ye t wishes to read it (' \'en a&sill' ~ lIlilell, The hll l'''y author of llfO r abdominal u lience likewise bean; a bllrtll'lI or h.i s own ." (T he husiJaod IllIs hi" wife 011 hi!! riglll arm alld a la rge box IIndtr his ler. . Along wi th fnur other l)COple. they arc duslered around a B alld ~ widHllun S{,,'II frOIl1 tht back .) T"xt IH:enmpullYlug a lithograph eutitJed 'l. l1 onullc-urfic.ht s ur 18 Plaet' des Victoireli." from NUll lJecmx Tableaux de Paris, tn l lO platt' 63 [ IIII' lithographs are by MarIN)' This book is a sort of Ilo! a rth ad " sum Delpliini, (G3a,2] Ut'gillning (If Alfred Delvau 's prefllce III i.es Muruilles revo /Uliontl(lireJl: " These re \'o!utionary placard s-at Ihe bottom uf which ",'e set our oliscure name--form un immense and uniqul' composition, one without prece.lent , we believe. in the hi ~lIJry of Imoh. They arc II collt:eth'e work. The author is Monsieur Everyone-MI'1.n !-Ierr Olllnes, as Luther says," Les Mumilles rellolutionnuires de 18'18, 16th [G3a,3] e(I , ( Paris (1852). vol, 1, p , 1, "When . in 1798, under the Direetory. I.he i~l ea of pllhlie exhibitions I'I'a8 ilJ a ugu~ ru ted on the Champ de Ma rs. ther e were 110 exhibitors. of whom twent y.five were uwanlcd med als." Pufais rle f'/ndllstrie (distributed by H. Pion). [G4,1] " Beginning i.II 1801 . tht producls of newl y emerging induslries wer e exhibited in the cour lyard of tile Lou\'re." Lucien DuhCC'h and Pierre d' Espezel, lIu roire de Pu ri" (I"oIris, 1926). p . 335, [G4,2} " En'ry five yean-i.n 1834, 1839, and 1844--the prllducl8 of ind unry are exhibiled in Marign y S'luare," Dubt:eh and d 'Esl)Czei , HUlOire de Paris, p . 389. IG4,3j "The firijl l!Xhiliitioli dal es back 10 I 791t ~et llV 011 the Champ del\1ars, it was,. all I'xhibi tion uf the products or French indns try and ",'as conceivt"d h y fra ll ~o i 8 d e Nf'ufdui.teall . T llcn: were th ree nationlll ('xhihiliulls IIlIder the Eml'ir(' (in 1801 , 1802. allli 18(6). the fir~ t 11'1''' ill the courl ya rd of the Lo uvre, the third al the J.lvali(les, Thel'c \I.'ere Ihn,,'t thu'ing the Ilt'storation (in 18 19 , 1823 , lind 1827), all ~II Ihe LOII VI't'; ,lil'('I' (!tll'illg tllf' Jul y Monarchy (ill lK3'L 1839. and 1M4), un the 3 CUlicurile alii I till' C ll a nIJlil~ "; I Ys(>I's; ami 11111' uliller the Second Rf' puhPlul'e ~ I e 1 lie" in 18<19. 'I'h",n . rflilowinl! the e:l"alllple I}f EngiulIll , .... hich bad o rgalliz~d an internatiOllal ClChihitilili in 185 1, IIIIp!'rial Fra llce III'M worhl exhihilioll i on the Cha mp ,Ie Mars ill 1855 alill 1867. Thc fi ~ l lI aw the I.irlh of 1.1,, Paluill de 1' 1ndll s~ tril' , dl! /fll)lishcd durin!; till' IlcpuiJlic; Ihe ~cc ond Wil li II dd.iriUU8 fcsti\'lIllIIlIrkillg the high poillt of the Sccolld F.mpire. III 11:178. a ne .... exhibition wall orga uized to attest tu rebir th arler defellt ; it was held on the Challll' de Mars ill II temporary

Lc Charivari of 1836 has an illustration showing a poster that covers half a hOllS('from, The windows ~. lefr uncovered. o:cept for one, it seems. Out of
that a man is leaning while cutting away the obstructing pica: of paper.
IG3,']
" E ssence d ' Am azill y. rragrance a nd an tisevtic; hygienic toiletricH fro m Duprat aod Clllllpany," " U Wf' have named our eSlience after tbe daugbler of a cacique. it is onl y 10 indicate Ihllt tilt vegetal ingredients 10 which this diBtillal.ioli owes illl surprisillg effectiveness come from the same torrid climate as she docs, The term ' antiseptic' belongs to the 1 C'.xieon of 5cicnce, and we UMe it only to Iw int out thai, apart frum the incomllllrilble benell" uur product offers to iadit.'fl, it posseslieil hypellic ,'irtues calcula ted 10 win lhe confidence of all tholle willing 10 be convinced of its 811lutllr), adion. For if our lotion , uulike tilt: Wlllcr Hof tile Fuulltain of Youth , has no I>ower to wash away the acculllulate(1 yean , at leasl it does hll vc, in adlliti ull 10 olher merits, the inestimable IIdvallt age (we believe) of I'eijtoring to the fun extent of i18 former rallia nce tin' los t majesty of tha i consummate entit y. that mas terl'i tte of C reatio n whicb . with the elegance , vurity. and grace of its forms. Ullerv('ntioll of nl:.kcs Ull t.he lovelier half (If Immallit )" Without tile pNIVide.ntial & our di8covery, this mOllt hrilliaul ami ~Idic llt e ornamcllt- Ieliembling. in the lentier charms or its 1II),lItcriuus strllctun: , a fragile hlo~liu m that wiltl al lilt' first hard ra in- would cnjoy, at I,.'st, Ilul a fu giti ve spllnllor. aft er the f~u l i ll g uf ""hidl il II'lus t /leNls languis h under the ruimi us dmlfl "f ilJne.s, the fatiguin g dl!lIIand!! uf nursiuJ::. 01 ' die 110 I c~s illjurioll!l lmh nll:c fOf the Vitil c~8 eorset. J)'\c!0PI'1. abli vl' all , in till" int erestll of liIIli c~. Ollr EUt'IIce d 'Allllu;ilI y an ~ wcrs to II,, mosl cxacting luul mu.'U intimate relluircmclIlS of their luilt'l.h!. It unit es, thaukij tl) a happ y infU8illn, all tJlal is lI ece~lIa ry to reviv ... fOliter, a.ml t llhallce na tural allrucLi(llls.

palace tl rected by Fo rmige. 11 is c haracttlris tie of these tlllOrm() US fairs to be e phf'mera l, yel eae h of Ihe m hus hrt ils trace in Pa ris. The cx hihiliull uf 1878 was rcslmnsi hle fo r the Trocadhu. tha i eccentric p a laCl~ daJl I.ICJ Ilown OU lilt' 10 1' uf CIlIIoillol by Davioud and Uo urdaill. ulul alsu ro r Ihe footbridge a t PIIo8SY, Luih to re plat'f! Ihe Pont d' le nll, whic h Wll.t\ 11 0 longe r usahle. T he cxhihitiun of 1889 left IWo hinl1 tile Galerie des l\h!chinee. ",'hich WI'S e\'cnlu llil y torn down , a hllOugh the Eiffel Tuwe r still ~ t a nd 8'" I}ubech a nd d 'Espeze.1. lJi! ' Qire de IJ(Jri$ ( PIIoriS. 1926), p . 461.

[G4.4J

''' Europe ill off to view the mercha ndi8t:: H aiJ RClilllI--colltemptnuu.\I !Y-{l( the 1855 exhibition. " Paul Morand. 1900 ( Pllris, 1931), p. il . [G4,5] "" This year hail been lost ror propagandll,' says a socialis t orator II tlhe CUIIgrt!illl of 1900." Paul Morand , 19(}() (Paris. 193 1). p . 129. [G4 ,6]

'~DeS IJiIC all till' p08luring with ",hic h Teutonic Ilrrul!:n"Ct"" tries 10 represen t the ('a pital of Iile n" if'h a8 the brightes l beacull uf civilill!ation , Berlin bas 1101 yet beell able to luount a wurld exhi bitiun .. , . To try 10 f'XC II.'le Ihis d eplorable fa c t by "llI illling Ihllt wurlll exhihitiolls hnl'e had their day lind 1I0W a re nOlhin~ hut f;lI ud y and gramliose vanity fllirs . and 110 forth. i ~ a craM Illasion. We have no wil h to .Ieny 1110' drawbllcks of worM exltihitions . . . ; nl'vertl.e!eS8. in every calle they ,t-main incolllpllrably more Il(l"" crfu l levcn of human ruhurt: tha n l he countleu 1.H1Ir(lcks aud c hu n' hcs with which Bel"iin h as been inundated at such great cost. The "ceUITcnl i.llil.inl.i ... e~ to cstablisl. a wurld exh.ibilioll have foulltl er ed, 6rH t of 1111 , Oil till' l!u'k uf e nergy ... IIffii cling t he bo urgeois ii!. allll, second. on the poorly Ilisl:'l.li8ed rest'lIll11c nt wi th which a n abso luLi s t ~fe ud a l milila ris m looks o n a nything Ihat could th reu tl'n itJ.-alas !---litill germinating rool.ll." <Anon ymou8,> " Kl au~ cnkiimpfe.' Die ne ueZeil. 12, no. 2 (Stuttga rt , 1894), p. 251. {G4a.2]

" 111 1798, a universal ex position of indus try was anno UlII:ed : it wall to take place ... on the Champ de Ma n. The Dirtory had c harged the millilite r of t he interior,
Fran ~ois de Neufchatellu, with organizing a nat.ional fel/ti"al to commemorate the fo unding of the Re public. The minis ter had conferred with se ... eral people, who pro posed holding contellts a nd garnes , like grea sy~pol e climbing. On(1 persoll s ug~ gested that a great market be. set up afte r the fashion uf countr y fairs , but o n a la rger scale. Finally, it wal Proposed that all exhi bition of I)aintin gs be illcluded . Thele last two suggestiom; f;a ...e ..~rll.n~ui il de Neufclla teau the idell or pre8t:llting 8D exhibition of indus try in cele brM tjon (If the n ation al festivill Th uI, t he fi rst industrial eXpo!iition is born from the ""ish to a muse the workin g classel, a nd it becomes for the m a festh'al of emancipation . . . . The increasingly po pular c ha rac ter of indus t ry starl.8 to become evident. ... Silk fabrics are re placed by woolell8 . a nd satill a nd lace b y male rials more in keeping with the domcstic rClluircme nts of the T hird Estate; woolen honne ts lind corduroys .... Chaptlll, tile s l'uk e~ man for this exhihitio n . calls the in{lustria l II tale h y its nallle for the first timt'." S igrnund Englander, Gl'!chichfe der jrfw:.osi$chen Arbeitl'~s.,ocifllionefl ( Ha mbu rg. 1864). vol. 1, pp. 51-53. [G4,7]

On the occasion o r t he world exhibition of 1861 , Victor Hugo issued a manifCllto to the Iwul,lel bf Europe. [G4a,3]

Che ...a lier Willi a disciple of Enfantill. Editur of Le Globe.

[G4a.4]

Apropos of n ola ud de la Pla tie r e's Encyclopedie rnelhodique: '"Turning 10 Ie! tr)UntifucIUre!, ... Rolllnd writes: ' Illdustry is horn of need . " , .' It might appear from this l hal the term ill being used in the classical sense of indWlno . Wha t follo",'s provides clarificatio n; . BUI this fecund and perverse riverhead, of irrcSUlar a nd re trogrt:jsive dis l)o8ition . eventuall y Came do wn frorn the upla nd, to flood the fiddll. lind Soo ll no thing could satisfy t he need which overspread the land . ' . " What is significant is his read y ernploymtlnt of the wortl indwtrie. more than thirty years he fore lhe "" o rk of Chapta!, " Ue nri Ha user. Le, DCbuu dlt capitu/ume ( Paris, 1931), PI" :Jl 5-3 16. (G4a,5] "With price lug afixetl , thc commodity cornell lin the nlarket . Its ma terial q uality a nd illdi\'idu olit y a l'e me rely a n incenti ... e for buyinr; a nd selling; ror the locia] measu re o(il.8 value. I lich quality ill o r lI O importa nce whal.8Oever. T he commodity hilS bec(tme an ahs trllctio n. Once escaped fro ni tile hand of the producer and t!i\'elled o r its real partkularity. it ceases to be a prod uct and to be ruled over b y IHunall IJ"i llgs. It bas acquired a ' gilOStly objt!Cli ...ity' anlileadll a life of its own . A "omlllllliity a ppeant. at firs t ilight , to be a lri\'ial and easily unde rs tood thing. Our a nalysis iil.ows thai , ill n~ality, it is a vucd a nd cumplicll ted thing. abounding ill melap hysical ~ u"llcti e~ a nd theological niceties. ' Cut off from the will of man , it ~ll jgll s itself in a lIl ys t("'iOUi hicl'a n :hy, ,Je ... dll" ~ or Ilediues exchangeability, and . ill ace(l rdam'e will. itl! nWll peculiar la"".!'. pe rforms li B an ac tor (til a phan tom s tage. In till' la ngua gl' of the com nJ(tdities excha llge. C(lttOIl ',oars; copper SllllllpS.' I'urn ' is acti ..... : 1 'lIal 'is s luggis h : wheat ' is 011 the road t6 recovery: IIl1d pe tro It",ull "dis pluy Ii IlI'a lthy Ir~ lld " Things hllvl~ ga ined a utonomy. a nd Ihe y take 00 11111111111 rea tu re!! .... T he commodit y has iJt.'C1i trallsro rmell into all idol dla t , 0.1t110 ugh t1 1t~ " rltti uct of huma n hallds. disposeH over till: huma n . l\fto.rx spellks or the

" In cell'bratinr; thl' centenary of the grea t Revolution . the French bourgeoisie has, as it were, intentionally lei out 10 de monstrate 10 tbe proleta riat " d ocll/o$ the C(;ollomic possibility and lIetlt:lsity of II sucilll uprising. Tbe wo rM exhibition has given Ihe proletaria t an excelle nt idea of the unpr.:tlt.'tle nlelllcveJ uf del'e1opmclIl which the means of productio n have reauht'll in all ell'ililed lands-a de ...e1opmcnt far t""..xct:eding the holdest utopian flllltasies of the centnry pn!ct'fling this o nc .... T he exhihitioll has furth er ilemons t rll ted Ihat modcrn devdopnwlIl of the force\! fir production must of neceuily Icad 10 illlilistrial crises lilal. gi ... CIl Ihe all ard,), e u r~ rend y reigning in production . will fi nl y grow more anlte wit'!, till' passage o r lime. aud Iwnce mo re destruc tive 10 II H~ co une of the world t:cOIlUII1). ,. G. Ph:kl' IlIlO\. ""Wie die Bou rgeoi.!lie ihrl!r H.'volutioll gt..'t.ie nkl ," Oil' ne ue Zei,. I). 110. I (Stuuga rt . 1891), JI. 138. [G4a,1 1

f~l.i s h dUII'aeler of the eommodil y, 'This feti sh charaCler of Ihc conllllO(lity worltl hilS illl origin ill Ihe I'l:clllillr sodul c1luructcr of the lahor thHt protillces commodi. l.ilS, . ' _ It is lOnly th ~ purticular social nolation hetween lJt,:o plc thai hen : aUlimes, in tilt: I'Yc~ of tllt'~e I't~Jlle . the phantasmagorical form uf II reltlliOIl between [G5, I I thingi', .,~ 0110 IWhle, Kurf Mnrx (Hellt-rau (1928 , PII , 384-385 .

CoIUlection of the first world exhibition in London in 1851 with the idea of rree t::rade. {G5a.4]
'"The world C'..xhihiljolls have losl much uf their original r haracte... The enthusiasm 111111, in 1851 , was f.. 1t in tilt': m08tllisIJM r atc circles hllil6uhIJidetl, and ill its place has clime a kind of cool ralrulation . III IRS I , we were living in tile ....0 of free trade, ... For some decades now, we have witnes!iCd the spread of vrot et: tion ~ i..,m. , .. ParticiJlution ill Ihe eJd.ihition w.ollle8 ... a !lorlof rt!presentation . . ; and whereas in 1850 the r uling tenet was that the gO \'cmmen t need not concern itst'lf in this affair. t.he situ ation toda y is so far advllnced that the gO\'erument of each country can be considered a veritable entrepreneur,'" Julius Lessing, Da.s I,u/be l ahrhundert tier Welwllu reflungen (Berlin , 1900), pp. 29-30. IG5a,5) In London . in 1851 , " apl>eared .. , the first caststeel cannon by KniPP , Soon thereaft er. the Prussian minillter of war placed all order for more than 200 exem. plars of this model. " Julius l.eMsing. D(J~ h(Jibe j(lhrhILnc/ert tier Weftouu(eUun[G5a,6] ge n (Berlin , 19(0), p. II. " From the 8ame sphere of thought tllal engendered the great idell of free trade arose . . , tile 1I0lioli that no one would come IIway empty hallded- rather, the contrary- from an exhibition at which he h ad staked his best so as to be able to take home the best that otber COJlle had to orfer,. . Thill bole! conception , in which the idea for the exhibition origUlatt:d. was pul into action, Within eight months . ever ything was finished , ' An ahsolu te wonder that bas become a part o( hilltory. ' At the foundation of the entire undertaking. remarkably enough. rests the principle that such a work mus t be backed Dot by the sta te but b)" the free activity of its citizens .... Onginally, twu private contractors, the Munday broth crs, offer ed to build , . t thcir own risk . a palace costing a million mar ks. But grander proportions wer e resoh'ed 011. and the necessa ry funds for guarallteein~ the enterprise. totaling many million8, were s lIb~cribed in short order. The great new thought (oulld a great lIew furm . The engi neer Pax ton built the Crystal Pal ace. I.n every l a~d rang oul the news of something fahulous and un p reced ented: a palace of glass and iron was going to be built , one that would co\'er eighteen acres. Not long before this. Pllxton hlld constructed u vaulted roof of glau and iron for one of the greenhouses at Kew, in which luxllriant palm!! were grnwillg, aud thil ac hievement gave him the rOllrag~ til IlIk .. lin the lIew tusk , CI",scli as a site for the exhihition wall tlu~ lillest park in London, Hyde Park , which offered in the millillt: a wide opt'n mcadow, Irltvcrlie(! along il s 8 h o rt ~ r IIxis hy a.n avenue of splendid elms. But anxious Illllookcl's SUIll. raised II cry of alarm l e~ t these t rt.~s be ~a lTifi ced for the sa ke of a whilll . 'Theil I ~ h a ll roof over tile trees,' was PaJlton '& answer, and lit! lH"oceed ed I tl de~ i gJl thc Ir lln.~c pt , which . with ils 8t'lIIicylindrieal \'a ult elcva lt.>41 11 2 reet above tlw gn)ullll. . . accOIIII1Wduit'd tllf' wllo1 e ro~' of f': lru s . It is i ll the Iliglll" ~ t degree remarkablt 111111 si,,'nifirulil that this G I'cat Exhihil.ion of l..onduIIilorn uf modern CO II/;C I)li(t n ~ of 61('alll powl'r. elect ricity. and Jlhotogr ll phy. and modern clJllcelltionli of fret: trade--ahouJd al tile 811 mI.' lime ha\'e afforded the

" According t(l official est.imlltI'S. a total of abo ut 750 ~ orkers. chosen by their comradei or else nallled b y the entrepreneuni themselves. visited London', world .. " hibition in 1862 , , , , TheofflciaJ churacler of this delegation, lind the mallner in which it wal conUituted . naturally inspired little confitlence in the revolutionary and rc.pu hlicall emigre from to"rllnce, Thi!\ circuJnstalice perhaJlIJ exl)lains why die il icil of UII organizetl reception for Ihi8 deputution originated with the editors of an organ dedicated to the cooperative movement. ... AI the urp.llg Ilf the editorial staff of The Working Mall , a commiltee was formed to Jlrepa~ a wdt:ome for the FM!nch worker s .... Those named to participate included .. , J. Morl Ou Peto, .. , and j Oleph Pu:ctfm . ... The intt:re8ls of industry were put foremost , .. , and the neet.1 ror un agreement hetwecn workers and entrepreneurs, as the sofe nll~lm s of bellering the difficult condition of tbe workers . was strongl y underlined ... , We ("an not ... rega rd this gathering as the birthplace, .. of the IllIcrllatiullal Work. ingmeu's A!lsncialiOIl . That is a legend. , .. The trulh is sinlpl)" that this visit IICtluircll . through its ilulircct consequences, 1II0IDeutous imltOrtance as a key step 0 11 Ihe wily to an Ullllcr8tan(ling between English and French workers." D. Itjazanov. " Zur Geschichte der er8len Interoationale," in M(lrx Engel&Archiv, vol. I d"rankfurt a m M a in . 192R~, Ill" 157,159--160. [G5,2) "Alread y, for the fi rs t world exhi bition in 1851. some of the workenl proposed by the ent repreneurs were ~lIt to London at the state's e~pell se. Tln>re wall a lso, howe\'er, an independent delegatilln dis patched to London on the initiative of Blanflui (the economist) allil Emile tie Girardin ... , This delegation suhmitted a gencral re port in which , to be M ure. we find no trace of the attempt to estahlish a perrnanen t liaison with English workers, but ill which the lIeed for peaceful r ela tions betwttn England alld Franct: is stressed . . . , In 1855, t.he sectmd world exhihition took place, this tinle in Paris, Delegalions of workers from the capital, as well as from the vrovilll..'t!~, wer e now totally barred . It wat fea retl that they would gi\'e work t rs un opportunit y for organizing, " D, Rj azanov, " Zur Ccschicht t:: tlcr ersten Intcrnlltillllalf::' in MlIrx-Etlsels Archiv, ed. Rjazanov. vol. I (Frank. furt alii Mllin), pp . 150- 151. [G5a,l }

The subtleties o r Grandville aptly express what Marx calls the "theologkaJ niceties'" of tlle commodity. [C5a.2]
"Thc sCnilt' or taste is a t!arrin!;t: willi four wlu. 't!ls . ...hicll arc! ( I ) Ga stronomy; (2) Cuisilll:; (3) Compa ny: (4) Culture."' Frum <Flluricr's) Nall l'emt MOllett! indu.Mrief el sociiitclire ( 1829). cited hi E . Poiuo n. F{mrier ( Palis. 1932).11. 130. (G5a,3)

decisive impehls. within this period as a whole. for the revolution in ar tis tic form8. To Imiltl a palace out of gla88 a nd iron seemed to die world . in tho!!tl daya, a fa nlaillic ins pi ru tion for a tCIl1Jlora.ry piece of architecture. We 81..'e now th at it was the fi rs t grcat ad va nce on the road to a wholly new world of forms .... The con8tl'uctive style , as opposed to the hi uorical , tyle. hus becomc the watchwo rd of tile lIIodern muvement. When did this idea make its triumphal l:lltry into the world? In tile year 185 1, with the Cr ys tal Palace in London . At fint , IJeOI,lc thought it imposs.illie that a I,alace of colossal proportio ru could be built from glass and iron . In the puhlications of the d ay, we find the idea of assembling iron components, 80 fanli!iar to U5 now, represented a~ 80mething extraordinary. England can bOllSt of having accompLished this quite 1I0vei task in the space of eight nwnth,. ufl ing iu existing factories, without any additional capacity. ODe po ints out triumphantly that .. . ill tlle sixteenth century a small gla~efl window was still a luxury item, whereas todltY a building covcring eighteen acrcs can be COllstructed entirely out of glass. To a man like Lothar Ducher, the meaning of this lIew 8tructu re was clear: it was the ulldisguised ar chitectural expression of the t.ra nsverse strength of , lender iron components. But the fantastic cha rm which the edifice exerted on aU 10uls went well beyolld , ueh a characterization, however crucial for the progra m of the futurc; and ill dus regard , the. preser vation of the magnificent row of trees for the ccnlral trausel't was of capital importance. Into this space were transpo rtt. od all the horticultural glories which the. rich conservatories of England had been able to cultivate. Ugluly 1 > lumed palms from the tropici mingled with the leafy crOWDI of the fiv e-hund red-year-old chnl; and witlun this enchanted forell the decoratol'l arra nged masterpieces of plas tic art , statuary, large bronzes, and specimells of other artworks. At the center stood all imposing crystal fountain . To the right and to the left ra n galleries in which visitol'!l passed from olle national exhibit to the other. Overall , it 8eemed a wonderland , a ppealing more to the imagination than to the inteU ect. ' It is with sober economy of phrase that I term the prospect incomparabl y fairy -like. This space is II summer night's dream ill the midnigllt Sl1n' (Lothar Bucher ). Such sentimcnts were registered through out the world . I myself recaU, from my childhood , how the news of the Cr ystal Palace reached us in Germany. and how pictures of it were hung i.n the middle-class parlors of distan t provincial tOWII S. It seemcd thcn that the world we knew from old fairy tales--of the princess in the glass l:offiJl , of queens and elves dwelling in crylltal houHcs-had COllie to life ... , alld these impressions have persisted through the decades. The great trancl> t of the palace and part of the pavilions were transferred to Sydenham . where the building stands tooay;- there I saw it in 1862 , with feelings of awe a nd the sht.'t: refU delight. It hus tuke n four (it.. '1:uties, lIumer ous fires, a lltl muny ilepredaliolls 10 ruin this magic. although even toda y it i!:l \l till not completel y vu ni;;lu::d .' Julius Le;;sing. DU$ IUJlbe Jahrhull dert der Weltuu.fStelluJlseli (Berlin, 19(0), Pl" 6- 10. [G6 ; G6a, I) Organizing the New York cxllibilion of 1853 fcllio Pllinea!:l Burnum . [G6a.2)

Exlerior of the Crystal Palace, London. See G6; G6a, I .

dis proportion here bet ....een die period of gestation and the duration of the enterpri!le," l'a1.lturice PCclI.rd , ~, Exposition, intern(lliomJie5 (lU point de vue .lCO /llr mil/lie et 5uciat , purticlilierement en France {pa ris, 190 1). p . 23. [G6a,3) A hoo kseller 's postcr apl)ea rs in 1 ..e5 Murailles re volmionnnire5 (Ie 18,18 with tile fo llowi ng expl ana tory rema rk : " We offcr tilis afficlle. as la ter we shall offer others unreilited to the electiolls or to the political evcllts of the. day. We offer it beca use it tl'L1s wily a nti how certain manufa('turers profit from certain occalion s." 10'1'0111 the IHlster: " Rend tilis importallt notice agaillst Swindlers . MonJ!ieur Alexandre Picrre, wisiling to ;;top the d nily nb uses created by tile gener al ignorance of the Arg"l and J urgon of swimllcrs a nd dnngcrulls men , hilS malle good use of the unhllPpy time he was forced to R pend wilh them It S 11 victim of the fall en Governmenl : no .... reuured to liLert y b y our l.\Oble n eJ>uhllc, be has jUl.t puhlishe(1 the frui t ofthOAe sad studies he. wal able to make in llrison. He is 1101 afraid 10 descend

" IA: Pllty lills calculated thai the number uf yea rs re<.luiroo to prcpare a world exhibition eq llals the number of months it ruus .... There is ohviously a . hocking

into the midst of these horrible places. Imd even into the Lions' Dcn . if by theft' means ... he can shed liglu on Ihe principal wo rds of tl.eir convt: rlla l.io ll ~. lind thu s lIIake it pOlj~ i bl e to avoid Ihe misforhUiCII III1tI ahu8c8 tbat rc~ uh frolll not knowing t.hcse wordl . which wilil now were intelligillie onl y to swimlierM .... On ~ 1I1 (' from public ve lld or~ ami fronlthe Autllor.' LeI! Mllrui/J~1i rellolmillnno irel de 1848 (Purill <1852,) . vol. l. p . 320. {G7. 1]

hy t.he gO \"'rnmCIII agaiJU;1 the Inler national Auociatiou or \\'orkers." lIenry Fmlgere, Le~ IJI>MgatiQ,1S oUl"ieres tllloX exp mdt imlll IlIlilicrlJellell .m ll!! Ie IJcclmd ClllfJirc (!\1onllll\'''II . 1905) . p, is. TIll' firsl great meeting ill Loudon liraftetl a dldaration of sympathy for th(' liIM'ration uf Ihe Polt: . [G7a.3) In Ihc Ihrl'e or rnur repOl1s by the "" orker dcleglltions who look (lart in the world t.xhillitioll of I K67 . there lire dcmallds fur the abolitioll of stll.nd.illg armj es II lul for gellcrlll tli!lllrllllllllcllt . DclcgatiollHor Jlorcelain painters. I)inno repairmen . 11m&lII0kl'ri . alltlnll'c hllDics . See Fong!\ re . pp . 163- 164 . IG7a,4] 1867. " Whoever visited the Chaml) de Mll rs for the first tim~' !l;ot a singular impre5_ ~ i on . Arri ving by the central a\'eDUtl, he I II"" a t lirH t ... ollly iron alld smoke .... This initial impreK~ i o n ('xerlCII sudl all illfiueJlct: nn the visitor thut. ign oring the tempting di\'ersions offered by the arcade. he would has ten toward the muvement lind 1I0ise that aUracted him . At ever y point _ .. wlJ('re the lllaCiJinc&WI!re nwmentluil)' R I.iI1. he could hellr the s trains of stea m-powercd orga ns and thc s ymphnnies of brass lnstrumt: nts.' A . S. lie Dflllcourt . Le~ Exposition. Ilniverselles ( Lille aDd I)aris ( 1889)), Pl'. IJ 1- 11 2. [G7a,5) T heatrical ~'urkjj llert ll.ining 10 the world exhihition of 1855: Pa ris trop petit. AU!,'lISI 4, 1855. TI,,::iitl"e du Luxembourg: Pa ul Meurice. I\"is. J ul y 2 1, PorteSai nt Martin ; T ht.'"Odo re Barriere and Paul tie Kock, L "l:lisloire de Puris and w Gra nfl5 Siedes. September 29; Les Mode!! de l"eXIJosition ; D:.im boom boom: Revile de l'ex /aibitioll ; Seb astien Rheal. La I'jswn lIe "'a wtw. ou t 'Exl ,mitiotJ uniI...'erselle de 1855. In Adolp he Oem", Eu ai hi&lorique ' !lr U!S e.xpos j,jona ulliverselles de Pur;,. ( Paris, 1907), p . 90. [G7a,6] Loudon 'lI world exhibition or 1862: "No trace rernainetl lIf the etlifying impression made h y the e,;hibitioD of 185 1. ... Neverthelen, this ex llihition h lltl sOllie notewo rth y r esults .. , . T he greatCiit surprise ... Clime from China. UI) to this time, Europe had seen nothing of Clli nese art except ... Ille ordinllry porcelaius sold on the 1Il1l1'kel . Bui 1I 0W the Anglo-Chinese war had takc n place ... , a mi the S ummer Plllal'{' had bt.~ n Imrned to tht! grouDtl , II UPIKtSClll y as IIu nis hlllc llI .~ III Iruth , howevt-r, Ihe English IUHI s uccet.'tled eVI'1I ilion' thun their allies, th e Frl'nch , ill ca rr ying away u large pnrtitlll of the h -C1l8ures a massed ill d ilit palace . and these treasures were 8ublk'(j lU'ntiy IJUI fi ll exhibit in lulllion i.n 1862 . For I.he sake of ,Ii;r.cretion. it was wo mell r atllCI' ttallU 1111'11 wht) actC(1 a ~ e:l: hihil orlO'- Julius I ~lis ill g, Do s IUlIlw. ju/'rllllllder/ ,/1 ' r Weit(IU$$I ellllrlge li (Bcrlin , 19(0). II. 16.

If the conunodity was a fetish, then Grand ville was the tribal sorcerer.

IC7,21

Secoml Empire: "'The governmellt'Rcantlidates ... were able to print their proda
mations on white paper. a color reserved exclusively fo r officiaJ pu" lic ati o ll ~. " A. Malet a. Dd P. Grillet , XIX' siede ( Paris, 19 19). 1" 27 1. [G7,3)

lnJugendstil we see. for the first timc. the integration or the human body into Jugendstil 0 [G7,4] advertising. D
Worker delegatiuns at the world exhihition of 1867 . At the tOI) of the agenda is the demand fo r the ab rogation of Article 1781 of the Civil Code. which read.: " The employer 's word Ih aU be taken liS true i.n Iii, statement of wage~ "llportiolled , of sll.lary paid for the yea r ended , and of accoun ts given for the curreDt year" (p . 14O).-"1'h.: delegationll of worker s at the exhihition8 of Lond un and Paris in 1862 a lill in L867 gave a di rection to the lIocial movemcnt of the Second Empire. and even , we may lay. In that of the seccmd half of the nineteenth century. . , . Their reports were compared to the retlords of the Estates Ge n ~ra l ; the former were the l igna! for a social evolution , jus t all the lalter, in 1789, had been the ca use of a political and economic revolution" (p . 207).-{Thill comparison to mcs [rom Michel Chevalier.] Demlmd for II ten-hou r workday (p. 12 1).- "'Four hundred thousand free tickets were dislriliuleti to the workers of Parill and vario us depart ements. A barracks with nlOre than 30,()(M) heds wail p ut at the dispollal of Ihe viliitingworkers" (p . 84). Henr y Fougere, Les Deiega!ionll ou vrjerell (.1/1.% expositioru universelk ll (Montlut_ on , 19(5). (G7,5] Cathemlgs of worker delegatitln. of 1867 al Ihe " tra inillg ground of the PIl98age [C7a, l] Raoul. ... Fougere, p. 85. '1'he exhibition had long since dosed , hut the dclegatc!K t:o lliinu ed their discussions. and the pa rliament of wo rkers kep t hoMing IIt~IISiolll ill lhe Passage Raoul. '" IIcn ry Fougere, LeI Deli-g(ltioIU OIlIlriere. (lUX expositiallll ImillerseliCIf 51111.! Ie 5ecorad empire ( Montlu toll. 1905), IIp. 86-87 . Ahoglt1ler, the scssiollll lasted frOlIl Jill" 2 1. 186 i, until Jul y 14. 1869. [G7a.2] Internaliona l Ass<tcialiuu of Worket'1l. "TIIt' ,h ' lll'iation . . . datcs fl'OIlI 1862. from the time of the ""orld exhi bition in London. It wu llu-re Ihnl Englis h and French worken firs t lIIet . tu hulll tliSCII S8 io n ~ a nd 11I...'"Ck lIlululI.1 enliglltdullt nl. Stlllellll'lIt made by 1\1.. Tolain (1 11 March 6. 1868 ... during Ihe linil l uit " rought

ICg,1]
Lessing (D(u 11I11I1e jllhrflllnr/crt der Ir'e ltllll-'utd/llllge n [Berlin. 1900] . p . " ) poiu lil UI' the diffcrclwl llI't",ti; n thc ,"",urlll l'xhiLi litlUii allli till" fnirs. For the Inlier, tile lIIerchulll!! bruugllt Iheir wholc I!ltlc k of goml.!! along wi th tlll'm , T he wodd exhi hitionl IIrt:lI UPIJoOse II. con/iiderahle d cveloJl ment of commercial 118 wdl all iD'

JU6lriai credil- that i$ lo @ay.credit on tlu' pari uf the pu rl of til(' farm @ tuldng tlleir onl!!".
" YOIII

c u ~ tom er.!l . a ~

well as 0 11 tile {CR,2]

ddil,erat("!y "1If11O close your eye! in ur,ler 110110 r ealize Iliulthe fair 0 11 t.l1I' CholllV de Marl! ill 1798. Ihal the ! upe rh porticOt!! of Ihe l:uurlyortJ of tile louvre amllhe courlya rd of ,lie Invalides C(JlIlIlructll(l i.n the following years. anti , fili ally. Ihal the memurable royal ordinance of J anuary 13. 1819,10 have powerfull y conIri lmtL-d 10 the glorious d e\'f~l o pment of French industry.... It was resern,;ti for Lhe king of Frallce to Iransform Ihe ma~ifi cellt gallerie6 of his palace illto an immense hazaar, illurder Ihat his IH!Opie might cOlltemplate ... Ihese ullblOOllied I r(l"hi ~ raised III' by the genius of tile Itrts and Ihe genills of IH':IIL-e: - d'.lIephC h ltrl es ~ Chcnou a nd B.D. Nolice mr I'('xpo! ilion de! produiu lie l'inllu! lrie el de5 orl! flui 0 ell tum u lJoIJa; en 1827 (Houai. 182 7). p , 5. [C8,3]

dipped. grain thrclihed . cual I:lxJral:lcd, I:hocolate relined , and un anll 011. All IiXhiLitorli withollt exception .... CI1;l IIl1l1wcd IIl1.tiiit y and IIteam , contrary to whot went on in LOlulon in 185 1. wl.lt" IIlIly thc English ..xhihil orli had had the benefit of fire and water." A. S. Ollllcourl , L.i5 Ii,Xl1OJ1ition5 univer5elle5 (LiDe ami Pari ~ d889, p . 53 . { G8a.2]

1.11 1867. tbe "oriental quarter" waif t.he center IIf attraction .
Fift~n

[G8a.3] [C8a,4] [C8a,5]

million visilors to the exhibitiOn of 1867.

in 1855 . for Ille first time, merchltlldist' could be marked with a price.

1bree dilferent delegations of wo rkers were sent to London in 1851; none of lhem accomplished anything significant. Two wen= official: one represented the National Assembly, and one the municipality of Paris. The private delegation was put together with the suppon of the press, in particular of Emile de Girardin. The workers themselves played no part in assembling these delegations. [GS,4]
The dimensions of the Crystal Pa lnee , according to A. S. DonCOU It , u ! Expo!i-fion s unilJersdle! (Ulle nnd Puris <1889 , p . 12. The long side! measured 560 IIIctt" rs. [C8.5]

"Le P lay had ... understood how neces88 ry il would hecome to find wbat we caU. in modern parlance, ' It draw'--IIome Itar attraction. He likewise foresaw that thill necessity would lead to mismllllagement of the exhihitions, and this iii the iu ue ... to which M. Claudio-J anet addresscll hinl8eLf in 1889: 'The ecollomist M. Frederic Passy, a worth y man , bas fur many years now, ill his s peeches 10 Parliament and to tile Academic. b,een denouncing Ihe abuses of the s tr~t fairs . Everythiug he soya about the gingerbread eltir .. . cil n also be said {allowing for differences in magni. lude} of the great centennial ce.lehration . '" A note at this point: " The centennial celehration , in fnet , was 8 0 succcuful that the Eierel Tower , which cost 6 million francs, had already earlled . hy the ftftb of November, 6 ,459.581 fran cs." Maurice Pi.'urd. Le! Expoaitions internotionClle! (lU point de vue economique et !ociale, parliculieremenl en Fran ce (Parill, 190 I ). p . 29. (G9,1]
Tlu: exhibition palace or 1867 on the Champ de Mar~o lllpared by soule to Rome's Colo.!l8eum: " The arrangement conceived by Le Play. tbe head of the exhihition committee. wall a mOllt feliciioull one. The objecL8 on exbibit were distributed . according to their ulaterial in eight cuncentric g811ericlI: twdve ave nues ... hranched out from die ceuter. and the l)rincipalnal.ioll8 IIccupietllhe SeCloMl cut hy those radii . In this way... by !trolling around the gaU eries, one couJd ... survey the stale of one particula r industry in a ll the differeot countries, whereas, L)' strolling up the avenuell that crussed them , one could survey the state of the different branches of industry ill each particu lar country." Adolphe Demy, Euai hislorique ! Ilr le5 eXl)05ilion ! Itniver&elle. de Pari.! (Paris. 1907), 1'. 129. -Cited Ili're is Tbeoplille Gautier's article abo ut the palace ill U A10llilcu r of Seplemoor [7. 1867: " We have before liS, it set:ms, a luunument created on another plan et, on .Iupilt!r or Sa lu.rn. accol'ding to It tOllte we do nol recugnize allil witll a coloration til .... hich our cyes are flut accustomcd ." Ju st hcff)r!' tbis: "'flit' great IIzure gulf, with its blood-colored rilU . produce!! It vertiginous cfft'C1 111111 unsettle,; ollr itleas of archilelll u.re . '" [Gg,,[ He.sistancc 10 the world ... hihilioll (Jf 185 1; "Till! king of Pru .~! i a fnrbude Ihl! royul princl! alUl prim.:eu ... frllill trawling to Lur.u liln .... The dililomatic corJl.i rl!fused to address any wunl (If congratullttions to tile 111It:e1l . ' At this mumCllt , '

0 11 tile workers'

del~'glt tion s to the Great Exhibition in London in 1862: "Electoral offices ....ere being rapidly organized whim , on the eve of elections. an incident . .. Itrose In imlH!de Ihe OIH! raliolls. The Paris V0]jce ... took umhragf' at this Ullpreceili'llte(! d evduJlment . and the Worken Commission was ordered to cease its acth'itics. Convinced thai this measure . . . could only be Ihe resuJt of a misunderstanding, membt'.rs of thf' COlllllliu iou took their aplMl:1t1 directl y to Hit Maje@ty.... The emperor ... was. ill fact. willing to authorize the COlllnUs8sion to pursue illl task . The elections ... rellulted in tht" 6('1 t.'t'lion of two 11I111IIretl delegu les .... A peri",1 of len IIa Y8 had been granted 10 each grou p 10 Itccompli8h its mi n ion. Eaeh delegate ri'!Ceh'ed . on his departure. the sum of 11.5 fran cs, a seefUhl-dass I'uuml-trip trui n ticket, lodging, alld a meal, 11M well as a pau 10 the ex hihitiuli .... This grl'u t Jlupular mo\'ementlook p1:we withoutl.hc slighu:81 inci J eut Lhnl .1 IlI..Jd ha\'" been tCl"lncd rcgltlllabltl.." Rap/JOrl .f ,le . Je.tegll b tie! o " ur;~ r.~ WJri . ielu (ll 'CX1)Osition tie l.ondres en 1862, (Jllblik5 lJur Itl (;olllllli$5ioll aUI/,.ii1"c (I~lIri 8. 1862- 1864) [ I voL! ]. PI). iii- iv. (The IloCUI111'I1t 1 !llIIl uins flfty tllre,' n 'p"rls hy J"icglltium from the tliffelI'nt trull t,s. ) [GSa ,l]
Pari ~ . lIi55. " Follr InCOllloti-'cs wt"re b'uurdillg till' hall flf malhim'li. ii k l~ thosc I(rl'a l hulls of Ni lll'va h . III' like 1.111" s "hill xe~ to be l!t.... '1 lit the I!nlra lll;e til EgYillian tcmplc.s. Thi ~ hllll Wit " II. In.l\!! IIf iron a nd fire a lld watt' r ; tllll ean wcre ..Jcafl:ued . Ihc eye~ Ilazzle.l .... All ...as in motion . O ne 8ltW wool cornl.ed. clotll twisled . ya rn

wro le ... Prinet' AJ herl 10 hi t mo the r on April 15. 185 1. ... ' the Oflpo ne nt3 of the Ex hibition a re hurd II I wtlr k . . . . The fo r f'Jgn er l. they cry, will stat't A ra dica l r t"olulioll 11!'t't' ; IllI'y will kill Vic toria li nd myself a nti procl a im a re ll repuhlic. Moreove r. the plugue will surd y res uh (rom the inAu.x of s uch multitude. a nd wiU tlt' vo ur those who 11IIYC nol bee driven awa y b y tile high priceR on everything."" ,\d ulphe Oemy. EU(l; hiMOrillUI! .sur ie" eX lmsition! ufliveru.lle, (Puris. 1907) .

185 1. TIII~1If: prcl:aulioD 5 i.ncilnled continuous police Sllnd llancc of the d ormitories, tim presence of a chaplain . a lld a regular morning vi ~ i t hy a doctor. [G 10, I]

.5

" .~
::!

p.38.

[G9,3]

If'!I eXI J(J.s itiOlI!

"

FrKIlt;oil uc Neufch li lea u 00 t.he exhibition of 1798 (in Di my, En ai hiMorique , m ,. universefLu ). " 'The French, ' he declared , . . . ' Iulve amazed Europe by the I wirtne8ll uf their militar y 8uceClle!! : they 8hollid launch a career in commerce alld the urts with ju ~ t the same fervor '" (I)' 14) , "This initial exposition .. is really an initial campaign. a campaign di sa~ tro us for English industry" ( p . IS).-Martial ch ar acter of the opening p rocession : "( I) a conUnj!el1t of trumpe lers; (2) a t.letachment of ca valry; (3) the first two squads of mace bearers. (4) Ihe dr um!!; (5) a military ma rching balltl ; (6) a squad of infantry; (7) the her alds; (S) the festival mars hal; (9) th e a rtists regis tered in the exhibition ; ( 10) the j ury" (p. 15).-Neufchiteau a wards the gold Rledal to tbe most heroic assa u.lt on English industry. [G9a,l ]

\l'alpQle deseribc8 the C r y~ t al Palace, with the glIISS foun tain at iUl center lind the nill elm_ tim luller " looking !l lmost likl": the l io n ~ of the fore.;t caught in a net of glass" (11 , 3(17). He des(!rilies the booths decora tt..-d with expeusive carpetli . !tnt! above a ll tilt: mad u llI:s. "1'here were in the machine-room tile. ' .relf acting mules: the J acquard lace. machincs, the en velope machines . tile IlOwer looms, the model locomoti ves, centrifugal pumps, the ve rtical 8tt'am-engin es. all of these working like. mad , while the thousaluis nea rb y. in their high hals a nt! b ODll e lll , sa t p atientl y waiting, passive, un witting that t.h e Age or Man on this Planet was doomed ." HUSh Walpole . 7'he Fo rtress (H amhurg, Pa ris , and Bologn a (1933 , p . 306." [G I O,2] I)dva u s peaks of " men who, each evening, h ave thei.r eyes glued to the dis play window of La Belle Jardinere to watch Ihe da y's receipts being counted ." AJfred Delva u , LeJ fleureJ pfJruienne. (paris. IS66), p . 144 ("Huit heures du ,oir"). [GIO,']
II ' p<xch to tile Senate. 0 11 J anuar y 3 1, IS68, Michel Chevalier makes an erfort save the previous yea r 'l Palat..'e or Illdustry from < ICitruction , Of the various possihilities he lay, out fur u lvagiog tbe buildin g, the 01081 noteworth y is tha t of us ing the interior-which . with its circular form . is ideaJl y suited to such a pur IlOKe--for practicinfl troop maneuvt:r&. He al80 proposes developing the structure into a pe rmanent merch andise mart for imports. The inlention of the opposing party Seems to have been to keep the Champ de Mars free of all constructioo- this fo r mjjjtar y reaSlI1I8. S~ Michel Chevalier , Dilwltrs .sur une petition reclamanl com r/! la destm ctiorJ dupolou de r Expo.sitiorJ Imiverselle de 1867 (Paris. 1868) . [GI O ,' ]

In

10

T ilt' second exhibition , in Year lX . It was supposed 10 bring together, in tbe courtya rd of the LouVI"e. works of induslry and of the plastic arts. But the a rtists refused to exhibit their work alongside that of manufactu rer I (Demy. p. 19).
[G9a,2)

Exhibition of lIH9. "The king, on the occasion of tile exhihition . conferred the title of b aron on Tern aux and Oberkampf.... The granting of aristocr atic titlell to industrilliisli! had I'rm'oked some criticisms. In 1823 , no new ti tle! wer e conferred .' Dcmy, Eu ai lI iltorique. p . 24. [G9a,3! Exhibition of 1 fW;~ . Madame de Girardin's comments on the event , ~ in) Vicomte de La llna y. J.A!.ttre.s fJflri,~if!tUl eS , vol. 4 , p. 66 (cited in Demy, Eua; hi.st(}riqlle. p, 27): " 'It is II pleullUre, ' she remar ked . 'stran gdy akin to a nigh tma re .' And ~ he "'en t on to r:numcrate the inguJa rities. of which the.re was no lack : the Hayed horse, the. colossal beetle.. 111t~ moving jaw, the Chr0l10me.tric Turk who marked the hours by the numb.. r of his somersa ul ts, and- last but not lea8l-1\o1 . and Mme, P ipelel, the tundergcs in l.e$ Myster~ de f 'uriJ, 12 as angels." {G9aAI Wo rld exhihitiou of 185 1: 14 ,837 exhibito rll; thai of 1855 : 8O.(}()(J.
IGga,5!

" The worltl exhiLitiol18 . . . callnot fa il to provoke the most exac.t eomparisons hetween the prices a nd the qu alities I1f the same article as produced ill different coulltrit:8. !low the schl)Qi of absolute freedom of trade rejoices th"ll ! The world exhibitions contrihute ... til the reduction . if 110tthe aholition , of custom duties." .I\ chilll d(' COl1l8UIII ~?), Hiltoire cles l'~pos irions de, IJrodltiu de I 'illdu.st r~ fr(ln ~a ;8e (poria. 1855) . p. 544. [G I Oa, l)
E\'e r y i n~ ILl S lry. in f'.x hi hi ling illl irophie& In lhi~ bazaar <If IIn i\'e" ~ II II'r~re8l! , S~m& If. hu\'c borrowed II fai..,. ~ magi !": wand

To blHll lh... Cry~I " 1 Palale.

In 1867. till' Egyptian exh ib it wa~ IlOu& ed ill a buildi ng wh us~ {Icsign was hast..-d Oil all Egypti an h! lIlple. IG9a,6]

In his 110\'1,1 "fIl e f'o rt rf!lIS . Wa l "ol ~ de"c ri b~s the p N"C"lI utiOI1M tha t were taken in a luolgillg-hulllJc spcl'ially dt:sigllcil to we!l)umc vi& itors to the world cxhihitioll uf

Hiel. In e n . Mholal1l . a r lilllll. pr<)If" la ri lln&Ea eh one labun rur lhe.conlmon ~ .. I; Antl .juini ng I U~ lhf:r likl' no hle Lrol lw.... AIIIII'vc 81 hearl Ih .. hHIJp incH" " f <!IIeh.

Clairville and JuleJ! Cord..icr. Le Pa/t/il de Crido l, 0 11. Les Parisie n$ ;, Londres [TlII!ii tr~ de la I'nrte,SlIilll-Mllrtin . Ma y 26. 18511 ( P"ris. 185 1), 1" 6, IG IOa,2) The laSI IWO lablcll ux from C1airviJlc's Pafais de Cri.,tr,l tuke p lace ill frOli1 of a nti in sid ~ the Cryslal Palace. The stage di rectiOlls for the ( Ilext to~ lasl t" blea u: "T he mai n gaUery of the Crystal Palace. To the lefl , downs tage, u !Jed , 0 1 the heatl of which is a large dial. AI center stage , a limalilable holding small sacks alld pOls of curth. To the right , a n electric,,! mac hine. Toward the rear, a n exhib itioll of van(I U S producis (based 011 Ihe descriptive e ngraving dtlne in London)" (p. 30). [GIOa,3] Adve rtiseme nt for _ M arquis Chocolates, from lIH6: " Chocolate from La Maisoll Marquis, 44 nue Vivienne. a t the Passage dcs PanOramas.-The time has ClIme when c hocola le praline, and all the other va rieties of chocoilit defanwil ie. will be ~I"ai l a ble . .. from the House of Marqu.i ~ in the most varied and graceful of fo rms, . , . We a re privileged to be able 10 an nounce 10 o ur I'eadel's Iha l, once again. an asso rtment of pleasing verses. judicious ly selected from a mo ng the year's purest , most gracio us, a nd most deva ted pllbli ca tio n ~ , will accompa n y the exquisite confections of Marquj~, Confident in the favorable ad\'a ntage tha t is OU I"II alone, we rej oice to "ring logether tha tlHlissall t lIallle with so much lovely verse," Cabinet des Estampes, {GI0a,4] Palace of ImIU6lry, 1855: " Six pavilions border the huildingon four sides, aDd 306 arcades run through the lower story. A n eno rmous glau roof provides lighl to the illte rior. A.s ma teria l ~. o nl y 8lune, iron , and zinc have heell usetl; building costa amounled 10 11 millioll francs .... Of partic ul a r in teresl are IWO large paintings on glass a t the eastern a nd wes tern e nds of the main gallery. , .. The figures represe!lled on these appear 10 be life-ilize. ye t are 110 less tllan six me ters high ," Achr Tage in Pflr;s (Paris , Jul y IB55), pp. 9- 10. The paintings o n glass show figures re prese nling imluillrial Frallce ami Jusl.ice. [Gl l ,l]

infllney. the Cydopl:nn p.:r iod. , .. It is the ... allegorica l exp" essioll of the a bsolute I'rt'oomiuan cc of brute fOl'c(' o\'c r intd lcct ual force . . . Man y cstimahic IIlI ulogis ts find a marked r~semJ,lali ce belwL'tln molcH, Wllich "pllll'U Ihe IlOil a nd pie rce passagcs of ilublerl'allcilli commilnicalitlil . .. . IlIU I tlu~ lllol1upolizcl's of railroads and stag{' IOllles . . . . The I~xtrc me II c r vo u ~ sl'usi!Jility of the ruolc. whie h fears the light . .. , uthnirahl )' cha raCle rizes the obs linate oh~Cllr allli S Ill of those mono polizel's of bunking a nti of Il"a nSpolta tilln . who alJ!o fear the light." A. To ussc nf"l, l~ 'ESl)rit d~s 1~ I.es: Zoologie pUJS iOlllleile-M(lmmijeres ,Ie frlmcc (Paris, 1884), pp. 469, 473-474.11 [GilA] Animal symholism in Toussenel: the marmot. "Tllt~ lIIannot . , . loses ils hair a t itll wo rk- in allusion It) Ihe painful la bo r of the chillilley swt,ep. wllo ruhs and spoilJ! his dothes in his occupa tion." A. T()IlSscnfll. L 'E$pril des be l l'S ( Paris, ]884),
. _"

~ Il ~

Plant "ymhQlis lII ill Tou ,,~el1cl: the vine. " The vine lo\'es to gossip ... ; it nlOllnlll familia rl y to the shou.lde r of plum Iree, olive. or elm, and ig intimllte with all the tree!." A. TO II~sen eJ , L 'Esprit des bere.!: ( Paris, 1884). p. 107 . [Gll ,6]

" I have ... wrillen , together with my collabo ra tors o n L'A relier, thai the nlOmenl
for economic re\'olution has come . . . , alt ho ugh we ha t! all agreed some time pl'e viollsly tha t the workers of Europe had achieved suHdarilY a nd that il was nt'cessa r y now to move 0 11. hefo re a nything else, 10 the idea of a political fcde ra lioll of peoples." A. Corhon , Le Secret tlu peupl~ de f~flril (Pa l'is, 1863) . p. 196, Also p. 242: " In ~ \Im , the p olitica l a ttitude of the wo rking class uf Paris co nsiilts almo~1 clilirt:1y in tilt! pa ~s ioll ate desi.re 10 serve Iht". mO\'t'lnelll of federation of national iti e~." [Gll ,2] Ni na La .~~ave. Fic ~c hi '8 bdowm. was c.m ployed , afte r his eXCC;lltioll un February 19. 1836. us a cashil:r ut Ih,! Cafe (Ie la Renuissllll,:e 011 till! P l ae,~ de 10 Bou rse.

Toussencl expounds the theory of the circle and of the parabola with reference to the different childhood games of the two sexes. TItis recalls the anthropomorphisms of Grandville, "TIle figures preferred by childhood are invariably round-the baH, the hoop, the marble; also the fruits which it prefers: the cherry, the gooseberry, the apple, the jam tan . ... The analogist, who has observed these games with continued attention, has not failed to remark a characteristic difference in the choice of amusements, and the favorite exercises. of the children of the two sexes .. , . VVhat then ha.s our observer remarked in the character of the games of feminine infancy? He has remarked in the character of these games a decided proclivity toward the ellipse. I I observe anlong the favorite games of feminine infancy the shuttlecock and the jump rope ... , Both the rope and the cord describe parabolic or elliptical curves. Why so? Why, at such an early age, this preference of the minor sex for the elliptical curve, this manifest contempt for marbles, ball, and top? Because the ellipse is the curve of love, as the circle is that of friendship. The ellipse is the figure in which God ... has profiled the form of H is favo rite creatures-woman, swan, Arabian horse, dove ; the ellipse is the essentially attractive form .... Astronomers were generally ignorant as to why the planets describe ellipses and not circumferences around their pivot of atttac tio n; they now kJ10W as much about dtis mystery as 1 do." A. Toussencl, L'Esfrn"l dubiteJ, pp.S9- 91. 1!, {GIl a. I] Tousscllel posits a symbolism of curves, according to which the circle represents friendship; the ellipse, love; the parabola. the SClLse of family ; the hyperbola, ambition. In the paragraph concerning the hyperbola, there is a passage closely relaled to Grandville: ';TIle hyperbola is the curve of ambition . . ' . Admire the detennmed persistence of the ardent asymptote pursuing the hyperbola in head

[GI1.'[
Auimal symholism in TOll8send : the mule. " The mole is .. . lI ul the eml,ielll of a s ingle c haracter. I t is Ihe emble m of a whole 80cial pe riod : the leriod olf indusl.rY iI

long eagerness: it approaches, always approaches, its goal ... but never attains it." A. Toussenel, L'Espn'J des beles (Paris, 1884). p. 92.11 [Glla,2]
Ani m:\l sYlnholjslII ill Tu u/iscnl'l: lhl! hedge.hog. " G ILllt ()n{JU ~ a nll repulsive. it is also the purtrait of I.hc scurvy 8lu\'c of the l)en , trafficking with all s ubjects. seUiug pustmus lc r"s appointments anti tllcatt:r pusses, .. . ami dra wing.. from his sorr y Clwis tiull conscience pledges lind apologies at fixed prices .... It is said thai Ihl' Iledgchog is the only Ilullllruped of Fru llce on whicll the vellum of the viper hU8 110 effect . I shouJd have guessed litis exception merely from analogy. .. For {'''plain . . . how cal umn y (the vipe r) can stillg the Litc"ary blackguard." A. 1'01l85Cllcl. L 'E~prj, de~ betes (Paris. 1884). pp . 476, 4711. 1 $ [Cll a,3)

its fint ordeal. " A. Toussend , l,'Esprit 1884), Ill" 44-45 .

(I~II

belt's: Z(mlog ie. 1JIISs io rlllcfle. ( Parilf . [G12 .5}

Principle of Toussenel'!I zoology: " The runk of the sl'edes is ill direct proportion tu iu resemblance to thc human being." A. TOlIs8enel, L 'Esprit rles beres (Paris, 1884), I)' i. Compart' the epigraph to tbe work: '''The Les ttiIing about mall i8 his dog.'-Charlel. ' [GI2a,l ) The aerunaul Poiteviu, s ustained hy great publicity, uliJerlook an " asce.ntto Ura_ nus" accompanied in the gondola of his balloon by yo ung women dressed 8 S mythological figures. PariJ sous la Repubfique de 1848: ExpositioFl de la Bib[G 12a,2) fiot"eque et des travall..( "iJtoriques de lfJ ViUe de Paris (1909). p. 34.

"

" Lightning is the kiss of cloud!;, stormy but faithful. Two lovers who adore each other, and who will tell it in s pite of all obstacles . are two clouds altimated with oppusite d ectricities, aliI! s welled with tragedy." A. Totlssenel , L 'E~pri' des betes: Zoof~lgie I'IISSi01l11elle-.'I1lHflmiferes de Frclnce, 4tll cd. ( Parill, 1884), pp. 100I O I. I~ (C12 ,I) The firs t edition nfTuulIsenel's l .'EsI)rit des betes appcllred in 1847.

(GI2 ,2]

" I have vaiuly questioned Ihe archives of antiquity 10 find traces of Ihe seller dog. I ha ve appealed to the memory of the most lucid somnamlJlllists to allcertain the epoch wheu Ihis rat.' e appeare<1. All the iufol'mation I could procurf' .. . leads 10 Ihis conclusion : mt: setter dog is a creation of modern times." A. Toullsellcl, L 'Es_ prit de. betes ( Paris. 1884), p. 159 .1<' [GI2.3) "A beautiful youllg womoJl is a true voltaic cell , ... ill which the captive fluid Is retainell by the form of surface/l aud the isolating virtue of Ihe hair; 8 0 that when this fiu.id would escape from its sweet prison , it must make inc.redible efforts, which produce ill turn. hy influence ou bodies differeniJy animated , fearful ravages of altracl.ion . . .. The history of the human race swarms with examples of inldligenl and learned men, intrepid heroeil, ... transfix ed merely by a woman's ('" ye ... . The holy King David proved liial he perfectly ulider s laa~llh e condensing properties of !,ulilOhed elliptical surfaces when he took IIl1to him..elf the young (G12 ,4J Abigail!' A. Tousscncl. L E.~I)ril ties betel> (Paris, 1884), PI" 101- 1O3.!1 'I'oulllO{'IJI.,1 explai ns Ihe rotation of lhe earlh as the resultant of II centrifugal f"rce and II fo ....:e (jf attractioll . Further an: "The IItar , . begins 1.0 wah:!: its frenetic waltz . ... E\'I:rythillg rll siJ('"s. stirs, WllrlllS up. shill e~ on the /i urfHee of the g1ohe. whidJ (lilly the eVI:ning hefm'e was entullIiJeil in the frigitl sih'ncc of night. Marvelous o; pe.!llIcif' for IIII~ wdl-plul'c.J o{,8crver--change of SCt' l1e wonderful to hehold . r fl r the rt'.Volution look pillce hctween two ~ un ~ alld , thai vtcry eveni ng. an ameth ys t SI.:l r ma.le its firs t appearan ce i.1I Ollr skics" (p . 45 ). And . allullins to the lIo1o;ullislll of eurlier epochs (If the cUI'IIi: " \1;',.. know the eff,:cls Wllich the lint Wltltz usuall y has Oil deli('atc cOli stitutioll ~ .. . . The Eurth , too. "'as rudely awakened by

We can speak of a fetishistic autonomy not only with regard to the commodity but also-as the following passage from Marx indicates-with regard to the means of production: "If we consider the process of production from the point of view of the simple labor process, the laborer stands, in relation to the means of production, . . . as the mere means . . . of his own intelligent productive activity. .. . But it is different as soon as we deal with the process of production from the point of view of the process of surplusvalue creation. The means of production are at once changed into means for the absorption of the labor of others. It is now no longer the laborer that employs the means of production, but the means of production that employ the laborer. Instead of being consumed by him as material elements of his productive activity, they consume him as the fennent necessary to their own life process . . . . Furnaces and workshops that stand idle by night, and absorb no living labor, are a 'mere loss' to the capitalist. Hence, furnaces and workshops constitute lawful claims upon the night labor of the workpeople." 22 111is observation can be applied to the analysis of Grandville. To what extent is the hired laborer the "soul" of Grandville's fetishisticalJy animated objects? (G12a.3)
" Night dis tributes the steUar essence 10 Ihe sleeping p lants. Every bird which ffiea has the thread of the i.nfiltile in its claw. ,. Viclor Hugo , Oeuvres COI1lI)ietes ( Paris, 1881). novels, vol. 8, p. 114 (Les Mi.~e,.abtes, Look 4).13 [G12a,4) Drumont calls TouS8cnei "olle of Ihe greatest ,.rose writers of the ce.ntury." Edouard DrumOllt. u s fleros elles pi,res (Paris ( 190<h), p . 270 e'Toussener'J. [G I2a,5J Technique of uhibition ; "A fUJldamelllal rule . Il'lickl y learned tll1'(lUgh observatiun, is tllal 00 object dltluld be plBced tlirectly un the floor, 011 a II'vel with the wulkwa ys. Pia nos, furnitu re , phys kal upparat us, and machines are hettel' di.~ played O il u pedestal or ruised platform . The best exhihits make use uf two ' Illile distinct sy8tems: disp lays under glass alld upeu d.i splaY/l. To bl' eure, SO lm: products. by their very lIulure or becau ~e of their value , huve I(> he protected from

c\)utact wilh the ai r or the ha nd ; ot he" he nefit from being left uncovcred." expoj jlion IInjllerl fdle de 1861. ii Pa6j : Album d~ imlnllolionj k. pl'l-J remurquablu de (' Ex/lOsi/ion r1e 1862. " wmlre publil. p ar la commusion imf,eriak pour jervir de rell.5eigrumu:nl C l!/.X eXf)oslmls des di verjes natioll S (Pll ris, 18(6) <p . 5). Allnull of pla te>! in large folio. witll ve ry inter esting illustration8, some in colot', sllllwiJlg-iu cron-sec:tiun o r longitudinal &eetiOIl , as the case may be---the payiliunll uf lhe world ex hibition of 1862. Bibliotheque Natio nale. V.644. [G13,1) Paris ill the yea r 2855: " Our man y yis itors from Satu rn alul Mars have entirely furgutten , since arriyi ng her e. the IlOrir.ons of tbeir mothe r plane t! Paris is henceforward the capilill of c reation! . . . Where are yo u . Champs-Elysees . fayored t heme of newswrit.erJII ill 1855? . .. 8u:t:ting along Ihis thoroughfarf' that is pa ved widl hollow iro n a nd roofed willi I:r yslal are the 0011 a nd ho rnets of finance! The capitalists of Ursa Major lire c:ollferring with the IIlockbrokers (If Me rcury! And comilll; on Lbe market this l'ery day are s hares in thi: debris of Vellus half con sumed by ill! own fl a mu!" Arselll! Ho ussaye. "t.e Puris futur." in Paris et ks Pari.ien. au XIX' j iede ( I>ari.s . 1856). pp. 458--459. IG13,2] At the lime (If die c~~ l u" li s hmc nt . in London , of the General Council of Ihe Workers Int e rn a ti o n a l .1~ the roUowing re ma rk circ ulated : "The child born in the worklihOIlS of Puris was nu rsed in U>ndon ." See Charles Benoi51 , "L..e ' My the' de I. c1ad8e o uvriere," Retllre des deux /JIondell (Marc h 1, 19 14), p. 104. [GI3,3) "St!i:ing that the gall!. hall is Ihe s ole occll~ ioll on whic h me n contain themseJ yeB, let us get used to modeling all our ins titutions on gatherings lI uch 118 these , where the woman is queen." A. Toussene! , l..e Monde de. oijeolU, vol. 1 ( Parill, 1853). p. 134. And : " Ma n )' men are courteoU! and gallant at a ball. doubting Dot th.t ga lla ntry ilia comma ndment o r God" (ihid ., p. 98). [G13 ,4)

clueer Ihing, II boullciing in IIlC'taphysical Im l, tleties a nd tlu!ologil:al nicctit."8. So far it is a valuc in Uk . thcr!' is not bing mYllr rious abo ut it. ... T Ill' form of wocxl is alte red b y makinp: a ta hle o ut of it : neycrthdesll . thi ~ table rClna.in ~ wood , a n ol'dinary mall)rial thillg. Iv. ~oon as it step'" fo rdl us commodi t y, howe ver. it i..o transformed illlU II IlIlItCI'ia l imma teria l thiug. II no t o nl y II tunds with lt8 feel 0 11 the gro und , bu t. in the fu cl' of all othe r ('unlm mlities, it Sla nd, on ill! head, a nd uut of il6 wooden bra.in it e\olv.'& nolions mo rt' whims ically Ihan if it had s udde nl y begu n to dallce. --::; Ciled in Franz Me hring, " Karl Marx und das Gleichnis," UI Kort Marx au Denker. M efl sch. rmd Rcvo luf i(miir. cd. Rj uza nov (VI ~nlUl and Be rlin c1928. I" 57 (first publishccl in Dinelte l eil. Marc h 13. 19(8). [G I3a,2]
1111

He nun co nll'"1'{'1I the world n hihitiolls to the great Greek r~s lival s . the Olympiao games, a nd t he I)ana th l'.naea . But in contra&1 to these, Ihe WOrld C)[IJibitio ns lack pt>c try. " Twice. Euro pe hilS gone off to vie w the me rchalldise and to compMre prollucu and ma te rials ; allli lID returning from this ne w kind of pilgrimage, nf) one has complained of m1 8ing M nyllJing." Some paget! later: "Our cen tury te nds toward neithe r the good nor the bad ; it te nds toward the medioc re. What s ucceeds in every elldeavor nowada ys is mediocrit y. " Ernest Renan , EllIa is de morale el de critique ( Paris. 1859), lip . 356--357. 373 ("La Puesic de l' Exposition " ). [G 13a.3) "'as hish visioll in Ihe casillO a t Aix- la-C hllpeUe. -rile ga ming hlille li t Au-IaChapelle is nothing s ho rt of a n inte rnatiOllal congress, where the coins of a U kingdoms and oU cuun triell are welcome .... A storm of Lc0IJOlds. Friedrich Wilhelms, Queen Victurias, and Napoll!ons rain dOWlI . . . 1.111 the tahle. Looking over this shining a!Jul'ium , I thougllt I could see ... the effigies of the sovereigns ... irrcyocably fad e rrom their reJ! pective eCIIS, guineas, or ducats, to ma ke room for other visages e ntirely IIl1k nown 10 nle. A grea l ma lly of tbese fa ce! .. . wo regriDillces .. of "C)[ation , or greed , or or fury. There we re hllppy ones IOu , hut only a few .... Soon thi ll phenumellon ... grew dim a nd passecl a wa y, a nd a no the r sort of vision, no less eIClraordinary. 11 0 ... loomed berore me. . . The bourgeois e ffi ~et whicb had sup pla nted the monarch began tile mselyes to move about withill the metallic diskll ... tha t confined the m . Before IOllg, they had separated rrom Ihe dis ks. T hey appeart'd in full relief; then their hr ads burgeoned OUI into rOllndel1 forms. They luul taken 1111 not olily faces but living fl esh . They had a U sprung Lilliputian "odi~s. Enrything assumed a s hape ... somehow or othe r; a nd cr eatures e",actl y like us. excel1t fo r their sixe, . .. hegun 10 euliven the gamillg table. from whic h all c url't'ncy had va uished . I heard Ihe ring "f cCiins s ir uck by the steel of the c ro upie r 's Ia ke. hut thi H Wll ~ all Ihul I'cmainell uf the old resulluncc ... of Iuuis anel '~C: UII . which hud hecollle nu~n . Theile 1 1I10 r myrmido ns were now tllkin!; to their 11I~ls. fra nli. lit the apprOacil of the murtl ~ rous ra k(' or the c rOll pier ; but escape .... as imp<.ss iblt: . ... Then .. . th e d ...arfis h l! tll kes. uh IiSt.'Cllo admi t defeat . wt:1'I! ruthlcsllly capturecl by t he fa tal rake, wl.ich gat he red Ihl.'l11 illl o the cruupie r's dUlciling hund . T Ill' cluupi,r-lmw h .. rrihl(!-Icmk up emh H IIII4I1 hody dnilllil y betwee n his fm gel'$ lind dl'\'oll nod il wi l.h guslO. In 1,. ..85 1.111111 half all hUllr. I ijaw some half-d ozen of lhelle i111 pruclenl Lilli putiMn5 hurled illlu the a h YM of this tern-

0 11 Ga briel Engelm a nn : " When he pnLli8bed hill Euau lithographiques in 1816. great care was ta ke n to rt-produce this medallion liS the rro ntispiet.:e 10 his book, wilh the inscri ption : ' Awarded to M . G. Engelman n of Mulhouse (Upper Rhine). l.urge-8cale execution. a nd refilleme nt , of the art of lithograph y. Encourageme nt. 1816 .'" He nri 80uduJI . l..a Lithog ruphie ( Paris c 1895) . p. <38>. IG13,5)

On I.he

LOlldon "" o rM e xhibition : " III makillg t he ruunch of thisello rmo ul! exhibitiull . Ih, ohserve r IIOOn rf'alizes thai . to avoid confusion ... il hall been necessary In dU lilel' Ihe different na tionalities in a eertaill lIumher of groupll, und that the olll y uliefuJ way of eKtahlis hing these industrial gro ulling& was to do so on the basis of---<iddl y c no ugh- relipous beliefs. EMeh of the great religious di visiolls of liuma nity ('orres l'uncb. in efff!C' l ... to II pa rti(:ulllr mode of existe nce and of intiustrial aClil'ily." Mkhcl C h ~\ Mlier. Du Progres ( Pari 8. 1852), p. 13. [GI3a ,l] From t hO! fi rlil dlU ph'r of Cupit"l: " A commodit y uP llears , at first /light . a ve r y trivial t hing aod euily unders loucl. Its ana ly8is "hows t hat in reM lity it i, a very

hie lonlh .... Rut whll l ap lJulJeilmc- I.he mo!\t wile Ihal , 611 rnisinll; my '!yCg (14Itngl,tlwr Ly I:hancc) to lin: gu lJcry lI ur ro ulidi ng this lIa Ue.y Iff d"alh , I noticed 1101 j U ~ 1 a n l'xlraor,lin ury likf! lIc!!1I LIII a cOlllplcte idenli t y hclwet:n II", ~e v e ra l kin gpins
playing the Jjft'-si:l!,'d galll~ nllli Ihe miniature hUlllans struggling Iher,' on tJIC taLie .... WI, al '. mort!. Illese kin gpins ... a ppean:tl tll me ... 10 C() II UP8~ in dcspera tion p reci&ely 118 their dliJdlike fa cllimile!! welT ove rtake n hy til t: formilla ble rak .... They ccllled to ~ h ll re _ .. a lilhe.sc nsa liolls of thei r lillie dlllll,lc8; li nd nevcr. for as lo ng li S I th'e, wiJI J forgel the look a nel the ~estur&-full of I"!lred II.nd desp air- ",hic h one. of those gamblers di rec ted to"'a rd Ihe Lallk at the ve r y momen t tha t his tin y simulacru m. cora lled by the rake, wenl 10 satisfy the ra ve nous aplJetite of tlu~ croup ier." Felix Mornand . Ui Vie del eaux (Paris, 18(,2). 1'1' . 2 19022 1 (" Aix- Ia-Cha pcllc"). (C141

/I (:Ollte& l of I'Bstry e'Hlk s. The 600.000 a lhleles of iflllu8try are furni shed with 300_000 !.ottles of cl,ampagrlO' . wllos.. corks. ;It a signal from tlul "command to .... (!r ... a,... Il IlIJlll'plc1 l1imu lt ll lleolu!ly. '1'0 edlO 11](ollglloUI the " mountaiulf of the t: "phraIC!I." CiWtl ill (Arma ud IHllh MIIIIIJlnlllc . Fourier ( Pari~ . 1937), yol. 2, pp . 178-179. IGlh.5)

It woul? b~ useful to ~mpare the. way Grandville portrays machin~ to the way Chevalier, In 1852. still speaks of the railroad. H e calculates that two locomotives, having a total of 400 horscpowu , would correspond to 800 actual horses. H ow would it be possible to harness them up~ H ow supply the fodder? And, in a note. he adds : "It must also be kept in mind that horses o f Besh and blood have to rest after a brief joum ey; so that to furnish the same service as a locomotive, one ~uS t have on hand a very large number o f animals." Michel C hevalier, Cllfmllru defer: Extmil du dictio1l1ullre de l 'iconomie politiqllt (Paris, 1852), p. 10.
[CI4a,1]
T he principles informing the. t'..x hilJitioll of objttl!! in Ihe Ca lerie des Mac hines of 1867 were derived from Le Play. [C I4a,2]

-I\>or Stars! Their role of resplendence is really a role of sacrifice. Creators and servanrs of the productive power o f the planetS, they possess none o f their own and n~ust resign. thc.m.selves to ~ e thankJ~s and monotonous career of providing tordilight. They have luster Without enjoyment; behind them shelter, invisible, t.be living creatures. These sJave-queens are nevertheless o f the same stuff as their h.:1.ppy subjectS .... Oauling Hames coday, the.y will one day be dark and cold, and only as planets can they be reborn to life after the shock that has volatilized the retinue and its queen into a nebula." A. B1anqui, L'Ekrnitf par k; aslrtJ (Paris. 1872), pp. 69-70. Compare Goethe: "Euch bedaur' ich, ungiuckselge Sterne" d pity you, unhappy stars). [G IS,l ]
"'fhe slicriMy. the stock exc ha nge . ulld the ha rracks-t1lOse three mus ty lairs Iha t togellter vo mit night , lIIi~e ry, ond ll';lIth upon the nations. Oc tober 1869. ,. Augus te BhlDqui_ Critu/ue l ociule ( Puris. 1885), vol. 2. p . 35 1 (" rra gm ents el no tes").

[Cl5,' ]

"A rich death is II ,Iosed ubys.8." From the liflie . Augu ste Blanqu.i . Critique Jod ule (Pans_ 1885), vol. 2, p . 315 (" Fraglll e nt ~ eIIlIJte&" ). [CI5,3]
An imuge d 'Epi rwl by Selle n e shows the worM exhibition of 1855.

[CI S,' ]

A divinatory representation o f architectural aspectS of the later world exhibitions is fo und in Gogol's essay "On Present-Day An:h.itecrure." which appeared in the lbinies in his collection Arahesqua. "Away with this academicism which mid commands that buildings be built all one size and in one style! A city should consist of many different styles of building, if we wish it to be pleasing to the eye. Let as many contraSting styles combine there as possible I Let the solemn Gothic and the richly embellished Byzantine arise in the same street, alongside colossal Egyptian halls and elegantly proportioned Greek sO"Ucturesl Let us see there the slightly concave milk-white cupola. the soaring church steeple, the o riental miter. the italianate Oat roof, the steep and heavily ornamented Flemish roof, the quadrilateral pyramid, the cylindrical column, the faceted obeliskl"J6 Nikolai GogoI, "Sur lJ\rc:h.iteclUre du temps plisent; cited in W1adimir "W=idlc, Abti/{u d'Aristit (paris d936~) , pp. 162- 163 ("L"Agonie de I'art"). [CI4a,3)

Elements of intmticarion at work in the d etcctive novel, whose mechanism is described by Caillois (in terms that recall the world of the hashish eater): "The ~cters o f th~ ~dish imaginatio n and a prevailing artificiality hold sway over this ~trangely VIVId ....,orld. Nothing happens here that is nOllong premeditated ; nothing co,:,esponds to appearances. Rather, each thing has been prepared for use at the nghl moment by the omnipotent hero who wields power over it_ '"*recognize in aU this the Paris of the serial il1lltallments of F antOmQJ." Roger Gaillois, "Paris. mythe modernc." Nouudle R f'IJ llejhw{aise, 25. no. 284 (1\rIay 1. 1937), p.688. [G IS,SI
"Ever y d il }' I $LO;: pouilll; he'lI'u lll my windo w u o:erluin number of Kalmucks, Olia gt:li_ Intiinn". Chi llIlIllCIl . 1111\1 iuwi" lIt (;rl!~k~ _ 1111 " 1II1'e 01 ' Ie .... POriSiO llizcd ," Cha rll'S [luud,lai .... Oeu lJ res. <ld . IIIl1I ltrlllotlll~ll hy Y.-G. Le Da lilec ( PnliB, 1932)_) VIJI. 2_ p. 9'J , "5uloll ,-Ie IB--Ir. : ' SI'CtiUII 7, n ,I,,"1 N du mod e lc" ). ~~

us

ro urifr Icfl'rll l.o lhe fo lk wisd u lIllhat fIJr smile ti n,,! has lidi llctl -'Civililta liull" 88 Ie ",om/e (; rebc mr. <IIII! wlIrld con tra riwise). [CI4aAJ

--I),.

[GIS,']
All vc r lisinl; lililiel' .111' t: mpin'_ 110:"0 1'11;111; til Fer,lillll lill Bruno!. IJi$loire .Ie lu IUllguefrml(:lIiJ~ (k~ (Jrigi"'~$ .l 1900. vul. 9, L(I /l el/oluti(}f' et rf.:mpire_ pari 9,

f'o uri .. r callflOI r!'~ i ll l ,lelHribing a banque t Iidtll>U the "u"k ~ of the l!:uphrlllf'S to hono r till' ,-il'l ura ill bOl h a ComilCl ition a mo ng :tealo us dam work" r8 (600.000) a lul

' Lt" Evc-nemcnts , l e~ in9ti.llltiolis et 10 longue" ( Paris, 1937): "We ~ h u ll frt!ely imtlgine thaI a mUll of genilill eonl'l'ive.llhe i,lea of cns hrining, wit.hin li u' bUliality (if lhl' vernacular, certain voc llhll'~ cldf'u la lcdto lIeduce readers and buyer", und Ihll t III' cho.'Se Greek not oilly heea use il furlli.'S hes inexhuulitihle resOllrcell 10 work ...ilh IIUI also Iweause, leu widely kuown I.han Latin , il has Iht' Illlvanta ~c or bei.ng , . . incumprehcn.'S ible 10 a gencraliun Ics8 verlied in t ill' lilildy of aueien! G n 'fi;f' . . . . Only. we know neil her who this mUll was, nor what his nationalit y might be, nor eve.n whctllf:r he exisled or nol. Let U9 suppose lhat , , . Crt!ek words ga ined currency little by lilde until , Ollt'. (lay, .. , the idea ... wus born .. , that, hy tbeir own inlruuie virtue. ""!)' I:ou ld ~erve for advertisin!\ ... . 1 myself would li.kc to thillk that .. , se\-eral generations and severalnatioliS weill into the making Ilf t hat \'erLal billLoard , the Cree.k mOlls ter thai ellticetl by 8urprisc. I helieve it ",U8 durin, the epoch I' m s J>cloIking of t.hat the movement began Itl take s ha pe . . The age of 'comagenic' h air oil had arri,-oo ." Pp. 1229- 1230 (" Lei Causes du triomphe till grec"). (GI5a,1J
" Whlll wOlild a modern Winckelmann say . , were he COllrroflteti by a product from Ch.ina-sonll:thillg strange, bizarre, contorted UI form , illtcu8e in color. and 801lielinw8 Sf' ddicate 8 5 to he uJlllosl evanescent? It is, nevertheless, an example of lIJ1iVI'rsai heauty. But in order to IUlderstaml ii , the critic, the 8peclator, mUilt I'ffect withjll Illmself a mys terious trllnsfornl atioo : and by means of a phenomenon of the will acting 011 the imaginatioll, he lIIust learn by himself 10 pa.rticipate in the trange flowerillg.,. Furtller alollg, 011 the same milie u which hus given hirtll to this B "age. all pear " those mys terious flowc rs whose dee" color clli!lave8 the eye and lalllalizt:1 it with ils shape:' Charles 8audelaire . Oea_ v", ... <cd. LA: Dantc<! (Panll. 1932),) vol. 2, pp. 144-145 ("Expositiolllllliver8elle, 1855").:-0 IG15a.2) 'I.n French poetry before Baudelaire, as in the poetry of Europe gencraUy, the style a llli ill.:eentil of the Orient were /lcver more thall a fa intly puerile and facti tious galliC. Wid, I.e.. Flellrs rlu mal. the strange color is nOI produced wi thout a k l.'ClI sense or escape, Baudelaire , .. im'iles himself to a bsenn: .... In making a jnurney, he gives us the feel of ... unexplored lIaturt:. where the tra \'e.ler parts cumpany with himself.... D oubtlj~ S8 , he leoves the ruitul and spirit uncballged ; hUI I. .. pretIClits a new visio n of his 80ul , It iJl tropical , A!ril:all . blaek, ('nslaved. lie..., is Ihe tr ue I"CHmtry. all actua l Africa, an authen tic IndiH." Andre Suares, Prefucc to Chade!! Baudelairc , ~ .. "'leurs tlu mal (Paris . 1933). P)I. XX\'- llX\-ii. [GI6,I }

"avenue" illuminated at night by gas lamps, w hen " the moon (a self-portrait)" reposes. o n fashionable ~Ivet eushions instead of on d o uds, then history is being seculanzed and drawn Into a natural context as relentJessly as it was tluee hundred years earlier with allegory. IG 16,3)

The planetary fashions o f Grandville are so many parodies, drawn by nature of human history. Grandville's harlequinades rum into Blanqui's plaintive ballads. [GIG,4-)
"TIII' exhibitions a re the onJy properl y nlOllern fc stivals:' 1II'rm UIIIl Lotze, !lIikrokosmos, vol. 3 ( Leipzig. 1864), p . ?

IGI'.SI

111.e wo~ld exhibitions ~'t.re rraining schools in which the masses, barred &om
consummg, learned empathy with exchange value, " Look at everything; touch nothing," IG 16,6J The entenainment industry refines and multiplies the varieties of reactive behavior ~~ng the n~asses. In this way, it makes them ript for the workings of advc:msmg. The link between this industry and the world exhibitions is thus well established. [G16,71
Proposal for u rban planning in Pari8: " It wouJd be advisable to vary the furms of Ihe houses and, all for the dilltricl8 , to employ different architecturai orden. even those in no way cla8l!ical---1lueh alltbe COtillc, Tllrkish . Chinese, E~tiall , OurnIese, and 10 forth:' Amedee de TissOI, Pori.. er, Lemlres compares ( PurilI , 1830), p, 150.- The architt'cture of future ex:JriLitioll8! [GI Ga, I]

Prostitution of space in hashish, where it serves for all that has becn,a<1

IG16,2)

"As 10llg as tillS ulIlIl>e.llknble cOlis truction [t he Palace of I.ndustry] s urvives, .. . I s hall take utisfa ctiou in rcnuullciug the title ' mall of lellel's' , . . ,Art and indus. Iry! Ye~, it was in fll ci fur them alone tha t , in 1855, thili impossible IlIlIgle of galleries was reserved . this jumhle where the poor "'rilers Ilave lint even ht.' i'll granted six squ are fl.-et- the space of a gra\'e! Clory 10 d.ee. 0 Sta tioncr . . . . Mount to the Capitol. 0 PuJllisli1"r . _ . ! Triumph, yo u artis ts and indus trial" you who "a" e hadlbe. honorl lIod the profit of a world exhibitioll. ",hereas pOOr literalure ... " (pp . v-vi). 'A world exhiliition for the man leiters , a Cryslill Pllillce. for the aUlhor- motHs te!" Whis perings of a 8curriloll8 .Iemoll whom BaLuu , uecor, ling to IllS " Lettrc Ii Charles A8sdineau." i ~ sUPI)Oset! 10 hll\'I' encounlt-rellonc {lay along the ChaJnps- EI Y~l~'s, ililiPulyte BallOlI . Le .. Pfiyelill i"nocellts ( Pal"is . 1858). p , xiv. [GI6a,2)

or

GrandviIJr's masking of nature: \\itll the fashions o f midcelHW"}'- nature under-stood as the cosmos, as well as the world of animals and plan ts- leIS history, in th e guise o f fashion, be derived from the eternal cycle o f natlJJl:. Whcn Grand villc pl'~'iC1l1S a new fan as the "fan of iris," when the . Milky \Vay appean; as an

ExhiioitiOllll. "S uch t rall ~itury inUalJalioliS. li S a rull', have had 110 inJlucllcc tin till: ctmfigl.lratioll of citics, . .. It is ot herwi.il' ... in Paris. Pn,,'isd)' ill dlt~ fal 'l II1al he.re gialll exhil)itiun8 cou lll he ~ I"t up in the midillt: or town , an.llhal n('a r ly 1I l way ~ they woul{l le<lve I~ hilld.ll monumcnt well suilNl1U 1.11t: f'i l y'~ gellera l aSI)&'I_ I'''''o-

ciilely in thill , onc cnn rt.'Cognize II.Itl. bltl.ilsing of II great origin al layo ut ami ' If u f'o nlilluing tradition uf urban pla.llninJ'j. Purls could . . . orga nize even the most i llllllt:U I>e exhibition 0 ail to be .. . acc(;,~ iLle from the Place de la COllcorde. AJong tbe quays leading wcst from tlus Still are. for a distance of kilometers, the curbij IlIn'e beeu set back from t.he river ill 8uch a way that very wide lanes a rc opcned , which , abulldulltly plallted with row8 of trees, make for the I tlvelie~ 1 Jlo ~~ ible exhibition routes." Fritz Stuhl , Puris (Berlin <1929)) , I). 62. [G16a,31

D
[The Collector]
All these old things ha~ a moral value.
-Charla Baudelain: L

I believe ... in my soul: the Thng.


- Uon Dcubel.
lkUIITtJ

(Paris, 1929). p. 193

H ere was d\e last refuge of those infant prodigies that saw the light of day at the time of the world exhibitions: the briefcase with interior lighting, the meter-long pocket knife, or the patented umbrella handle with built-in watch and revolver. And near the degenerate giant creatures, aborted. and broken-down m atter. 'M: followed the narrow dark corridor to where-bet\\'een a discount bookstore, in which dusty tied-up bundles teU of all sons of failure, and a shop selling only buttons (mother-of-pearl and dIe kind that in Paris are called de Jantauie)-there stood a sort of salon. On the paJe-colorcd wallpaper full of figures and bWt!i shone a gas lamp. By its light, an old woman sat reading. They say she bas been there alone for years,. and collects sets of teeth "in gold, in wax, and broken." Since that day, moreover, .....e know where Doctor Miracle got the wax out of which he fashioned Olympia.2 0 DoUs 0 [HI.I] "The crowd throngs to dIe Passage Vivienne, where people never feel conspicuous, and deserts the Passage Colbert, where they feel perhaps too conspicuous. At. a certain point, an attempt was made to entice d\e crowd back by filling the rotunda each evening with hanno nious mwic, which emanated invisibly from the windows of a mezzanine. But the crowd came to put its nose in at the door and did not enter, suspecting in this novelty a conspiracy against its custOins and routine pleasures." Le Liv" del Ctn t-et-/lJ/~ vol. 10 (Paris, 1833), p. 58. Joifteen years ago, a similar attl."tl1pt was made- likewise in vain- to boost the <Bcrlim depamllent store W. WCrtheim. Concerts were given in the great arcade dtat ran through it. (H 1,21 Neva lruSt what writers say about their own writings. When lola undertook to defend his 7? niJt Raquin against hostile clities. he explained tJlal his book was a scientific study o r lhe temperaments. H is task had been to show, in an example,

e:xactly how the sanguine and the nervo us temperaments aCI on one anothe:r-to the detriment of each. But this explanation could 5.1.tisfy no one. Nor does it explain Lhe admixture of colponage. the bloodthirstiness, the cinematic goriness of t.he adion. Which- by no accident- takes place in an arcade.~ If this book rcalJy expounds something scientifically, dlen it's the death of the Paris arcades, the decay of a type of architecture. The book's atmosphere is Saturated with the poisons of this process: its people drop like Bies. [H 1.3]
III 1893. llll' c()Coll cs ",'en' drivi!1I rrOm the arl:a,lcli.
~n , ')

Music seelllS to have settled into th('s(' spaces omy with their decline, only as the orchestras thenlSeives began to seem oldfashioned in comparison to the new mC'Chanical music. So that, in fact, these orchestras would just as soon have taken rc:fuge there. [The ..theatrOphonc" in the arcades was, in certain respects, the forerunner of the gramophone,) Nevertheless. there was music that confonned to tlle spirit of the arcades-a panoramic music, such as can be heard today only in oldfashioned genteel concerts like thost of the casino orchestra in Monte Carlo: the panoramic compositions of <Felicien ~ David, for example-I.e Diur!, ChriJtoph Colomb, H(1'(ulanum. When, in the 1860s (?), an Arab political delega tion came to Paris, the city was very proud to be able to mowll a perfonnance of Le Dis(1't for them in the great Theatre de l'Opera (?). [HI ,5]
"Cineor ama!!. 1'he Gralul C lollt' Celeste: n h >igalltic sphere forty-six meters ill diameter, ",here yo u can hl'ar tiUl ",ulii,' of Sa ini -Saelll~ ." Jul,,!! Ciliretie. U I Vie Ii I\!rij 1900 {l'uris, 19(11), p. 6 1. 0 DiQranlQ 0 [H I ,6]

at hand through irs integration into a new, expressly devised historical system : the collection, And for the: true coU ector, every single lhing in this system be comes an encyclopedia of all knowledge of the epoch, the landscape, the indus try, and the owner from which it comes. It is the deepest enchantment of the colleeror to enclose the particular item within a magic circle, where, as a last shudder runs through it (the shudder of being acquired), it rums to stone. Evtry. thing remembered, everything thought, everything corucious becames sode, frame, pedestal. seal of his possession. It must not be assumed that the collector. in particular. would find anything stran~ in the tqpos "JJm'0uraniOJ-that place beyond the: heavens which, fo r Plato,.s shelters the unchangeable archetypes of things. H e loses himself, assuredly. But he has the strength to pull himself up again by nothing more than a straw; and from out of the sea of fog that enve10ps his senses rises the newly acqumd piece, like an island.-Collecting is a fonn of practical memory, and of all the profane manifestations of "nearness" it is the most binding. Thus, in a certain sense, the smallest act of politica1 re8cction makes for an epoch in the antiques business. \'\t construct here an alarm clock that rouses the kitsch of the previous century to "assembly!, [Hla,2] Extinct narure : the shell shop in the arcades. In ;'The Pilot's Trials," Strindberg tells of "an arcade with brightly lit shops." "Then he went on into the arcade.. , , That was evtry possible kind of shop, but DOt a soul w be seen, either behind or before the counters. After a while he stopped in front of a big window in which the:re was a whole display of shells. As the door was open, he went in. From Boor to ceiling there were rows of shells of every kind. collected fro m all the seas of the \\IOrld. No one was in, but there was a ring of tobacco smoke in the air.... So he began his walk again, following the blue and white carpet. The passage wasn't straight but winding, so that you could never see the end of it; and there were nlways fresh shops there, but no people; and the shopkeepers wert: not to be seen." The unfatbomabililY of the monbund arcades is a characteristic motif. Strindberg, Miirc/le'l (Munich and Berlin, 1917), pp. 52-53, 59.' [Hla.3) One must make one's way through LeJ FleurJ du mal with a sense for how thi.ngs arc raised to allegory. The use of uppercase lettering should be foUowed carefully. [Hh,4]

Oflen these inner spaces harbor antiquated tradcs, and even those that are thoroughly up to date will acquire in them something obsolete. They are the site of infonnation bureaus and detective agencies, which there, in the gloomy light of the u pper galleries, follow the trail of the past. 1n hairdressers' windows, you can see the last women with long hair. TIley have richly undulating masses of hair, which are "pennanent waves," petrified coiffures. TIley ought to dedicate small votive plaques to those who made a special world of these buildings-to Baudelaire and Odilon Redon, whose vcr)' name sounds like an all too wellrumed ringlet. Instead, they have been betrayed a.nd sold, and the head of Salome made into an ornam ent-if that which drcanlS of the console there belo w is not the embalmed head of Anna Czyllak.' And while these things arc petrified. the masonry of the walls above has become brittle. Brittle, tOO, are 0 Mirrors D <See RI ,3.) (Hln, l] What is decisive in collccting is that the objcct is detached from all its o riginal functions in order to enter into the closest conceivable relation to things of the same kind . lllis relation is the dianletrie opposite of any utility. and falls into the peculiar category of completeness. What is this "completeness''? It is a b'T3.nd atlempl to overcome the wholly irrational character of the object's mere presence

At th(' conclusion of MaHeu et mimoir(t l3crgson develops the idea that perception is a function of time. If, let us say. we \\lCre to live visavis some things more calmly and visavis others more rapidly, according to a different rhythm, there
would be nothing "subsisteDl" fol' llS, but instead everything would happen right bc:fore our eyes: everything would strike us. But this is the way things are for die bl"J'eat coUector. The)' strike him. How he hinlSelf pursues and encounters them, what changes in the ensemble of items are effected by a newly supervening item---.tU this shows him his affairs in constant flux. H ere, the Paris arcades art' exalUined as though they were properties i.n the hand of a coUeaor. (At bottom, w~_ may say. the coU eclor lives a piece of dream life. For in the dream, tOO, the

1-1

rhythm of perception and expcri~ce is altered in such a way that c:vc:rythillgeven the sccmingly most neutrnl-comes to strike us ; everything concerns us. In order to understand the arcades from dle ground up. we sink them inLO the dccpe:a stratum of the dream; ~ speak of them as though they had struck us.)
[HIa .5]

nate for the previous century has come to an end. 0 FUneur DT he Ilaneur optical, the collector tactile.' H2,5] Broken-down matter: the elevation of the commodity Allegory and the fetish character of the commodity.
(0

the status of allegory. [H2.6]

"\bur lmderstanding of allegory assumes proportions hitherto unknown to you; I will note, in pass ~g. that allegory-long an object of our scorn because of maladroit painters, but in reality a most JpiriluaJ an fonn , o ne of the earliest and most natural forms of poetry-resumes its legitimare dominion in a mind illUltUnmed by intoxication." Charles Baudelaire, I.es Paradis arlijicitb (Paris, 1917), p. 73.' (On the basis of what follows, it cannot be do ubted that Baudelaire indeed had allegory and not symbol in mind. The passage is t.'lken from the chapter on hashish.) 1lte collector as allegorist. 0 Hashish 0 [H2 , I]
''The publication .ill 1864>of L 'lli3loire d e III societe!rum;aife pendant to RellO/lI rio1l 1'.1 SOlU I.e Direeloire opens the eru of the curio--and the word 'curin' . hould IIot be taken us Pf!jurative. In tbose dUY", the historical curio was called a ' relic.'" Itcmy de Gounllunt , J~ Dew:ieme Uvre des mruques (Paris, 1924), p. 259. This pasRlIge concerns a work by Edmond anll Jlliea de Goncon rt . [H2.2]

The uue method of making things present is to represent them in our space (not to represent ourselves in their space). (lbe collector does just this, and so does Ithe anecdo te.) Thus represented, the things allow no mediating construction from out of "large contexts." The same method applies, in essence, to the consideration of great things from the past-the cathedral of Chartres, the temple of Paestum-when, that is, a favorable prospect presents itself: the method of receiving the things into o ur space. 'M: don't displace o ur being into theirs; they step into o ur life. [H2.3] Fundamentally a very odd fact- thaI collector's items as such were produced industrially. Since when? It would be necessary to investigate the various fash ions that governed collecting in the nineteenth century. Characteristic of the 8iedernleier period (is this also the case in France?) is the mania for cups and saucers. " Parents. children, friends, relatives, superiors. and subordinates make their feelings known through cups and saucers. The cup is the preferred gift, the most popular kind ofmckknack for a room.Just as Friedrich Wlihelm HI filled his stUdy wid] pyramids of porcelain cups, the ordinary citizen collected, ill the cups and saucers of his sideboard, the memory of the most important events, the most precious ho urs, of his life." Max von Boehn, Dil' Moth im XIX. JaArhuTI(kr/, vol. 2 (Mun ich, 1907), p. L 36. IHV I] Possession and having are allied with the tactile, and stand in a certain opposition to the o ptical. Collectors are beings with !anile instincts. Moreover, with dIe recent nlI"n away from naturalism, the primacy of the optical that was det"enru-

One m ay stan from the. fact that the true collector detaches the o bject from its functionaJ relations. But that is hardJy an exhaustive: descriptio n of this remark able mode of behavior. For isn't this the foundation (to speak with Kant and Schopenhauer) of that "disinterested" contemplation by vinue of which the collector attains to an unequaled view of the object-a view which takes in Olore, and other, than that of the profane owner and which we would do best to compare to the gaze of the great physiognomist? But how his eye comes to rest on the object is a matter elucidated much more sharply through another consideration. It must be kept in mind that, for the collector, the world is present, and ind:d ordered, in each of his objectS. Ordered, hOl'l'eVer. according to a surprising and, for the profane understanding, incomprehensible connection . TIlls connection stands to the customary ordering and schematizatio n of things something as thcir arrangem~t in the dictionary stands to a natural arrangement. ~ need only recall what importance a particuJar collector attaclu:s not o nly to his object but also to its entire: past, whether this concerns the o rigin and objtive ebarac teristic.s of the thing or the details of its ostensibly external history: previous owners, price of purchase, current vaJue, and so on . All of these-the "objective" data together with the other-come together, for the true collector, in every single one of his possessions, to form a whole magic encyclopedia, a world order, whose outline is the fate of his object. Here, therefore, within this circwnscribed field, we can understand how great physiognomists (and collectors are physiognomists of the world of things) become interpreters of fate. It suffices to observe JUSt one collector as he handles the items in his showcase. No sooner does he hold them in his hand than he appears inspired by them and seems to look through them into their distance, like an augur. (It wouJd be interesting to srudy tI~e bibliophile as the only type of collector who has not completely withdrawn his treasures from their functional context.) [H2,7 ; H2a, 1]
TIlt:. great collector Pachinger, \r\blfskehl's friend, has put together a collection ~t . in its array of proscn bed and damaged objectS. rivals the Figdor collection ~ Vienna. H e hardly knows any more how things stand in the world; explains to ~ visito rs- alongside the most antique implements- the usc of pocket handkerchiefs. hand mirro rs, and the like. It is related of him that, one day, as he was crossing the Stachus. he stooped to pick something up. Before him lay an object h.e had been pursuing for weeks : a misprinted streetcar ticket that had been in mcul.ation for only a few hours. [H2a,2) An apology for the collector ought not to overlook tills invective : "Avarice and old age, remarks Cui Parin. are always in coUusion . Widl individuals as with

societies, the need to accumulate is one of the signs of approaching death. This is confirmed in the acute stages of prcparalysis. There is also the mania for collec tion. known in ncurolob'Y as 'collcctionism.' I From the collection o f hairpins to the cardboard box bearing the inscription: 'Small bits o f string are usdess.'" &pt Pichi; rapitou.'I: (Paris, 1929), pp. 26-27 (Paul M orand , "L'Avaricc"). But . [H2a.3J compare collecting done by children!

u;

not !Jure I lIhouM lIav,) been 110 thoroughly pO!J8eued by this one subject . but fur I.hl" lIeapll of fllnta litie thing I had seen huddled together in the curiosity_ llealer 's warehouse. These . crowding 0 11 my mimi , in connection witJl the child , and galhering round her, as il wert. brought her condition palpably before me, I had her image, without any effort of imagUlation , surrounded _nd besel by everyIhing Ihal was foreign to illl nalure, and farthest removed from the sympa thies or her lIex lI11d ugc. U these helps 10 my fa llcy had all ~Il wanting, alld I had 1 H:t'1i forced to imagi ne her in II commoll chamber, with notilill!; unusual or IUlcuUlh iu ill appearallce, it ill very prollable thlll I should have ht:en less impreued with her strallge and solilury Slate. As il WII S, IIhe seemed to exist in a kind of allegory," CharlCI Dickenll, Ocr Rllritiitenladen (Leipzig, ed.lnsel), pp . 18--19.[H 2a,4j
" )11111

uf Ih e floly SlI crumelit nlloJ '/'lie SellOul of A,heflll . Titian', AUllnrptiotl adornil the Il1 a nldpi cc~, m-Iwl!I!lI l'llf~ COllJllllllliQ/' of Sui/II Jerome II lId Tile l'rllfllf!lSlI rut;oll . 7'lr e MlidolllUJ oISai'" SiXllIlI lllukclI a pair with Sf,;nl. Chi la. ulul 011 the pilaster lin' fl"amed dltl Sillyls of Hupt.:,,'I. IJI'IIO't."t'1I the Spoliufi.;iu and the I> ictllrt rcpre.;;t' nLill ~ C""gory IX liI'livl'rilig the ,Icerclu l!! 10 a Ilcltgate of the COIll,i.slory... . These (opies all hd ng reducf'd ill lI("cortialU.. 'C with the ~a llle 8f:ale, III" nearly 110 thl' rye discln"cr in Ihem. with JlI~il s ure. the I"t!lalive prupo rtiollil of the origillals. They ar~ paitlll'1l in ... a h'lt~!llor.- Clturle BlIIIIIJ, Le Cubiflet de M . Thien (Puris. IBil ). pp. 11)...18. [H3,l j
" Casimir P":rier lIai,1 fJllI! dll Y, while vie....in" Ihe arl collection of an illustriuu.il clll.husiast ... ; "Alllht.'Se paintillg8 are very prctt y-but they' re dOf'UlIlDl ta piIu''- ... T(l{lu)' ... one could say tl) CMimir Peri ... r ... thai , .. paintings ... , ...hell Ihey a re illll.!c(laUlliclitic, that drawings, when recognizahly liy the hand of a Inll ster .... ~ IC("I' a sleep Ihat is resto rative allll profitahle .... The, . , sale of the cu riosities and paintillgs of Momicur It ... hUN J1roven in rOUlld figures Ihal works of lIenius possess a VIII III' just II I solid 11 11 thc OrManll <Railroad Co.) and II lillie mOI'e ~t.'Curc than howled wlI.l't.'1I01181-'8." Charies B1aIlC. Le l'rellQr de lu cu[H3 ,2] riusirl!. \ ' 01. 2 (Pllris. 1858), 1" 578.

Wiesengrulld, ill all unpublished essay on The Old Curiosity ShOll . b y Dickenll: "1'"ell's death i8 deddetl in the !lentence that readll: 'There wc ...~ some triftes tht'.re--pnor ullt']ef!1O thing3-lhal she would have liked 10 lake away ; hUI that was impossible.' ... Yet DickeDs n :cognized that the possibility of tra nsition aui! diaI ~ ti cal rt:fIC UC was inherent in tlUs world of things. tlLis lost , rej ecled world ; 8 1ul he eXl'rt:'5scd it . belt,.r I.bao Romllntic nature-wo rlilLiII wall ever able to do. ill tlu: powcrful allcgory or money IO'ilh wlLich the depiction of the industria l cily cods: ' . . 110'0 old . baltered . s.nloke-encrusted penny pieces. Who knowl but they shone as brigh tl y in the eyes of angels, as goMen gUll! Ihal huvfl been chronicled ou tombs?, .. tO [H2a.5) "'MOil t'nthusias ts lei thelllselvt'Nbe guided by chance in fonning their coUection . like bibliophilcs ill their browl!ing .... 1\1 . Thiers has proceeded otherwise : before aucmhling ItioJ l'oUa:tion. he formed it 11 8 II whole in ltis head; he laid oul hill plan ill advance, allil he has ' IJelit thirty years executing it. ... M. Thiers p08Be8Se8 what he wllnted 10 possess . . .. And what was the point? To arrange arllllllli him~ df II Inilliutllrt' of the IIni ve rse--that ill, to gather, within an environment of dgh ty ~ qllure meter!!. Ilomtl und Florcllce, Pompeii _nd Venicc, Dresden and the Hague, Ihe Vulil'un a nd Ihe E8corial , Ihe British Mllseum and lhe Hermitagc, the AlhulII' lira IIlId the SlImmcr Pa lllcc. , .. Alill M. T hien has beell llLle to I'calize thii vast "roj/ct wilh ')Illy mOllelit expcIIliiture8 made each year o\'er a thirty-yeor I)CIilld ... . St.-eking. in purticular. 10 utlllr n the wall.-; IJf his residence with the lIIost pn:('iIHU; 8ou v" nirKof his "oyugcs. M . Thiers had rCllouetl "OpiCi mllde of the III UH I fu muu ~ 1' lI illlin g~ . . .. And ~(I , un ent('rillg hill home, you lind yo urself illlllicilialdy SIJI"rolilule,1 Ly 1IIIIIIIerl'i'!I'CII creat t.'tl in hul y {llIrin!; die ilge of Leo X. Tile wnll r,will l: t.hc windowd i ~ occupied II)' Th e Lu, Judg ment . hllng betwt.-en The Dillpu,e

TIle positiut countcrtype to th~ coUector-which also , insofar as it entails the

liberation of things from the drudgery of being useful, represents the consumma tion of the collector-can be deduced from these ""Dreis of Marx: "Private property has m ade us so stupid and inert that an object is our; only when we have it, when it exists as capital for us, or when ... we we it." Karl Marx, Du hiIlorUcM MalerioliImus, in Die Friiluchnflnl, ed. Landshul and M ayer (Leipzigd932), vol. 1. p. 299 ("Nationalokonomie und Philosophie").'1 [H3a,II

"All the physica llllld ilitelll'(;luul >It!n&cs have ~II replaced hy the ~illlJlle alienatiotl of allihelle !ll'IISI"8. the sense or IItw illS ' ... (On the c !a legory or ha vins , see Hess in TU'ellty-O"e Sheeu)." Karl Marx . Der lJulIori.f('he Mnterialillmus (Leipzig). vol . I, p. 300 (.. nt.illllllliikonumic. ullIl Pltiloiloplue "). I! [H3a,2j
-- 1 1'an , in p ract.ice. rdlltt lIJ y~df humllllly 10 an ohjt.'1'1 only if Ihe objeci reillte8 iw1f lttunun ly to ma n." Karl Murx , lJer M~'ori$c" e MtI' erin fismws (leipzig). voL t , " . 30() ( 'ati"nali.ikUllllluil' lIIlIl l'hi IOlwphie").IJ {H3a,3] T he "oilecliulls \If Alexanth'" !III SOllllucranl in 1111' hllitiings IIf tllt1 Musel: Cluny. {H3a,4J

rnlC quodlibet has somclhing of the genius o f both coll~cLDr and flaneur.

[H3a.5J TIle collector actualizes latent archaic representations of property. 111ese repn:: senrations may in fact be colmecl'cd with taboo, as the foUowing remark indio

cates: uh ... is .. . cenain that taboo is the primiti~ form of propeny. At first emotivcly and 'sincerely,' then as a routUIC legal procas, declaring something taboo would have constituted a title. To appropriate to oneself an o bject is to render it sacred and redoubtable to others; it is to make it 'participate' in o neself.... N. Gutcnnan and H . Lefebvre, La Co IIJrlrn(t: myJti/iit: (Paris. 1936), p. 228.
[H3a,6)

fomlS of argumentation to which the author alludes, and indeed cenajn forms of Sc.holastic tho ught in general (appeal to hereditary authoritary), bclong together with the forms of production. 'nle collector devdops a similar relations hip with his objects, whicll arc enriched through his knowledge of their Origin and their duration in histol'y-a rdationship that now secms archaic. [H4.4] Perhaps the most deeply hidden motive of the person who collects can be desmbed this way: he takes up the struggle against dispersion, Right from the start, the great collector is struck by the confusion, by the scatter. in wllich tile things of the world arc found. It is the same spectacle that 50 preoccupied the mcn of the Baroque; in particular, the 'world image of the allegorist cannot be explained apart from the p35sionate, distraught concern ....ith this spectacle. TIle allegorist is, as it were, the polar opposite of the collector. He has gi~n up the attempt to elucidate things through research into their properties and relations. H e dis lodges things from their COntext and, rrom the outset, relies o n his profWldity to illuminate their meaning. The COllector, by contrast, brings together what be longs together; by keeping in mind their affinjties and their succession in rime, he call eventually furnish infonnation abOlll his objects. Neve.rthdess-and this is more important than all the differences that may exist between them- in every collector hides an allegorist, and in e~ry allegorist a collector. As far as the collector is concerned. his collection is never complete; for let him discover just a single piece missing, and everything he's collected remains a patchwork, which is what things are for allegory from the beginning. On the other hand, the allegorlsl-for whom o bjects represent only keywords in a secret dictionary, which will make known their meanings to the initiated-precisely the allegorist can never have enough of things. With him, one thing is so little capable of taking the place of another that no possible re8ection suffices to foresee what meaning his profun dity might lay claim to for each one of them.l [H4a,l ] Animals (birds, ants), children, and old men as collectors.
(H4a,2]

IIy Marx from "NalionaWkul1omie und PhilClsl)))hie-: "'Private property has III~Hl e U A80 stulJilill lll1 illerl1hailUlllhject is Ullr~ lInly when WI" ho ve it:' " AU the ph y~ ic ll l ll n d intellectual senses ... hllvt' been I'cpitu!<:tl by the ~im pl e aiil!nll.
PU S8.lIgei

lion lIf all theSe senlles. the seilS<: of IUlVing. ".1 Cilt!!1 ill Hugo Fi8eher. KarllUarx lind sein Verllii/tnis:u Staot und IVirtsc/uift (Jella . 1.932), p . M. [H3a,7]

The Im CI!8tors !If Balthazo r Claes were coUl'etors. Models for Cuusin Puns: SOllllllerard, Suuvagcot. J acaze.

(H3a,8] [H3a,9]

The pbysiologica1side of collecting is imponant. In the analysis of this behavior, it should not be overlooked that, with the nestbuilding of birds, collecting .c quires a clear bio logical function. There is apparently an indication to this effect in Vasari's treatise on ardutecrure. Pavlov, 100, is supposed 10 ha~ occupied himself with collecting. [H4 ,11
Vasari is s uppu ~cd 10 lul\' ~ maintained (ill his I.rcatille 011 architectu re?) that tli.. lerm "grQIIlS<jue" cOlllet from thl' g roU.)C~ ill which collectors hoard their treas ures. [H''>]

Collecting is a primal pheno menon of slUdy: the student collects knowledge. [H',3]

In ducidating the rclalio n of medieval man to his affairs, Huizinga occasionally adduces the literary genre of the " testament": "This literary fonn can be ... appreciated o nly by someone who remembers that the people of the Middle Ages were, in fact, accustomed to dispose of even the meanest [!] of their possessions through a separate and detailed testament. A poor woman bequeathed her Sunday dress and cap to ber parish, her bed to her godchild, a fur 10 her nurse, her everyday d ress to a beggar woman, and four pounds toumou (a sum which COIlStituted her entire fonune), together with an additional d ress and cap, to the Franciscan friars (Champion, Villoll, vol. 2. p. 182). Shouldn't we recognize here, 100, a quite trivial manifestation of the same cast of mind that sets up evay case of virtue as an cternal example and sees ill e~ry customary practice a divinely willed o rdinance?" J. Huizinga, H~rfJJt rUJ Mittelaftm (Munich, 1928), p. 346. " What strikes one 1I10St about tills 1100ewortilY passage is that sllch a relation to movables would perhaps no longer be possible in an ab'C of standardized mass production. It would follow quite naturally rrom this to ask whether or not the

A son of productive disorder is the canon of the mmoire inlJO/olllaire, as it is the canon of the coU ector. "And 1 had already lived long enough so that, for more than one of tile human beings with whom I had come in contact, I found in antipodal regions of my past memories another being to complete the picture. . .. In much the same way, when an an lover is shown a panel of an altar screen, he rc:m~mbers in what church. museum, and private coU ectio n the other pands are. dispersed Oikewise. he finall y succeeds. by following the catalogues of art sales or fn:qucming antique shops, in finding the mate to the objecl he possesses and tbereby completing tile pair, and so can reconstruct in his mind the predella and tile entire altar)." Marcel Proust. Le TemjJJ r~trouui (Paris), vol. 2, p. 158.'r The '~ imoire Vf1lolltair~. on the oth er hand, is a registry providing the object with a clas slficatory number behind whicll it disappears. "'So now we'~ been tllcrt:." r t've had an cxpcl;ence.") How th(' scatter of allegoricaJ properties (the patchwork) relates to this creative disorder is a question calling for furtllC' r study. [H5,J J

I
[The Interior, The Trace]

How the interior defended itself against gaslight: "AlmOSt all uew houses have

gas today ; it bums in lhe inner courtyards and o n the stairs, though it does not
yet have free admission to the aparttuents. It has been allowed into the antechamber and sometimes even into the dining room, but it is not \\-"CJcome in the drawing TOODL 'W hy not? h fades the wallpaper, l1'1at is the only reason I have run across. and it carries no weight at aU." Du Camp, Paris, vol. 5, p. 309. [11 .5) Hessel speaks of the "dreamy epoch of bad taste." Yes, ~ epoch ~ whoU ~ adapted to the dream. was.-fumiWed in dreams. 111e alternation in stylesGothic, Persian, Renaissance, and so on-signified : that over the interior of the middle-class dining room spreads a banquet room of Cesare Borgia'S, or that OUt of the bo udoir of the mistress a Gothic chapel arises. or that the master's study, in its iridescence, is transfomled into the chamber of a Persian prince. The photomontage that fixes such images for US corresponds to the most primitive perceprual tenden cy of these gmera.~ns . Only gradually have the images amo ng which they lived detached themselves and settled on signs, labels, posters, as the figures of advertising. [11 ,6J

" I.n 1830, RomanticiJ lIll ....a8 gaining the upper hand in literature. It DOW im'aded architecture and placarded house (stadel ,.,;!h a fanta stic ~ot hici8 m , one aU too oft en made ofputeboa rd . II imposed iuelf on furniture making. ' AU of a sudden ,' ~ Uy M 8 rellOrter 011 the exhibition of 1834. ' there is boundless enthusiasm for . trangely !lhaped furniture . From old chateaux. from furniture warenoUies and junk shops, it has been dugged 0111 to embellish the saloos, which in every other respect 8rc modern . . . . ' Feeling inll pired , furniture manufacturer! have Seen prodigal with tbeir ' ogiye8"und machicolations.' You 8t..>e heds IInll armoires bri.. thllg with bUltlementt . like thirteenth-century citIUJelS ." E . Levasseur, < Hu toire dCI ciallles ouvrieres et de l'irl(lustrre e n France, de 1789 1870 (Paris, 19(4).> yol. 2. pp. 206-207 . [II ,I]

Apropos of a medieval armoire, this in~ting remark from Behne: "Movables <furniture> quite clearly developed out of immovables < real estate>." The armoire is compared to a "medieval fo rtress. Just as, in the lauer, a tiny dwelling space is surrounded in ever-widening rings by walls, ramparts, and moats, fonning a gigantic outwork, so the contents of the drawcrs and shelves in the almoin:. are ovenvhelmed by a mighty o utwork." Adolf Behne, Neues Wollnerl-Neue.! Bauen

A series of lithographs from 1&:-, showed women reclining voluptuously on ottomans in a draperied, crepuscular boudoir, and these: prints bore inscriptions: On the Banks of Ihe 1izgtIJ, On the Banks ofthe Neva, On the &nks 0/the Seine, and so forth. The Guadalquivir, the Rhone, the Rhine. the Aar, the Tamis-aU had their rum. lbat a natio nal costume might have distinguished these: female figures one from another may be safely doubted. It was up to the ligrnde, the caption inscribed beneath thcm, to conjure a fannu y landscape over the represented interiors. 111.7]

To render the image of those salons where the brazc was enveloped in billowing
cu,rtains ~d swoUen cushions , where. before the eyes of the guests, full-length IIU1TOrs disclosed church doors and settees were gondolas upon which gaslight from a vitreous globe shone down like the nloon. 1 1l,8J " We hayc witll~lIsed the ullprcl.:edt'nted- nlurnagetl betwl"t'/l stylbi that ODe w{)uld haye believetl eter nally irlt;()Illpatible: hilts of till- I<~i rilt Empire or the RClilorulion Wbrn \oit.b Louis XV jltcket!> , Directory-style gO Wn!i IJlIired with high- h~.I c<:llInkl c bouts-and . still belltr. low-....ais ted coat.s wurn uYer Iligh-....aisled .Irl:~'":s:- Jnlm (: ra ll.I-Cartcrl: t. Le, t EI;;lIfl11 CP.~ de III ,oileUe ( PariJt), p . );"i. [I la , I)

(Le;prig, 1927), pp. 59, 61-62.

[11.2)

The imponance of m ovable property, as compared with inunovable property. Here o ur task is slightly easier. Easier to blaze a way intO the heart of things abolished or superseded, in o rder to decipher the contours of the banaJ as picture puwe- in order to stan a concealed William leU from OUt of wooded entrails, or in o rder to ~ able to answer the question, "Where is the bride in this picture?" Picturt: puzzles, as schemata of dreamwork, were long ago discovered by psychoanalysis. V*, however, with a similar conviction, are less on the trail of the psyche than on the track of things. 1M! seek the totemic o-ce of objects within the thicket of primal histOl),- The very last-the topmost-face o n the totem pole is that of kitsch. [11,3) The confrontation with furniture in Poe. Snuggle dream.
to

NIl IlIt:~ of tlifrcrcnt ty"c~ nf trllyc!illg car fnull the .'url), yell rs of the railroad : 1I-r!in (clu~ed IIml 1)1 ';-11). tlitigence. furllj~ht.d '"'Ic h . nnfllrnisllcd cOII(:h . 0 Iroll 1 CUlI.SlrUdiulI 0 11I 3,2J
This yell.r, tl)O. IIJ1ri.lIg Ilrrh'ed tllrlier uud nUJrc heu uliflllihull CYf'r, ~u il lu!, 10 IdJ t he Irutil , ...... ,'olJd n u t riSluly re nwlIl l.er llll~ 1);i~ I .... IIt'c .,r ....inlt-r in tl,,se JUlrls. nor

awake from the coUective [Il .4)

whether the fireplace was there (or any purpose other than supporting on its manIC! the timepieces and cillUJelabru that lire known to ornament every room here; for the true Pari,l;ian would l"1l1.her e at one (:Ollrse les8 per clay than forgo his ' mllllltlipiece arrangc menl. '" Lebende Bilder UIU dem nlodermm fur-is, " vols.

Under the bourgeoisie, cities as well as pieces of furniture retain the character of fortifications, ';Ttll now, il was mefortified dry which constantly paralyzed tOwn plaruling," Le Corbusier, Urv(misme (paris <1925. p. 249.~ [lIa,31 TIle ancient correspondence between house and cabinet acquires a new variant through the insertion of glass roundels in cabinet doors. Since when? \\he these also found in France? [Ila,gJ TIle bourgeois pasha in the imagination of contemporaries: Eugene Sue. He had a castle in Sologne. There, it was said, he kept a harem filled with women of color. Mter his death, the legend arose that he had been poisoned by the Jesuits.' [12,1]

(Cologlle, 1863- 1866), vol. 2, p. 369 ("Ein klliserliehes Familienhild").

[lIa.3]

1lueshold magic. At the entrance to the skating rink, to the pub, to the tcruris court, to resort locations: Pf:1lait:.J. The hen that lays the golden praline-cggs, the machine that stamps our names on nameplates, slot machines, fortune telling devices, and above all weighing devices (the Delphic gn6//ii seautcm1 of our day)these guard the threshold. OddJy, such machines don't flourish in the city, but rather are a component of excursion sites, of beer gardens in the suburbs. And when, in search of a link greenery, one heads for these places on a Sunday afternoon, one is rurning as well to the mysterious thresholds. Of course, this same magic prevails more covertly in the interior of the bourgeois dwelling. Chairs beside an entrnnce, photogJjlphs Banking a doorway, are fallen household deities, and the violence they must appease grips our hearts even today at each ringing of the doorbell. Try, though. to withstand the violence. Alone in an aparttnent. try not to bend to the insistent ringing. You will find it as difficult-as an exorcism. Like aU magic substance, this too is once again reduced at some point to sex-in pornography. Around 1830, Paris amused itself with obscene lithos that featured sliding doors and windows. These were the Images diteJ Ii porlu d ii/mitre5, by Numa Bassajet. [l1a,41
Concerning the dreamy and, ifpo!Jsihle, oriental interior: " Everyone here dreams of inlltant fortune; e veryone aims to have. lit one stroke. what in pellceful and indu8triOUH times would C08t a lifetime of effort. The creations of the poets are full of sudden metumorpholles in domestic existence; they all rave about marquise!! and princesses, about tbe prodigies of the Thoulland and One Nighu, It is an opium trallce that has overspread the whole population , and indwtry is more to blame for tlus than poetry, Industry was respons ible for the swindle in the Stock ExcbllllgC. the ex ploitation of aU things made 10 serve artificial needs, and the .. . dividend ll.' Gutzkow, BrieffJ aWl Paru <Leipzig, 1842>, vol. I , p. 93, [Ila,51

GlItzkow re ports thai tile exhihitioll salolls were full of oriental scenes calculated to arouse enthusillsm for Algiers . [12,2J

...

While art seeks out the intimllte view, . . . induslry mllrches to the fOl'c." Oc tave Mirhellu , in U FY5ureJ (1889). (See Encyclopedie d 'a rchitecture [1889]

~~

011 the exhihition of 1867. " These high galleries, kilome ters ill length , were of an uflfleltiaLle grandeur. The lIoise of mac hinery filled them. And il s hould 1101 be forgotten thai , whell this exhibition held its famou s gala s , gue~18 8tjIJ dru\'e up to
the felltil'itics in II conch-and -eight. As wa ~ u ~ lIal with rooms at this pe rioll. a tIc ul pts were IIIlu.le---lhrlJugh furniture-like iJll1 tllllllti<JIIs-1CJ prettify these twe nty five-metcr-ltigh gaUt'ries alullu r.lie ve the Ilusterity uf their Jellign . One tHood ill fear uf line's own mlignihHlc.' SigfrietJ Giedio n. Bauen i" Frtmkre.ich (Leipzig II.lId Berliu , 1928>. 1 ). 43. [1101,71

On the ideal of "distinction." "Everything tends toward the 8ourisil, toward the curve, toward intricate cOIlVolution. \>Vhat the reader does not perhaps gather at fim sight, however, is that this manner of laying and arranging things also incorporates a setting apart---one that leads us back to the knight. I The c:upet in the foreground lies at an angle, diagonally. The chairs are likewise arranged at an angle, diagonally. Now, this could be a coincidence. But if we were to meet with this propensity to situate objects at an angle and diagonally in all the dwellings of all classes and social strata-as, in fact , we do-then it can be no coincidence. .. . In the first place, arranging at an angle enforces a distinction-and this, once more, in a quite literal sense. By the obliquity of its position, the object sets itself off from the ensemble, as the carpet does here ... , But the deeper explanation for all this is, again. the unconscious retention of a posture of struggle and defense./ In order to defend a piece of ground, I place myself expressly on the diagonal, because then I have a free view on two sides. It is for this reason that the bastions of a fortification arc constructed to fonn salient angles .... And doesn't the carpet, in this position, recall such a bastion? ... IJust as the knight, suspecting an attack, positions himself crosswise to guard both left and right, so the peaceloving bwgher, several centuries later, orders his art objects in such a way that each one, if only by standing out from all the rest, has a wall and mOal surrounding it. He is mus truly a Spim viirger, a militant philistine." Adolf Behne, .Nmts W l)hl/~I-Nr IlI!5 Btllll!1l (Leipzig, 1927), pp. 45- 48. In elucidating this point, the author remarks half-seliously: "The gcmlemen who could afford a villa wanted to mark their higher standing. What easier way man by borrowing feudal fonns , knight.ly fonus ?" (ibid. , p. 42). More universal is Lukacs' remark tllat, from the perspective of the philosophy of history. il is characteristic of the middle classes that tbeir Ilew opponent, the proletariat, should have entered the arena at a momcnt when tile old adversary. feudalism, was not yct vanquished. And they will never quite have done with feudalism. [12.31

Maurice Banes has characterized ProUSt as "a Persian poet in a concierge's box." Could lhe fi rst, person to grapple with !.he enigma of the n.inclccmh-ccnlury interior be anything else? (l1\C citation is in Jacques-Emile Blanche, Me; Modele; [Paris. 19291 ?) ' 112.41
Anllounce me nt pul.lishcd ill tile ncw' p " lH:.f il; "'Notice .- Molis ie ur Wie rtz offcl"iIlO pailll a picture free nf ~:h a rge (o r a ny lo \'ers of painting who , poll8csslng 811 uriginal Rubelll or Raphael. wOllld like 10 p lace his work as II peudaJ'l1 beside til(: "" ork of eilher of tll ~ masters," A. J. Wiertz . Oeuvre" lilterairef (Pariil , 1870). I" 335.

, :10 ."

room!! in eilffeeho UlIt:8 . EHclr ,off,!hon!l-e III," II smoking room known U8 tile lliG ulzkow, Briefe {Ill.' Pur;., (Leipzig. IIH2). '0'01. 1, p. 226. 0 Ar uudes 0

[12a,3]
"The gn:ut Be rlin indLUlriul c",ILillitinfl ii full of imlJOsing R ~ n a i.U Hll ce rooms: even Ihr as htrays ur~ i.1I untilluc lIyll'.. III I'. c tlrluins Ita ye to he IIl!curt'; d with halbe rdl. c Ultlll1t' huU 'IH' ye r ulrli ill windl)w ulld cabine t." 70 Jahre deuuche Mode ( 1925). p. i2 .

[12a.41

112.5]

Nhlcteenth-ccnrury domestic interior. The sp;u:e..d.is ~jtself=p~ o~ like an ~~g creature, the costumes of moods. The selfsatis6ed burgher should knO;something of the feding that the ne.'C' room might have witnessed the coronation of Charlemagne as .....'CUas the assassination of Henri Iv, the signing of the Treaty of Verdun as well as the wedding af Otto and Theophano. In the end, thing! are merely mannequins, and even the great moments of world history are only costumes beneath which they exchange glances of complicity with nOlhingnes~ with the petty and the banal. Such nihilism is the innermost core of bourgeois coziness-a mood that in hashish intoxication concentrates to satanic COntent ment, satanic knowing, satanic calm, indicating precisely to what extent the nineteenth-ttntury interior is itself a stimulus to intoxication and dream. 1bis moOa involves, furthermore , an aversion to the open air, the (so to spe ra nian amlosphere, which throws a new light on the extravagant interior design of the period. To live in these interiors was to havt woven a dense fabric about oneself, to have secluded onest.lf within a spider's web, in whose toils world events hang loosely suspended like-so many insect bodies sucked dry. From this cavtm , one does not like to stir.J [12,6)
During my second experiment with hashish. Staircase in CharlotteJoeJ's studio. I said: "A structure habitable only by wax figures. I could do so much with it plastically; Piscator and company can just go pack. Y\buld be possible for me to change the lighting scheme with tiny levers. I can tranSfonn the Goethe house into the Covent Garden opera: can read from it the whole of world history. 1 see, in this space, why I collect colportage images. Can see everything in this roomthe sons of Charles III and what you will."<i [12a. 1]
" Tlw 8c rrlltcd cullurs un!! puffed lil eeve~ ... ""h.ic :h wel'c mis tuke nl y Ilmuglllitl be the gul'lJ of m e, jj t:y u ll uc li,~ s . " J II"OIJ raJke, Ceschichte des /IIQ(ierllflll GCSdH/I{U:k ,
( L;j fl l.ig, 1866). p . 31~ 7 .

An observation from the year 1837. "In those days. the classical style reigned, just as the rococo does today. With a stroke of its magic wand, fashion . .. transformed the salon into an atrium, armchairs into curule seats, dresses with trains intO tunics, drinking glasses into goblets, shoes intO buskins, and guitars intO lyres.- Sophie Gay, D"" Salon d"" Friiulein Contt!l (in Europa: ClzruniA der gr.biUkten Welt, ed. August Lewald, vol. 1 [Leipzig and Stuugan, 1837], p. 358). Hence the following: ""What is the height of embarrassment?" "When you bring a harp to a party and no one asks you to play it." 1bis piece of drollery, which also illuminates a certain type of interior, probably datcs from the Hrst Empire.
[J2a,5)

!;As to Baudelaire's 'stage properties'-which were no doubt modeled on the fashion in interior decoration of his day-they Dlight provide a useful lesson for those elegruu ladies of the past twenty years, who used to pride themselves that not a single 'false note' was to be found in their town houses. They would do well to consider, when they contemplate the alleged purity of style which they have achieved with such infinite uouble, that a man may be the greatest and most artistic. of writers, yet describe nothing but beds with 'adjustable curtains' .. . ha1Is like conservatories . . . , beds filled with subtle scents. sofas deep as tombs, whamots loaded with Bowers, lamps burning so brieBy .. . that the only light COmes from the coal fire ." Marcel Proust, Clzroniqur.s (Paris <1927)), pp. 224-2251 (the titles of works cited are omitted). These remarks are important because they make it possible to apply to tlle interior an antinomy formulated with regard to museums and town planning- namely. to confront the new style with the mysti ca1nihilistic expressive power of the traditional, the oI anriquated." Which of these two a1tematives Proust would have chosen is revealed not only by this passage, it may be added, but by the whole of his work (compare rr.nfimu'-"closed-up,"
~ mus [}'I') .

[J2a,6]

[123,2)

"Silu;c tllr g1ill{ring a rcudc" hUH' I"'t'll ,'ul through till' slrcets. tl u~ Pulllis. Hoyal ha " d fc"li yd y 10 111 ,mt . SonIC wOlllll l ay: since thc timCIl haY l'. growu more virt uoU8. Wha l ""l're o nce ~ m a ll ctJbilUu~ Imrli(: uiier. "f ill rellUle hU\'e no ..' br conm ~ "Ulki "g

Desideratum: the derivation of genre painting. What function did it serve in the rO oms that had need of it? It was the last stage- harbinger of the fact that soon these Spaces would no longer, in general, welcome pictures. "Genre painting. .. . Conceived in this way, an could not fail to reson to the specialties so suited to the m~rketp l acc: eacll artist wants to have his own specialty, from the pastiche of the MJddle Ages to microscopic painting, from the routines of the bivouac to Paris fashions, fium horses to dogs. Public taste in this regard does not discrlnU

nale.... 'The same pic.ture can be copied twenty times without uhauscing demand and, as the vogue prescribes, each wdl-hpt drawing room wants to have onc of these f'ashionable .fUrnishingJ." W ler-tt. Oe,IVW littiraire; < Paris, 1870>, pp.527-528. [12 . 71
Against the: armature of glass and iron., upholstery o ffers resistance with its [e."(tiles. 11 3, 1)

"The dra wing room!! of t.he 5(.-':011.1 Empire I'ontailled ... a piece of fu r niture (Iwtt! rt:Crn tl y iU"('nted and lod ay completely j'xtinct : it. W ll~ the jiulleu.se. You IIDt on it as tride. ,,hile Icaning bst;k 0 11 uphoilltcrctl llrm- relltll 111111 enjoying II cigar." Louis Snnulct . U . Vie pariJIie mte $Q/U Ie Secufld Empire ( Puis, 1929), p . 253. [13,9)
u "fat a morgana" (If the inlerior; " Whoever raist:'!! wi th Iheir irOIl rDiliugs tracing the upper edge of the long gray boule\'urd hlocks , dis('o\'cnJ the va riety and inexhll1l8tihility of lhe concel,t 'cbinule)'" In 1I11 1 1egrees of III:iglll, breadth , 11 1111 length , the s mokes tllcks rise fro m their base iJl the eommOIl stolle flu es; they runge fro m simple day pipes. oftentimes half- broken and s toolled with age . 11. 1111 those tin pipe!! wi tll Ral plate. or pointed ('a ps .... to revolviug chimney cowls urtfull y llerforu tctllike visor s or upen 011 one side. with b izar re soot hlat:kened metal fl a ps .... It ill dIe ... lender irony of the une single form by whilIt llaris . .. halJ h t:t! 1l ahle to preser"e the fIIa gic of inti. mucy.... So it iii as if the urba nc coexi ~ h!ll ce ... that is characteristic of this city wcre to hI:: filet with aga in 11)1 there on tlte rooftops. " J oachim von U dmer&eo , " Parlser Kumine;' Frunk!urter Zeitung, Fe bruary 10. 1933. [13,101

"hi eyes to the

0 11 the " fili gr'!e of chimneys"


IIOII SetOpS.

O ne need only study with due exactirudc the physiognomy of the: homes of great
collectors. Then one would have the key to the nineteenth-century interior. Just

as in the former case the objects gradually take possession of the residence, so in the latter it is a piece o f furniture that would retrieve and assemble the sty~tic
traces of the centuries. 0 'Abrld of Things 0 [13,2)

Why does the glance intO an unknown window al~ys find a familr at a ,meal, or e~ a solitary man, seated at a table under a hangmg lamp, occupIed wuh some obscure niggling thing? Such a glance $ the germ cdl o f Kafka's work. [13,3]

The masquerade of styles, as it unfolds across the nineteenth mury, resuhs from the faa that relations of dominance become obscured, The holden of power in the bourgeoisie no longer necessarily exercise this po.....er in the places where they li~ (as rentiers). and no longer in direct unmediated forms . The style of their residences is their false immediacy. Economic alibi in space. Interior alibi . . ~~ Ul wne.

"'The art would be to be able to fed homesick, even though one is at home. Expertness in the use of illusion is required for this." Kierkegaard, Sijmtlit:~ '. Ver..t.!' <properly: G.!'SQlnm.!'it.!' W er..tn. vol. 4 ~ena, 19 14), p. 12 <Stag.!'J 011 Life'; H-ap.' This is the Cannula for the interior. [13,5]
" 'nwllrdneu is thc hhltor ical prison of primordial human nature." Wiesengrulld. Adorno , Ki4!rkegaCird (Tfihingen . 1933). p . 68.~ {13,ti] Second Empire. "' It is this epoch thai lleeli the birth of the logical H )>eciaLization ~y genus and lipecies thai still preva ils in most homes, li nd tha t r eserves oak aDd lio.hd wa lnut for the dining room a mi 8tud y. gilded wood ond lacquers for the t1 ruwlIIg ' 1room ." Lo tlllI Sono It room , marquetry olld ve neering for the lJec e , LoVie porilielille l OU '"' Ie Second Empire (paris . 1929), p . 25 1. [13.7} " WIIIII d omina led Ihis conception of fllrnis hiug. ill II mallner IlO pronouP('ed as 10 j'pil omi'tf" dIe wllole , WU I tiltltaste fur dra ped fuhricli . Mm ple hangingH, a lld the lI.rt uf lIa rmoll i:r.ing them all in a vis ual t:lIscnlble.' Luuis Sonnlet , Ln Vie parisie lltl e ~(l1U Ie Seco nd Empire ( I'arls, 1929). " . 253 . [13.8]

Wit'sengr ulld cites anti 001lllllent8 on a pU8suge from Ihe Dillry o/u Seducer-a IJassage tha t he i~o ns id t'.J'8 the key t o Kicrkcgaard's "entire llI~ u " re": " Environment and t.ettill~ ~ till have a great infIucm.:c upon one; there is something ahout them which s taml'lI itself finnl y a nd deeply in Ihe memory, or r ather 0l)))n the whole lO W. and whicll is thcn"'fore never forgotten . However old I may hecome, il will always be impossible for me to think of Cordelia unlid slIrroundi019' different from thia Little room. Whell ) come 10 visit her, lite maid admiLl me to the h all ; Cordelia herself comes ill from Iler room , arut , just as I open tlte door to eUler the [ivi.ng roo m, s he OlleDI her door. /10 thai oW' eyes I Dect exacd y in Ihc d oorway. The Ihing room is slllali . comforlaLle, Linle more than a I!8hinet. Ahhuugb I ha ve 1I0 W seen it frolll lIIall Y different "iewpoinLl, the out' dea reH t to me is lilt' view from the !lora . She sits there b y my side: in fro nt of liS sta nds 0 round tea lable. over which is draped II rich ta blecloth . O n th t' ta ble s tands a lamp s haped like a fl ower, which shoots lip vigorously to beu r iii crown , I,veI' which a deLicalely cut paper s hade hangs down lIO lightl y that il ill never slill . The lamp'lI form rl'lIIindi olle of oriental IIIUlla: the sh atl~'8 mO\'efllcnt . !If mild oril.'n lal li N;:e'te@ . The floor is conceuled by a carpet woven frolll a cert.uin kind of o~ier. ,,hich inum"tlilliely betray! its foreign OrlgUl. For d ie mo mellt . ) II,t the lamp bero me the kl:Yllute of III)' landscape. ) am ' itting tlw rc with her outslrcld led 0 11 tlJ(' Hou r, 111111;,1' the la mp 's nuwlring. At uthcr tilll u I lei the (lsil'r rug c\'oke Ih(lu gbt8 (If a shil'. of Ull officer's Cilhill- we sail nut illltJ the middle of tlw grea t 111'1.'11.11 . WIlI'n ,,',' sit a l II distallci' rroni the windl)w, wr gaze dircctl y illhl heU \'ell 'll \'U 8t horizoll . . .. Cordelia 's r ll "ironment mus t hllve uo fu reground . b ut onl y the infini te ImMll e~,; (If fa r hori'tolllO" (Gel/tlnl . me/te ScJ.rifte ri <propel'I)' : Wc rk f' (J ell" . 19 11 I), ,,01 . I. mJ. 348...J4'J I f..'it lu:rIOr]). It'seugr lUul remark,; " Jltiita8 c",lel'lIu l hi ~ t o ry is ' ,-ell" ell-II" ill iulCl'lIu l hilltor y. ~(' lI\hlull ce <Sclieill ) is ill Ihe imerictlr II p IU:C. KierkcguD rtl,w 1II0re ,lisCt' n ll'd lilt' d enlent of IIcmhlunce in all IIIr.rely refl "o!l~W IIlIti rdiccl.illll: intrasu.(,jecti,e reali ty

.,.

tJmn he lIee8 lilrllugh the Ht:lllh'llnce of the spatial in Ule imQgtl of the interior. Bill Iwre lu: i , expo ~cJ by the malenu!. . . . The contents of IIle inle rior are lII e~ decoratiOIl . II I.it:naleJ from the purpo8et1 lhey represent. deprived of thd e own use \'ulue. engendered solely II)' t11 ~ isolated dweiliDg-S p IU~ . . . . The self is overwhelmed ill iLS own domain by commodities and their historical euence. T ild e sembla nce-churacter i8 hitlorically-ecoDomicaUy produced by the alienation of IMlg from use value. Oul in the interior, thinp! do DOl n:main alien .... Foreil9lnl!!!8 tran, fonull it.self from alienated things into expreuion: mute thing!! speak Il' 'symbou. Thl' uellering of things in the dwellingspace i. caUed ' UrriiDsement .' Historically illusory (GtJCAjdJ//jdl Jdt~inl/(ifle> objects are arranged in it I II the leDlLiQnee of ullchangeable nature. In the interior. archaic image unfolt! : the i nla~e of the Rower a that of organic life; the image of the orient all IIpedfically the home. land of ycarnillg: the image of the sea as thaI of eternity Haclf. For the &emblim ce 10 which the hiiloriCDI hour condt'Dins things is elernal."'t Theotlor WieaengmndAdo rno , Kierkegrwrd (Tubingcn , 1933), pp. 46-48 . 111 [13 ;II}

i.nvent some sort of casing for! fbcket watches, slippers, egg cups, thermometers, playing cards- and, in licu of cases, there were jackets, carpets, wrappers, and covers . The twentieth century. with its porosity and transparency, its tendency toward the "ocUlit and airy, has put an end to d\\oclling in the old sense. Set off against the doU ho use: in the residence o f the master builder Solness are the "homes for h wnan being:'l." 11 Jugendstil unsetded the world of the shel1 in a radical way. Today this world has disap~d entirely, and dwelling has dimin ished: for the living, through hOld rooms; for the dead, through crt.m.atoriums.

1 1 ' ,' 1
a transitive verb-as in the no tion of "indwelt spaces";'l herewith an indication of the frenetic topicality concealed in habitual behavior. It has to do with fashioning a shcU for ourselves. [14,51
" From under s Lltlie coral branchcs aDd bUl heli, they swam into view; from onder every tKllle , ever y chair; fru m out of the drawerH of the oM-rashioned cabinets and wardrobcs IhKt i tood ~;thin this lit range clubroom- in short , from ever y hand'abreadth cof bidi.ng which the spot Ilrovided to the smallest of fI sh , they suddeld y canle to liCe alld showed themselves." Friedrich Ger stiicker, Die verlunkene Sladt (Berlin : Neurel.J alld I-lenius, 1921 ), p. 46. [148,1) From a review or Eugene Sue', Jui! erranl (Wandering Jew>. criticized ror various reaso ns. including the d enigratiull or llie J C!luitli and tlle unmanageable abundance ur charactcnl who do nothinlll but al> pear and dillappear: "A novel is not a place olle punes through ; it is a place one inhabits." Paulin Limayrac, " Du Roman actuel 1'.1 dc 111.1 11 ro mancienl," Revue des deux mondel, II . no. 3 (paris, 1845), [~~ p. % I.
~To dwell" as

The bourgeois who came into ascendancy with Louis Philippe sets ston: by the transformation of narure into the interior. In 1839, a ball is held at the British embassy. Two hundred rose bushes'jlI"C ordered. "The garden," so runs~ eyewitness account, "was covered by an awning and had the feci of a drawing room. But what a d rawing room! The fragrant, well'Slocked Bower beds had turned into eno rmous jardiniem , the graveled walks had disappean:d under sumptuous carpets, and in place of the castiron benches we found sofas covered in damask and silk; a round table held books and albwns. From a distance, the strains of an orchestra drifted intO this colossal boudoir." [14,11
Fashion jounulis or the IJeriod containeil instructions for preserving bouque18 .

1 1 4.21
'"Like
od alisque upon a i himmerint; bronze di van , the proud city Liea amid warm , vine--clad hills in the lIerpentine valley of the Seine." Friedrich Enge:Lt, " Von Pari! nach Bern," Die neue Zeil. 17, no. I (Stuttga rt , 1899). I'. 10. [14 ,3)
11 0

lbe difficulty in reBecting on dwelling: on the one hand, there is something age-old-perhaps eternal-to be recognized here, the image o f that abode of the human being in the maternal womb; on the other hand, this motif o f primal history notwithstanding, we must understand dwelling in its m ost extreme fonn as a condition of ninetcenth-cenrury existence. The original form of all d wdling is existence not in Utc house but in the shell. The shell bears the impression o f its occupant. In the most extreme instance, the dwelling becomes a shd!. The Trineteencll cenrury, like no other century, was addicted to dwelling. It conceived the residence as a receptacle for the person, and it encased him with all his appune nances so deeply in the dwelling's i.nterior that one might be reminded o f the: inside o f a compass case, when:: the instnunent with all its accessories lies embedded in deep, usually violet folds of velvet. What d idn't the nineteenth cenrury

On Literary Empire. Nel>ODlOcime Lemercier hrint;8 onlO the stage, under allegorical names. the- Monar chy, the Church , thl" Aristoeraey, the Demagogues, the Empire. the Police, Uteralun :, and the Coalition uf European powers. Hit arti.Htic mearu : " the fan tastic a ppLieil t: mhleIll8ticall y." Hill maxim : "Alluliions are my weapolIs; allegory, my hucld.r." NI- ponlllcene Lemereier, Suile de Panhypor:ril inde. ou Le Spec,,,cle i,l/erlml dll dix nell viem.e sieck (Paris, 1832), PI). ix , [14a,3] vii .

'0

Frmn tllt~ EXpOSl I)reiimilluirc" to L.cmcn :ier 'lI LampClie et Dugllerrr!': " A short prca mbl. is IIl'r.c8~ ar y In inlrothu'c my u\uliellce to the cQDlpositional stra.legy uf thi ~ 1 10e lll . w ho ~e ~ ubj ctjl i8 prui ~ ,' for the ,Iilll'overy Illude by the Wustriou8 ar tist M. Ouguel....; t],i~ iii, II di8CtlVcry f,If Clltllli illterest tu the Academ)' or Science and the AClltlcmy of Fine Art~. ror it .:0l1e,r118 the I ttltly If liraw-iog liS much us the $111'])' vr physics ... . 0 11 tl1I' ocrasion of such a n hOOlllge, I would Like 10 see a ncw in vt:ntioll i.1l l}Qctry all plied lIItlli, cxtra.ordinary d iAcovery. We know thllt ancicnt It, yth u l o~ .. , t:XIIJaincll IllIlUnl phcuomena b y lI)'mbolk beings, acli ve rt' J>re stntationlj .or th. lIa rl.icular principici embodied in things . ... Modem imit ationl

hllve . up 10 now. borrower! only the fomlll of duuicaJ 11Of:lry; I llIn endeavorin g 10 IIpproprill.te for II ~ the principle and the s ubs ta nce. TIl!' lenclc ut,y of the ve r~ifi erll of o ur century ill 10 r!!duce the art of the mU~e!I til I'rllclicallilld trivia l re alities. easily comprt!iJcl1sible by Ihe average pc>rson. ThiA is 1101 progrCI! Lilli dl..'Cudt'nce. The ongiual c nlhllsiHll m of Iht' a nc ients. by contras t , tcndetllo elevate the human intc Uigcllce hy initililing it into thosc ecrets of nalu re revealed by the e1cgantJy ideal fahles .. , . It it not without encouragement that llay bare for you the foun d.tion ~ of my theory, which I have applied .. . 10 Newtonian pb.ilollophy in my

ers!" Victor Fuurtu:I, Ce (Ill 'Q " lJail (Ifill! Ie, rile, de Paris ( Paris, 1858), pp . 29329'l (" ElllleigIlCll l't u(fi (' ht'~'). [15.4] Interior of Mplll)lllltl Karr'! u"artlllt~lIt : " Ue liyes like /10 o ne d se. These days he', the 5ix th or seventh Boor ubove the Rue Vivie nne. The Rue Vivienne for a n a rtisl! His Hpprtlllt:nt is hung in blac k : he hal windowpanes of viole t or white fl'osL ed glass. He has ne ither tahle. nur c hairs (at IIImt, a lI.ingie c hair for excelitio nal \'is itors), alltlll!! s l~ p' on a divan- fully dresutl , I'm told. He lives like a Turk. o n cus hions. und writes lIitting 011 the floor.... His walls are decorated with \.prious o ltl th illS!! ' .. ; C hinese valleS, d eatll heads. fencer'~ foils , and tobacco pipes orllPme nt e\'e r y corner. For u servant , he h al a mulatto .... hom he outfits in ~I. arlet from head to loe.- Jules Lecomte, Let l..ettre! (Ie "an Engefsom, ed. Alme ras ( Paris , 1925). pp. (-&1. (IS,S] From Daumier'OJ CroquiJ Wi! au 5(1/011 (Sketches Made at the Salon). A solitary art-love r illdicaling a pict ure 011 which two miser a ble poplars are represented in a fl a t IUlidscape: " W hat society could be a & d egcne rate and corrupt a s ours? .. E\'eryon tl looks at pictu res of more or leS8 mons trou s scenes, hUI 110 one 810pS (15a,11 hefore Ull image of hea utiful ulIII pure nature ."

,JI\

Allanliade. The lea rned geometer Lagrange has been so generous

lUI 10

voice ap-

proval of my IIltemp! 10 crea le for our modern muses tha t great rarit y: a tlI COSGI'hy . . . conforPiing to ac ui red knoVtledge." NelK)P1uCene lA!me rdcr. Sur lu Decouverte de I'ingenieux IJein ,re du diorama.: Setm r:e l}f1blique RtlllUelie de. cinq ocademre:s de j elldi 2 mai 1839 (paris . 1839), pp. 2 1-23. [I4a.4] On tht!- iUu8ionistic; painting of th .. J uste Milieu: 13 "'The painter must ... be 11 good dramatis t , a gootl co!;ttuner. and a skillful dirtor. . . . The publie ... is much more inte rested in the ~ uhj ectthlln in the artistic (Iulllities. 'bn' t the most difficult thing lhe hle nding of colors?-No, res ponds a connoiBBeur. it 's getting the fis h ', scales right . Sli ch wa ll the idea of aesthetic creation a mong prOrellSOr8, lawyers, dodo r8; evcrywllcJ'c one a dmired lhc miracle of trompe-l'oeil. AllY lIIi-;;rmally s uccclIsrul imitation w!luld guruer praillc. '" GiIlela FrclUld . "L.a Pho togra phie du point tie vue sociologit(ue" (Manuscript, p. 102). The quotation ill from Juletl Breton , NOl IJeilllre! dll ,;ecie, p . 41. [15, 11

00 tlle occasion of u mllrtler cale in 1 ..!.IIllion wlLich turned on the discovery of a


suck cOllta ining the victim 's body pa ris. together with remnanu or clothing; from the laller, the police were able to draw ct::rtllin conclus ionll. " 'So man y things in a minuet! ' a celebruted dancer u.!letl to say. So many things in ao overcoal !-when circumstullceB and men make it spellk. You will s uy it 's a bit much to expect II person, each timo! i1e acuire1ll1 topcout, to cons ide r that oo eday it may lIerve him a s a windinfj s li.:et. 1 admit that my suppositio ns a.r e lIat exactly rose-colored. But, I rel~at , . . . the week' e \'enUl have been d o leful ." 11 . de Pene, Paris intime (paris. 1859) . I). 236. [I5a,2) Furniture lit the time IIf the Resturation : 'sofa s. divll1l8, oltomalls, love scali, rt.':t.'linc n. settees." J lu!tlues Rubit(uet . t 'Ar, el Ie gou, SOUl la Rest(luratlon ( Paris , 1928), p . 202. (1511,3] " W" have IIlreally said ... thutllUllia nit y is rcgrcssing to the s tate of cave dwelle r, awl so 'm- bllt thllt it is rcgrcu ing in 1111 estra ngetl. malignalll form. The savage in h is cavl: . . . ft'('ls .. . at IW IlIi' thcre .. . . But tlli' hu ~enll"lIt apartnulIlt of the "oor man is it h c,stilo! tlv.'dli n g, . a n ulif' lI . re8 1ruiniJIg powl"r, which gives itself up to hjPl 'lilly illsofa l' as he givtg up III it Ilis IJlood a nd swelll.' S li ch u dwelling call ne ve r feel tiki' hOlllP , a place whe re he miglll li l la,;! exl'laim, ' Here I am at hUlue!' Ins tead , til<' 1 ,I>or mllll iilltill hilllllelf ill 801llCi) ne d sr 's home, , ' . SlImCOlle wllO dail y lie' in wait fur hilll a nd lilruws hilll 0111 if hc d ocs 1101 pay his relit. H e is aho awartl of the contrast in tlllaHt y IJdv.'eell his .Iwelling 111111 a illlmall dwelling-a reside nce in that o lher ....orld , the he ave n of wealth:' Karl Ma r x. Del' l,i! ' oriM !h e Muleriulunllt.J,

Plush-the material in which uaces are left especia1ly easily.

[15,2]

Furthering the fa shion in knic kkllacu are the advances in metullurgy . .... hich has iu o rigin ll in the First EUlpire. " During this period. grUUpll of cupidll ulld bacchantell apl'eurt'4.l for the finltime .... Today. a rt owns a shop and dil! pluys the marvels of iu crealionlf on shelves of gold or crystal , whereas io those tlaye ma!ll erJ)i~es of s tatuary, reducell in preciJre I'rOI)ortio o , were soltl at u discount . The Thr f'f! Cruce, of Canova fOUlld 11 place ill the boudoir, while the lJ(l cchanlU ami t he f 'ul/n of Pradier hud Ihe honors of the bridal c bamlJer." Ellouurd Foucaud, Pnru ;nL'en,eur: PI'),! iologie de l'indlt~ lriefra'It;(lile ( Parill , 1841). PI" 196197 . (15,3]

" Thi! lIcic nct. of the pus ter ... ha s atiainclllhat rare degree of pcrf" cti(lll a t which s kill turlill into art . And hcn' I am 1101 spcaking IIf lhose extraordimLl'y placards Oil whkh e"l'~rl s ill l:uUigraphy .. underl llkc to r cpl'll>M!lI t Nllpull:oll 011 ho rsebac k by tUl iuSt'oious "<.JIllbinal:ion (If (jllell in which the cou nc of hill histury iii sinmit ullI'ollsl)' IUlnule" a lld d epicted . No. ( s hall confinc mYl!elf to ordinary 1111810'1')1. Ju ~ 1 wt.oe how fa r liu;se have ilct'll uiJIe to (lus h tim dmIU"lIc," of tYilO' gru"h y. the ~Ct lli eli oll'" of lhe \iglw lIe. the fu ~c ina tinnll IIf color, by IIs ing lilt' lIIost \'arictl ami h r iUillnlllf huell 10 le nd pe rfulious s upport to the rU le" of tJ,~ publill h-

I~.

wnd8hut and Maye r (Leipzig c1932 . vol. I , I" 325 ("Na tio llulOkuDomie und Pltiloi ollilic " ). I I [ISa,4J

Curtius, & Iuu (Bonn, 1923), pp. 28- 29.

you are. TIle durability of products is disappearing on all sides!" Ernst Robert [16,5)

Valery on Poco Ile ulllie rlill el! the Ameri ca n wrill; r '8 incomparable ilillight into the cOlulitjon s and eJfeeu of literary work in general: " Wha t di stinguishell a trul y gem:ral phe nome non ill ils fertilit y. . . . It is therefore not lIurprillin g that Poe, posscl!8ingllo effective and lI ure a method , became the inventor of IIcvt!ra.1different lill!ra ry Corms-that he provided the fi"! .. . eumpleB of the licienlific tale. the modern cosmogcmic poem, the delective novel , the lite"lIture of morbid psycho-logical 81ates. " Valery, " Introd uction" ,o Baudelaire. Le, Fleur. du rrwl <Paris, 1926~ , p . XX . I~ [15a.5]

" Sunsl:tlj I:ul their glowing colorll on the WIIU S of !lining room and drawing room , filtering 80flly throllgll lovely hanginS'! or intriCllte high will/lows with lIIullioned panes. All the furniture is immense , fant astic, stra nge, armed wilh locks and secret!! like aU civilizet.l ~oub . Mirrorli , metals, fabrica, pottery, and wur ks of the goldsmith 's arl playa Dlilte mYlIterious sYfnpbony for the eye." Charles BaudeIllire, Le Spleen de Puri-!, ell. R. Simon (Puris), p . 27 (" L' lnvilation all voyage" )Y

[16a, I)
Etymology of the worll " comfort ." " I.n English, it uSt:d ttl mean coruomtion ('Comrorter' is the epithet applielilo the I:loly Spirit). T heil the .IIeose became , instead, welt-being . Today. in allia ngliages of the world , the word de~igna t e8 nothing more than ratiollal convenience." Wlallimir WeilDe , Lei Abeilles d 'Ari.uee (Pari. d936)). p. 175 ("L' Agonie de I' a rt"). [16a,2] " T he arlist' midUlelteB . . . no longer occupy room!; r ather , they live in studiot. (More a nd Dlore, yo u hear ever y place of habitation called a '9tudio.' 89 if people were mure and more bei:orning arti.llli or students.)" Henri Polli:t;, " L 'Art du commerce," Vendredi. February l 2, 1937 . [16a,3]

In the following description of a Parisian salon, Gautier gives drastic expression to the integration of the individual into the interior: "The eye, entranced. is led to
the groups of ladies who, Buttering their fans, lislen
[0

the talkers half-reclining.

Their eyes are sparkling like diamonds ; their shoulders giistOl like satin; and their lips open up like flowers ." (Artificial things come forth!) Paris e! les ParisitnJ aux XIX' sieck (Paris, 1856), p. iv (fheophile Gautier, "Introduction") . [16,1]
Balzac's interior decorating in the rnther ill-fated property Les Ja.rdies: '~ "1his house ... was one of the romances on which M . de Balzac worked hardest during his life, but he was never able to finish it ... . 'On these patient walls,' as M. Gozlan has said, ' there were charcoal inscripriol1.'l to this effect: "Here a facing in Parian marble"; " H ere a cedar stylobate"; "H ere a ceiling painted by Eug6le De1aooix"; "H ere a fireplace in cipolin marble."'" Alfred Neuemellt, Histoire dt la liltiratuft ftanraist sous Ie tpUlImIC1Itnt de juille! (Paris. 1859), vol. 2, pp. 26626Z [16,2[ Devdopmem of "The Interior" chapter: entry of me prop into film,
[16,3]
./

E. R. Cumus cites the following passage from Balzac's Petits &urgeois: "'lbe
hideous unbridled speculation that lowers, year by year, the height of the ceilings, that fits a whole apartment into the space formerly occupied by a d rawing room and declares war on the garden, will not fail to have an influence on Parisian morals. Soon it will become necessary to live more outside the house than within it." Ellls t Roben Curtius. Baluu: (Bonn, 1923), p. 28. Increasing importance of the streets, for various reasons. [16.4] Perhaps there is a connection becween the shrinking of residential space and the elaborate furnishing of the interior. Regarding the first, Balzac makes some telling obsc.rvatlons: "'Small pictures alone are in demand because large ones can no longer be hung. Soon it will be a fomudable problem to house o ne's library. ... One can nO longer find space for provisions of any son. Hence. o ne buys things that are not calculated to wear wdl. I"n le shirts and the books \von)t last, so there

Multiplication of traces through the modem administrative appararus. Balzac draws attention to this : "Do your utmost, hapless Frenchwomen, to remain unknown, to weave the very least little romance in the midst of a civilization which takes note, on public squares, of the hour when every hackney cab comes and goes; which COWlts every Jetter and Slamps them twice, at the exaCt time they are posted and at the time they are delivered; which numbers the houses .. . j which ere lo ng will have every acre of land, down to the smallest ho ldings .. , laid down on the broad sheets of a survey-a giant's task, by command of a giant." Balzac. Modestt Mig1IDn,' cited in Regis Messac, "Detective NolJt:l" (tt I'injiuenu tk la peruie sO'OI/ifiqun (Paris, 1929), p. 46 1. [16a,4-]

" Victor Hugo works standing up, ami, since he cannot find a 9u.itable antique to Serve as his desk, be writes on a stack of 8tools anillargc books which i5 cuvered ....itll a C8Q>et . It is 0 11 the Bible. it i9 on the Nuremher g Chronicles, that the poet leauli Il.nd s pread! his Ila per! ' Lo uill Ulh ach. Les Contemporains (Paris. 1833), ~!itcd ill Raymo nd Escllolit'r. Victor Hugo rucoflf e par ceux qui r Ollt vu (Puris . 193 1), p . 352 . (17,1]

Tbe Louis Philippe style: "The belly overspreads everything, even the timepieces." [17,2) There is an apocal)'ptic interior- a complement, as it were, of the bourgeois interior at Dlidcentury. It is to be found with Victor Hugo. H e writes of spiritual

istic manifestations : "J have been checked for a moment in my miserable hwnan amotlr-jJr0pl'e. by ~ctua1 revelation. coming to throw around my littJc miner's lamp a streak. of IIghtmng and of meteor." [n u.s C07ltnnp/atio1lJ, he writes :

listen (o r any sounw in th~ dism.a.l emp'y spaces; Wandering through the shadows, we listen 10 the brea th

clltiatiun . Changel in fllShioll tli8ruJlI d lln ... prooeu of . . . 1Il!lIin!i1atiol1 hetwCt:n subjcct and obj ecl. ... [In the third place. ther e is] the nlUltitude of l!Iylefi l hat crm frn ntHuS when we vicw lile oLjccu that ~ urro und 11& ." Georg Simmf"l . Philo, o_ pllie tie l Gelde~ (Lc:ip7.iS. 19(0) . pp. 49 1-494. IQ [17a.2]

'Olal makes the darkncn shudder;


And now and then, lost in unfathomable nights, W: sce lit up by mighty lights

TIl(: window of eternity.

(Cited in Claudius GrillCl, Vu/or Hugo spin'le <Lyons and Paris, 1929~ , pp. 52, 22.) ( 17~1
1 .A,ldsi " v a round 1860: '''The apa rlrllenl ... was situated on the Rue d ' Anjou . It
~'a l decorated ... wi th ca q H!llI . door curta ins , fringed valances. double dra ~ r_

On the theory of the trace. To "the Harbor-Ma.o;ter, . .. [as] a son of . .. deputyNepnme for the circumambient seas, ... I was, in common with the other seamen of the port. merely a subject for official writing, 6lling up of fonus with all the artificial superiority of a man of pen and ink to the men who grapple with realities outside the consecrated walls of official buildings. What ghosts we must rove been to him! Mere symbols to juggle with in books and heavy registen,
without brains and muscles and perplexities ; something hardly useful and decidedly inIerior."J 05eph Coruad, Die &Jw.ttenlinie (Berlin <l926 , p. 51.29 (Compan:: with the Rousseau passage <cited belOW).) [17a,3] On the theory of the trace. Practice is eliminated from the productive pI'OCOS by machinery. In the process of administration, something analogous occurs with heigbtened organization. Knowledge of human nature, such as the senior em ployee could acquire through practice, ceases to be decisive. TIm can be seen when one compares Conrad's observations in "The ShadowLine" with a pas sagt from Cq,ifiJJioTIJ. [18,1)

le8, 80 thai YOII wtJuld think the Stone Age ha d been succeeded by an Age of Hangings." umisc W(' i ~8. Souuenir., d'lI m! e"fan ce repuMicaine (Paris (1937),
p, - -.

' I'

[17,4]

The relation of the Jugendstil interior to its predecessors comes down to the fact that the bourgeois conceals his alibi in history with a still more remOte ali..bi in natural history (specifically in the reahn of plants). [17.5)

Th:

~tuis, dust covers, sheaths with which the bourgeoi.'i howdlOld of the pre cedmg century encased its utensils wue so many measures taken to cap~ and

preserve lmees.

[17,6]

On the history of the domestic interior. The residential charnaer of the rooms in the early faaories, though disconcerting and inexpedient, adds this homely touch : that within th~ spaces one can imagine the faaory owner as a quaint figurine in a landscape of machines. c:m:arning not only of his own but of their future greatness. With the dissociation of the proprietor from the workplace, this charnaeristic of factory buildinS! disappears. Capital alienates the employer, too, from his means of production, and the dream of their futuTc: greatness is finished. TIl.is alienation process culminates in the emergence of the private home. (11 1)
" During Ihe fi n l tlccadc8 of the nineteenth ct"ntury. furnilUre a nd the objects that U 8 for IIlle {I ud pleasure WCft~ relatively B imple and d ura!,I.:, anti li e-t;lI nlcd with the lIt!clls IIf lloth tlu~ lower and the upper strahl. This rCHuitecl in I>c o)lll"', attachment, 11 8 they grew up , to th ~ objccts ofthcir l! ulToulltlings . . .. The diffcrcntiation of objects has b roken down this 8ilua lioll i.1l thrt.-e differelll """Yi! . . . _ Firs t . thc , hcer rlUlilitity of \'I!r y $Jlccificall y formed o bj ~t>l makc a 1lolie ... rd lol tionll l!ip lu "ad! of thcm " !(Ire diffi.:ult . . . . 1'lIi&is expres~ecl ... in lin' l"III ~"wift!'i! ...ulII'h.i nt tha t the ta re of 1.111' IlO usehol.l J.wcOIlICII ct!rcmoniLlI fctillh is m .... Thi ~ COlu:tU'rcnl lliff,!relltin ti(ll1 has Lhe sa me cfft~ t 1111 consecutive. differ ~ UI' r()U lltl cd

On the theory of the trace : administration in the eighteenth century. As secretary to the French embassy in Venice, Rousseau had abolished the tax on passports for the French. "As soon as the news got around that I had reformed the passport tax, my only applicants were crowds of pretended Frenchmen who claimed in abominable acttnts to be either from Provence, Picardy. or Burgundy. As I have a fairly good ear, I was not easily fooled , and I doubt whether a single Italian cheated me out of my JequiTl, or a single Frenchmen paid it." Jean:Jacques Rous seau, fA ConfiSJionJ. ed. Hilsum (Pam <1931. vol. 2, p. l3Z'l [18.2)
8audelaire. in the introduction to hill tranillation of Poe'!; " Philosophy of Furnitu re ," which originaUy a ppeared in October 1852 in Le Magtuin des familkl : " Who among U ll. in hill idle hours, ha, not taken a delicious pleasure in cons tructing Cor rumw lf a model apartment , a drellm b ou~e, a house of dreams?" Cha rlel 8 auddoire, Oellvres COm/Jlele! . ed . Crepel . UiJtoire! g rotesqlles et ! eriellses par P'M ()luria, 193i ), p. 3M. {lS.S]

J
[Baudelaire]
For it pleases me, all for your sake, to row My own oars here on my own sea, And to soar h~venward by a suan~ avenue, Singing you the unsung praises a rOeath.
- Pierre RoruaM, ~Hynme de la Mort," A lAv:yJ tkJ
M aJlln'.f !

" Baudelaire', problem ... must have . .. posed itself in thesc terms: ' How to he a great poet , but neither a Lamartine nor D Hugo nor a Mussel. ' I do not say that tllese words were consciously C a nnulated, but they must have been latent in Baudelaire's mind ; they even constituted what was the essential Ba udelaire. They were his rauon d 'etat . .. . B a udelai re co ~8 ide red Victor Hugo; and it is not impossible to imagine wha t he thought orrum .... E\'erything that might scandalize. and thereb y instruct and guide a pitileu young observer in the way of his own fulure arl , ... Baudelaire must h ave recorded ill h.is mind , distinguishing the admira tion forced upon him by Hugo's wonderful gifts from the impurities, the imprudences , . . . that is to say, the chances for life and fame that so grelll an artist left behind him to he peaned ." Paul Valery, Introduction (Cha rles Baudelaire, LeJ Fle urJ du mal, with aD introd uction b y Paul Valer y [ Pa ris <l926> J, pp . x, xii , xiv).: Prohlem oCthe p oncifl (J I ,I] "ror a few yean hefore the Revolution of 1848 , everyone is hesita ting betweell a pure arl and a social art, and il is only wen lifter 1852 that l'urt p ourrart gaills the upper h and ." C. L. de I...iefd e, Le Sa int,-SimoniJme da m la p oe5ie jran{a iJe etl!re 1825 eU 865 <Haa rlem, 1927), p. 180. (J 1,2J Leconte d e Lisle, in the preCace to his Poome! et pOe!ie5 of 1855: " The hymns a nd odell inspired by steam power and electric telegraphy leave me cold ." Cited in C. L. de LieJde. Le Sa inl-SimoniJme dan! k. poeJie jram;aiJe entre 1825 et 1865, p . 179. [J I,3] Baudelaire's " Lee Bonncs Soc-ura"' <The Killd Sisten > may he cOlllpa red with the Sainl-Simollian poem " La Rue" < The Sireeb, by Savinien Lapointe , shoema ker.

Charles Baudelaire, 1855. Photo by Nadar. Mus~e d'Orsay, Paris ; photo copyrigh t O RM N.

T ile lalter is c;m cerned ollly wilh prostitution and, at the elld , evokes memories of the youth of the faUen yo ung women :
Oh! Do not _ k 10 know aU Ihat debauchery doe..
To withe r the Ro wen a nd TlI OW theOl down ; III i t ~ wo rkin!!:. it is pre mat u re a t delll.h And will m a ke yo u old de81li te your ei!!:llIttn year,.

Baudelaire- after his enforced sea voyage'--was a wdJtravded man. 'b vO! "ity on IllIlm! Pity! Wh~n on the corn~r you ~ h ouM knod c against them, Their anSelie racet b. thed in the glow or good reea liM . Olinde I{oclriguell, Poesies sociakl du Qu vriers (Paris. 1841 ). I>p. 20 1, 203. (]1.4] Dalel. Oaucle.lairc'M fl n liclter to Wagner : February 17, 1860. Wagn~r's conceru in Paris: "~ebru ary I and 8, 1860. Paris premiere of Ta nnha u.ser: Man h 13. 1861. When was Daudelairt:'s artide in Lo RevlU europeenne?' (Jl ,51 Baudelaire planned "an enormous work on the peintres des moellrs cpainter . of manners>." CrelJet, in thi8 connection , cites his statement : " lnlagee--nI Ygreat . my I)rimitive passion .") J acqucM Cnipet . "Mieucil baudelairiennel." Mercure de France, 46th year, vol. 262 , no. 894, pp . 53 1- 532 . [J I ,6] '"Baudelaire .. . can ~ till write. in 1852 , in the. preface to Olll>0nt 'li Charuom: 'Art was ther eafter insep arable from morality and utility.' And he speab there of the ' puerile Utopia of the ijchool of art for art i ~ ake . 'fi . .. Nevertheless. hc changes .852 . Tlus conception of social art may perhaps be explained his mind 800n after 1 by his youthful relations. Duponl was his friend at the moment when Baudelaire, 'alnm81 fanalically repul)lican under the monarchy,' was meditating a realistic aod communicatory flOCtry." C. L. de Liefd e. Le Sa int.-Simonilme dlm.s lCl poesit! frtlnr;Clue entre 1825 ~ t 1865 (Haarlem. 1921>, p. liS. [Jla, l] Baudelaire soon forgot the February Revolution. ; Telling evidence of tlus fa ct ba8 been IluhLished b y J acque, Cripel , in ".Mieu es baodelairieunes" (Baodelairean Morsels> (Mercure de F'rance. vol. 262, no. 894, I)' 525), in the form of a review of tbe Hu toire de NeuiUy et de Ie. chateaux, by the abbe BeUanger, a r eview which Baudelaire probably compo&ed at the request of his friend the lawyer An celle, and wbich a t the lime pres umably apl>cared in the preu. Tbere Baudelaire llpeab of the bi& tory ofthe place " from Roman times 10 the terriLle days of February, when the chi teau was the theater lIocl 'puil of the most ignoble passion!!. of orgy and destruction:' [Jla,2] Nada r de8crilw, thl" outfit worn by Baudelaire. who is encountered ill the viciuit y of I.il'l residence (or 1843-1845), the Hotel Pimodnn . "' Black tro llsen .Irawn well ahove his polished booU!; a blue workman 's blouse,sliff ill its new rulds; hill hlallk h air. naturaUy curl y, WOril long-his only t oiffure; bright linen , stric:tl y wilhout starch ; II raint moustache onder hi ~ !lose and a bil of beard 0 11 his chill ; ruse-colorei:1 gloves. Iluite lIew.. . . Thus arrayed a nd ha lless, Baudelaire walkell ahout his (1lUlrlier of tlw cily al 1111 oneven Ilace, both nervous and languill. like a cat . chlK'ling t'tlC' h stone of I_ he lIavemenl as if he had tel IIvoid "rushing an egg. " Ciled in Firmin Maillard. La Citfi cles in lellect-m:u (Paris ( 1 905~), p . 362 . [j la.3]

[jla,4]

Baudelaire 10 Pou let-Ma lassis, on Jallullry 8, 1860, lifter II. visit from Mer yon: "Aft!'r hll ieft nit'. I wondertcl how it was lhal I . wht) h ave alwaY 8 had Ihe mind a nd nerve~ to go lIIud , have never uctually gone mad. In all seriousnClls, I gave heaven a Pharisee's thankll for this: '" Cited in Gu! laVe Geffroy. Charlet Meryo,. (Pam . 1926). p . 128. [j la,S]

we

f rom t h e (eighth ~ sec:tion of Baudelaire's "'S.lon de 1859." Tbere one finds. apropus of Mcr yon , Ihiil phrase: " the profound and cumplex charm of a capital city which has grown old and worn in lite glories and tribulations of life." A Little furth er on : " I have rarely 8een the nat ural soleffilut y of an immense city more poeticaUy reproduced . Those maj estic acc umulations of stolle i those ! pires 'whose finge r8 point to heaven '; those obelisk, of industry, JlI>c",ring forth their conglomerationl of smoke against tbe firmament; those prodigiel of scaffolding ' round buildings under rep llir, applying their openwork architCi;ture, so paradoxically beautiful, upon ardutceture ', solid body ; that tunlultuou! sk y, ch arged with a nger and spite; those limitleu perlpcctives, unly incr eased by the tbought of aU the dfllmll they contain ; -he forgot not one of the complex elements which go to make up the painful and glorionl decor of civilization . . . . Bill a cruel demon hal touched M. Meryon'8 brttin . . . . And from that moment we have never cellsed waiting anxiously for somc('onsoLing new!! or this ijillgular naval officer who in ODe short da y turned into a mighty a rtist , and who bade fareweD to the ocean's solemn adventures in order to p aint the gloomy majeuy of this moat disquieting of capitllls. " I" Cited in GU litave Geffroy, Char fel lUeryon (Paris, 1926), pp. 125-126. (]2,1] The editor Deli.tre conceived a plan to puhlish an alhum of Meryon 's etchinge with text by B audelaire. The plan feU tllrough ; but it had already been ruined for Baudelaire when Mer yon demanded, in8tead of a text 8uited to the poet, a pedantic explication of the p ictu red olonumcn18. Baudelaire complains of rbe matter in his letter of Februar y J 6, 1860. to Poulet-Malassil. [J2,2] !\ter yo n placeel th t:se. lines under his etchin!!: Le Pont-Nevf:
H ",1't':

liu the exacllikeneu

or th e I. te Pun t-N",ur. AU newly refurbi~I ..:u


Per rt.'Cl':llt oruinIlIlC"'.

o ICllnlO!d doctur
S killrll' .u rgllo ll~.

Wh y 1101 do for liS

" '''at'. hel'lI donI' ror thi. , tone bridge? According to Geffroy-who evidentl y ta ke& them from a llot her \'er8ion of the etching-the 11161 two Lines are: "Wililell why I't!lI0va tj on~ f H ave been rorced 00 this stOne bridge." Gusla ve Geffrny. ChorieJ Aferyon (Paris. 1926) , p . 59. [J2,3]

executed thus: the p late is set upright on an easel, the etching DeclUe is held at arm's length (like a rapier), and the hand moves slowly from top to bollom." R. Castindli , " Cha rles 1\1er yolI ," lntroduction to Charles Meryon , Eaux-fortel $ lIr P(lri.!, p . iii . [J2a,2J Mervoll p roduced his twellty-two etchillgs of Paris between 1852 and 1854. . [j2.,3] When did the "Puris article" ((Irticle de Paris ) first appear?

[j2.,4]

What Baudelaire says about a drawing by Daumier on the subject of cholera could also apply to cenain engravings by Meryon: "True to its ironic custom in cimcs of great calamity and political upheaval, the sky of Paris is superhi it is quite white and incandescent with heat." Charles Bauddaire, It; Dmins de Daumier (Paris <1924, p. 13. < Seej52a,4.) 0 Dust, Boredom 0 (J2a,SJ
"The splenetic cupola of the sky" -a phrase from Charles Baudelaire, Le Spken de Puri" , cd. Simon (Paris), p. 8 ("Chacun sa chimere"). II [J2a.6J "The pltilosophica1 and Ilterary Catholicism .. . of Baudelaire had need of an inter mediate position .. . where it could take up its abode between God and the Devil. Tbe tit1e Le5 Limbel (Limbo> marked trus geographic determination of Baudelaire's p~ms, making it possible to understand better the order Baudelaire wanted to estaLlish among them, ""ruch is the order of a journey-more exactly, a fourth journey after Dante's three journeys in Inferno. PltrgatoriQ. and ParadUo. The poet of Florence lived 011 in the p oet of Paris." Albert Thibaudet, Hutoire de la litterClture fram;aue de 1789 ii no" jour$ (Paris (1936)), p. 325. 12 [J3,1] On the allegorical element. " Dickens . . . mentions, among the coffee shops into which he crept ill those wretched days , one in St. Martin 's Lane. ' of which I only recollect that it stood near the church , and that in the door there was an oval glass plate with COFfE~: ROOM painted on it, addressed towards the 8treet. If I ever lind myself in a very diHerent kind of coffee room now, but where there is such an inscription on glass , and read it backwards 011 the wrong side, MOOR EEFfOC (as I oft en u sed to do thell in a dismal r everie), a shock goes t1lrougb my Llood .' That wild word , ' 1\1oor Eeffoc, ' is the motto of all effective reallsm." G. K. Chesterton, Dick e"" (series entit1ed Vie tie" hom me" illmtre", no . 9), trans . from the EIIgl.ish by Laurent and Martin-Dnpont (Paris, 1927), p. 32 ,13 [J3 ,2] Dicken s and stenography : " He describes how, after he had learnt the whole- exact alphabet , ' there then appeared a procession of new horrors, called arbitrary r haracters- thc mOllt d eSI)()tic characters I have ever klloWII ; who insisted, for instance. that a t.hing like the beginning of a cobweb meant "exllCctation ," and that II !)tll-and-illk skyrocket siood for "disadvantageous.'" He concludes, ' It was alnlost heartbreaking.' But it is significant that somebody else, a colleague of his,

The funt-Neuf. Etching by Charles Meryon, 1853-1854. SeeJ2,3.

Bizarre features on plates by 1\1eryon . " The Rue d es Chantres": squ arely in the foreground , aflilled at eye-levd on the wall of what would seem to be a nearly windowless house. is a poster bearing the words " Sea Baths." <See Geffroy, CharIe! Meryon , p. 144.) - ''1'he CoUege Henry IV," about which Geffroy writes :"All around t.he school , the gardens, and neighboring houses, the space is empty. and suddenly Meryon hegins to fill it with a landscape of mountain and sea , replacing the ocean of Paris. The sails and masts of a ship a ppear, sonle flock s of sea birds are taking ",<lng, and this phantasmagoria gathcrs around t.he most rigorous design , the tall buildings of the school regularly pierced by windows, the courtyard planted with trees, . .. and the surrounding houses , with their dark rooftops, crowded chi.mneys , aOtI blank fa .. ades" (Ceffroy, Charks Meryon , p. 151}.-''1'he Admiralty": in the clouds a troop of horses, chariots, and dolphins advances upon the ministr y; ships alld Hea serpents are lIot lacking, and several human-shaped creatures are to he SCC:II in the multitude. "This will be ... the last view of Paris engraved b y !\1eryon. He bids adieu to the cit y where he suffered that onslaught of dreams at the hOllse, stern as a fortreu, in which he did service as a young ensign , ill the springtime of Ili.s life. when he was just seuing Ollt for the ilistant isles" (Gcffroy. Chflrles Mery ml , p. 161 ). 0 Flincllr 0 [J2a,l] " Meryon 's elleclltioll is incompurable. Bcrald.i sa ys. The most striking thing is the hcnuty und dignity of his firm , d ecisive line. Those fmc straight edges are said to be

(:onduded , ' There never Will s uch a IIhllrthand writer. ,.. C. K. C lu:~ tcrtoll . Dick . en.f (81rir.1I elltitlf'd llie des homme. illu.f.re.f, no. 9), trall8. Laurent IIlI d Martin OUl'o)nl ( I~rili. 1927). flP . 40-41." (J3,3) Valery (Int rlliludio nt v Let f leur. Ju mul [Paris, 1926J , fl . bination of "eternity and intimacy" in Baudelaire. ~
I(XV)

The title originally planned ror Spleen de Pn ru was Le Promeneur solitaire. For Le Fle urs till mulit WPII Le, l..im!Je.nUmbo> . [J4, I) From "Conse.i1s aux j l~ un ell litter ateu rs": " If olle is willing to Ih't' in stu bborn contemplation of lomorrow's work , Ilaily penevera nce wi U serve inspiratiQIl .'" Charles Ba ud t"laire, L'A rt romantiqrre. r.d . Haehelte-, vol. 3 (Pari,), p . 286. ]j4,2]

t; plakij of a com. [J3 ,4)

I.

From the IIItide Ly Barlley J 'AureviUy in Article. ju.! ficati/t IHm r C/mrk fl BaudeWire, autellr de. "'leur. J lt mat(Paris, 1857), a booklet of thirt y-tllree pages, with other contributions IIy Du lamon , Asselineau , and Thlerry. which was p rinted at Baudelaire's expen8C fo r the trial: I~ '1'he lmet. terrifyin5 and terr ified, wanted U B 10 inhale the aLomirUltion of th at dread basket thai he carries, pale canClthoNl. un his head bristlin5 with hurror. , , . His talellt ... is itself a fl ower of evil culti vated in the hothouses of Decadence.... There is something of Dante in the author of i.es Fleurs du mal, but it i. the Dallte of ao elKlc h in dttline, a n atheist and m(l{lernist Dante. a Dallle come after Voltaire ." Cited in W. T, Bantly, BUlldelaire Judged by HilJ Contemporuries (New York <1933, pp. 167-168 (collection of lextl in Frendn . [J3" 1] Ga utier's note 0 11 Bauddaire ill Le" Poole:Jfrml(;uilJ : R ecueil des ch"ft -d 'oe rwre de h, l~lJie frallt;(lue , cd . Eugene Crepet (Paris. 1862) , vol. 4, Lea ConlemporuinJ: " We ncvcl' rea d Le~ Fle rtr, Ju mal . .. without thinking involunt arily Iof that tale by Haw thorne (entitled " RaJlpaccini's Daughter"> . . . . His muse rellcmlllea the doctor' s d aughter whom no poi SOli can h arm, but whose pallill and anemic complexion betrays the influence ofthe milieu ahe inhabits," Cited in W. T. Band y. Burmewire Judged by iii, Co nfemporarie. (New York), p. 174. <See J29a.3), 1J3a.2) Main themes of Poe', aest hetic. acco rding to Valery: philosophy of composition, theory of the a rtifidal, theory of modernity. theory or the strange and exceptionaL
[J3 , ~]

Baudelaire confeilSt"s to h aving had , " in childhood , the good fortUlle--(lr the misfortune---of reading only book. for ad ul ts." Charles Baudelaire, L 'Art roman_ tiquf! (Paris), p . 298 ("' Dramel et roman Ahonnetes" ). I [j4,3] On Heine: "~ hi8) works are corrupted by ma terialistic sentimentality." Baude-. laire, L 'A rt ronrantiqlte , p . 303 ( .... t. ' Ecole paj'ellllc").:!11 [j4.4)

A motif that wa ndered from Spleen de Pnru to " L'Ecole paienne": " Why don ' t the poor wear gloves when they beg? They would make a fortune." Baudelaire, L 'Art. romanlique (Paril), I). 309, ~1 [j4.5)
"The time is not far off when it will be undeutood tha t every lite.rature that refuses walk hand in hand with science a nd philosophy ill a homicidal and suicidal literature." Baudelaire, L'A rt ronrllnlUIUe (Pari8), p . 309 (concluding sentellce of uL' Ecole paienne").!t [J4,6]
10

Baudelaire 0 11 the child raired in the company of the Pagan School: "His sow. conslan tl y excited and unlppea.soo . goes abo ut the world . the busy, toiling world ; it goes, I say. like a prostitute, cr ying: Plastique! PIOlJtique! The 1 )la8tic-lhll frightful word give. me goose Reih ." Ba udelaire. L 'Art romantique (Paris). p . 307. u Compar e J 22a.2. fJ4.7]

" Thus. Baudelaire's problem might have---indeeJ , must have---posl!(l itself in thesl' lerms: ' How to he a great poct , bUI neither a Lamartine nor a Hugo nor a Mllnet ,' I do not sa y tha t these words were cOllsciously formulated , hUI they must ha ve been latent i.n Ba udelaire's nuncl: tlley even constituted what was the eueu tial Ba udela ire. They were bis r(luon d 'ewt. In the domain of f' relltioll , which il also !.lit' Ilomain 'If pride. the Ilted to come Oll t and he distinci is I'art of life i t ~elf. " Paul Valer y, Introduction to Baudelaire, LelJ Fleurt d" mol (l'arill, 1928), p. 1(. 11

[J3,,4]
Rt'gil> MeSSl1l' ( d A! " Oetecli ve No vel" et I'influence (Ie La I,ensee scienlifi'lrte [ Paris. 1929 1,> p . ,121) pllinls 10 the i nflu en c~ of thl' " Two Crepusculell" <" Le Cr cJ>uscule till 1II1I.Ii n' amI ,.tt:. Crcpuflcule Ilu soir," in Les "'leurlJ rill nmb, fi rsl I'uhlishecl Febr ua ry I . 1.852. in 1..0 Setlluine dl elilra le. on certain Ilas~agc8 in PUllson Ilu Terrai!'11 Drllln f!I de (~ri which begall to appear. in instaUmell 18. ill 1857. [J3a,5J

A passage from the portrait ofViClor Hugo in which Baudelaire, like an engravu who sketches his own image in a remarque, has portrayed himself in a subordinate clause: "[f he painu the sea, no JeQJcajJe will equal his. The ships which furrow iu surface or which CUt through its foam will have, more than those of any other painter, the appearance of fierce combatanu, the character of will and of animality which mysteriously emerges from a gr:ometric and mechanica1 apparatus of wood, iron, ropes, and canvas; a monstTOus animal created by man to which the wind and the waves add the beauty of movement.'"' Baudelaire, .:Arl rmnanh"qut (Paris), p. 32 1 ("Victor Hugo'V ' fJ4,8]
A plll'ase apropos of Auguste Barhier : ';111t' natural indolence of IhUlle who J epend on ins pira tion ." Buudclaire. 1.,:.1 rt. rommuique(Pari8), p . 335 .~'; [J401. l )

Baudelaire describe.-; the ~try of the lyric poet-in the essay on Banville-in a way that. point for point, brings intO view the exact opposite of his own POCD"}' : "The word 'apotheosis' is one of those that unfailingly appear under the pen of

the poet when he has to describe ... a mingling of glory and light. And if the lyric. poet has occasion to speak of hinl5df, he will not depict himself bent over a table... \YTeStling with intractable phrases, . .. any more than he will show himself in a poor, wretched, or disorderly room; nor. if he wishes to appear dead, will he show himself rotting beneath a linen shroud in a wooden casket. That \\"Quld be lying." Baudelaire. J.:Art romanHqu~ (Paris), pp. 370-371.:16 (J4a.2J
In his I!ssay Of) Banville. Ba udelaire mentio ns mytlltllogy together with allrgor y, uno the n eontillUCil: " Mytholngy is a ~Iictio n liry of living hie rog.lyphies." Ba udelaire, l. 'Ar, romn fltique ( PUrill). p . 370.r. (J4a.3)

" Mada me 80varr. in what ill m('lllt forceful, mon ambitious. and abo most coutem plative in he r na tu re. bas remained a mlin . J U4 t all Palla. At he na 8 pran~ full y a nlloo from Ihe bead afZeus,.u tbis strangeamlrogYllou8crt'li ture hal! kepi all the It tlru ~) ti o n of a virile soul ill It clJ umliug feminine bUlly." Furthe r alo ng. on Flaubcrt : "'All inlellcclll(Ji wo men wiIJ be grateful 10 him for ha ving raised the fe male to 10 higll a level .. . a nd for having mafle he r share in that comhinatioll ()f calc ula tion and reverie .... hich constitutes the perfel;t beiUIll" Baulldaire, L'Arr

r,mwllt;(/Ue., )I)) . 4 15, 419. 11

US,4]

Conjunction of the modem and the demonic: "Mode.m poetry is related at one and the same time to painting, music. sculprure, decorative art, satiric philosophy. and the analytic spirit . .. . Some could perhaps see in this symptoms of depravity of taste. But that is a question which I do not wish to discuss hue." Nevertheless, a page later, after a reference to Beethoven, Marurin, Byron, and Poe, one reads: "I mean that modem art has an essentially demoniacal tendency. And it seons that this satan.ic side of man ... increases every day, as if the devil, like one who fattens geese, enjoyed enlarging it by artificial means, patiently force-feeding the human race in his poultry yard in order to prepare himself a more succulent dish." Bauddaire, L'Arl romantiqut (Paris), pp. 373-374.' The concept of the demonic comes into play where. the concept of modernity cOllverges with Catholicism. [J4a,4] Regarding Leconte de Lisle: "My natura] predile.ction for Rome prevents me from fe.ding alllhe e.njoymem that I should in the reading of his Greek poems." Baudclaire, L'Art romantique (Paris), pp. 389-390." Chthonic view of the. world. Catholicism. [J4a,5] It is very important that the modem, with Baudelaire, appear not only as the sigllat~ of an epoch but as an energy by which this epoch immediatdy trans forms and appropriales antiquity. Among all the relations into which modernity ente.rs, its relation to antiquity is critical. Thus, Baudelaire sees confirmed in Hugo "the. fatality which led him .. . partially to transfonn ancient ode and ancient tragedy into the poems and dramas that we know." Baudelaire, L'Art r(}mall /ique (Paris), p. 401 ("us MiJirahlu "j.3lI This is also, for Baudelaire, the fu nction of Wagner. [J5. 11
T ill' gcs turl! wilh wilic h the a ngel cllH ~tises tile mi!lcreanl : " Is it 1101 uliefu l for the poet . the I'hil(lstll'hcr. to 'Ilk", egois tic lI ul'Jlilll!HH by the hair from time to time li nd IUI Y to ii , whil.. r ubhing il8 now ill 1,lotHl and dUllg: 'See your handi work a nd swu Llow i l ' ~" Cha rlell Ba udelain: . L ~ rl roman tique (Paris). p. ,&06 (';tn MillhuMes").JI [JS.2J "Tlw Church ... t haI Plla rmae y whe r'" Il l.! o ne has tilt' righlto , lumbe r !" lair;,:, L 'A r' rOm(lntiqlle ( Puri ~) . p . " 20 ("Mu daIll6 lJOll(" .,."),J.f
B a ud e~

" Hyste ria!' Wh y couldn' t this phY8ioiogicai my6ler-y be made the 811m and B uh~ ' Ia~ ce of a lite ra ry work- this myw ter-y which the Academie de Medecine b as not yet w olved a nd which , manifesting itself in women by the lIensation of a lump in the throat lhal seems to rise .. . s howl itseU in excitable me n " y el'er y kind o r impotence al weU as by II te nde nc y towa rd e ve r y kino of e xct!a ," Ba udelaire, L 'A rt rom(Wfiqlw (Ps ru), p . 418 ("!tf(l(lame Bovary"),l-1 US,S) From " Pierre Dupont": " Whatever the party to whic h unl! belongs . , . it i. impos. lible not t('l he 1I10\'ed by the l ight of that sickl y thronA' breathing the dU8t of t be .... orksilops, ... sleeping among vernlin , . , -lhal sighing IIlId languishing thrung , .. which looks lo ng Slid sadl y at the lI un8hine a nd shadows of the grtat parb ." Baudelaire. L'An. roma ntique (Pari.). pp. 1 98- 199 .~ USa, ! ) From " Pierre Dupont": " By exclUlling morality, a ud oft en e ven punion , the puerUe Utopia of the school of orr/or art; Ja ke was ine vitably ste rile ... . When ther e IIprear ed a poet, aw kward at times, but IIlmost always great , who proclaimed i.o impassio ned language the sacredness of Ihe Revolution of 1830 lind sang of the destitutio n of Engla nd a nd Irela nd , d espite hill defecti ve r hymell, despite his pleooasms , ... the qu t:5tio n was seltJed . a nd art was the reafte r insepa ra ble from mor alily a nd utilit y. " 8audelaire, CArt roma fltiq ue (Parill), p. 193.ltI The pasllage refe rs to RDrbier. [J5a,2) '"The optimism of Dupont. hill unlimited tru. l in the ua tural goodnelis of man , his faoll tical love of lla lUrt' constitute the greatest share of hiij tale nt ." Baudelaire, t ~rt roma rtriqllc (paris). p . 20 1 .)~ [J5a.3) '" was nOI a t aU I Ur)ri$ed to oml , . . in 1(ulIIlliimer. I.o he ng rin , ulIll The "" yi,'Il Dutclt"wn. an excellc nt method or l'onslrueti un , 8 spirit of urrle r a nd divi ~ iOJl Ihal recalls lhe architecture of ancient tragelliclI ." 8 s tul ...htire , l, 'A r' rnma ntiqlle (Paris), )I. 225 (" Richard Wagne r eI T(lnnhii U Jc r" ) ..JIl [J5a,4) his JrAmutic method , Wagne r ro:!~ I'mbI 1!8 antiquit y, h y the pas"ionule ene rgy of hiil ex prc ~ ion he i!l tod ay t he truelit rep resen la tive. of modern II Ut U ~." Baudelaire, t 'Ar, romffntique ( Parill) . 1" 250. oW USa,S)

",r, in IuscllOice of s ubj ects II'IIJ in

[J5,3}

Baudelaire in " L'Art philOl!uphique," an essay coneerm:d mainly with Alfred Rethel: " Here twer ything-placr., decor. furnU.hingIJ, aecelllUriel (see Bogarth , fur cxample)---everything is allegory, allusion. hieroglyph, reb us." Baudelaire. L 'Art rOIlIll,,'u/ue, (1 . 131 ..... Ther e followB a reference to Micllelct's interpretation of Uiirer'I M eloncho/io'_ USa,6) Va.riant of the pauage on Meryun cited b y Geffroy, in " Peultrel et aqua-fortiste!l" ( I B62): " Just the other da y II yo ung American artist , M. Whistler, witlshowing ... Q SCI of etchings .. . r eprellenting the hanks of the Thome.; wonderful tangles of riggiug, ya rdarms and rope; farru.gos of fog, furna ces, and corkSert::W 8 of smoke; the profound aDd intricate poeu 'y of a vast capital .... M. Meryon , the true type of the CODsumnlJ:l.le etcher, could nut neglect the call .... In the pungency. fine"e, lind sureness of his drawing. 1\1.. M.er yon recalls all tbat wa. best in thcold elcher!!. We have rarely seen the natural sole-mnil)' of a great capital more poetically d &picted . T hose. majestic accwnulations of stone; those 'apirea whose finge rs point to heavell': those oheliilk. of industry, spewing forth their conglomerations of smoke agaim!t t.he nnnitment i tllose I)rodigies of scaffolding ' round buiJdings under .repair, applying their opeowork architecture. of sucb psradorica l and arachnean hea ut y, upon arcmtecture's solid bod y; tbal foggy sky, ch arged with anger and spite; those Iimitle81 per spectives, only increased by the thought of the dramas they contain-he forgot not one of the complex elemenu which go to make up the painful and g1orioue decor of civiliution ." Baudelaire. L:Art rortl(Jnlique (Paris), pp . 1l 9- 12 1. ~ 1 (J6,1] On Gu}'ll: " The festival.! of the Bairam , ... in the mid. t of which , like a pale SUD , call be discerned the endlees eDnui of tile lale sultan," Biludelairt, L:Arr romara-tique(Pa ris)_ p. 83.~ []6,2] On C uys: -'Wherever those dt:e p , impt:luous desire!, war. love, and gaming, are in full llood , like Orinocos of the human heart ... our observer is always punctually on tilt: spol." Bauddaire. l.'Art rom(lntique (Pari.), (I . 87 ."" 116.3] Baudelaire as antipode of Rousseau, in the maxim from his essay o n Guys: "For no sooner do we take leave of the domain of needs and necessities to enter that of pleasures and luxury than we see that nature can counsel nothing b ut crime. It is this infallible Mother Nature who has outed parricide and caruubalism." Baudelaire, L'Arr romantiqut (Paris), p. 100:" (J6,4]

drawings, ill IliatiUing the biuer or head y Davor of the wi.ne of Life." Baudelaire. L'Art roman,ique(Pa ria), II . '114.~ (J6a, J]

The figure of the " modem" and that o f "allegory" must be brought into relation with each other: "\\be unto him who seeks in antiquity anything other than pure art, logic, and genera1 method! By plunging too deeply into the past, . , . he renounces the ... privileges provided by circumstances; for ahnost all o ur originality comes from the stamp that b"me imprints upon our feelings uen.sab"on.o." Baudelaire, L'Arl romanlique (Paris), p. 72 ("I.e Pcintre de la vie modeme").4T But the privilege of which Baudelaire speaks also comes intO force, in a mediated way, vis-a.-vis antiquity : the stamp of time that imprints itself on antiquity presses OUl o rit the allegorical configuration. (J6a,2]
Coocernillg'''Spleen el ideal," these reH ection. from the GUYI essay : " Modernity is the transitory, the fugitive. the contingent ; it is one half of a rt , the other half being the eternal a ud immutable.. , U any particular modernit)' is to be worth y of becoming a ntiquity, one must extract from it the myneriou8 beauty that human life involuntarily gives it. It is to this task tbat MO Dl>icur G. particularlyaddrellle8 himself. " Baudelaire. L 'Art romanlique (Pari!), p. 70. In a nother place (p . 74), he speaks of " this k se"dary translation of external life. ".s (J6a.3) Motifs of the I}()t!ms in the tbeoretical prose. "l..e Coucher du 80leil romaDtique" <Romantic Sun&eb : " Dandyism is a aunset; like the declinin& daystar, il is glorious , witbout heat and uIJ of melancholy. BUl alas, the rising tide- of democracy ... is daily overwhelming these laat r epresentatives of human pride" (L 'Art romontique, p . 95).-"Le Soleil" <The Sun): "At a time when other~ are asleep , MODsieur G. is bending over his table, darting onto a sht:el of paper the same glance that a moment ago he was dirt-oeting toward external things, skirmishing with his pencil, his pen , his brush , spillshing his gloss of water up to the ceiling, wiping his pen OD ruj shirt , in a fernlt:nt of violent activity, as though afraid that the images might escaJje bim . cantankerous though alone, dbowing hinuuM on" (L 'Art roman,ique, p.67).4'1 U6a,4] Nouveautt: "The child sees everything in a state of newness ; he is a1ways drunA . Nothing more ~mbles wbat we call inspiration than the delight with which a child absorbs fo rm and color. . .. It is by this deep and joyful curiosity that we may explain the fixed and animalIy ecstatie gaze o f a child confronted with something new." Baudelaire, J.:Arl romantique (Paris). p. 62 ("I.e Peintre d e la vie modeme"). Perhaps tllis explains the dark saying in "I..:Oeuvre ella vie d 'Eugene Delacroix": "For it is true to say that, generally speaking, the child, in relation to the man, is much closer to original sin" (!:Art romantique, p. 41 ).50 1J7.11 The sun : the boistt"rous ~ un beating a talloo upon his ... ind(lwpa n ~' (L 'Art romffntifllJe, p. 65); .... tlle la.n dscapes of tile Veal city ... buCft:led by thellun" (L 'Arf 1J7,2) rOrtlanfique, PJl . 65-66).51

"Very difficull to note d own in shonhand"-this. from the essay on Guys, is


Baudelaire's appreciation, obviously very modem, o f the movement of carriages. Baudelaire, L'Arl romanliqut (Paris), p. 113." []6,5] ClO Sing ilenlences of the Gu)'s ('ssay : "'He has &one ever yw her t' in quest of the e phe m~' rDI. the- fl eetillg form s of l:.eAlity in the life uf our day, the cbar acteristic troilS uf ""hal , with tile reader ', permiuioD , we have called ' modernity. ' Orten bizarr~. viulent . excessive. LUi alwaYI full of poetry. he haa succeeded , in his

In " L'OeuYre ella vie d ' Eugelle DeIRc roix " : '''file whole visilile univer~e ie bUI a B lorehouu : of imllgeJI and l igne:' Ba utldaire. L 'A r, romnntillue. p . 13.5l [j7,3]

or thl' delive ry wRll lruly striking." Jule;! LeY aUoi8, Milieu de 5iec.k : IIlemoire. d 'l.in critiq'le (l'llris <1 895, (lp. 93-94. (J1a.3j "The ramous phrue, ' I ""ho am the SUIl of a priest' ; the glee he was said tn fLoel in (.uting lIulll, when be "" ould imagine he "" as munching the brains of small children ; the story of the glu ier who , 01 hill rll'fluellt , climhcd six flighl ,; of slairs under a heavy load of wimlowpanes in oPll refllive s ummer heal. onl y to be told he was not needed-all JUJl t 110 man y insanitiea , li nd probabl y filisehoods, which he delighted in amu siug." Julel l...evalloi Milieu de 5iecle: IIlemoire5 d 'un critique (Paris),

j .

From tbe Guye ellsay: " Beaut y ill made up of an ctl'l'na l, inva l'i able d ement .. . and of a relative , circumsta ntial element, which will lw. .. . the age--it6 fnll biuns, illl morl/h, iu c:motions. Without Ihis lIecond d emeul . which might be Ilcseribed as the amu ~ ill g , enticing, appetizing icing on tile divine cloIke, the fint elt:menl would be beyond our powers of digelition . ,. Baudelaire. L 'A rt roma ntique, pp . 54-55.r.:.

1J7.4]
On nouveaule: " Ni&ht! you ' d plellsc me more witil(lUllbese sta rs I whlcll spea k. language I know all too well ." Fleurs (dll, mol>. ed . I>IoIYOI, p . 139 ("Obsellliion ") ..w

pp . 94-95.

(J7a,4j

1J7.5]
The subsequent appearance of the Bower inJugendstil is oot without significance for the title La Flerm du mal. This work spans the arch that reaches from the ttudium uiku of the Romans 10 Jugendstil. 1J1.6J

A remarkable prOllo\weernenl Ly Baudelaire on Gautier (cited in JuJeli Le vallois, Milieu de 5iecl.e: IItemo irer d 'lIn critique [Paris] , p . 97). It is recorded by Charle8 lie l..ovelljoul. " Un Oernier Ch apitre de "histoire dl!l oeuvres de BalJlac," in L'Echo del theatres of August 25 . 1846, as foUows: " Fat, Ja ~, sluws h , he has no ideas, and call ollly string words together as the Osage strings bead. fur . necklaee."<See J 36a. l. > (J7a,5J Highly significanl letter from Baudelaire to TOllu enel: " Monday, Januury 21, 1856. My dear Tousselle), I really wa nl to thank you for yo ur gift. I didn ' t know the value of your book- I a dmit it simply and baldly.... For a long time I ' ve been rf.'jecting alnlOst all books with a feelin g of disgust . II 's been a long time, too, since I've read anything 80 a b&olmely illltruc ti ve and anllu ing. The chapter on the falcon and the bird8 thai hunl on nlan 's behalf is a musterpiece in itself. I There are exp reslliolls in your book thut r ecall those of the great masters and which a re c ri r.~ of lruth-expressionll whose lOlle i8 irresistibly philosophical, lIuch al. ' Every animal is a s phinx : and . with regard til analogy, ' Whal repolle the mind find s in gende Iluietude. sheltered by 80 fertile and so simple a doctrine. for which none of God's works is a mY l te:ry!' .. . What ill beyond d oubt il thai you are II poet . (' ve been saying for a "ery long time thai the poet is supremely intelligent . .. and that imagination is the mosl , t:.iellfijic of racultie (or it alone Clin undentand the utliverJaillllotogy, or wha t a mystic religion caUII correspondence. But when [ try to Pllblish such slateulentll, (' m told I'm mad . ... What is absolutely certain is that I have a philosophical Cllst o( mind tbat allowlI me 10 see clearly what ie true, eV1:'1I in zoology, although I' m neither a huol.!;man nor a naturalist. . . , One idea hlls-been IIppe rnlolit in my IhoughlS since l sta rt t:d reading your book- and this is that you ' re a true intelligell(;c which has walltlcred into a secl. All thillgs considered . wha t do yo u owe to Fourier? Nothing, or " er y tittle. Wilhout Fourier you would ~ lill il e what yo u are. RatiOlulI met! didn ' t fl, wail Fourier 's Il rrh'al 011 earth to realize that nature is a lunSl/tlge. all allegory, a mold , all emoou ing, if yo n like . . . . Your Look a rou:!lC. in me 101 grellt man y (iorni allt though ts-a nd where originul .. it! is CQncerned , as weU Ila .. . Jorm molded 011 a n idea. I"'e oft en thought Ihat noxious, disgusting anima ls wert:. IJerbaps. merel y tllC t:o ming to life ill bodily form uf Illan 'II euil thought ... . . . Thus, the whole of n O lll N! participates in uriginal sin . I Don ' t hold my llOldlleu 111111 IItraightforwardlleu IIgainsl me, hut- hdieve

It would be imponant to determine Poe's relation to Latinity. Baudelaire's interest in the technique of composition could have led him- in the end-as surely to Latin culture as his interest in the artificiaJ led him to Anglo-Saxon culture. \\brking through Poe, this latter area of culture also conditioru-al the outset'Baudelaire's theory of composition. Hence, it becomes more urgent to ask whether this doctriru: does not, in the end , bear a Latin stamp. [J7,1J
Th e Le& bioru- allainting by Courbet.

1J7.8]

Nature, according to Baudelaire, knows this one luxury: crime. Thus the sig nificance of the artificial. Perhaps ....'C may draw on this thought for the interpreta tion of the idea that children stand nearest to original sin. Is it because, exuberant by narure, they cannot get out of harm's way? At bottom, Baudelaire is thinking of parricide. (Compare L'Art romantique [Paris], p. l OO.)U [J7a,l J The key to the emancipation from antiquity- which (see in the Guys essay, Dlrl romantique. p. 72)5<1 can furnish only the canon of composition-is for Baudelaire a11egorese. [J 7a,2J
Baudelaire's manlier of reciting. lie gal hered hilt fri \:! nd j--Au tollio Walrip()n , Gabriel Oanlru~e. Mala88is , Od vu u-" in II modelll cafe on the Rue Dauphine . ... The lloel began b y ordenlll; punch : then . wilen he saw us aU d islKlsed toward benevolence , .. he would recile to us ill a " oiel' at once mincing, lIofl , HU ly, oily, Rnd yet mordant , some enormity or othl'r- "Le Vin de l' IIII1'II18ill" (The Murden: r 's Will e ) or " Une Cha rugn r." < Ca rrion >. Th(' "onlrast belween dlt~ violence of the inlages and Ih tl perfect Jlhtcidity. lhe sua ve a lltll'lIlphatic accentualioll .

loire. '- 'But your name is BCludeioire,' I replied , ' not Bodela;re. '- ' Badeillire, lJaudcinire by corruption . It 's the u, me thing.'-' Nol at all ,' I say. ' Your lIanle comes from baud (merry), baudimenl (merril y), &'ebflUdir ( 10 make merry). You a re kiml allli cht:erful. ' - 'No, no, I um ",;cked lind sad . .. Louis Thomas, Curio!;IeS sur Ulmdelaire (Pa ris, 1912). pp . 23-24 . (J8a,1I
Jul!'s Janin published an a rticle in 1865. in L 'lndependonce beige. reproaching UeLne ror his melancholy; Baudelaire drafted a letter ill response. " Oaudeluire lIIailltains that melancholy i.l! the source of all sincere 1 )Ot:try." Lows Thomas , Curiosi,es sur 8fllldelaire (Paris. 19 12). p. 17. (J8a.2] On a visit to an Acade mician ,Sf! Baudelaire refers 10 Le& FLeurs du bien that appeared in 1858 and claims the name of the author- Henry (probably Henri) Bordeau):-as his own pseudonym . See L. Thomas, Curiosites s ur Baudelaire (Paris, 191 2). p. 43. (J8a,3)

';011 the n iSaint-Louis, Baudelaire felt at borne every""hertl; he wall as perfectly at


his case in the alreet or on the quays all he would have been in bis own room. To KO into the island was in 110 way to quil his domain . Thus, one met him in slippers , bareheaded , and dressed in the tunic that ser ved as his work clothes .... Louil Thomas, Curi()sitessur Balldelaire (Paris, 1912), p. 27. [J8a,4)
0 111

" ' When I'm lIuerly u/()ne,' he wrote in 1864, 'I'll seek oul a religion ('Fabetall or Japallesc), ror I despise the Koran too much , and on my deathbed I' U forf!wear thaI la8t rdigion 10 show beyond doubt my disgust ""ith universal stupidity. '''59 Louis Thomas, CuriQsi' e& sur Baudelaire (paris, 19 12), pp . 57-58. (J8a,5)

Theophile Gautier, 1854- 1855. Photo by Nadar. MUS d'Orsay, Paris; phQ[o copyright 0 RM N. SeeJ7a,5.

Baudelaire's production is masterly and assured from the beginning.

[J9, I)

ti. at I am yo ur devoted ... Ch . Baudelaire. ,,:;; Henri Cordier, Notuw.fUr Baudelaire (Puris, 1900), pp . 5-7. The nliddle section of the leiter IJOlemicizes againlt Tousscnd 's faith in progress and his dellunciation of de Maistre. [JSI "Origin of the name Baudelaire. n cre is ""hat M. Georges Barral hal written on this subject ill the La R eVile des wnosites revolution"aires : Baudelaire explained till! ct)'mology of his name, which . he said , ca me not from bel or berm but from bfllld or bald. ' My 118me il something tcrrible,' he declared . ' As a matter of fa ci. the blldelaire was a saber with a short . broad bl ade and a convex cutting edge. hooked at the tip .... It was introduced into France after t,he Crusades alld used ill Paris until Brouml 1560 for e):eciltillg criminals. Some years agll, in 1861 , during e):cuvu ti o ll ~ carried oul lIeur the Punt-au-Change. they r~ove red the bodeh,ire used hy the uttlltioncr al the Grund Chittdet in tile twelfth ct!ntllry. It was deposih'fl in Ille MUdce de Cluny. Go and ha ve a ItHl k . It is frightening 10 see. I sluilider to think how the profil e of my face a pproximatl"f! the profile of this bade-

Dates. FLeurs du mal: 1857, 1861 . 1866. Poe: 1809-1849. 8audeJaire's discovery of Poe: arou nd the end or 1846. (j9,2) Renl Y de Gourmont has drawn a paraUei belween Athalie'! dream and "w Mi tamorphoses du vampire"; Fontainas has endeavored 10 do likewise with Hugo's " Fan tomes" (in Les Orienudes) and "Lea Petite1l Vieillet:' Hugo: " lJow many maidens fair, alas! I' ve seen fad e and die . ... One form , abo\'c aU . .. ....., U9,3} Laforgu e on Baudelaire: " After all the liberties of Romanticislll , he was the first to diso;:over theee rough comparisons wllicll sudlleni y, in the midst of a harmo nious lH'riod, calise him to Imtllis fout in his "late: ob,iou8. e):lIggerated comparisons which seem al timcs llownright America n: lliscollcerting purplish fla sh and dazzle: ' Nigl.. was thickening ... like a partition!' (Other en mples aholllld .) <Her walk is like> a serpcnt at the end of a Slick ; her hair il\ an oceulI; her head sways with the gentleness of a you ng elephant; her ho<iy Jealls like a frail vCliel plunging its yardarms illto tJle wa ter ; her saliva moun1810 her mOllth like a wave IIwollen lIy the

j ..

mching of r umhling glacier.; her neck is a tower of ivory: her teeth are IIheep perdlcd 011 the hillll II Love Hebron . -Thi. is Americanism luperimpo~C(1 o n the metapho rical IIUlgullge of the 'Song of Songs.''' Jule& Laforgue, Melanges po~~ lutlllcS (l'a rilj, 19(3). PI" 111-114 ("Notes sur Ba udelaire").' Compare J86a ,2.

heaven." Baudelaire, OeuurtJ, vol. 2, ed. (vcs,...G<trard,> Le Oantec(Paris, 19311932>, p. 725. [J9a,2]
the "Note detaehee" in Ihl! huok on 8e1gium : " I am 11 0 Ilupe, and I have nl!ver beell a du pe! I say, 'Long live the Revolution! ' as I would say, ' Long live Destruction! Long live EXJlilltion! Long live Punishment! Long Ih'c Death! '" Baudelaire, OellVreJ, vol. 2. ed . Y.C. Le Dantec, pp . 727-728.~ (J9a.3)
"~rolll

U9.41
-'Ill lUI' fogs 11\0118 the Seine, the ltorm of his youth and the marine l unll of hi, memories have loosened the 8trin gll of an incurably plaintive and shrill Byaa nline viol." Jule8 Laforgue, l'tfelonSfl! pmthumes (paris , 1903), p . 114 ("Notes lIur Baudelaire")."'" (J9.5]

When the 6rsl edition of us Fleurs du mal appeared, Baudelaire yean old.

WBB

lhirty-.U: 1J9,6]

Argument du livre Jur ia Belgique, chapter 25 . "Architecture-Chul"'t!helt_Relig. iOIlS.'" " Bruaseili. C hurch e~: Sainte-Cudule. Magnificent stailled-g1Bl1s winduwa . Beau tiful intenst! colors, like those "'ilh which a I>ro(ound soul invests aU the obje(;ts o( Li(e." Baudeillire, Oeu vreJ, \'01. 2, ed. Y.C. Le Dllntec, p . 722.-" Mort des amanu" -JugendstiI- l-l as hillh. [J9a,4)

Le Vav8ueur dC8Cribet bim around 1844: "Byron attired like Beau BnlmmeU. "

"I asked myself whether Baudelaire. , . had lIot 8ought, th rough hiIItrionica and
psychic trall.s(er, to revive the adventurea of the prince of Denmark . . . . There wo uld have. been nothing 8urpri'ing in hia having performed (or him,self tbe drama o( EIs.inort:." Leon Datltlet, Flambearu (Paris ~ 1929 , p . 2 10 ("Baudelaire").

U9.7I
The Petits l'oome~ en prose were first collet:ted posthumously.

U9,81

[J1O,11
"The inner life ... o(Cbllrlell Baudelaire ... seem! to have puslled ... in con stant fiuctuatiou between euphoria lind aura. Hence the double chllractt:r of his poemll, which, on the one hand , reprea.enl a luminous beatitude and , on the other, a state of ... taedium vitae." Leon Daudet, Flambeaux (Paris), p . 212 ("Baudelaire").

" He was th!! fi ra tto brca k with the public," Laforgue, MelangeJ IJ05thum eJ (Paris, 1903). p , 115.1>3 [J9,9)
" Baudelaire tbecat , n indu, Yankee, episcopal, alchemist .--Cat; hill way o( .. ~ ' my dear' in that solemn piet.~ that opens with 'Behave, my SorNw!'-Yankee: the use o( 'very' before an adjecth'e; his curt descriptions o( land ~cape, and the line 'Mount, nly spirit , wander at your ease,' whicb the initiatetl recite in metallic tOlltll; hill hatred of eloquence and of poetic confidences; ' Vapo rous pleasure will drift out o( sight I All ... ' wha t then? Hugo, Gautier, and othe" before him would have made a French . oratorical eomparison ; he makes a Yankee one and , without llettled prejudice, rt'.mains in the air: ' All a syiphid pirouettes into the winp' (you can see the iron wirell and i tagt' machinery).-Hindu : his poetry is closer to the Indian than that o( Leconte de Lisle with all his erudition and du.zLin~ intricacy: 'uf sobbing (ountains and of birds that lIin ~ I endless obbligatos to my trYllu. Neither II great ht'art nor a great intellect . but whllt plaintive nerves! What open senses! What a ma,,.-iclll voice!" J ulea Laforgue, MelangeJ pOl thllmfi. (Paris, 1903), pp . U 6- 1I 9 ("Notes aur Baudelaire").... [J9a, l]

Ul0.21
J eanne Duval. Madame Sahatier, l\1arie Dauhrun .

Ul0.31

" Ba udelaire " ' 11 out of place in the stupid nineteenth century, Ae be.lonp to the Renaissance .... This ca n be felt even in the bepnnings o( his poems, which recall those o( Ronsard .' lkon Daudet, Flambeaux (Parill). p. 216 ("Baudelaire; l..e Malaise et ' l' aura "'). [J10,4) Leon Daudet voices a ver y unfavora ble j udgment 0 11 Sainte-Deuve's Baudelaire.

UIO.51
Among those who have pictured the city of Paris, Balzac is, so to speak, the primitive; his human figures are larger than the stttets they move in. Baudelaire is the firSt to have conjured up the sea of houses, \Vith its mwtistory waves. Perhaps in a context with Haussmann. [J1O,6]
"The baudelaire . . . is a kind of culla8f . . . . Bruad and ahort and double etlgerl, . . . die IlIuulclaire ensures a dead ly thrust. for the hand th ai holds it ia near Ihe IJOint." Victor-Emile Michelet , Figllre6 d 'evocalellrs (PllriS, 19 13), fl . 18 ("'Baudelaire , ou U Divulateur douJourt' ulC"). [JIO,7]

One of the few clearly articulated passages of the Argument du /iurt: Jur fa Bel~ gique--in chapter 27, "Promenade a Malines ": "Profane airs, adapted to peals of bells. lltrough tile crossing and recrossing melodies, I seemed to hear notes from "La Marseillaise." The hymn of the rabble, as broadcast from the belfries, had lost a little of its harshness. C hopped into small pieces by the hammers, this was nOl the usual gloomy howling; rdther, it had taken on, to my ears, 3 childish grace. It was as tllOUgh the Revolution had learned to stutter in the language of

"Tile daluly. Baudelaire haa lIaid, 'lIhouJd aspirc to be 8ublin>e, COlllillually. He lIhould Iivc and sleep ill [rout or a mirror. ,..,.., Loui. Thollllll, Curio$ites IIlr lJaude. laire(Paru . 19 12), !,p. 33-34. IJI0,8) Two stam;ae b y Baudelaire. found 0 11 the Jlage of 8n album: NoMe , trollgarmed woman, who 81 eellllnd drcam throligholiliong da ya wilh nu thoughl of !jood ur cvil. whu wear ro bes proudly t1unll in Grecian & Iyle; you whom for man)' yc. ... (which 1101 B low 1 0 me onw) my lips. W f': U vel'8Cd in lu.ciou. kiues, cherished wilh . Ulhe dc\'Olion of II monk ;
pri e8le~8 of debauch, my siSler in IU81 . who tliatlained to c.rry anti nourish a male child in your h. llowed urn, hul rf':ar and ftC!(' the appallinll81igmata which virtuc.earvP.<'l wilh ilf degrading blade in ,,~gn a nl matron,' It. nb . ~~

"He is always polite to whal i. ugly." JulCi Laforgue . Melange. poJthume. (Paris, 19(3), p . 114 .... /j IOa,3} R6ger AIlard- i.n Baudelaire et " 1'1!. 'prit nouveau " (Parill , 1918). p . 8---cumparee Bautlth.irc. poems to Madame Subaticr with Honliard 'lI fJ ocms to HClene.
[JIOa.4]

"""'0 writers prufolludly influcol't:t.i Ba udelaire. or rather '''''0 books ... . One ill
Iht' {(,.licio ... Diuhle a mOltretu, Ily Cazolle; the other, Diderot'li La Religiewe. To th~ (i rsl . man y of the poelDJl owe their re8tiess frenzy . . . ; with Diderol, Baudelaire ga thcrl lhe . omher vi u lel ~ of Lesho8." Allhis poinl . in a nOle, a citation from .A pollIulllirt" 1I commentary til his edition of Ba udelairc's OeulJre, poe'ique.; " One "'ould prubuhl y 11111 go wrung ill taking Cazolle u ~ the hyphen thai had the honor of uniting, in ... Baudelaire, tlle lIpint of tlle Revolution's writerl! with thai of Edgar f"oc ." Roger Allard . BllUdela ire et ""Esprit nouveau" (Paria, 1918), PII . 9--10. <See J 20a.2 .) IJI 08,5)

Louis Thoma8, Curio3iteJ sltr Blllldewire (Paris, 191 2). p . 37 .

(]1O,9J

"The Oavo r olf late autumn ... which Ba udelai re savor ed ... in the literary decomposition of low Latin. " Roger Allard , Baudelaire e t "I'EJprit nouveou" (Paril, 19 18) , p . 14. [Jll , l)
" Baudela ire . . . ill the most mUlIicaJ of French poet alonr; with Racine and Vel'. laine. But Wherl!a5 Racine pla ye omy the violin , Baudelaire plays the whole or. cheslra." Andre Sliares, Preface to Cha rles Baudelaire. Le, Fleur$ du mal (Pam , [J ll .2) 1933), pp . xxxi\- xxxv.

" He W 8jJ thefirat to write abou t himself in a mooerate conleuional manner, and to leave of( the inspired tone. I He Wilt tbe 6.rst to lI peak of Parill frum the point or
view of one of her daily damned (the lighted gas j etll flickering with the wind of Prostitution , the r estaurlln t!l and their air venls, the hospitals. the gambling, the logtl resounding as they are & a ..... n and then dropped 0 11 the paved court yarde. aDd the chimney corner, and the catll, bedll. lItockingll, drunka rds. and modern per fumes}--all ill a noble, r emote. and lI uperior fu hion . _ .. The firllt also who acCU lies himself ralher than appearing triumphant, who . ho ..... 1i hill wounde, bU Ia.r:inen, h ill bored u8Clesllne81 at the heart of thill dedica ted. workada y century. I The firsl 10 bring to our litera ture the horedom implicit ill sensuality, logether with its strange decor : the sad alcove , ... and 10 take plcusurc in doing so . . . . The Painted Ma& k of Woman and iu heavenl y extension UI sunset .. _ Spleen and illness (not the poetic aspecU of consulllption but rather neurosill) ..... ithout ever once using tbe ",ord ." Lafa rgue, Melanges poslhumes (Paris, 1903). PI>_ 11111 2,'" U IOn, l)

" If Baudelaire is supremely contailletl. as no olle sUlce Dante has been , it ill beca use he al .....ay. concentrates 0 11 the inner life, as Danle focused on dogma. " Audre Sua res. Pre.face to Baudelaire. Le, Fleur. du mol (Pam. 1933). p. XXJt:vw .
(]11 ,3J

Le, Fie!!rs rill mal is tile Ilif enlO of the niuelet:llth century. But Baudelaire', de. ' pair calTies him infwitely heyolllilhe wrath of Dante." Andre Suare., Prefa ce to UaudeJaire . us Fleur. du mal (Parill. 1933). p . xili . [J ll .4]
"'There U 110 artist in \'e'rlli' lIilH! rior 10 Baudelaire." Andre Suares. Prefa ce 10 Bil utlelai rc. l.e. Fle.,rs dll mClI(Pa ris . 1933), p . xxiii . (JlI ,5]

" From the mys tl!riOlIll darkness i.n which they had germinated. lIt',.1I1 Ollt .ecret roou . and n:ared their fecund stalks, Les Fkurs du mal ha ve gone u n 10 blossom magnificentl y. ul>4! uing up their somber jagged corollas ,!'.ined willI the culo rJ of life and , under all endJeli!! 8ky of glor y anti lIcandal , i ca ttering their heady perfumf;8 of love, of sorrow, and of Ileath ." Helin de Hegnil'r, ("Baudelaire ct LeJ flel!rs du mal," introductory et811Y) in Chllr les Baudelaire, " I..e. Fleur' f /l! I/Ial" el "utre~ 1)~ m e' (Pari!! (1 930)) , p . 18 . /j IOa,21

!\pulliutlirc: " Uaudeluire ilf the llcioll of Laclo, allli Erlgar Poe." Citetl in Rilger AlIllrJ . Blilu/eillire el "'I'E5pril IIO/ltleau" (I)llriS. 1918), p . 8. (] 11 .6J The "Clloix dl' Inaxuut's consolalllet $UI" r amollr" <Sd ccted Consolalor y Maxim' Lu" c> cO llt u in ~ 1111 e )(C U I"6 11 ~ U II ugliness (first published March 3. 18<1-6 , UI Le Cur, ai rc-SlIICUt ). The hclo\'t't.I IrKi c'.lIItractcd smuUplJx Kllll lllifferctl Rears , which frortl tlren on 141'11 lire 1 0vcr 'H Ilt:light : ;' You run It gruve ri. k, if yuur pockma rkell
0 11

nUlItre88 betray!! yuu . of being able to con!!ole yourself ollly with pocknlarked ,,omell . For certain spirits, more precious and more jaded , deligbt ill ugliness proceeds from lI.n ohllcllrer sentiment still- the thir@ 1 for the unknown and lhe. taste for the horrible. It is this sentiment. , . which drives certain 1~t.8 into the di,,~ecting r Ollm or lhe clinic, and women 10 public exec;utions. 1 am sincerely sorry for the ma n who callnot understand I.hill-he ill a h arp wlw lacks a bass string!" Baudelaire, Oel/vre.!. vol . 2, ed . Y.-C. i.e Dllntec, p . 62 1.... [j 11 .7] The idea of "com:.spondences" surfaces already in the "Salon de 1846," where a passage of Knisleruma is cited. (5 the note by Le Dantec, OeulJw, vol. I, p. 585.)" lJ 11 ,8)

horrible funk ," wriles the latter, " BQudeiaire rt:a,1 a nd lItamDlered and trembled. hill teeth chau ering, li18 nOlle huried in Illll manuscript. It was a disas ter: ' Camille Lccuonnicr. on the otlter haml. caDIt: a way with the " imprcnion of a lIIu@:uiflcent tlliker. " Georges Reney. Ph y~ ionomies liueraire.! (BrulIlIe!J. 19(7) , pp. 267. 268 (--CharleJ Bllullelaire"). [j 12.l J

' He .

. never millIe a seriuus erfort to under stand what. was e1l:tf:.rnal

10

him ." (J 12 ,2J

Ceorge;! Rency, Phpionomie.! lilteraire.! (Brusllels . 1907). p . 274 (" Charlet

Ba udelaire" ).

In considering the aggressive Catholicism displayed in Baudelaire's later work, o ne must bear in mind that his writing had met with scant success during his lifetime. 1bis could have led Baudelaire, in rather unusual fashion, to align himself or rather to identify himself with the completed works. His particular sensuality fo und its theoretical equivalents only in the process of poetic composi tion: these l."quivalents, however, the poet appropriated to himself as such, uncon ditionally and without any sort o f revision. They bear the trace of this o rigin [jlla, l ] precisely in their aggressiveness.
"'He has ti n iI blood-ret! cravat and ruge gluves . Yes, it is 1840. , . , Some years, even veen glOVed were worn . Color disappeared (rom outfits only reluctantly. For Baudelaire Will nol atolle in sportint; that purple or Luick-colored cravat . Not alone in wearing pink gloves. Hill trademark is in the combination o( the two e(ft!Cls with the "'lick outfit." Eugene Mur~ an , Les Caulle.! de M. Paul Bourget et I.e bon ch ou de I'hilinte (Paris , 1923), pp . 236-237. [jlla,2]

" Baudelaire is a8 incapable or love as of labor. He loves ali he writes , by fil8 a ud starts, a nd then relapses into the di.llllolute egoism or a liQueur. Never does htl-s how the Blightesl curiosity abo ut human affairs or the sli~h tell t COll8ciouslleu of human evolution .. .. His arl could ther erore be said .. . til , in by r ea;;on of it s narrow_ ness and singula rity ; these, indeed . are deC~ts which pUI ocr sane and uprigh t minds 8nch as love clear works or universal import. " George. Rency. Phy.!ionomil'.! litteraire.! (Brussels, l 907). p. 288 (""Charles Baudelaire" ). (J 12.3J " Like many IlUolher lIuthor of his da y. he was 1I0t a writer hut a stylist . HiM images are a~o8 t alway. inappropriate. He will say of a look tllat it is 'gimlet-sharp.' ... He will call repentance ' the las t hOllelry.' ... Baudelaire is a still WO I'8e. wriler iu prose than in verse .. .. Be duet not even know grammllr. ' No French writer. ' he SIlYII , 'ardent for the &lory or the Dation , ca n , without pride a lltl withollt regrets ,Liver[ his gu e . .. ' The solecism here i.s not only ftagrallt ; it is foolish ." EdmoQli Scherer, Etude, mr lo. litterature contemporaine, vol. 4 (PuriH, 1886), PI', 288289 (" Ba uddairc"). [J12,4J

" Hill utterances. Gautier thought . were full of 'capital Id lers and italics. ' He ilppea red .. . surprised at what he himself said. as if he heard in his own vuiee the words of a stranger . But it musl be admitted thai hill women and his sky, hil perfumes, hill lIoltalgia, his Christia nity and bis " emulI , his ocean s and his tropics, made for II subjt!Ct matter of IItwming novelty.... I do nol even critici:l:e hil jerk y gail, . . . which made people compare him to a spider. It wn the beginning of that a ngulilr geiliculiltion which , little by Liltle . would displace the rUllndt:d gracell of the old ....orld . Her e, 100. he is a prec ursor." Eu,;ene. Marsan, Les CU/lne.! de M . Paul Bourge , et Ie bon chou de Philinte (Paris. 1923), pp. 239-240 . [J ll a,3]
" His gestu res were lIoble , slow, kepI ill close 10 the body. nil! lJ()litcll e~s IUlCm ed urredell ht!t! ulIse it WIUJ a legacy or the eightl!euth century, Baudel aire beuig the SO li uf all olel man whu bilt! kno wn the salulI!!. " Eugene Marsall , Lelf Cu nmM de M. Pull' Jjo urJ~l:' t I:'t Ie bOil clwu de Philinte (Paris. 1923), p. 239. I1 lla,4] 'l'ht' re arc IWO different \'ersions of Baudelaire's cldml ill Brussels. ;: G ~lIrge;l RI~ n I!Y. willi n~ JlrtxlU Cell Loth , prefen tlu~ ti ne Ly the \hrolliclcr Tartli~u . " In a

~Bau.d elairt' is a sign not or decaden ce in leiters hUI of the general lowering oC IOt~gence." Edmond Scberer. El/ldes .!ur fa litl eralllre conlempor1line, vol. 4
(Pan s, 1886), 1>. 29 1 ("Charlet! Baudelaire" ). [J 12,5]

BrUlletiere recogni:t;es, with Gaulier. th at Baudelaire h u opclled new territory fur


PI~try. Amollg tile criticisms registered against hi.n. by the Literllry historiaD ill

tb.s. " Moreaver, he was a poet l\' h0 I aclted more thall unedemellt ofl w art- llola~I y (accordiot; to pt!ople who knew bim) the gift of th.inkillg directl y in \'t~.r ~. -h~rclin al it I' UrIlDt-bere-, .. L 'EVQ I/IlIOn . de l fl p oe.!ie Iyrique e n Fra nce 011 }(lX' .. .!lede. vol. 2 (paris. 1894), I). 232 (" Le SynlbulisnJc"). U12 .6J Brllueliere (L'E 110It ' d " '~ I yrlque . II IOn e" ... 1Xff!..! en FrfHlce flU X IX' $iec1e. vul. 2 [ I ans . 1894]) dilltinguislles Baudelaire UII olle sid!" from the 81'11001 of nu~kill oml "' 11 . t he otller from the RU8Sianllo\'~wl8. In both tht'l;e 1I10vemcn ls he SrtH cur;rnts wIlH. ' h . with good reason . resist the dermdefl ce proclaime.1 by Baudda ire, ol'llOsing to I"VcrYlhillg h ypercuhivated tbe primitive sinlplir ilY IIlId innocence of lIatnral man. A synlhesis of theae autithetica llendClJciell wouM III~ rcpresente.1 loy WN g-

lu!r. -BruDl!liere arriv(."tt belilledly ( 1M2 ).

ul

tlus relatively positive estimation o( Baude1aire only [J12a. l ]

On Bauddain- in rdatillll to Ilugo and Cautier : " lie Ireats l.h ~ grea t mu ters he learned (rom as he Irtlll lll women : lu~ adtHes allll vilifies them:' U.-V. Chlltelain, B(Jlldela ire . I'hamme e l Ie poete (Puris). II. 2] . [J 12a.2]

luakers all they lire useless for rorming citUens . . . . But I Ihink th aI the wise ,I" s pot. arter carl:ful rCfl Cc.ljnn , would refrain f.-mil inten cIUng. fuithfu..l to tile tratlitiun of a.1I a~B ble philosophy: li pres 11 0 m Ie deluge." Maurie'e Barres. La f olie r/l': Charles 8(.IIIdef{lire (Paris) . PI' 103-104. IJ 13.2] Haudelaire wa' pt.:rll ups onl), a hard .wor ki ng soul who felt and untier st(}(ltl whill Wtl S 11(' \'1' through 1 'Ot:. and who (U.\wiplined Ilimself in til(! cuurst' of his life Itl bt"'Colllc SI;etiulizt:d ." Mouriee Barn!!. u. Fulie de Charle, Baudelaire (Paris),
p. 98.

Baudelaire on Hugo: "Not only does he express precisely and translate liu:ralJy what is clearly and distinctly visible, but he expruses with indispensable obscurity what is obscure and vaguely revealed." C iting this sentence in Bauddajr~, I}!tomm~ d Ie potte (Paris). p. 22, Chatclain rightly says that Baudelaire is perhaps the o nly man of his time to have understood the "sccret Mallanneism" of Hugo.
[]12.,31 " Barely sixty people folluwed the hearse in the sweltering hea l; Banville and Auelineau . undcr II gathering stonn , DIode beautiful speeehetl that nobody could hear. With the e.xeeption of Veuillflt in IA 'UniverJ, tbe pres~ Wll' eruct. Everything bore d own on hi.. remains. A gale dispersed hia friends: bis enemies ... caUed him ' mad . ,,, U.- V. Ch att:iui n , Bfludelai re. l 'hammee, I.e poe' e (Paris), p . 16. [J12a,4J For Ihe experiellce of the COrre$pomlanceJ. Ba udelaire refers occosionally to []12.,51 Swcdenborg. anJlllso 10 hashish . Baudelai re. at a COIlL't!rt ; " Two piercing hlllck tiyes. gleaming with a pt.'Cu1iar viviJ D eilil. alolle a nimated the figure that seem..d frozen in it. shell ." Loredan Larcbey. Fragme/lt 5 tie 50lwenir, (Puri~. 1901 ). p . 6 ("'Le Boa tie Baudeiaire--l.' lmpet..'Ca hie Banville"). [J12a.6} Lart:hey ia on eyewitness 10 Baudelaire's first visit to an Academician-a call paid to Jules Sondca u . Larchey find s himself in the entrance hall soon after Baudelaire. "WheD J urrived , ... a tlhe appointed IUluf, a bizarre ~ I:recta cl e informed me I had been prec:eded. All aro ulld the hat-pegs of the antecha mber wae coiled a 1005 s<:a rlel boa. one of thosc hil US ill chenille of which young workillg--clas8 women are " articular1 y fontl ." L. uu rrhey. Frogmen" cJ.1l $ou tJenirJ), p . 7. [J 12a,7} Tubleuu of decadence; " Behold our great citics IlIlder Ihe fog of tobacco smoke thllt envelops them. thoroughJ )' w d,lclI b y Illcohol . infused with morphine; il is tJu!n : Iha l hutlillnilY comes llIlltiuged . Hest IIssured thai this source breeds more /pileptics. idiots, and llu assinll than poets." Maurice. Barris. Lo Folie de Charles UU/ute/oire (Paris <1926. pp. 104-105. 11 13 .1]
" In t!olld usioll, I wo uld Uke 10 imagine !hBt a governnlt"lIl l1 uch all WI! cOllc..ivc Bfter 1111: modd (,r Hohllt:s wflulrl illrive ttl a rrc~ l . hy lIome ,igorollS thCntpt.:Uli, mcthod , Ih~ II prellfl of tilt''' dOctrU1CIi. which are U pfolim:tive of maJingcrcrs and trouhle--

U I3,3]

Le l us perhaps guard agaillst taking theu' poets too tlluckly for Christian/!. The lilurgitallaujlJuuge. tile angels, the Sa tans ... are IIIIrel y a miJe ell $Celle for the artist who judge, that Ihe pictureS(IUe is well wo rth II M ass . "~ Mau rice Barrell, La Folie de Charles BUI/delflire (Paris). PI) 44- 4 5. U I3,4] " Uis best pagel are overwhelming. He rendered sUIK: rll prose inlo tlifficuh verse." [J 13,5J Maurice Barres , La Folie de CI'(Jrlell lJaiu/elf/ire (Parill). I). 54. "Scattered acro u Ule sky like luminous seed s of gold ond silver. radiating out frolll lilt' decl) darkness of night. the stan reprellent [for Baudelaire] the ardor and energy of the humBu imagillation:' Elisabeth Schinzei , Notur !Hld Nu ,ur$ymbolik be; Poe, Baudelnire und den frmuo, ischen Symbali.stell (Diiren [RlWleiandj, 1931). p . 32. [J 13,6] ""Hi,. voire ... mum ~Illik e th .. Iliglutinle rumble of vehicleil , filtering into IJlushly up holslered bedrooms." Maurice Ban es, Ln "'olie (Ie Churle, Buudelai re (paris),

p. m

[]~

" It lIIigItI St:.'tlIlI, al fir~ t . that Blludeluire's ocuvre was rdati vely infertile. Some wits cCllllpBred it to a narrow basin dug with errort in a gloomy spot shrouded in haze... . . The innuenee. of Baudelai re wu ~ revealed in l..e ParlUlue contemporain .. . o( 1865 .... Three fi gure elDerge: . . . Stephall.. Malla nn ~. Pa ul Ve.rlaine. and Maurice Rollillal : ' Ma urice Ba rr~8, La Fulie de Cllllrie., Boudelf/ire (Paris). JIll 6 1, 63, 65. [J 13.SJ

A nd Ih" plac(' occupied b y radal epithets OniOIl/! the roh hle lit that lillie! MIIII.rite Barrt:iI. UI "-olie tie Charles 80udeJa ire (Pa ris ). p . IW. (J l ga.l ] FIUIII!cl' Itl o a llll,laire: " You praise til.. l1e~ 1t wit llf)ut loving it. ill u mdulIIholy. rl!"tadlcd WII )' Ihal I fmd "Ylllpulllt~tj c . Ali! Itow well yo u UIlJerSland lilt' IUII"'!(lolli or ex i~ It ' lwe!":I Cile,1 ill Malu;ce B u rri: ~ , IA (/ f o/ie de C"o rI4~~ IJruulcluire (Puris) , I' :11 . [J13a.2J

Uaudelaire's predilection forJuvenal may well have to do with the laner 's being One of the first urban poets. Compare this observation by ThibaudCI: "In survey

i.

ing the great epochs of urban life, we see that the more the city provides poets and other people with their inteU cctual and moral life, the mon: forcefull y poetry is pushed outside the city. When, ... in the Greek world, that life was fosten:d within the great cosmopolitan centers of Alexandria and Syracuse, these ciries gave birth to pastoral poetry. When the Rome of Augustus came to occupy a similar positio n of cen uality, the same poetry of shepberds, ... o f pristine nature, appeared with the BucoJiu and the Georgia of Virgil. And in eightecnth-cemury France, at the most brilliant moment .. . o f Parisian existence, the pasto ral reo

Thihaudl'l jllX lapuse8 BaudelliLre's "' Une Ch arQgnc" <Carrioll) wi th Ga utier ', " LII Comfil ie de III mort" <The Comedy ur Death) ulUl Hugo's " l.,' Epopee dll vcr " <The Epie of the Wo rm } dn le rie ur5, p . 46). (j14,3]

appears as pan of a rerum to antiquity.... The only poet in whom one might find a foretaste of Baudclairean urbanism (and of other things Baudelairean as weU) would be perhaps, at certain moments, SaintAmant.n Albert Thbaudet, Inttriam (Paris <1 924, pp. 7-9. [J13a,3)
"'In paning fN)m alllht:Se Rtl mantic poet!! to Ba udelai re. we plliS frolll II landscape of nature 10 II landscape of a lllne 111111 flellh .... A religio us . we of nature, wwch , for these . . . Romantics, W illi pa rt of their familiarity with nature, has become with Baudllair!! a hatn::11 of nat ure." [?] (J 13a,4]
Bomleiaire on MU8~e l : "Except at the age of one's fir st Communion- in other wortls, at the age wh!!n ever ything hll ving to do with p ro~ tihll eH and !!ilk s tockings produces a religious errect- I hll ve never heen a ble to endure th at par agon of lady- killers, hill spoiled-child's impudence. invoking heaven allli heU in tales of dinner- table COII\'ena tion" hi, mudd y tor rent of mis ta kea in gra mmar and p rosody, and fin ally his utter in capaci ty to understanll the proces, by which a reverie becomes a work of art ."n Thihaudet , who quotefl this remark inlnterie ur. (p . 15), j uxta poses it with one by Brunetiere on Baudelaire: " li e'. jus t a Sa tan with. furnis hed a pa rtnum t , a Beelze bub ofth e dinner tahle" h. 16). [J 13a,5]

1bibaudet adverts very aptly to the connection between confession and mystification in Baudelaire. TIuough the lauer, Baudelaire's p ride compensates itself for the former. "Evcr since Rousseau's CtmfiuiofIJ, it seems that all our literature of the personal has taken its departurt: from the broken-down fumitwt of religion, from a d ebu nked confessional." TIllbaudet, 1111irit:urs (Paris), p. 47 ("Baudelaire"). Mystification a figure of original sin. (j 14,4)
'fhibuUl lel (l nterieurf , p. 3' ) ciles a r emark from 1887, in which Brunetie.re calls Bli uddai re " a s pecies uf ur iental idol, monslroUI! and missha pen . whose natural rleformi ty is heightened by stra nge colon ." (j 14,5]

[n 1859 MilttraJ's Mi reille apl>earw . Baudelai re wal incensed at the book',


c :e8S.

I UC.

1J14.61

Ba udelaire to Vigny: "The onl y praise I as k fur this buo k is that readers r e(lognize it's 110 1 a mere album , but has a beginning and an end . "7'; Ciled in Thibaudet , l"terielmf (Paris)_ p . 5. {j14,7] Thiba udet concl udes his dlsay on Ba udelaire with tJle allegory of the sick mUlle, \0\110, 0 11 Rastignac 1 :liU un the Right Bank of the Seine. forms a pendant to tbe Moutaglle Sain le-Ceuevieve Oil the Left Bank (pp. ~ 1). {j14,8] Ba udelaire: " or aU our great poets, the one who writes woul- if Alfred de Vigo y be eltcepted ." Thihuudet, Interieurf ( Paris), p. 58 ("Ba udelaire") . (j1 4,9] Poulet-l\1alulisill had h.ill "shop" in the Passttge d~ P rinces , called in thOlie d ays the [j 14a.l ] Passage Mirell. - Viulet hoa on which clirlf'd his long graying locka , ca refully maintained, which /:a\'e him a Bomewha i d erical a pl)earancc." d ules lIusson) ChampRe ury, Sou ve"ir., et portrait!! lip. jeu"eue (Pa ris. 1872), p . 144 (" Rencolitre de Baudelaire"). [j14a.2] " 11, wo rked , nOI HlwuYIi consciou5ly. a lthut lIlislllldl'rH tliluling which iSQlalt:d him i ll h i! 0101'11 ti me; Ill' wo rke.1 a l it all the more us this misllllliersianding was ... In:ady ta king shape ill hilnsd f. lIi~ private no teB, pubLii!hed pos thumously, a re Jluinfu!ly 1'81 1e1t . ... Att ~ OOll as this artist of iuculllililrahle sub tlety 81 )(,lIk8 re\'('aling in this 1 It( himJ!lelf. he u aston is hingly a",k-wanl. lrn'parahl y he lae b pride-Io the point "" " t're he reckous inceliJOalltJ y wi l h f(wls, eitlu'r tu u~loulld th!!llI, to s h.:x;k them, or li fter all 10 infnrm them d ial he absol uld y does nu t rl.ockliU wilb fool,:' Andre

" A sonllet like 'A Une Passante' ~To a Woman Passing By. a stanza like the last stanza uf that so nn el 7~ . . . could blossom onl y ill till' milieu of a great capital , where human beings live together as Slr ll ngers to one II notlll:r and yet as travelers on the same journey. Am on,; aU Ibe capitals . Paris alone producu IlUch beings as a ualural fruit. " Al h~rt T hibllutlet , Interieurs ( Paris). !lp . 22 (,'Baudelai re").

1J14.11
" lie car ried a bout him as sorrowful trophy ... a hu rdt'li of memories, Stl thaI he 6fleml!(l to live in a continuul pllr llmllesia . ... T he puet ca rrics within himself 8 liljug duree <perduratioll) which Oll (j r~ call fo rt h .. . and with which they mi~~ gle .... This city i", a du ree, nn invete rate life-form , a memury . . .. If he luved ID ... a J t'allll1! Du val some immemorial litrt:tch of night ... Ihit will he only a liymlml ... " f tJllltlrue dll ree ... I.hlll is l."Uus uhsl8l1tiul ~' i th the life and Ltill~ of IJu ri!>, the duree uf those v('ry oM , rUIIII}led creatu res whu (it Ik-~ mcd to hi m) ought to furm. like tllt~ ca pital itself, III U!lIsiw! blocks and uliendillJi; emha nk me uts uf men\IJ ri .. ~." ( Hefcrellct' is 10 . ~~ PclilCll Vieille$:') AlI~rl T hihaudd , Interiel,r. ( Pa r is), (11)' 24_27 (' Blllldl'laire"). [J 14,2]

Gide, Prefa<:e to C barle~ Baudelaire. Lu FLeurlI du mal. ed . Edouard PeLlelan (Paris, 1917). PI' . xiU-xiv.llI [J 14a,3] ''' This hook hus not been written for my wives, my daughteri. or my si ~ t eC!l; he says. speaking of Lell Fleurs du mal. Why warn us? Why this sentence'? Oh , !limply for the pleasure of affronting b ourg~i s morals, with the words ' my wives' dipped ill . a ~ if careleuly. He values tllem , however. since we fmd in hill private journal: 'This Callnot shock my wives, my daughters , or my sisters . ,. Andre Gide, P reface to Charles Ba udelaire, Lei Fleur, d" mal, ed . Edouard PeLletan (Paris , 1917) ,

being studiously contemplated . the enigma eurn: nder8 i18 eecrct. " Patti Bourget, Euaill de plydlOlogie contemporCline. vol. I (Paris , 1901), p . 4 ('Oaulleillire" ).

1J15.31
;'l'Ie excels at beginning a poem with words Qf unforgettable solemnity, at once tragic and r ueful : 'Wbat dot:s it matttlr to rue Ihal yll u are wi!\tJ? I Bc lovely-and be sad ! ... ' Elsewhere: " Sudden as a knife you thrust I inlO Illy sorry bear!. ... ' And elsewhere: " Pensive us cattle resting on the beach , I thl!Y are staring oul to jea . . .. ' " Patti Boorget, ElISlIilf de pllychologie contemporai1le, \'01, 1 (Paris, 19( 1). pp . 3-4.113 [J15,4]

~~

Ul~

" Without doubl , Baudelaire is the artist about whom the most nonst'nse haa heen written ." Andre Gide, Prefau 10 C h~ a rles) B<audelair:e>. Les Pleurs du mal, ed. Edouard PeUetan (Paris, 19 17). p. xii.8.l [J 14a,5]

... Lei Freurs du mal is dedicated to what Gautier claimed to he: magician of French letters, pure artist, impeccable writer-and this was a wu y of saying: 00 not be
deceived; wbat I venerate ill the art and Dot the thought; my poem~ will bave merit not be<:ause of their movement, passion , or th ought. but because of their fonn," Alldn! Gitle, Preface to Ch. B . . Lell Freu rlI ciu mal, ed . Edouard Pelletan (Paris, 1917), PI" x.i _xii .'iI [J14a,6] "Now he quietl y convt:rses with each one of us." Andre Gide. Preface to Ch. H., Le& Fleurll du mal. ed. E. PeI1etan (Parill, 1917), p . xv.II: [J14a,7] Lemaitre in his article " Baudelaire," published originally in the " Feuilleton Dramatique" seetion of Le Journol dell debau . and writtcn on the occasion of Crepet's edition of the Oeuvrell pOf thu11U!1 et Correllpo1lciunCeil ineditell: " Worst of a ll , I sense that the unhappy man is perfectly incapable of developing the Be sibylline notes. The pemee& of Baudelaire are mosl often only a sort of painfnl and pretentious stammering.... One cannot imagine a Ielis philosophical mind ." Jules l.t:maitre, Lell Contemporaim, 4th series (Paria, 1895), p. 2 1 (" Baudelaire" ). Brooding! <See J55a , h. [J15,1] . seventy After Calcutta. " On his return , he cnter s into possession of his plltrimollY lh ou ~a ntl francs. Within two years . heh88 spent h alf of it. ... For the lIellt twenty years, he Lives on the income provided hy thl! remaining thirt y-fi ve thou ~a nd fra ncs .... Now, llur ing Ihl!se twenty yean, he runs up IUl lllore than ten thousund fra nclI in new debu . Under these conditiolls, as yo u can imagine. he couldn ' t have lnclulgl:d very often ill Neronian orgies!" Jul u Lemaitre, Lel ContemporaillS, 4th series (Parill, 1895). 1" 27 . [J 15,2] Bourget draws a cmul'a risoli between Leonard" and Baudelaire: "We are tlrawn irresi$1iLly 10 prolonged Dlt.- dilation 0 11 the enigma of this painter. of this poet. On

Bourget sees in Benjamin Constant . Amiel, and Baudelaire thrce kindred spiritll. iDtellt'cts stamped b y the clprit d'flllalYle, typcs detcrmined by decudence. The l!ctailell appendix to "Baudelaire" is concerned with Constant'e A dolpM. Togethcr with the SI)irit of analysis. Bourget considen ennui an element of deudeDce. The third and lu t cha pter of his essay on Baudelaire, "Theon e de la decadencc." develops this idea with reference to the late Roman Empire. (J15,5] 1849 or 1850: Baudelaire draws from memor y the head of B1anqui. See Philippe Soullauit, Baudelaire (Paris <1931 , illustration 011 p . 15. (J15.6]
" It i ~ all a harmony of artifices, of delilierate contradictions . Let us try to note some of these. Realism and idealism are mingled. Along with description tllat takes extravagant pleasure in the most dismal details of physical reality there is , at the samc time, r efined expression of ideas and beliefs that exceed the immediate impressiun made on U 8 by bodies--There ill a union of the most profound sensuality with Chr istian asceticism . 'A horror of life. and an ecstatic joy Ul life,' writes Baudelaire somewhere. 8t ... There is also. speaking of love, the combination of adora tion and contempt for woman . . . . Woman is lIeeli as a sla ve, as an animal , ... yet to her the same homage, the saDIe prayen are addressed as to the immaculate Virgin. Or ra ther, she is seen as the universallrap ... and worshipped (or her d ea~Uy power. And that is not all: evell as on e seeks to render the most artlent passion, one also labors 10 find for it . , . the most llDexpected form .. .that is. what bespeaks t.he greatest 8ang~froitl aud e\'en absence of passion .. Olle bdie\'es, or one. pretends to believe, in the devil ; he ill en\'isaged by tunis. or Simultan eously, as the Father of Evilllnd as the grea t Loser alld great Victinl; and (me {IIJligbu in proclaiming one's impiety in the language of . . . the fllithful. 'Progrc~s' is cursed ; the industrial civilization of the centu.r y is execr ated .. . a lld , a t tilt' sa me time. the poel revels in the special color alld brilliaucy Lhi ~ civilizlItion hag Lrought to hu ma n life .... Such, I believe, is the hasic intent of Uaudclairism: alwaY5 to unite two oppo..ed orders of feeling ... alit! . at bottulil . two divergenl concept.iollll of tJu!. world !lnd of life--Ihe. Christian alltl the {Itller. til'. if you like. the pn ~t and the present. It is a masterpiece of the Will (like UnlHleiaire, I cal)italtzt'). the las t wu rd in illventivenellll ill the. realm of feeling." Jules Lemujtre, Le!! COnrcmporain" 4th lIeries (Puris. 1895), PI'. 28--3 1 ("Baudelaire") . !l1 5a.l ]

Lemnitre ohser Ve8 thaI Buudelaire r eaUy dld ereate a pancif. Ii cliche, as he M el out to (10. [J 15a.2] "Thc hlimlly upl'urah ul uf tleslr uetiUII" -where ill thi,.; phrasc ill Baudelaire? In I)cSlrUl:tio ll . ~ [J 15a.3J l)erfect embodiment of the ' Parisian pestimillt .' IwO wortb which earlier wouJd ha\'e jarred on being coupled :' Paul Bourget, Eu uis de psyclwlogie cantemparf.i ne. vol . I ( Paris, 1901) , p. 14. [j15a,4}
U8

slowness from its long virtua.lity : 'H ow sweet the greenish light o f your elo ngated eyes: ... Every o ne of Baudelaire's poems is a movement... . Each constitutes some particular phrase, q uestion, rc.m.inder, invocation, or d edication, which has a specific direction." Jacques Riviere, Eludu (Paris), pp. 14-18.'" [J 16,2)
Frontis piece ( by Hops) to du' colllction of Oiluddai re's pOCUll! clltitled Le.s Epm.-e. (Wreckage> . It preseut.!l a Dlultifaf'etctJ a ll"gor y.- Plan t o use lin etching b y Uracquemj)nd 118 Ule frontis piece to the (second edition of) f"leul's du mal. Baullelai rt' (Iescribes il ; " A s keleton turning into a In-e, with Icgs and ribs fOrming the trllnk , the arms Blrt'lciled oul 10 make a cross and burs ting into Icaves and buds. -:;heh ering sever al rows of poisonous pla nts in lillie pots . Lined up as if in II gar[J 16.3) J ener'5 hothouse.'')r.

" I..u

" You cuuM IJU t him du wn

tilt:

u.

Baudelaire hud briefl y considered re producing. as the frontispiece to the lecond t!4lilion of Le, Fku r" a dance of deuth b y H . Langlois. [j 15a,51
"Th ~

different mell inha bit thili man at one and the lIame time .. .. These three men are all quite nlOtJern , a nd more motlern s till is their Iynthesu. The eruill of religious faith . tbe cit y life of Paris, ami the scientific spirit of the age ... are 10 thoroughl y ullietl here a8 to aplJea r inscparable .... Faith has died out. whereat mysticis m , tllllugit inlcUevtu uUy discrediletl . stilllJermeates the sen, ibility.. . . We cuuM lIote ... the usc of liturgitlMl terminology to cele brate sensual p leas ure . .. or tliat curious work of ' prose' in decadent Latin style which he entitled 'Franeiscae mcatl laudcs. ... 011 the olher hand . his lihertint: tas tes came from Paris. Ever ywhere in his ... poelllll ill It backdrop of Parisian vice, aR well u a backdrop of Catholic ritual. He h all obviously penetrated-a nd wi th hail'-raising experiencee, we IIIIo1 Y bt: sure--the mosl wretc.hed IItrata of this unchaste city. He has eaten at cum mon dirult~.r lablu beside painted women whose mouths drip blood through nlas ks of L't)ruse. He h as s L~ pt in brothels, and has known the ranoor of hroad daylight illumi nating_along with the faded curtains, the still more faded face of the ,,oman-fOl'-itire. lie hal sought out ... the unthinking SpaslD that ... cures the mal de pe n.sel'. AlId , al the same time, he has stopped and chatted a l t'very Itrectcorller in tuwn . . . . He has led the life of the literary ma n, ... aod he h as ... " 'hetted the b1i1de of his s pir it wber e that of others would h ave been dulled ." Paul Bourget , Euai.s de p'ycliologie COfll emporaine, vol. 1 (Paris , 1901), pp. 7-9 ("BaUt lelaire"). [j16,IJ

nOliun of SoupuuJl 's: "AII11118t u1l uf the Jloem ~ ure mort" or less directly ill.'! pired by a prinl or a painting.... Ca n it he said that he sacrificed to fa shion? (1 .. dreaded being alone .. . _ His weakness obliged him to look for things t o lean ( 193 1 , p. M. (JI 6u,I ) on." Philippe SOupuuJl, BlIudelaire ( Pari M
CU riOU li

" In the years of

hi ~ nla turity und reSignaliuu. he nevcr s poke .. wonl of regret or complaint ahont his ehildhmu1. ' Arthur Holitseher. " Charles Buudela ire," Die Uf era",r, vol. 12 , pp . 14- 15. 1116a.2]

"T hese images . . . du Dol ailll to caress our imaginatioll ; they are (lislant Hod stuwed , the wa y u voice sounds when it emJ>has i ~es something.. .. Like a word ! I'0ken in our ellr when we lea SI expected it , the poet i8 suddenl y hard by: ' You relUemher ? You remember whal I' m 811.ying? Where did we see- l hat together, we who dOIl' 1 even know each other?" J HCflue&!tiliere. Erude, (Pari,). p". 18-19.

[J16.,3]
" Baudelaire under stood the clairvoyance of the heart that lines uot ac knowledge aU it experiences .... II is a hesitation , a holdillg hack , a modetit gaze." J acques Rhtiere , Etude, (Puris). p. 21. 1116a.4] " Uncs of verse 110 pcrft'1:t . 8(J mcal urt' J . Ihula t first oue hesitateli to grant them aU their meaning. A hoJW &tirs fill' a minute--tloubt u~ tu their I~rofundit y. But one 'nJy wait." Ja C (IUeli Ri vii':!'e, Eludes ( Pa ris), II . 22. lJ16a.51 ncet! Q

Riviere provides a sequence of felicito us glosses on Baudelaire's poetic procedure: "Strange procession of words! Sometimes like a weariness o f the voice, ... an utterance fu U o f frailty : ' I dream. of new flowers, but who can teU I if this sordid swamp of mine affords I the mystic nourishment on which they thrive [qui firaitleur vigueurl.' Or: 'a favoring Goddess makes the d esert bloom [Cybtle, qui les aime, augmalll: ses verdu rcs] ....' Like those who feel themselves completely in command of what they want to say. he seeks at first the most remote o f tenns; he then invites their approach. conciliates them, and infuses them with a quality you would not have thought could be theirs . . .. Such poetry cannot be the produCt o f inspiration .. , . And just as the unfolding thought ... slowly breaks free of the obsanity in which it began. so the poetic trajectory retains a certain

On BHuddairc's " Cn: jllw'lllc du ma l.i.II " <'l\vilighl of Du yhrt:ak): ,cEloich line of " Cr;' pII SI~ ule !l1l lII utin " -wit lw ul ~ trid e ll uy, witl. t! t' votiou--ev., kel a mitiffll'tunc:' J UIqU.:" Ri vier.l. "-'Iude, (I'!tris). p . 29. [J16a.6)
"'I'he Ilcvo tioli IIf a hC.II rl mOl'ed to t;('Slasy li y weakness .... 'I'hougll ht' 5 pcak~ of the m(lSI horrihlt! thinp'o !.IU' fil:rC t' IW ~~ of Ilia rt.'8Ik'(; t Icnli8 him 101 8uhLle decl:nc),.' Ja t'q ucs Ri viere. Erutle, ( PUri8\ . PI" 27-28 . 1J16a.7]

Accurding IU Chaml'lIcury, Baudelaire wu uld lUlve hought up all the uDsold item. from the Salon uf IM5 . [J16a,8] " Oumleloire knew t.he art of tnUl1!forming his features a8 well U 8 any el!caped convict. " d ules) Cllillnpfle ury, SOItlJf!:nir$ el porlm,', de jeutleue ( Paris, 1872), p. l35 ("ReDcontre de Baudelaire").-Cour(,et complained of the trouble he had completing the portrait!)f Baudelaire; Ihe suhj t:(; t lookal different from one dllY to Iht' next . [J16a,9]
8au~l elllire '8

of pure imagina tiOIl , luse Ihe uae of their hearts" (L 'Echec {Ie Baudelaire [Pana, 193 1]. JlJl. 201. 2()'l)."IJ {j17,4J " Uaudduil'c luved Aupie.k widwul being Owure of it , all(1 ... his reaH on fflr continually provoking hi!! 81cpfatlll'r Wit S ill QI'dt'r 10 he lovcu hy him .... H J eanne Olu'a l played a part ill the l)Ut:t 'lI emotional life IIlIalogous to that played by ."upick , we CIIII undcrsla nll why Bauclf' laire was ... sexuall y IWe8ened by her. ."Ofl so ... Ihill nnioll s tOOII. ralher, for a Ilunlo!IeXual ullion , in which Baudelaire dlicny pluycd the passive rlllt.- -thul of the wOlmm. " Hemi Lllforgue, L 'Echec de f1(1IH/eiaire ( Paris, 1931), pp. J75, 177. ~I !j17,5) llis (riend~ i!omelimes called Bau.ldaire ":M onseigne ur Brllmnlell ."

liking for porter.

[j16a,lO]

"UaUilelaire'! favorite flO'I~'ers " 'ere neil her daisy, carnation , nor rOSf!:; he would brea k into ra ptures at the sight ()f those thick-Iea \'ed 1)lants thai look like vil)ers ahoul 10 faU on their prey, or spiny hedgehogs. Tormented forlll s, bold ft}rm&-l ueh wall this lIoet'8 ideal:' ChulllpHeury, Souve"irs et portrailS de jeuneJJe ( Paris. 1872), p. 143. [j16a,11) Gide. in Ins preface 10 Les Fleurs (ill mal, lays t-mp hasi!! on the "centrifugal aod tlisintegrating" force which Baudelaire. like DOliloevsk y, reeogni:ted in himself and which he felt to be ill oPl)Osition to his productive concentration (p . xvii).[Jl', l) " Tbis las te Cor Boileau and RII(:ine was nol an aCfeclalion in Baudelai re .... Tbere is sumething more in Le, Ffel~rs d" mat than tbe ' thrill of the new'; there is rl'turll to Iraditional French verse .... Even in his oervous malaise. Bauddllin relailll!! a certain sanity." Rerny de Go urmont . Promenadu iillerairu, 2nd teriet! {j17,2} ( Paris, 19(6), pp . 85-86 ("Bauddaire et Ie 80nge d 'Alhalie"). Poe (as cill.:d in Remy de Gourmont . Promenade, uuerairf!$ [Paris, 1904], p . 371 : " Ma rginolia s ur Edga r Poe et & Ur Baudelaire" ); " The assura nce oC the wrong or error oC any action is often the one uncuuquerable force winch inlpels us. aod alone impds us, lo it s prosecution." '" [J 17,S] CUII.3lruction of " l..' Echee de Ba udelaire" (Baudelaire's defeao , by Rene LaCorgue. As a child , Baudelaire ill 8uppo!le~IIO have witue..sed Ihe coiluli of his nu r&e or his motht'r with her (firsl or aec:ollll ?) hushand ; be would fmd himself in the positioll (If thirtl p~~rsOIi in a love rclaliunship and would settle dowli in that positiun; he would llccoUic II voyeur alld fretlUell! bordellos mainly IU~ a voyeur; owing to tln!! lIume fLXutiu o on the visua l, he woultllJeCu me a critic and experience a n~ ror obje(uvily. "su thll t nothing iii ' Ioiil 10 view. ". He ""otlld hf-Ioug to a d ellrl y defined category (If pa tiellts; " For Ihem, 10 st.'t! mellns to sc)ar II Ijc)ve everything, like I:UgltS, in compleh: s!!eurit y, IIlullo realize a 801'1 of QmnilKJtcnce by identificalion lit once with the In UIi a llli wilh 1111: WOIIIIIII . TIII' ~e ure the people who then devdol' Ihal falal tllS Il~ for lhe aiJsoiul.C . .. , ami who, tll killg rdu gt' in tin: domain

1111 ,61

On Ihe cumpulsiun to lie, os seCD in Baudelaire; " The (lirc!!1 aDd spolltaneoua e.'(pression of a Iruth hecO Ill Cil, Cor Ihese s ubtJe alld tormeuted consciellcel. the rqui,'alelll of slIccess ... in incesl: 8UCC!!I8, tJlat is 10 !ay, in a spbere in whieb il Clln be rea lizt:fl simply by ' good sense.' ... For in those cases where 1I0rmal texuality is re preAlled , gQQ(I ~ellile is (llted to lliek an objeci . to Hene Laforgue. L'Echec de Btllu/eitlire ( Pari", 193 1), 1'. 87. "'1 (j 17,7) Anatole France-w Vw fitteraire, vul. 3 ( Pam . 189 1}---on Baudelai re; " His legIml. crea ted by hi~ friend. and admirer s, a bounds in mar ks of bad taBle" (p. 20). " The 1II0 S1 wretched WOlllIHl encountered at night in the shatlows of a disreputable alll'Y take8 Oil , in his mind . u I ragie grande ur: seven demoll ~ are in I.hem ['1 lIud the whole mYilticlI1 s ky looks ~Iown on this 8inner whose soul is in peril. He tells himself thai the viletl Ic.isses J't'SQund through 1111 elernit y. lind he brings to bear on th4 olOmenlur)' encounter eighteen centurieil of devilishncss" (p. 22). " He is attracted 10 women only to the IKJill1 lIt:(;eSSllry (or irrevOCllble Ion tlf his sow. He ill never a lover, IIntllll' would 11 01 evcn be II debauchee if de baucher y were not superlatively impious . . . . rle would have lIothill/l: to do with wtllllcn if he were not hoping tha i. through thelll . lie ('ould offend God and make the angels weep" (" .22). {j17a, l]
" At 00110111. I.e hud Lut hll lf u fuilh . Only his spirit wus t':o mplcleiy Chrilltian. His

IIt'lu 'l a nd iliteUtlt' t remaillcd emp ty. There iii a s tory thlll olle tlay a naval officer. of his (ri"mls, s hQ""ed him a manit ou lhal he had hroughl back from Africa. a IIl1111SlwllS Iittlc Iwutl carvcd from a piece of wood by II poor black mall .-' II is Ilwfully u gl ~. su y~ the orlicer, ami he Ih",'w it away di8tluinfull y.-Tuktl ca l'e,' Baudelaire said ill all ullx inu~ IOll e, ' Il~t il prove Ihe Irul"@';u,I !' They wcre I.he m01l1 prufountl wnrdl he ever IIllctcd . li e (,t!i,vtd in unknown g.... l_ noll!!uSl for the pll'u8l1re or I!I II~ phcmill g. " A llal olf' Frall!'c. I Al Vie iilfemirl', vol. 3 ( J>3ri ~. IM1). ft 23 ("Cllllrlt'Ji Hlluddain"). fJ I7a.2]
" IW

[J 17a.3]

"The hYPOlht!6iJJ of 8audeiaire'l P.G. < porRiY!lf! seneroLe) hal perlisted for half a century 1I.lIIl stiU rt'igr. 1Hin certain quarlt!n . Nevertheless, il is baseJ on a gr058 and d(:mollstrahle error and ill without auy foundation ill fp cl. .. Daudelaire fliflnot flie from P.C. bUI from sofl ening of tlle brain . tlie CQnseqllell{'e of a lilroke ... and of a ha rdening of the cerehral arterie!)." Louil-Antoille-Jusllne Caubert . La NevrQ!le de Baudelaire (BnrdealU , 1930). pp . 42-43. The argument against genera l paralysis is matit:. likewise in a trea tise, by Raymond Trial. La Maiudie de 8(1udewire (Pan., 1926) . p . 69 . But he !leeS tbe bra.in disorder as a CQnseqtIellce of syphilis. whereas Cauhert bc.Jjeves tbat IYllbilis hUl nol bet:n conclusively established in Daudelaire'!) case (see p . 46); he cites Remond alill Voivc.nel. Le Genie iilleroire (Paris, 191 2). p. 41 : " Baudelaire Was . . the victim of liclerosil of the cerebral arteries." [J 17a,4} In his cisay "Le S adis mecbe~ Baudelaire," published in La Chronique medicoLe of November 15, 1902. Cabanes defends the thesis that Baudelaire was a "'sadistic madman" (p. 727). (J18,I] Ou Ca mp on Baudelaire's voyage <'to the indies": " He arranged supplies oftivestock for lhe English a rm y ... , and rode about on elephants while composing vel"lle." 011 Camp ad ds in n note: " I have been told that this a necdote is 8lJurioul; I have it from Baudela ire himself, a nd I h a\'e 110 r eason to doubt its veracity, thoup it may perhaps be faulted for II s urplus of imagination ." Maxime Do Camp, Souvenirs litteraire!l, vol. 2 (Paris, 19(6), p . 60. (J18,2) Indicative of the reputation that precedetl Baudelaire before he had pu.iJJjahed anything of importance. is thill re mark by Gautier: " I fear that with Baudelaire it will be as it once was with Pelrus Borcl . In our younger d ays , we used to 8ay: Hugo h88 only to sil and wait ; lUI 800n lUI Petrus pubJjshes something, he will diuppenr .... Toda y, the name of Baudelaire i ~ bra ndished before us; we are told thai when be pllbJjshes his poem8. MU SSd , Laprade. Bnd ( will dissolve inio thin air. [ don' t believe it for a moment . Baudelaire will burn Ollt just 0 1 P etrus (lid ." Cited in Maxime 011 Camp, Souvenirs iilleraires, vol. 2 (Puris. 1906). pp. 6 1-62 . []18,3] " As a writer, Buudelaire had one great defect. of wbich he hall nil inkling: he Will ignora nt. Wbat he knew, he kllew weU ; bUI be knew very linlf:. History. physiolo~, archaeology. philosopll)" aU duded him .... The external world searcely inten.'Sloo him; III: liaw it perha ps, but assuredly he never studied it :' Maxime Du Camp, SOIwenir!l liUeraires, vol. 2 (Puris, 19(6). p. 65. [J18,4) From the e\'ulu atioll!! of Baudelaire by his teucherK at Ihe Lycee. Lo uis.le-G rund : " Head y millfl. A few lup~e8 ill taste" (ill Itlu~ t u ric). "Cumluct sOIliClinll's rather unrul y. This & 11111,nl . as he hilliself admits . il-rt IlIS convinced that Ilistory is perf.:'tl y u'II'leu'" (in Histor y).- Letter uf AU gull1 II . 1839 . to his 8tcllfather. afler "lI rnillll: hi8 bUf:calalll'ca le: " I did ratlll~r poorly ill Illy cx.amillatioll8, t::l"cepl for

Latin and Creek- in which I did vt'ry well. And thill is whal saved me."'13 Charlea Uaudd ui rt: . Ver!l hlti"." ed . Jul.:1 Mouquel (Paris. 1933) . Ill'. 17.18, 2(1. [j18,5) Ael"orilillg to (jol!C!l'hill) Pilaflan . " , 'hi:orie p laSlique
J OII !!;; .
t i t:

l' ulltiroS)'lIe- (Mercu re

de "'rlmee. 21 [ 19101, I" 650). the and rogyne uPI,>ear " in ROSselli ami Bum.,..

Erne!;1 SciJljere. Bom/eloire (Paris. 1931). p. 262 , 0 11 " tlu~ death of artilits": " Re.reading h is work , (tell myself that , were he making hill debut a8 u writer now, 11 0 1 Hilly wuuld he lIot be singlf:d oul for distinction . hut he wou ld be judged mal[j 18,7] adroit : ' Sci.llii:le refers to t.he ~ tor y " La Fanfarlo" as a documeut whose importa nce for Ila udelaire', biography has 11 01 heen sufficientl y recogrlued <Baudelaire , p . 72>.

[]18,8]
" Oaudelaire will keep to the end this intenniUent awkwardness which was 10 fflreign to the da:u:ling technique of a 1 :lugo. " Erne!t Seilliere, Baudeluire, p . 72.

[J 18,,!]
Key panages on the ullsuitability of pauio n in art : Ihe l econd preface 10 Poe, the [j18a,2]

~ IUll yo f Ca ut.ier.'"

The firstlectnre ill Brullseis was concerned with Gautier. CamiUe Lemonnier compares it to a Mas!! celebrated i.n honor of the master. Baudelaire i, said to have flisplayetl , nn this oceasion , "t he grave lieauty of a cardinal or letters officiating at the uhar of the Idea l." Cited in Seilliere , Baudelaire (Parill. 193 1), p . 123 . [J 18a,3) " 1" the drawing room 0 11 the 11luce Royu le, Bauddaire had himself iniroouced as a fen < enl disciple but .. . Hugo, ordinarily so skillful in sending awa y his visilOnl happy. did not understalld the lIrtificialu le character and the exclusively Parisian Il r edilections of the young mun .. .. Their relations nonetheless rClnained cordial, 1 lugo ha\'ing evidently not rt!IHI the 'Salon de 1846'; alltl. in hili ' Ri.flexions sur IIUf'lqucit- ullS de llIe 8 contemporains' <Refl eelionK nn SOIll~ of My COlltelllPOrar. icn, IlaUtlelairt IIhllwl'd hilllllf'lf n'ry admiring, tlVf'lI rather pcreelltive. if withoul !treat profulldity:' Erlle81 Seilliere, Hfmdclaire(Paris, 1931 ). p . 129 . 1118a,4) Ulludelain . rt'purlll SeilBert' (p. 129). is alung thc Caonl fi e I'Ourf:(I'
1 \I""i1
s llpl',,~efllo

lill v,' f'njoyed strulling often [J 18a.5)


~ iJ'~lI l1t hin g

the f)lIfll y!;-Uuutlei airc's fon .bears 011 hi~ IIIntlu.:r s

knuwn.

is [J18a,6)

" 111 187fl. i ll UII artit-Ie eOl.itl",1 ' Chez feu 111 0 11 IIIl1ill'C ' (A t tht Hom" of My Late Melltor), Cluflel would eVllke ... Ihe ruucll.Ln: trlli t ill the pltylliognOIll Yof the pOCI.

Never. lIueol"lling to t.hill will1 e~ & , ... was he more furhitltlin g tlum whcn ile wAnted IIPI)t;ltr j oviltl: Ilill voice look on a tl uq uieting edge , while Ius vi.! comu;u matle Qlle siJutltlcr. On the prel.:,,1 "f ('lCorcizing tile evil lilliritll of hi. auditorll. and with hur~ 1 8 or laughter piercing a8 8obs. he told them uut ragllOU ll lales of Iry. U beyond lht' grQve which froze the blood in tbdr veins ." Ernest Seilliere, lloudelaire (Paris. 1931), p. 150. 111 8a,7)
III

Whe.r~ in Ovid is th~ passag~ in which it is said that th~ human fa ce was mad~ to mirror th~ stan?B 1118a,8)

Seilliere notn thai the poem!! attributed apocryphally lleerollhilic in character (p. 152).

10

Baudelaire were aU IJ 18a,9)

" Finany, al we know. the p&8sional anomaly has II pilice in theart of Baudelaire, at least under one of iu aIiIHlCU. lbat or Lelhos; the other has not yet been made admillsiltle hy the Ilrogre88 of moral naturism,'" Em eljt Seillie.re, Buudelaire 1118a,IO) (Paris. 193 1). p , 154. The sonnet "Qyant moi, si j 'avais un beau pare plante d 'ifs" <As for me, if only I had a fine park, planted with yews>,w. w hich Baudelaire apparently addressed to a young lady of Lyons some time around 1839-1840, is reminiscent, in its closing line-"And you know that too, m y beauty, whose eyes are tOO shrtwd"-of the last line of "A UnePassante," [j 19,1) The piece "Vocations; in Splu n de Paris, is of great interest-particularly the account of the third child. who " lowered his voice : 'It certainly gives you a funny feding not to be sleeping alo ne, and to be in bed with your nurse. and in the dark, , .. If you ever get the chance , try to do the same-you 'U see!' f While he was talking, the eyes of the young author of this revelation had widened with a sort of srupefactio n at what he was still feeling, and the light of th~ setting sun playing in his untidy red curls seemed to be lighting up a sulfurous aureole of passion." f7 The passage is as notable for Baude1aire's concepcion of the sinful as for the aura of public coo/wia. [j19,2] Bltutlelaire It! his mother on J an uary 11 , 1858 (cited ill Char les Baudelaire. Ver, latill .~. ell. Mouquet [Parill , 1933J . p . 130): " YOII haven ' t noticed tha t in Les Fleurl du mfiL there are twu p(Hlms concel'f1ing yo u , or at leusl alluding 10 in t.imate dt~ lail.a of our fOl'lner' )j(I: . going buck 10 that time of yO ur widowho(,d which Icrlme with stich strange 11 1111 1\1HI IIlclIlories--olle: 'jf' n'ai paR Huhlic , voisine dt' la ville' (Neuilly). lind till' IIlher, which fullow s it : 'La s(:rvanle 1111 gra nd coeur dont \' 011 8 etic~ j alou8c' ( M llri ctt;:)'~ I lefl these pot-illS withotll tilles and withou t an y flllther 1 larilicutioll , 1 ...:c au!;C I hll\'l~ a horr(uo of prustituling intima lc ramily maUt'h, ., ....... [J 19.3}

Leconte de Lisle's opinilln that Baudelai re mUlit have composed his poems by ve r~ iIying a pro~e tlrQft i~ taken UI) by Pierre Louy" Oell,u res coml,l.etell. vol. 12 (Paris. 1930). p. liii ("Sui te ii Poeti11Ile"), Julcs MOUiluet commcuts on tbis view in Cilarlell Baudelaire. Ifer.f l(lli",. imrUllul:ti un IIn,1 not es by Jule8 Mouquet (Parill, 1933). p. 13 1: " Let:onte de. Lisle anll Pierre Lou YII. ca r ried a ....ay by their anlipa _ thy to Lhe C/J ristian poet of Le. f'leurs du mal, deny that he had any poetic gift!- Now. according lu t'l(' testimony of friends of h..i8 yo uth, Baudelaire had ~ tartt-d oul by wriLing thousands of Lines of flu ent verse 'on allYand every subject ,' v.. hich lae could hardly have done without ' thinking in verse, ' He deliberately ~ill ec l in this rnellit), when . , .. at abolll the age of twenty-t .... o, he began to write IlIl' poems which he e.lltitlf'tl fu'tlt i.e, Lelb ~nnel, then Le, Um bes . . .. The Petits I'oemes ell IJro,e .. , in whidl Ille poet retllrnli to themel ht' had already treated in verse, were cornpolleil a t least tl'lI years aft er Les FleurJ du mal. That BaudeIllire had difficult y fas hioning verse ill a legend which he lilinllelf lM!rhapll .. . helped spread. '" [J19,4) Accul'lling 10 RaYll10ml Trial , in Ml,li,die de llaudelaire (Paris. ]926). p, 20. recent rescarch hall shown tbat hereditary syphili ~ 01111 aClluired syphilis are not mutually excl usive . T hUll. ill Ullulleillit't", cai e, acquired syphilis would have joined with tbe heredita ry straill transmitted b y the fath er a nd manifest through hemiplrgia in both suns ant! ill his wife. [J19a.l ) Baudelaire, 1846: "u evcr yo ur ft iineur's curiosity hus landed you in a street brawl, ~ rh a l)8 you will havr. felt the same delight as J have ofteo felt to lee a prOlector of the public'B slumberfl-a policeman or a municipal gua rd (the real armY}--lhumping a rt'publicun . And if 80. like me. you will ha\'e said in your heart : ' T hump on , thump a little harde r ... , The man whom thou thum pest it an elll!mr or ro~ ami of IJerflimes. and a maniac for uleruiu , He is Ihe enemy of WaUeatl. the enemy of Raphael. ""'1'1 Cited in R, Trial , 1..6 Maladi4! de Baudelaire (Paris , 1926) . p. 5 1. [J 19a,2) "SI>t"ak neither of opium nor or j t:u uDe Dllval if ),ou ....ould crilicize Les Fleurs du mal:' Gilhert Maire. " La Pef!lonnalitc de Baudelaire," 111ercure de France. 21 (Jalluar), 16 , 19(0), p. 24-1 , fJI9a .3) " To ct)lu:eive Buudclaire withoul recourse to his biogrltphy- tbis is the fumlamelltil l objet t allli fin ul goa l or IJllr IIlllkrtuki ng." Gilbert Maire. " La .Personnaliti .Ie [J 19a,4) BUlllldairt'," Mercure ,Ie J.'ffllfce. 2 1 (.la uIlDry 16. 1910), p . 244. < 'jul'llues C";'pel woultllike u ~ 10 louk un OllulJduil't! in such II way that the sincerity 'If his life wouJ,J au u n , U~ of tilt' valul' nr llis work, and thllt, ~ympaLhiz ilig with tlu: mall , we wou],1 I I~ nrll 10 love IWI Il lire nnt! work:' Gilb" rl Maire. " La PeTsullIlIllile de llulI(leiaire." Mere"r" tit" ,.rll/lCf!, 2 1 (Fehrual'y 1, 19 10), p . 4 14. (J1 9a,5)

u,

Maire wrile (II . 4 17) thul on BaUliclll.ire.

Ih ~

" incomparable

.~n sibilily "

of Barres walichooled UI9a.,6]

Une Mutlonc' i. a Baroflue Slallle in II Spanish cllupd:' Andre Tllerivc. Le Pm'ntm~ (Puris. 1929) , p . 101. [J20.5] Thirive [mils iu Baudelaire " te r tain ga ucherici. which . loda),. on" cau ' l hel p thi/lking mighl he trails of the suhlime." Antlre Therive. Le Ptlrnf'Uf! (Paris, .192'.1). p. 1)9. [J20,6]
In :111 arlil'i(' cUlitlcd "Une Arll'cdole cllntrouv':oe ,mr Baudelaire" <A ,"' ahricated AUI-.:dotf' aho ut Baudelaire). in the Fortnightl y Heview BO!Ction of the Mercure de France (May 15, 192 )), Blllllielaire's llllcgetl sojau rn a nd ac tivilY with a conserva _ ti\'O;l newslHl llcr in Chateauroux is dispuled by Ernest Gau bert. who examinetl all tJll' pcriudicaljj frum the town. a nd who trace, th tl anCCllole back to A. Ponroy (a fri en(1 of DaLulelllirtl" who hlld family ill Chatea u rOll") , from whom Cr epel got it. Mercure de Fnwce, 1<IS, IIJl. 281 -282. [J20,7]

Til Ance.Ue, 1865: "OUIl call IIUIh pOlllletS Ii ullique gelliu, and he a f ool. Victor 1 :lugo hus p \'en li S a mple proof of thaI. . . . The Oceall itself tired of his compuny.,' no ! {j19a,7] Poe: ''' 1 would 1101 be able to love,' he will say qu.ile d ea rl y. ' did nol deuth mix ita breath with that of Beaut y!"lti Cited ill Eruest Seilliere, B uudelaire (Paril, 1931) , p . 229. The au thor refenr to the time when , after Ihe dellth of Mrs. J ane Stanard, the ftft eell-year-01t1 Poe would slielld 10llg nights in the graveyard , often in the rain , at the site of hcr gr ave . [J19a,8]

Baudelaire to hi8 mother, concerning Le, Fleurs du mal: "This book ... POSSetileti It bea ut y d Ull is sinister and cold : it was created with fury and paliellce."lot

1119.,9J
Letter from Ange Pechnul ja to Baudelaire. February 1866. The writer expresses his admiratiou , in particuJar, for the sensuous interfll8ion in the pOOl 'a language. See Ernet Seillie.re, Baudelaire (Pa ris, 1933), PI>. 254-255. 1119a,10] Baudelaire ascribes to Hugo an "interrogative" poetic character.

Da~dc~. in an inspired. phrase, speaks of Baudelaire's "trap-door dispositionwhich IS also that orPrincc H amIel." Uon Daudct, UJ I?leriru d 'Emmaii.! (Courn'n- d(J Pap-Bar, 4) (Paris d92B)), p. 101 ("Baudelaire: Le Malaise et I'aura"').

l1'O,8J
"'T~leme ... of ... the affirmatiOIl flf a mysterio ull IIrcsence at the back ofthin~, aHlQ tllf' fl elllhs of the soul- the p resence of Eternity. Hence the ObscHl:Iion with ~iUII:piC4:"II ' anllthe lleed 10 break out of the eonfilles of one', own life through the m:'llclIse prolo.llgu tion of a ncestral ml~ mory alld of formcr lives." AU,crt Beguin, LAme rOlllllnlullLe et le reve (Ma r8cillcs. 1937), vol. 2, p . 403 . [J20a, l ]

l1,o,IJ

There is probably a cOIUlection between Baudelaire's weakness or will and the abundance or power with which certain drugs under certain conditions endow the will. "Archiu:cte de mes feerics IJe raisais, a ma volonte, I Sous un tunnel de pierreries I Passer un oc6m dompte."'1l1 (J20,2]
8audelaire', inllf: r c:-:pe ricnctlll: "Commentators have !lomewhal falsified the aituation ... in insilliing overmuch on the ,heory of univerlial analogy, as formuJated in the sOllnel 'Corres ponilam:cs,' while ignoring the rev('rie. to which Baudelaire was inclined .... There were moments of depenonatization in his existence, moments of ~ e1f- forgetting and of commwllcation with ' revealed paradises.' .. , At t.he end of bis life ... , hf: abjured t.he dream, ... blaming his moral shipwreck on his ' penchant for reve rie.'" Albert Beguin , Lilme roman,iqlle e' le rive (Mar-seilles, 1937), vol. 2, i>p. 401 , 405 . (J20,3]

III his book l..e PurmlSlie, Therive Iloilltli to the dccisive inJIuencc of painting and the graphic arts on a great many of Baudelaire'" poemll. He lIees in tlus II characteristic feature of the Par llass.ian school. Moreover, he sees Ballddaire's poetry ali lUi inter Jlf' nf'tration of Parnllliiian a nd Symbotilillendencics. [J20.4]
" A PI'UPI," ;\iI Y10 imagine O;l VI'1) 11I11.ure. through the vi. inn Ibal ot.her~ huve had of it. ' La G ~uI)I C ' cumell uul (lr Midll'llIlIgclo ; 'Heve Ilurillicn ,' oul uf Simone Martilu ; ' A

~oger Allard in II. polemic agaill81 tile introdtlctioD 10 L 'Oeuvre poetique de Ch(.rle, Brmdeillire. et.Iited by Guillaullle ApoWnairc (Paris: Bibliotheque des Curieux) . 1 .11 this introduction , Apolliuairc advances tile lhe~is that Baude.laire ~'llilc ina ugural ing tile modern ~I'irit , played linlf' part in its development; hi~ lIltlUf: IICe i~ Ilcarl y spent. Baudtluire ill !laid to ht. II. CI'O~8 bctwccn Larlllll and Poe. Allard replics: " In Our view, two wril ers profoundly influenced Daudelain: . or r'dlher two hoolcs .... One. is ... U Viable umoureux (Tbe Oevil in une). by CUIJ!lC; II'e other. Dillerot 's 1..(. He.ligieu.se <fILe Nu n ). Twu nntel al thill poi.nt : "0 ) M. AIJolli nuin /'ould nol tlo ulhel'wise than 1 !lllLle the autJlor of Le Viable Ulllllllr(,II.I': in u lillie concerning the last lin ... of till' 80ll ncl ' Le Possi:<le': 'One wonJd P"~I:uhly lIot go \'I'rong i.n laking Cuzoll.- uS tJlt' hyplll'll Illal had the honor of O:lII l1lg, in UUluldui" e's lIIind. tJII~ ~ piril of tilt' Hl' vullltiou ',I! writer!! with Ihut of E" ga r I'Ole . . (2) "'IIt' poem aec'umpull ying a lew -r from Baudda irc to Saillte-Ueuve ('lltJ Lc f!luud ill Ihc t!clitioll furnished hy M. Apollillain:: ' ... with eyt'~ darker ami ilIon' 1,llie than lhe N un whose I ~u .1 anti Oblicell!! story is kllown 10 11 11 . '1111 A r,'w lin eli ' 1a I cr, WI'elllllC upun I, It: "Irllt Ilrafl of a ~ tUII Z;1 uf ' Lellhus. '" Itog"r Allanl , U!uulclfl;rl.' 1'1 " /'f;SI)ril tltJIlilf:lw" (Paris. ) !l I M), fl . 10. [J20a,2]

UOD I)audel . in " Baudelaire: LeMaJaise etl'aura,'" aeQ whet.he r Ba udelaire did not in Bome degree play Uumlel UPI)ollite AUl'ick and iaill mother. [J20a,3]

Ours is an age o f gaiety and distrust, onc that never long suspends the recital o f
nightmares or the speaacle of ecstasies. It has now become clear that no o ne else had enough foresight to undertake such a campaign al the period when Baudelaire began his" (pp. 190- 19 1), "Why did.n't he become a professor of rhetoric or a dealer in scapulars, this didactician who imitaled the blasted and d owntrodden, this classicist who wanted to shock Prudho nune, b ut who, as Dusolier has said., was only a hysterical Boilea u who wenl to play Dante am ong the cafes" (p. 192). Notwithstanding the resounding error in its appreciation of the importance of Baudelaire's work,. the ob itu ~ry contains some perceptive passages, particularly those concem ed Wlth the habItus ofBaude1aire: "H e had in him something of the priCSt, the o ld lad y, and the ham aaor. Above all, the ham aaor" (p. 189). The piece is reprinted in AndIi Billy. us Ec,.ilKlins de combat (Paris, 1931); o riginally appearro in La Situation. !J2I ,6] Key passages on the stars in Baudelaire. (cd. Lc Dantec): "Night! you'd please me more without ~ese stars I which speak a language I know all too well- I I long for darkness, silence, nothing IhC"e ..." ("Obsession," <vol. 1,) p. 88).- Endingof "Les Promesses d 'un visage" ( vol. 1" p. 170): the "enonnous head of hair- I . : . ~hi~ in ~arkness rivals you, 0 Night, I deep and spreading starlcss N'~~! - Yet neither sun nor moon appeared, I and no ho rizon paled " ("Rive panslen," <vol. I,>p. 11 6).-"What if the waves and winds are black as ink" ("Le ~ge," <vol. .1,) p. 149).-Compare, however, "t.es ~ux de Iknhe.," the only WClghty exception vol. 1.> p. 169), and, in another perspective. the constellation of the StarS with the aether, as it appears in "Delphine et Hippolyte" vol. 1 ~ p. 160) ~d. in "Le"Voyage" (<vol. l ,~ p. 146 ~sec. 3)). On the other hand, high1~ charactensnc that Lc Crepuscu1e du soir" makes no mention of stars. I I I [J2 1a,l ]

Vigny wrote "u Mont des oliviers" partly in order to refute d e Maisrre, by whom he was deeply inBucnccd. [J20a,4]
Jules Huma inil (u s Hommes de bonne ooionle, book 2 , Crime cle Quin ~ lf e <Paris, 1 932~ , p . 171 ) CODipares the Oineur 10 Baudelaire', " rugged swimmer r eveling in the waves."lo.; [J20a,5]

Compare " the secret harvest o f the heart" ("u Soleil") with "Nothing eva grows, I once the hean is harvested" ("Semper eadem "). KIf These fonnulation!! have a bearing on Baudelaire's heightened artistic consciousness : the blossom makes the dilettante ; the fruit, the master. [J20a,6]
T he eesay
IIU

Duponl was co mmissioned by Dupo nl ', pllhLisller.

U21 ,l ]

P(N'm 10 Sara h . a round L8J9. It contains this sta nza:


Thousilio 8e1l1Orne shoee slit. lold lit.r 8oul , T he good Lord would la ugh ir with th is wrt.t c~h I l lruck a haught y pose like 8(lrne Ta rturre, I who sell my Iho~ht a nd "'ollid he an author.I"l

(J21,2]

" Le l\1auvaiil Vilrier"- to he comp art~d with Laft'adio's Rete s rutllil <gratuilOW
acl) .I811

(J21.31
A Whcn, your heart on fitt with ,'alor and with hope, you whipped the: monc:ylc:nders out of thai place}"ou wert' master then! But now, has not 1nI10rse picrccd your side even deeper than the spear ?!~

:Le Mon joyeux" couJd represent a reply to Poe's fantasies of decomposition:


and Ict me know if one last twinge is left . . . ."111
!J2la,2)

1bat is, remorse at having let pass so fine an opponunity f~r .proclaiming ~ dictatorship of the proletariatl " Thus inanely comments Seilli~re (<Baulie/atrt [Paris, 1933],) p. 193) on "Le Renicmcnt de Saint Pierre." [J21.4) Apropos these lines from "Lesbos"-"Of Sappho who died on the day ~f.her blasphemy, I . . . insuJting the rite and the d;si~ted ~rship "'~~ere (p. 2 16) remarks: "It is not hard to sec that the ~e ob~ect of~ au~st' religion, whose practice consists in blaspheming and m msultmg tradlbonal otes, is none other than Satan." Isn't the blas phemy, in this case, the love for a young [J2 1,S] man?

A ~ard~nic a~cent marks the spot where it is said of the stars: "decent planers, at a urne like this. I renounce their vigilance-" (" 5epuJrure"). I'" !J2 la.3]

sOO.'

o~Jects o n the street. Wha t is most characteristic, howcver, is that he d oes this With ~e p hrase "trembling like a foo' " in o ne of his most perfea love poems "A Une Passante "II.
.
~ I a.~

Ba~dclai.re introduces into

the lyric the figure of sexual perversion that seeks its

Figure of thc big city whose inhabitants arc frightened o f catlledra1s : "Vast
Woods, )"Oll tCrrify me like cathedrals" ("Obscssioo").J' 1 [J21a,S)

From the obiruary notice. "Charles Baudelaire," by Jules \V~cl;"appeared Septemher 7, 1867, in La Rlu: ;;Wtll he havc ten years oftmmortality. (p.190). ~TI1CSt: arc. moreover, bad times for the biblicists of the sacristy or of the cabaret!

yanes,

"Lc Voyage" (sec. 7) : o;Come and revc1 in lhe swcet delight I of d ays where it is always afl"n,oo I " u~ f _ . I. Id to sce III . L . .. ." n u l l 100 vO me emphasiS o n this tlme o f day Somcthing peculiar to the big city? [J2 Ia,6]

The hidden figutt that is the key to "Le Bako n": the night which holds the lavttS in its embrnCl! as, after day's departure, they dream of the d a\VTl, is starless"The night solidified intO a wall:'IlJ 1J2Ia.7) To the glance that encounters th e "Passante" contrast George's poem "Von einer Begegnung" <Encounter>:

"Naehtgeda nken " (Nighl Thoughl.$), by GQethe: " I pity yo u , unhappy sia n, I whl) lire 5U beliutifuJ and II.hine sl) l plt: ndidly. I gladly ~ illing the slr ugping SB ilor witb ,'()Ilr light , I uud yel Ilave III, rewa rd fronl gods 01" nu~n : I for yOIl do nut love , yo u 1 1I1l'" m:ver kno ...n lov,.! 1 Ceaseleuly by everl utinS huu rs , yuur d ance is led ;I c rtl~~ the wid,. Ileavens. 1 11010" VlIsl II. jou rney yuu h ave. made alread y I since I, rep"sing in Illy liwecthcart 'll urmll, 1 forgot DI )' thoughts of yo u and of the lnidlIighl !"' ~' (j22a,l )

My glances drew me from the path I seek.


And crazed with magic, mad to clasp, they trailed TIle slender bow sweet limbs in walking rurvcd, And \\"et with longing thm, they fd! and failed Befort: into your own they bold1y swerved.

Stefan George, Hymnrn; Pilg"janrtrn; Aigabal (Berlin, 1922), pp. 22-23,11' (]22,1]
" 'The unexampled ogle of a whore ' glinting toward you like II silver ray , lite wavering moon releases on the l ake' :I1~ !IO begins tbe las t poem. And intu this extraordinary sta re, wltieh bring8 uncontrollable tears to the eyes of him who met:ts it without defenKe" Berg looked long and avidly. Fur him , however, 8S for Baudelaire, tile merct'.nllr y eye became a legacy of the prehistoric world. The arc-ligh t moon of the hig city 8.ltines for him like something out of the age of hetaerism. He neetb unly to ha ve it refte<:ted. as on a lake, and the b anal reno itself all the distant pas t; the ltineteenlh-century commodity betrays ill mythic taboo. It W88 in such a 81 )irit lhllt Berg composetl Lulu,,'" Wiesengrund. Adom o. " Konze.rturie ' Der Weill,'" in Willi Reich , Albun Berg, with Berg's own writings aud with e.mtributions by Theo(lur Wicsengrund-Adurno a nd Ermt Krenek (Vierula .l..eipzig. Zurich <1937)), p . 106. [J22,2] What's with the dilation of the sky in M ayan's engraving? [J'l'l.3]

The followin g argument-which dates from a period in which the decline of sculpture had become appartnt, evidently prior to the decline of painting-is very instructive. Baudelaire makes exactly the same point about sculpture from t.he perspective of painting as is made today about painting from the perspective of film . "A picture, however, is o my what it wants to be; there is no o ther way of looking at it than on its own terms. Painting has but o ne point of view; it is exclusive and absolute, and .therefore the painter's expression is much more forceful" Baudelaire, Onium, vol. 2, p. 128 ("SaJon de 1846"}. Just before this (pp. 127- 128): "The spectator who moves around the figure can choose a hundred different points of view, except the right one."'t' (Compare ~ J 4,7. [J22a,2)
On Vir.tur Hugo, aro und HMO: "At that sume period. be began to realize that if man is the 8ulitary animal, the solitary man is II man uf the cr owd s [p o39] .... It was Victur lIugo who gave Bautlelaire that sense of the irradia ntlife of the crowd , and who taught bim that ' multitude and solitude [are) equ al and interchangeable ler m ~ for the IJOet who is aeth'e and productive .... '1ft Nevertheleas, what a differen ce between the sOlilude which ti,e great a rtil t of spleen ehose for himself in Bnl ~!lCls in order ' to gain all inalienllble individualtrulU(uillity' and the solitude of the magus uf J er sey, hawlled ut that same moment hy shadowy apparitionl ! ... Hugo', solitude ill 1I0t au cuvdulte, II Noli mp.. tangere, a collcentration of the individ ulIl in ltis {Iifrerenee. It is . ra ther. a participation in the cosmic mYltery. an entry il1lU the realm of "rinlitive forces" (PII. 40-4 1). Gahriel Bounuure, ..Ahimes lif" Victor Hugo," MesureJ (July 15 , 1936), PI'. 3941. fj22a ,3] Froltl U. Collier des jOllrs (The Necklace of Days), vol. I , cited by ReillYde Gour1II01t1 in Jlldith Cail lier (Paris, 19().1), p. 15: " A rillg of the beU interrupted us and th(': lI. widlout a sound , a very singular IJerson I'nl ered the room anll made a . light ho.... of lhe hend . J had tlte impreuion of a priest without his cassock . 'Ah , her e's Balddariusl' eriell my fatber, t'xlelltling his hand to the nIlWcOnlt~r." Baudelaire u[ft'n; II gloutllYjt:81 on the 8uLjeci of Judith 'l nickname, " Ouragan" ( llurriea n e~. ]J23. 1] "A I 1111' "ufe caU t:tlthe Dh'ulI Le Pdt!tier, Theodore de BllllvilJe " 'uuld 8CC Balldelain ~i llillg licn :e1y, ' Iike all a llgr y Goethe' (as he 8ays in a puc m). next 10 <the g,ntl. Assdinca u ... l..eon [Jululel. Le. SIUJlitie X.IX Siecle (Pllris . 1922). PI' . 139140. [J23.2]

"Le OrCpuscule du marin" ocrupies a cruciaJ position ~

morning wind disperses the douds of myth. Hu.ruan b~gs ~d thClt afTaus exposed to view. The prerevolutionary da\VTl glimmers U1 this p OCIll. (In fact, was probably composed after 1850.) [J22,4]

us Fleur; ~u 11UJ~. The.

ax:

The antithesis bet\\"een allegory and myth has to be dearly develo ped. It was owing to the genius of allegory that Baudelaire did not succumb to thc abyss of myth that gaped beneath his feet at every step. [J22.5]
'''The depths heing the multitudes: VictOI' Hu!;o'& lJolitude I}("eoml'~ a lJolitud~ overrun , II iwo rminr; suli tude:' Gabriel Bounourc. "Ahinles (If' Victo r 1It1~~: " (l"I , IS 1936) . I). 39. The aulhor uniJeniCUres tite ('\(>mcnl of paJlBtV IY " f:!$ ures . . [ 226) in Ungo'~ 1'''IH~l"ieIiCe of the l:ruwJ . J '

Apropos of " The greathearted servant . ." and the end of " I...e Voyage" ("'0 Death. oM capilli II "), L . Doudet llpeaks of a ROll811rdhlll Right (in I.e Stupide XU.' Siede. p . 140). [J23,3]

..

" My flit her had ca ught a g1impl!e of Baudelaire. and he told me about lUll impre._ !lion: a hizarl'e lind alra bili ou~ prince among hoon. " LeO Ii Dandet , I~ Swpide .U X Siede (J>ari~, 1922), p. I'U . [J23,4] Bautlelaire caUs Hugo a " genius without horders. "In [j23,Sj

... what would beeome of poetry in pa88ing thrtlugh It head organi~t:d. for exampit". like tllat of Caligula or I:lelioKa halu8"' (p . 376).-"1'hIlB . likc the old Goethe who transformed himsdf illtn u seller of Turki~ h "ltllt.iJJeB in his Diuff11 ... , the author of Le$ FIe"rs du mat turned villainous, blasphcm ou ~. imllious for the 8ake of his thought" (PI' . 375-376). dulc8> UarlK:y d 'AureviUy. X IX Siecle: 1.e5 Oeu. IJre5 el, les homme" vol. 3, u s /Joete, (Paris, 1862). [J23a,l] ",\ critic (M . T luerry, in I.e Monilellr) malle the point recelltly in a very fine app reciation : to discover the parentage of this implacable poetry .. . one must go bar.k to Dante ... !"' (p. 379). This analogy Barbey make8 emphatically bis own : "Daute's muse looked dreamily 0 11 the Jnferno; tbat of I.e. Fleurs dll mal brealhCII it ill through innamel1 nostrilll, all a horse inhale8 811raPOel" (p. 380). Barbey d'Aurevilly, XIX' Sieele: l.es OeulJre, fll les homme-s, vol. 3. Le5 PoetflS (Pari8,
1862).

It is p~mably no accident that, in searching for a poem by Hugo to provide with a pendant, Baudelaire fastened on one of the most banal of the banal-" Les FantOmes." In this sequence of six poems, the first begins: "How many maidens fair. aJas! I've seen I Fade and die." The third: "One fonn above al1,-'twas a Spanish maid." And further on: "What caUS(:d her death? Balls, dances-dazzling balls; JThey filled her soul with ecstaSY and joy." This is fol1QY.'ed by the story of how she caught cold one mo ming, and eventually sank into the grave. The sixth poem resembles the close of a popular ballad: "0 maidens, whom such festivefiteJ decay! I Ponder the story of this Spanish ma.id ."I~' [J23,6]
With Baudelaire's "La Voix" <The Voice) compare Victor Hugo's qU'OD eDtend sur la montagne" cWhat Is Heard on the Mountain). The poet gives ear to the world storm:

[J23a.2J

"ee

Barbey d 'Aurevilly on Dupont: "Cain triumphs over the gelitleAheI in this man'! talent and thinking-the Cain who i8 coarse, ravenous, envious, aud fierce, a nd ""ho hall gone to the cities to consume the dregs of al:cullIulated reSentments and share in the faille ideas thaI triumph there!" Barbey d ' Aurevilly, I.e XIX' Siecle: l.es OeUIJre5 et Ie, homme5, vol. 3, Le. Poete$ (Paris, 1862). p. 242 (<1M. Pierre Dupont "). [J23a,3]

Soon \\-ith that "oice confusedly combined, Two other voices, vagu~ and veiled, J find.
And seemed eadl voic~, (hough mixed, distinct to be, As twO 0'05s-currents 'neath a strtam ),ou sec.

A manu8cril}! of Goethe's " Nachtgedanken" belln the notation, "'Modeled on the Greek . " [J23,,4j

One from the seas-uiwnphant, blissful song! Voice of the waves, which talked themselves among; The otha, which from Lhe earth to heaven ran. Was fuU of SOrTOW-dl~ complaint of man.
The poem takes, as its object, the dissonance of the second voice, which is set off against the hanno ny of the first. Ending:
Why God . . . Jouu Ul dx: fatal hymn since earth began, The song of Nature, and dlC cries of man?I'J5

At the age of deven, Baudelaire experienced first hand the workers' rebellion of 1832 in Lyons. It appears that no trace remained in him of any impressions that event might have Id't U23a,5]
" One of lhe arguments he nlakes to his guardian . Allcelle, i8 ra ther curious. It
see m~ 10 him that ' the new Napoleonic ~gime. after iIIustration8 dcpicting the

hattlefield. ought to lleek illustrationll depicting thfl arls and leiters. , .. Alphonse Sec::he. La Vie des Fleurs du mal (Paris . 1928), p . 172. 1J23a.6]

[j23,7j

The sense of "the abyssaJ" is to be defined as "meaning." Such a sense is always allegorical. [J24.1 ] With Blanqui, the cosmos has become an abyss. Baudelaire's abyss is starless; it should not be defined as cosmic space. But even less is it the exotic space of theology. It is a secularized space: the abyss of knowledge and of meanings. ~t constitutes its historical index? In Blanqui, the abyss has the historical Index of mechanistie natural science. In Bauddaire, doesn't it have the social index of nOulKt1.uli,1 Is not the arbitrariness of allegory a twin to that of fashion? Jj24,2 j

bolutt!{1 ul'SI'rvatiuns from Burhl~ y IrAureviUy's " M. Charles Baudelaire": " . sCiUld.imes imagillt! ... lhat. if Timon of Alhem had had the genius of Arclwochus, lit: "","uld IlItve I)t>:eD a ble to write in this manner on IlIIman nature and to insult it wllilt" rem lering it!" (p . 381). "Conceive, if ),ou ""i11. a lallguage more "Iaslic than l)I)ctic. a langull!;I' hewn and "haped like bron:te a nd storm. ill ""hich uch phrase Ila ~ it/i vuiuttlli atlld fluting" (Jl. 37R). " 'fhi8 profound dreamer ... 811kl,.'( l him.!leLf

..

Explore the question whether a conncaion exists between the works of ~ ~e~ricaJ imagination and u:e .c0"~jpondancts. In any case, these are two whoU y disonct sources for Baudelam: s production. 'That the first of them has a very considerable share in dIe specific qualities of his poetry carulot be doubted. The nexus of meanings might be akin to that of the fibers o f spun yam. If 'Nt: can distUlbruish between spinning and weaving activity in poeLS. then the aUegoricai imagination must be classed with the fonner.-On the other hand, it is not impossible that the correspondences play at least some role here, insofar as a word, in iLS way, calls forth an image; thus, the image: could detemtine the meaning of the word, or else the word that of the image. [J24,3] D isappearance of allegory in Victor Hugo.

The reviews by <Bubey> d"Aurevilly and A8IIelineau were turned d own by Le PaY' aJI<i La RellUr.jram;flise. respectively. [J24a,"]

The ramous statement by Valery on Baudelaire (seeJI ,l> g<xs back, in essence, to the suggestions Sainte-Bcuve sent to Baudelaire for his counroom derense. "In the field of poetry. everything was taken. Lam~ had taken the skies. Victor Hugo, the earth-and more dl3Jl the earth. Laprade, the rorests. Musset, the dazzling life o f passion and orgy. Others, the heanh, rura.llife, and so on. Theophile Gautier. Spain and iLS vibrant colors. What then remained? What Baudelaire has taken. It was as tllOUgb he had no choice in the matter.. . .tt Cited in Porche, Ln Vir doulourt uJe de Charll!J 8aucklairt <Paris, 1926>, p. 205. [J24a,5] Very plausible indication in Porclle to the effect that Baudelaire did not produce the many decisive variants lO his poems while seated at his desk. (See Porche, p. 109.) 1J2".6]
" rUidius Ihtl poet one evening at a public hull . Ch arles Monselet acco&ted him: ' What a re yo u doing bere? '- 'My dea r feUow; replied Baudelaire. ' I'm wa tching the !leath's hea<is pass!"" Alphonse Seche, La Vie del Fleurs (I" mal AmicuS,) 1928). p. 32. 1J25.I]

IJ".4]

Do f)owers lack sows? Is this an implication of the title LeJ F71!,m du maf? ln other words, are Bowers a symbol of the whore? Or is this title meant to recall Bowers to their true place? Pertinent here is the letter accompanying the two t.ripwCI.I/~ <twilight) poems which Baudelaire sent to Femand Desnoyers for his Fontaine" bll!au: Pa)Jag(j, Iigl!fltUJ, JouuenirJ,jantairitJ (1855). <&e below, 24a.b (J24,5]
Utter detachment of Poe from great poetry. For one rouque, he would give fifty Molieres. The Iliad and Sophocles leave him cold. This perspective would accord perfectly with the theory of l'art pour ['art. What was Baudelaire's attitude? IJ24.6]
With the mailing of the "CrepIl8cule." to rernand Desno yers for his Fontain6~ bleoll (Paris, 1855): " My dear Desno ye rs: You ask me for IWme venles for your little HDthology, verses ahout Noture. I believe; abolll forest!l, great oak trees. verdure, inSt."Cts--and perllaps even the sun ? Out yo u know perfectly weU that I can ' t become !It!lItimeDtai about vegetation a nd that Illy HOW rebel!! against this strange new relipoll .. .. I shall never believe that the 10aU of the 80dl live in plants . ... I have always thought . even , thai tllere was sometlling irritating a nd impudellt abo ut Nature in its fresh a nd rampanl 8tatc. "1~ Cited ill A. Siche, La Vie del Flellrs dll. mol <A miens, 1928), JlJl. 109-110. [J24a,l J

" His ea rnings have been reckoned: the lotal ror his entire life docs nol exceed ixteen thouund rruncs. Calulle Mende. calculated that the a utllor . . . would have received about one rranc seventy centimes pt."r day as payment for his liter ary laOO,.. . ., Alphonse seehe, La Vie del Fleur. du mot Arnicn B,) 1928), p. M . IJ25.2]
According to Se<:he, Baudelaire's aversion 10 a sky that was " nlllcb too blue"--()r ralher, much too bright-would have come from his stay on the island of ft-lauri " tiU!. (See See-iIe, p. '~2 .) (J25.3J
S~h e illH:.uks

of a pronflullced similarity between Baudelaire's letteTi to Mlle. Daubrun and his lellen to Mme. Sabaticr. (See p. 53 .) [J25,4)

"Les Aveugles" <Blind Men>: Crepet g1vcs as source for this poem of Baudelaire's a passa~ from "Des Vetters Eckfenster tt <My Cousin's Comer Wmdow~a passage about the way blind people hold their heads. H offmann considers the heavenward gaze to be edifying. <Sce T4a,2.) [J243,2J
Louis Coudall criticized Baudelaire 011 Novembe r 4 , 11:155. on tllll lIusitl of poe ms pllhliJlI.CII ill ,,,(,1 ReVile de. deu:c mondes. "Poetry thot iii ... naus-r.ating. glacial , strui!;lu r.om the e1lurnel housl' and Ihe tlluughte l'iltllue." Cite<i ill Frall ~'lI i s Por('h6, La 1'ie doulounl:'lSf! (Ie Churw HUI/delaire (teries plilltJed Le Romun des s m'ldes exu,etlces. vol. 6) (Parill <l926>), p . 202. lJ24a.3)

According to Sech6 (p . 65). ChHmpfleury would huve taken pari with Baudelaire ill the foumling of ~ Snt/lt public. [J25.5] rrar{JJul till the pe riod a.1'OlIlId 1845: " We ullderstood lillie of thl! use fir tables ror working, Ihinking, I!o mpu~ illg .... For my part . J Ila .... Ililll composing verses on the rUII .... hill! he was out in the Sircelll: I never SIlW him scaled before a ream of []25.6] paper." Cit I'll in Sl:cilc, 1 ,,(,1 1'ie ties Fleurs du IIIfll(1928), p . 84. T he way Baudelaire prei'ented himsel tlnring his Br\lsMeI~ lectuTt on Cuutier, a& descrihed "y CarniHe Lenmlluit'r ill I .AI 1';~ bel8e: "Baudelaire mude olle think of II. mall or the church , wilh those beuulirul gCJ;;lIIres or the pulpit. His ljortlinen cuffs

1 .

Rulle,"c,1 like the 81eevell of u c1eri.:ul frock. He de ve loped hill 8ILbjecl witll lUI U IIll U~ 1 evn n sclil'a lll1u: llluu8 m~Si, proclaimiug I,j ~ venerlltiun for u lite ra ry mu ~ l er in the Liturgical tone&of II liillli" " Illlnoundng II mundale. To hirU8elC, 110 d ouht . he WU8 celc bntiu j!; II Musil full of g10riuulI images; he had the grave beauty..,f a curdiu81 of \ell en uffi ciating at the uh ar of the Ideal. His .!Inloolh. pule "i!lage 10'118 shaded in the ha lft une uf the lamplight. I watched lUll eyes move like hlack s un.!!. His mo uth hUll II Ufe of i18 oWn within the life a nd exprell8ion~ of his (aer'; it W88

excuses a man over tJlirty who foislS such monstrosities on the public by means of a book." Cited in A1phonse seche, La Vie de; Fl~rs du mal (1928), p. 158. {J2Sa.6]
From Edouanl Thierry'e review of Lei Fle"rs dll mal in Le MOflireur (July 14, IUS??): " The Florentine of old wOIII.1 8 l1r~ l y recognize. in this French poel of today, th!! rhara el ~rifl ti c ardor. the terrifyinl; utterance. the ruthlt!lll imagery, and the sonori ty of his braten lines .... I leave hi8 book and hill talent uoder Dante's stern warning. " 1# Ci ted in Alphonse Si!ehe , I.e Vie des FleUr, du mal (1928). PI" 160-161. 1J26.IJ

tbin and quivering witb II delica te vibrancy under the drawn bow of hi. word8. And rom i1 8 ha ughty height the head commllnded the attention of the intimidated audience." Ciled in Seche. La V ie des FleurJ du mal ( 1928), p. 68. (J2S,7J
Baudelaire transferred his application for the playwright Scril)t!', 8eal in the. Academic Frall ~ai8e to Ihal of IIle Catholic priest Laconlaire. (J2Sa,1] Cautier: " Baudelaire loves ample polysyllabic words . a nd with th ree or four of these words he sometimes fa shions lines of verse. that seem immense, lines that rceOllll.te in II tlc.h II way as to lengthen the meier." CitCiI in A, Sechti, La Yw del f'lellr~ tIll mal Amiclls,) 1928), p, 195 , [J2Sa,2] Gautier: " To the extent that it was possible, he hani s llt~d elOI.luclICe ill poetry." Cited in A, Sechii, La Vie des FleU r! du mal (1928), p , 197, [J2Sa,3]
E. Faguet in an article in La R evue: "Since 1857, the nellrasihellia among U 8 h88 8carC1'. ly abaled; a ile 1 :(lIlld even say thai it has been on the rise. Hence, ' there ill no cause for wonder.' al RODsant once said , Ihal Bauddaire I t ill hill his follow e ra. , .. " Cited in Alphonse Stich", La Yle des f'leurs du mal ( 1928), p , 207. [j25',4j

Le f'isl.ro IJUblishes (dale?) an article by Gustave Bourdin that was written at the instigation of Interiur Mini81er Rillaut. The lauer bad shortl y before, a8 judge or publi('" pro8e(:utor, suffered a setback with the acquittal of Flauhert in tbe trial against Maritim e Bovo ry. A few daYI la t!!r came Thierry's article in Le Moniteur. " Why clid Sainte-Relive . .. leave it to Thierry to tell readers of I.e Monitellr ahuut I.e.~ f'lellrs c/u "!(II? Sointe--Beuve doubtless refuled to write ohout 8oudf'loire', hook bccll:u;;e he deemed it more pnldent 10 efface the ill c.freet hi8 articIe on fthu/(lnle /I(Hmry Il od hall in the inner circIell of the. government. " Alphonse S(>che . W Viedl!l Fte ur~ dll /llill ( 1928).lJp. 156- 157. 121 (J2Sa,S]

Baudelaire's great dissatisfaction with the frontispiece d esigned by Bracquemond according to spcci6cations provided by the poet, who had conceived this idea while perusing Hyacinthe Langlois' HiJtQir~ des dnnses marabm. Baudelaire's instructions: "A skeleton turning into a tree, with legs and ribs fanning the trunk, the anus stretched out to make a cross and bursting into leaves and buds, shdteI'ing several rows of poisonous planlS in little polS, lined up as if in a gardener's hothouse." (See j16,3.) Bracqucmond evidently runs into difficu1ties, and moreover misses the poet's intentio n when he masks the skeleton's pelvis with Bowers and fails to give ilS anns the form of branches. From what Baudelaire has said, the artislsimply does not know what a squdette arborescent is supposed to be, and he can't conceive how vices are supposed to be represented as Bowers. (Cited in Alpbonse 5eche, La Vie des FleurJ du mo./ [(Amiens,) 19281, pp. 136-137, as drawn from letters.) In the end, a portrait of the poet by Bracquemond was substiruted fOT this planned image. Something similar resurfaced around 1862, as fuuletMaJassis was planning a luxury edition of UJ F7nm du mal. He commissioned Bracquemond to do the graphic design, which apparently consisted of decorative borders and vignettes ; emblematic devices played a majoT role on these. (See 5eche, p. 138.)- The subject that Bracquemond had failed to ttnder ~Y3.S taken up by Rops in the frontispiece to UJ Epaues (1866). U26,2]
List of reviewers for Les Fleurs du mal, wilh the ncwllp apers Baudelaire had in min{1 for thf'm : Bulot, Lacaussade. Gu stave Rowand (La Revue europeenne); Co:tlan (Le Monde illu~lre): Sainte-Reuve (I.e Moniteur): Dellchanel (Le J ourna l de; rleblm): Aurcvilly (1. 1'(1 ),'); j llllin (I.e Nord): Armand Fraisse (Le Salut public d e L,.orlj); GuUinguer (u. Ca:eltfl de f'rllflce). (Acco["ding to Secht'i,
.~ .) ~~

1be denunciation in Bourdin's article is treacherously d isguised as praise for precisely those poems singled out in the indicnnent. After a disgusted enumeT3tionorBaudelai.re's topics, he writes: "And in the middle of it all, four poems-'Le Reniement de Saint Pierre,' then 'woos; and ty,o entitled 'Femmes damnees'four masterpieces of passion, of art, and of poetry. It is understandable that a poet of twenty might be led by his imagination to ueat these subjeclS, but nothing

The publication rightll ror Rl.ltldelllirtl'~ clltirl' ot'lI vre were a m:lioned uftcr bis {J26,4] ,Icath to Mkhcl LCvy for 1.750 rrance.
T h!! ''1'ablea u~ PurisielU' " ul'l'l~a r onl y with tile tecoml t'dilion \Jr I.e Fkurs du mol. 1126 .5)

T he tlelinilh'e title for the hook was pr(ll)Osed by Uiplffil yte Babuu in the Cafe

LamLlin .
" L'Amour

(J26a,I)

t't Ie erune" (Eroll and the SkuU ), " Tllis PUCIII (If Baudelaire's Wa& inspired by IWO works of thc eugruvcr Henri Gohzius." Alphouse Sedll~ , La V'ae det! Fleurs du mal Amiclls,) 1928). p . III . [J26a,2)

(n HonDeur, lIe had bung two ,'aintillgll .. ver his bed , One of them. painted by his father as pendant 10 the other, showed an amorolls scene: the other, dating from an earlier time, a Temptatioll of Sa int Anthon y. In the center of the lir.st pi. clure. a lnlCdulllte, [j27,2] "Sand is inferior to Sa de!"I~1 [J27.3]

., A Ulle Passaute." " M . Crcpet mcntions as possible source a pasijage from "Dina , la Lelle Juive.' in Petrus Borel '~ Champa vert ... : ' For mc. the tllOught that Ihill lightoing fla d l tllal dazzled UJ; will never be seen again. .; thai two uislcnce& made . . . for huppillcss together , in this life allli in eternity, ure forever sun_ dered . _ . -for me, this thought is profouudl y saddening. ", Cited in A. S~b c, La Vie des Fleur$ du mol, p . 108. [J26a,3J " n eve parisien." Like the speaker in the poo.m . COlldantin Guys also rose at nOOD; hence. accurwng to Baudelaire (Ieu cr of March l3, 1860, tn Puulel-Malassia), the dedication . I!? [J26a,4) BautleJaire (where?),Jlj poinb to Ihc third hook of the Aeneid all source for "Le Cygne. ,. (See Sccile, p. 104.) [J26a,5] To the right of the barricade ; to the lcft of the barricade. It is very significant that, for large portions of the middle classes, there was only a shade of difference: between these two positions. TIlls changes only with Louis Napoleon. For Bauddaire it was possible (no easy trick!) to be friends with Pierre Dupont and to participate in the June Insurrection on the side of the proletariat, while avoiding any sort of run-in when he encountered his friends from the Ecole Nonnande, CheIU1evieres and Lc Vavasseur, in the company of a national guardsman.-It may be recalled, in this context, that the appointment of Genera1 Aupick as ambassador to Constantinople in 1848 goes back to Lamartine, who a t that time was minister of foreign affairs. [J26a,6} Work on LeIS Fleurll du nml Ul' through the fi rst edition : fifl een years.

" We ensur e. that our confessions are well rewarded"l32-this should be compared with the practice of his leiters. [J27,4] Se.illiere (p. 234) cites <Barbey> d'Aurevilly: "Poe's hidden objective was to confound the imagination of his times. , . , Hoffmann did not have this terrible power." Such puuJance tm-Jole was surely Baudelaire's as well. fJ27,5}

0 11 Delacroix (according 10 Seillier e. p. Il4): " Delacroix is the artist best etluipped to portray modern woman in her heroic manifestations. whether these he understood in the divine or the infernal sense. , .. It seems that sucb color thinks for ilself, illdependently of the objects it clothes, The effect of the whole ia aimosl musical. "111 [J27.6)
Fourier is said to have presented his " minute discoveries"
100

" pompously. "134 [J27,7]

Scillicre represents as his particular object of study what in general detomincs


the standard for the literature on Baudelaire: "It is, in effect, the theoretica1 conclusions imposed on Charles Baudelaire by his life experiences that I am particularly concerned with in these pages." Ernest Scilliere, Baudekire (Paris, 1931 ), p. 1. [J27,8] Eccentric behavior in 1848: '''They've jusl arreKted de F1otte; he said. ' Is it because his hands smelled of gunpowder ? Smell mine! '" Seillier e, Balldelaire (Paris. 1931), p. 51. [J27,9) Seilliere (p. 59) rightly contrasts Baudelaire's postulate, according to which the advent of Napoleon HI is to be interpreted in de Maistre's sense as "providential," with his comment: "My rage at the coup d'etat. H ow many bullets I braved ! Another Bonaparte! 'What a disgracel " Both in "Mon Coeur rIDs n u."llj [J27.,I]

1126 .,7]

Proposa l of a Brussels pharmacist to POuICI-Malassis: in excha nge for a commitment to buy 200 copies. he would he allol'l'cc\to advertise 10 readers, in the back pages of LeIS Paradis nrtificiels. a hashish extract preJlarcd by his firm. Baudelaire's veta won onl with tlifficult y. [J26a,8j From <Barbey) d'Aurevi.lly"s lettcr 10 Baudelaire uf Fchruary 4, 1859: ~ Villain of genius! In poetry. J knew you 10 be a sacred viper spcwillg your vcnom in I.he fa cet! of dI ll 8-1 and th e 8-.' Bul now the viper has 8j1ruut e~ 1 wing!! and iii soaring tbrnugll the d(ll ul ~ to shool il8 poi son inll) 111t'- very eyes of lht' Stili !" Citetl in Ern e~ t SeiJlien. nuudl.!l(lire ( f>ar i ~_ 193 1). 1 ). l 57 . [J27, I)

The book by Seilliere is thoroughly imbued \'lith the position of its author, who is p.resident of the Academic: des Sciences M orales et Politiques. A typical premise: .. fbe social question is a question of mora1ity" (p, 66). Individual sentences by Baudelaire are invariably accompanied by the author's marginal glosses. [J27a.2)

t .

Hourdin : 1001~ in J Mw of V. .lle melllant. Le Figura i.n 1863 publishe& II viole nt auack by POlilmli rtin on 8audelaire. I.n 1864, he hal l!! publication of till" Peti'll PoemCII C it prose ufte r two insta llme nt8. VillemC88a nt : " Your poem, bo re everybod y." Sf*Fralu;o ill l"orclll ! . La Vie dou/rmreuse tie Chartell Bfllldeluire (lieriCII c ntilled I.e Rmll(lll dessrmu/ell f!xiJten CCII, vol. 6) ( Parill <1926,), p . 2(. 1. [J21a.3}

pontmar tin in hi' critique. of the porlrait or Baudelaire b y Nargeol : " T hi, engraving Sh OWli lU U face Ihal is hngga rll . M inisler. ravaged . a nd malign ; it is the face of a hero of the Court I)f Assize!!, or Ilf u pt'llsiunt'cr from Bicetre." Comlmre B2a,6 (Vischcr : Ihe "freshly heheaded" look). [J28.S] Adverst' criticism frum BrulleL iere in 1887 and 1889. In 1892 and 1893 come the currectionil. The sC(luelu:e : Questions de critique (J lUle 1887); Eu ui , uria 'ittera_ ture conlemporaille ( 18.89); NOUueflllX Eu ais ,ur la lillerfllure conlemporain.e ( 1892); Evolution de la poesie iyr iqlte en Fran ce (l 893). '" [J28.6] Physiognomy of Baudelaire i.n lue la&! yea,..: " He has all aridity in aU bi.e features ",Iuch contrast! aha rpl y wit h the in tenlJily of hie look . AJ)ove aU. he has that eet t~ his lip ~ which indicates a moulh 1 0115 acc ustomed 10 ,:bcwing only as hes." Fran ~oi, Porche, La Vae t/oulollre.lloJe de Charier ROllde.hlire (series entitled Le Roman de~ grande, exj~ l e.nces . vol . 6) (Paria ~ 1926 , p. 29 1. [J28,7]
I H6 l. Suicidal i~"uJees. Arlelle Houssaye of iAl R evue cOIlle.rnporain learns that ~ome or the. Petit" Poemes en pro~e apllearing in his journal have already appeared m the La R eVile jClIIlaisiste. Publication il lIul pended ._La Revue des deux mondes rej ectJI the euuy on GUY II.-f...e Figart) brings it out wilh an "editorial nott'" hy Bourdin . U28,8}

On Lamartine: " A bit of II 8trumpd. II bit of II .... bore.' Cited in Fr a n~o is Porche, La Vie doulourewe de Charlell Baudelaire (IICrieti entitled Le ROnlan de,sronder eximmces, \' 01. 6) (Pans). p . 248. (J27il,4] Relalioll to Victor Hugo: " !'Ie bad solicited from him II prcJllcr to the stud y on Gautier, aud . ....ith the aim or forcing Victor Hugo'. hand. bad even dedicated & ome ltoen.! to him ." Fran~ois Por chi:, La Vie douiourewe de Charle, Baudelaire (series entitlet.l Le Roman de, g nJnfles exutences, vol. 6) (Paris), p. 251. [J27a.SJ Tide of the first publication of pieceli from Lu Paradis artificieb in La R evue contemporaine, 1858: " De I' ldeal artificiel" <O n the Artificialldeab . [J27a,6] Sainte-Bcuve', article in l..e COfl~ titutionnel of J anuary 20, 1862 .1"" Subsetluentiy, 88 ea rly 98 February 9-a8 Boullelaire is toying willi the idea or lleelaring hi, cllndidacy for l.acordaire's seat instelld of for Scrwe's, which wa, his original -d thaD "lilli- the admonition: "Leave the Academie as it is, ma rc , urprist. shocked ." Bauddaire withdraws his application . See Porcbe, La Vie dOlllourewe [J27a,7] de Charles BRiulelaire (Paris), p. 247. "Note that this innovator has not a single Dew idea . M ter Vigny, one must wait until Sully-P r udhomme to find new ideal in a French poet. Baudelaire never entertains anythuig but the mOil threadba re platitudes. Ue is the poet of aridity and banality. " Benediction": the artist here below is a martyr. "L'Albatros"~ tbe artist flounders in reality. " Les Pharell": artists are the beacons of humanh y. . . Brunctiere is surely right : there ia nothing more in "Une Cbarogne" than the wonlM of Ecclesiasticll8, ' With aU Resh , OOlh m aD aDd beast , ... are death and bloodshed ...I ]: Emile Faguet, " Baudelaire," La Revue, 87 (19 10). p . 619. [J28, I} " He has almost no imagination . His inspiration iii amazingly meager." E. Faguet, " Baudelaire," t o Revue, 87 ( 19 10), p . 616. {j28,2] fa guet drawll a comparillou between Scnancuur and Bamltdai rt.,--whul's I"ure, in fta vu r of the form e.r. [J28,3]

Firlit Iet:lures in Belgium : DeJacroix, Ga ntier.

[J28a, IJ
it. 8tam" to Le, Puradi. arrificie/S , {]28a,2]

The t\linist? of the In terio r refulel

10 ill/ille

(See. Porche, p . 226.) Whlltlloc@ lilu signiCy?

Porche (p. 233) points out that Baudelaire throughout his life retained the mindset o f a youn~ man of. good family. -Very instructive in this regard: "In every change there IS some.thing a~ once: vile and agreeable, some element of disloyalty and restlessness. 'Ibis suffioentJy explains the French Revolution." '~ The senti. :~t r:ecalls Proust-who was also ajilJ dtJamdl,. The historical projected into e mtnnate. [J28a,3]
~h'eting between Bi lldeillire and ProudhOIl in jla~y newspalJer, l.-e Rcpre,elltfJIlf till. [Jell/lIe.
1IIt'Ir

having dinner lugeLhcr 011

lIu'

1848 at Ih~ offices of Proudhon ', A chance encounter, it end, with Roe Nt:llve- Vi vil'nne. [J28a,4]

J .-J . Wein (Revue cOluempoNline, J anuary 1858):

"Tlli ~ line uf venit' ... rcsemhies one lIf tllUse spinning tops tllat wouJd hum in the guller." Ciled in Camille Vl: r~i ul. "Cintluaulc ans aprel Baudelaire," RClme fie Pari", 24th year ( 1917). p . 687 . {j28,4]

The hypothesis thai Baudelaire, in 1848, helped to found the conservative newspaper Le &priJtnlant dt I'/ndrt (later ed ited by Poomy) comes from Rene Johannct. The. newspaper supported the candidacy of Cavaignac. Baudelaire's :Ila?ora~on at that mo~eOl, assuming it took place at aU, may have involved a ystificaoon. Without his knowledge, his trip to Clclteau roux was subsidized through Ancelle, by Aupick. [j28a.Sj

According 10 r..., OQntt:c, the Aecond tercet of "Sed Non Satial,," i!l in !lome Ilegree [J28a.6J linked ttl " 1~8 I A~ bi c "n ..s."

!. prt!!lSe8 . . . . AU machinery is lIacred , like a work of 1101'1" (cited in Pord,, p. 129).-Comllare " the blootly MPlmratlll1 of Deslructiun ."I ~ [J29.7)

.~

l.

By 1843 . Itecorlling alrcucly writh!lI .

til

Prllrolld .a great '"any poems from Le Flellrl du lTI(.Ilwere [J28a,7]

1849: u RepriJenJanl de I'llidn. Baudelaire's participation nOt established with certainty. If the article <lActuellement" (At the Present T une~ is written by him, then a certain mystification at the expense of the conservative principals at the
newspaper is not o ut of the question. [J29.8)

M ill(: GoldBug" is translated by Alphonse Borghers as "Le Scarabtt d 'or," in La Rroue bdlannique. The next year, La Qyotidjarru: publishes an adapta tion, signed by initials amy, of "The Murders in the Rue Morgue," wherein Fbe's name goes unmentioned. Decisive for Baudelaire, according to Asselineau, was the tranSlation of "The Black Cat" by Isabelle Meunier, in La Dimocyah'e pacifique (1847) . Characteristically eno ugh, the first of Bauddairr:'s translations from Poe, to judge by the d ate of publication guly 15, 1848), was of "Mesmeric Revela tion.1t [J28a,8]

to 1845.

1851: with DUllOnt and La Ch amhaurlie. La Republique du peupk. democratic almanac; "Editor, 8audelair.:." Only "L' Ame elu vin" < The Sow of the Wille) is published Ihe~ with his signatllre. [J29,9] 1852: v.;lh Champfleury a nd MOlIse.let. February 1854[A

Se maine. lhi u;lrak.

[J29.1O]

Hotel de York , R.ue Sainte-Anne Hotel ..III Marm;, Rue de Seine Hotel Voltaire, Quai Voltaire

1855: Baudelaire writea Daulirun .

II

leiter to George Sand, interceding on behalf of Marie [J28a,9]

_ Ma y 1858 December 1858 Summer 1859

"AJwItY8 vcry politc. \'f~ry huughty. anti very unctuous at tbe sam e time, tbere was ahollt him somelhuig reminiscent of the monk , I)f tile suldier, and of the cII!lnlulJOlitan ." Judith Cladel, Bon$hommell (pllris, 1879), cited in E. and J. Cr epd, Charks BOlldeloire( Pa rill, 1906), p . 237 . (J29, 1)

22 Rile Beautreillis
Ha lel de Dieppe. Rue d ' Amsterdam [J29. 11 ] Jj29,12]

At the age of twentyseven. Haudelaire was gray al the lemples.

In his " Notes t'! t dQCumellts pour nion a vocat ," Baudelaire refcn to the letters on
art and morality which 8alzac addrelUie4110 H..ippolyte Castille ill the new. paper La Semlline. ,.... [J29,2] Lyo ns is noted for its truck
fo~ .

From Charles AlISelilieall. Baudelaire: Recueil J 'Anecdotes (in Crepet, Charles Baudew.ire [Paris. 1908]. <pp.279f.) published in exten.so): the BtOry of AJiselin.:aus handkercruef. III Baudelaire's obstinacy. Provocative effecl8 of his "diplomacy." His mania for @ hockingpeople. fJ29a. l ) From Gautier's obituary for Ba udelaire. Le Moniteur. Seplember 9 , 1867: '"&rn in India , and ImSse8~in g a thorough knowledge of the English language, he made his debllt with his tra nslations of Edgar Poe." Thwphile Gautier. Porlraits con[J29a,2] temllQrairu (Paris, 187-1), )1 . 159.
A good ha lf OfGalltier'H obituary notice ill occu)1ied with Poe. The part de\'ote4l lo Le8 "'wurs (/u m(J/ dept!llds 011 metaphors which Guutier exlracts from a ~ Iory by IJll wthorne: " We never read /..e. Flel~rs du, mul. by Blludelairt', without thinking inVOluntarily of thut talc by Hllwlhornc (t'.lIlhled " Uappaccini"s Daughter"): it has those 80mber ami ru rla Uic rlllol"8 . those verdigris hlossoms and heady l)6rfullle8. IUs II1I1;;e "escmhl('s the dm:lur's dllllghier whllnl no poison fla il harm. lmt ,,llOse pallid and anemic complexion betr/ly~ t.l1I~ innucllet" of !lIe milieu she iuhabitN." 'l'h~phile Gautier. PorfrfJit~ contemrlOr(lins (paris, 1.874), p . 163. <See J3a ,2.) 112901.3)

[J29.3] [J29.4]

In 1845, apparent suicide allcmpt: knife wound in the chest.

" It is " artly a life of leisu re tliat has enabled me to grow. -To my veat dctrimelli- for leisure without fortlill e breetls deb ts .... But also 10 my grea l profit , 118 rcgards sensibilit.y and meditation .... Other men of leiters are, for the 01 081 part , base ignorant drudges:'lu Ciled in Porche, <La Vie doulollreu.se de Charlel HII/It/clair'C (Pll ri8. 1926).~ p . 116. 11 29 .51 LClui6 Goudull', article ill I.e f'iga ro of November 4 , 1855 . which look aim lit the Jlublil-nlinn of pl'erm ill La Revue {/es deux mmu/e~. caused Midu:1 Uivy to give 11)1 the right ! to 1 ., Fleurs rlu mal to I'oulel-Malllssis. 1129,6] IlWH: J~ Sallllimblic. with Chnmllfleury and Touhin . First is.o;ue. February 27, written arul"diled in le81! I.han Iwo hOllrs. In that laHue. prClluma),l y IIy the h and of IJau{ll'laire: " /\ few misguided hrethren have s ma ~ h ed IlUme mL'C lianica l

Gautier's characterization of Baudelaire, in his Hutoire du Rrnnantisrne, is not much more than a successio n of questionable metaphors. "TItis poet's talent for

concentration has caused him to reduce each piece to a single drop of essence enclosed in a crystal Bagon cut with many facets ," and so on (p. 350). Banality JX:rvades the entire analysis. "Although he loves Paris as Balzac iovt:d it; although, in his search for rhymes, he wanders through its most sinister and mysterious lanes at the hour when the reflections of the lights change the pools o f rainwater into pools of blood. and when the moon moves along the broken outline of the dark roofs like an old yellow ivory skull; although he stops at times by the smo ke-dimmed windows of taverns, llitt:ning LO the croaking song of the drunkard and the strident laugh of the prostirute, . .. yet very often a suddenly recurring thought takes him back to India." Theophile Gautier, Histoirt! du Romanlismt (Paris, 1874), p. 379 ("u Progres de la poCsie fran~e depuis 1830"),1'"

T he ban1 lueu urgauiu d by Philoxcne Doye r. Baudelaire give;! reading. of "Une C ha roKJI ~.' " Lf. ViII de " UlIBiIlIin," " Delphine el llipI'olyte" (Porche . <l A' Vie dou.(O il reuse de C/la rl.e, Baudefllire rParis . 19261,) p . 158). [J30,10) I'orclu! (p. 98) .lrawJ:I allclltioll 10 tile flll:1 thill, wilh Sal;)!; . Ancellc, and Aupiek . IJa ud r.lairr hall relatiollil of a typical sort. [J30,111

Sexual preoccupations, as revealed by the titles of projected novels : "Les En seigneme.nts d'utl monstre" <Education of a Monster>, "Une Inmme ador&:" <Beloved Slattern), "La Maitresse de I'idiot" < The Idiot's Mistress), "Les Tribades" <The Dykes), " l 'Entretcneur" < The Kepen. !J30,12J Consider thai Baudelaire not infrequently, it appears, loved to humble himself in long conversations with Ance11e. In this, too, he is ajilJ tUfamiIJe. More along these tines in his farewell letter: "I shall probably have to live a very hard life, but I shall be better off that way."'u [J30, 13]
Clade! mentiuns a " n oble and transcentleol disserta tion' by Baudelaire on the phYK iognomy of language. having to tlo with the colors o( word8, their peculi arities aM sourct!Bof light, and finally thdr moral characteristic,. [j30a,l ]

Compare Rollinat!

1J29a,4J

Interior or the Hotel Pimodan : 110 sideboard , no dining rOOlD table. (rosled gla88 panes. AI that pllint , Baudelaire had II servant. [j29a.,5]

185 1: new poema in l..e Meu{Jser de l 'AlllembIee, The Saint-Simonian Revue politiqlte IOrnR ,Iown hll! monuRcriptll. Porche rema rkR that it looks very much III though Uoudelaire was 1I0t really able to choose where 10 publiah . [J30,1]
The (ortune Baudelaire inherited in 1&12 lotaled 75.000 (ranCII (in 1926, equivaleut ttl 'LSO,OOO francs) . To hiR colleaguea-Banvilll"--he passed (or " very ricb ." B e loon aft erward dillereetJ y left home. (J30.2]

AI! Porche nicely putfl it

Vie dolt[Qltreuse de ChMies Baudelaire [Paris, 19261,) p . 98}, Ancell", wall Iheemhodimcnt of the " legal world ." U30.SJ

La

J ourney to Bordeaux in 1841 by stagecoach, one of the last.-A very severe stonn Baude1aire went through on board the ship commanded by Captain Saliz, the Paqllebot tUJ Mm du Sud, appears to have left little trace in his work. (J30,4]
Baudelai re's mother waR twent y-six al1ll biA fath er sixty wbell tJley married in 1819. [J30~] In tbe Hotel Pimorian , Baudelaire wrote with a red goose quill .

Indicative of a perhaps not Wlcommon to ne in the exchanges between the two writers is ChampHeury's letter of Mardt 6, 1863. Baudelaire, in a letter now lost, had declined CharnpHeury's proposal to meet a female admin:r of the Flt!urJ du mal and the writings of Poe, making a point of hi! dignity. ChampBeury responds: "As for my compromised dignity, I refuse to hear orit. Stop frequenting places of far worse repute.1i-y to imitate: my life of hard work; be as independent as I am ; never have to depend o n others-and then you can talk about dignity. I The word, in fact, means nothing to me, and I put it down to your peruJiar ways, which are both affected and natural" (cited in E. and]. C~pet, <Chariu Baudelaire {Paris, 1906].>appendix, p . 341 ). Bauddaire (Let/W, pp. 349ff.) writes back on the same day. '~ [j30a,2}

Hugo to Baudelaire, August 30 , 1857. 1 le acknow led ge~ r eceipl of Le, "'/eur, du

[J30,O ]

lIIai. " Art iii like the heavens; it is Ibe infilljte fidd . You have just proved Ihat. Your
fle lll" (I" ma { are as r atlial1l a nd da:u.ling as the starl." Ciled in Crelte t . p . 11 3. Conlpare the greal leiter of Oclober 6. 1859, containing the forowla and credo of !Jr0grflSI;. [J30a,3J

" Mesmcrie Revelation." certainly nol Ollt: o( Poe', nlOre Ilistinguishcd wo rks , ill the only 8tory to be tran slated by Haliliciaire during the Amerif'a ll author's lifetjme. 1852: Pot: hiogra ph y ill La. Revue de Pnru . 1854: heginning oftllf' Iranslatioll work . !J30,7J

h should bt: remembered thatJeanne Duval was BaudeJa.ire's first love.


Mcling;; wilh
Ili ~

!J30.8J

r'uu l dt MoienCIi to Bau delaire. May 14 , 1860. " You Il ave lhiK gift for Ihl' new. sOlUething tba l lIas always liI'emcd to me 1'~'Ci o llJi--i",Iet:11. almo& 1 sacred ." Cited ill Crfpel. p . 4 13 . [J30a,4]

1II111 hcr ill till; Lou vre .Iu ring tltt: yeun of ,lis8cm. i(JII with Aupick . ]J30,9]

Ange Pcchlll~ia, Bucharest. February 11 - 23, 1866. In this lo ng letter full of great admiration, an cx.act outJook on la fHJ6 il! pure: "'I would say something more: I

:un convinced that, if the syllables that go to fonn verses of this kind were to be t:ranslatcd by the geometric fonns and subtle oolors which bdong to them by analogy, they would possess the agreeable texture and beautiful tints of a Persian carpet or Indian shaw!. I My idea will strike you as ridiculous; but I have often fdt Like drawing and coloring your verse?' Cited in Crepet, p. 4 15. 1J30a,5]
Vigny 10 Blludelaire. J anuary 27 , 1862: " How ... unjust you are, il ilet' mi to me, towll rd this iuvely bouquet , AO variously scented with odors of ~ pring, fur h aving given it a title it does not d eserve, IIlld how much I Ile plore tha t poisonous air which you sometimes in from the murk y hourne of U ll llll et '~ graveyard ." Ciled ill Cr epet , p. 44 1, [J30a,6}

little acr aps of men- that iI. t l.l budding S lt t an ~." " De l'Euellce d ll rire." OClulre" [J3 1,S] ..-d . Le Dantt'1;, vI.Il. 2, p . 174 .....

~t knew ange~, and also tears; he did not laugh. Vtrginic 'NOuld not laugh at the Sight of a cancature, The sage does not laugh, nor d oes mnoce:nce. "The comic clemenr is a damnable thing, and o ne of diabolical origin." "De l'Essence du rite," OeuureJ, ed. uDantec, vol, 2, p. 168. lIt fj3la,11 Baudelaire distinguishes the "significative comic" from the "absolute comic" Th latter alone is a proper object of reflection: the grotesque, I~ rj3 1a'2~
A111:gorical interpreta ti un of modern clothi.ng fur mcn , in the "Salon de J846": "A. for the garb , the out~r Ilusk . of the modern hero, ... is itnolthe necessar y ~arb or our suffering age, which w~a rs the synlllOl of l)Crpetlial mou r ning even on itt thin black 5houldcrl? Notice how the black ~ uit and l he frock l;l.Iat POSSesli not 001 their Iw litical beaut y, which is ao expression of uni" eraal equality, bUI als6 tbl!i~ IJOetie heauty, which is an r:xpression or the public souJ...-an endle.!!! proceniun of hired mournera, political mourners, amorous mourners, bourgeois mournera. We are all of 1111 cele brating lome fun er al. " Oeu vres , ed . Le Dantcc, vol . 2, It. 134.1$1

I,."e

From the letter thai Baudelaire !!ent to Empress Eugenie, No,'ember 6, 1857: " But the fine, lncre-ased by COilll that are unintelligible to mr, t-xct.-edi the resoun::el of the proverbial povert y of poets, and , , . convinced that the heart of the Empreu is opt'n to pity for all tribulations, slliritual as well as material, I bave conceived the idea . Jter a perioll of illdt.'Ci8ion and timidit y that lasted ten days, of appealing to the gracious goodness of your Majesty and of entreating yOllr inten'ession with the minis ter of justice."H: H . Patry, " L' Epilo~e du pruccl! des 1-'Leur. till rnal: Une Leu rt' inMite de Baudelaire I'lmpcratrice ," Relme d'llilHoire litteraire de /a Fran ce. 29uI year (1922), p. 71. [l3 t ,1]

[J".,3)

From Sch ll unard , Souvenirs (Paris , 1887): "' I detest Ihe countryside.' !ay. Baudelai re in explanation of hi, ballty Ileparture from Iionfleur, ' particularly in @ ood weather. The penilltenl SWlBhiue oppresaes me .... Ah! speak to me of thOle everchanging Parisian s kies Ihat laugh or cry accor lling ttl the wind , and that never, in their va ria ble hu t and humidity, hal'e any effect on the iilupid cropl, . , , I am perhaps affrontin g YOllr com'ictioll~ as a landllcape painter, but I must t~ YOII further ulal an open hod y of water is a monstrous thing to me, I want It incarcerated , l;ontaincd within tim geometric walls of a Ilu ay. My favorite walkilll "lace is the embankment alon g the Canal de l'Ourcq , .. (cited in Crc" et , p . 160).

~e incomparable force of Poc's descriptio n of the crowd. One thinks of early Iith~phs by Senefelder, Like. "" Der Spieldub" (The Players' Club~, "Die Menge nach Einbruch der ~eIhel~ < The Crowd after Nightfall>: "The rays of thr: ~ lamps, feeble: at first In theu- struggle with the dying day, had now at length gamed ascend~cy, and threw over everything a 6tful and garish lusta. All was ~~ ~t splendid-as that ebony to which has been likened the style of Tenu.I. !ian.. Edgar Poe, .NoulMlIes His/oim extraordinaires, trans. Charles Baudelaire (Paris <1886,), p. 94. 0 Fl1neur O (J3Ia,4]
is not fantasy . . . . Imagination ill till almost djvine fa culty which pe rcelYes ... the in timate and secret N:lalion8 of things. tI.e correslKmdence8 a nd th~ aoalogie~." <Oaudelai re,) "No tes nouvelles s ur Ed gar Poe," N6uvelk. iliA. to'N!JI extraordinaire., pp . 13-14. I (J3 1a,5J Pure!y emblt:matic book ilIuslration--urnamellteti willi tievice_whlch Orae(I\lemond had desipu:d for tllf' plallned de luxe ellilioll of I.e" Fleur~ du mal II round 1862 . The onl y I.op ' y 1) f I IIe p Iate was so II . I II f Cha IllJl(leulY. and later lIC(llured lIy Ave ry (New York). [J3 t a,6]

"Ima~natioll

1J31,2)
Cri:I)Ct juxtaposes Schaunard', rt' Jlort with the leU('r to Desnoyers, IlIId then ~ mark, in clo!fing: " What ran we cOllclude from all thil? Perhaps simpl y that Baudela ire belonged to that famil y or unfortunates who desir.. onl y what they do not haye and IOl'e only the place wlit'.&"e they a re not" (C repet , p . 16 1). [J3 1,3} Baudelaire's ~incerile wus form er ly much to he found in Crcpet (see p . -172).

di~clis81~11. Trol;l!s of this dchatc arc still


{J31,4}

"'1'11 .. laughter of children is like the blonoming of a Howcr.... It is a plant .~e joy. Alld 1'0. in grnt" ral. it ill more like a s mile--tlomt"l.hing analogou.!! to the w-a~n, of II llo&'. tail . or the purri ng of II cat . Aud if t1u~r(" still rt:llIai n$ sam.. d u.tincuo n bel .... ~ n the la ughter of children and such e:"pn::88ions of a nimal contentment , ... IILi ~ is IJet'allse their laughtcr i.. 1I0t entirely frile of ambition , a~ iii onl y prolJtlr tl.l

Concerning the. conception of the crowd in Victor Hugo, two very characteristic passages from " La Perue de 1a reverie" (The Propensity fo r Reverie):

Crowd without name! Ch aos!-Voiccs, eyes, footsteps. Thwe never Sn, thme lteVe:r known. Alllhe Iiving!-cities buzzing in the car More than any beehive or American woods.

The following passage shows the crowd depicted by Hugo as though with the burin of an engraver:
TIle night with its crowd, in this hideous dream, Came on-growing denser and darker tOgether-And, in these regions which no gaze can fathom, The increase of men meant the deepening of sbadow. All became vague and uncertain; only a breath That from moment 10 momen! would pass, As though to grant me a view of the. great anthill, Opened in the far-n::aching shadow some valleys of light, A! the wind that blows over !he tossing waves VVhitens the foam, or furrows the wheat in the 6dds.

"The life of Bau.telaire iJ a deject for ane<:dotel." Andre Suares. n-oiJ GrtmdJ Vivant.! (Paris), p . 270 ("Oamlelaire et LeJ FkILr.! du mar). [J32a,3) " Baudelaire does 1101 deecribe." Andre Suares, p. 294 ("8audelaire et ~J Fk lLrJ d" nwr').
Tro;~

Grafldl ViutHlIJ (Paris),


[j32a,4)

Victor Hugo, Oeuurts comp/au, PoiJie, vol. 2 (UJ Orientaiel, &uiiieJ d'automne) (Paru, 1880), pp. 363, 365-366. 1132,1]
Jules Troubat-Sainte-8euve'! secretary-to Poulel-Malassis, April 10, 1866: " See, then, how poets aJways eud! Though the social machine revolves, and regulates itself for the bourgeoillie. for profelSiofial men , for workers, . . . DO benevolenl statute is being established to guarantee those unrul y natures impatient of all retltraint the possibility, at least , of dying in a bed of their own.-'8ut the brandy? ' someone will ask. What of it ? You too drink . Mister Bourgeois, Mister Grocer; YOIl have as mauy vices as-and even more than- the IJOet .. , , Babac . burns himself out with coffee; Musset besots himllelf with absinthe and still produces his most beautiful 8Ian'lIlS; Murger die~ alone in a nursing home, like Baudelaire at IhiJ very moment. And nol oue of these writers is II Rocialist! " (Cited in Crepet , < Bfludelaire [Paris, 1906] ,> p. 196-197.) The literary market. [J32,2] In II draft of lhe letter to Juletl Janin (1865), Baudelaire plays Juvenal, Lucan. and PetrOlliull off against H orace. [J32,3] Letter 10 Jules Janin : " melancholy, alwaYIl inseparl1hle from the feeling for ' ]J32,4] Lel1t1t y. " Oeuvres , ed . Le Dantee, vol. 2 , p. 610.

in the "Salon de 1859: ' vehement invel(;tlye against l'amoar-apropos of a critillu!!. of the Neo-Greek school: " Yet aren ' t we quile weary of seeing paint and ma rble squandered on behalf of this elderly scamp ... ? . . . His hair is thickly curled like a coachman 'lI wig; his fat wobbling cheeks press against his nostrils and his eyes ; it is doubtless the elegiac sighs of the universe which diJtl:nd his nelh , or per haps I llhould My his mea', for it is IItuffed , tuhulouI, and hlown Ollt like a bag of lard hanging 0 11 a butcher's hook ; on his mountainous back is attached a pair of butterfl y "ings." Ch. B . OeuvreJ. ed . Le Daotec (Puris), vol. 2, p . 243.1 ~ U32.,,] ''There is a worthy publication in which every contributor knows all a nd has a word to say ahout all. a journal in which eyery member of tbe staff .. . can instruct us, by tunls, in politics, religion, economics, tbe fine arte, philosophy, and literature. In this vast monument of fatuity, which leans toward the future Like the Tower of Pilia, aod in which nothing len than the happinese of humankind is being worked uut . , ," Ch. B . Oeuvre.!. ed . Le Dantel(; (Paris), vol. 2, p . 258 ("Salon de 1859"). (i.e Globe?)llo6 [J32a,6] I,n defense of Ricard: " imitation is the intoxication of supple and brilliant minds , lind orten even a proof their superiority." Ch. B., OeuvreJ , ed. i.e Dan tec, vol. 2, p. 263 (" Salon de 1859"). Pro domo!157 [J32a,7] " Tllaltouch ofslyness whicb is always mingled with innocence." Ch . B., OellvreJ, ed. Le Dantee, vol. 2, p . 264 ("Salon de 1859"). On Ricard. l !'>!! [J32a,8] Vigoy in "I..e Mout des oLiviers" <Mounl of OLive8), against de Maistre: i1e haa heen on IhiBearth for many long a!!leB. Born from han h mllsten and fal.te-speakin!!lsages. Who 8till V/:X thl'! 8pirit of each living nation With silUriuu8 ennr.eptioD JI of my true redem ption. I ~

"Every epic intention . . . is the result of an imperfect sense of art." < Baudelaire,) "Notes nouvelles sur Edgar Poe" (Jr(ouvelleJ HutoireJ exlraordinaires [paris) 1886], p. 18). 'll This is, in embryo, the whole theory of hpure poetry." (Immobilit.ation!)
]J32.']
According to Crepet Ramiei(lire [Pari~ , l906] , ) p . 155). most of the drawings left [J32a.l ] by 8audelaire portray " maca bre scenes," "Am ong all the hookH in the worililoday. the 8ible being the sole exception , us fleurJ (lu mof i ~ the 1I108t widdy Jluhlishcd and the most llftcntran slated into other language" ." Andre Suar;-'s. 1"0;$ GrmldJ ViVlHltS (Paris <l93Ib) , )1 . 269 (" 8au,If'lairf' ct u s "leurs tl" mal") . [J32a,2)

1133,1]

" Perhaps unly Leopardi, E.tgar Poe, and DostoevJlky nperieuced such a dearth of iU11lpiness, sudl a power of de6olation . Round aLout hin) , thi8 century, which in other rl."sp t8 lOeems so Aourishil1g and multifariolls. takes 0 11 the terrrihie aspect of II d e~erl. ,. Edmond Jaloux , "Le Centenaire de Baudelaire," lA1 Revue h ebdo~ madaire. 30th year, 110. 27 (July 2 , 1921). p. 77. [J33,2J

< 'AU hy himself, Blludelaire mllde poetry a method uf alJaly~i8. a form ofintruspectio n . III Ihis, he ill very much the contemporary of FlliuLert ur of ClaUf11l Her -

nard." Edmond Jal ou~, "i.e Centenaire de Baudelahe," La Revue hebdo[J33 ,31 madCJire. 30th yellr. 11 0. 27 {J ul y 2, 192 1). 1). 69.

Meryon and Baudelaire were bo'J'n in the same yea r; Mer yoll died a yt'ar after Baudelaire. [J33a,6)

List of Baudelaire's topics, inJaloux: " DUVOUS irritability of the individual de


vOled to solitude ... ; abhorrence of the human condition and the need [0 confa dignity upon it through religion or through art . .. ; love of debauchery in order to forget or punish oneself . . . ; passion fOT travel, for the unknown, for the new; ... predilection for whatever gives rise to thoughts of death (twilight, autumn, dismal scenes) ... ; adoration of the artificial; complacency in spleen." Edmond Jaloux, '-Le: Centenaire de Bauddaire," La Revue hebdomadaire. 30th yeat; no. 27 Uuly 2, 1921 ), p. 69. Here we see how an exclusive regard fOT psychological considerations blocks insight into Baudelaire's genuine originality. [J33,41 Influence of

In the years 1842- 1845. act:ordillg to Prllrond , Bumldaire was fa scina ted with a port rait of II wOlllan Ily Greco in the Lou\'re. Cited i.n Crt:ltet , ~Charlell lJCJudelaire ( Puris, 190('1.> p . 70. [J33a,7J
I)roject d ltled May 1846: " Lcs Amour'll el la mort de Lucaill" < T he Loves and the [J33a.8) Oeall. of Lucall). " lie w as t w~nt y- two years vld, and he f01l1ll1 himself immediately provided with elllploymcnt at the town hall of the seventh arrOOlIi.ue ment- in the Registry of Oeatlls,' he kept rCIJeating with an ai r of satisfaction." Ma urice Rollinat , Fin d'oeuvre ; cited in Gustave Geffroy, Maurice Rollinat. 1846-1903 (Parill, 19 19). 1 ).5. [J33a,9] Barbey d ' Aurevilly has placed Rollillat between Poe a nd Baudelaire; and he caO. Rollinal " II poet of the tribe of Dantc." Cited in Ceffroy, Mal/rice Rollina t, p . 8. [J33',IOI ConlposiLioD of Bamldaireau poems by Rollinat . [J33a, 11J

w Fleur; du mal, around 1885, on Rops, Moreau , Rodin.

[J33,51 [J33,61

Influence of "Les Correspondances" on Mallanne,

Baudelaire's influence on Realism, then on Symbolism. Moreas, in the Symbolist manifestO of September 18, 1886 (I.e Figaro): "Baudelaire must be considered the. true precursor of the present movement in poetry." U33 .7]
Claudel: " Baudelaire has celehrate~1 the only p a8llion ",hich the nineteenth centur), could feel with sincerit y: Remorse." Cited in Le Cinqua nt.enaire de CluJrles Baudelaire (Paris, 19 17), p . 43 . (Compa re J 53, I .) U33,8)

" La Voix" worlds. "I""

~Th e

Voice>: " in the pil ', deepest da rk, I distinctl y see stra nge [J33a,12J

"A DanteStlUe nightmare." Leconte de L.i.s le. cited in L.e. Cinquflfuenaire tk [J33., 11 Charle. Baudelaire (Paris. 19 17), p . 17.
Ed oua rd Thier'J'Y compa'J'es Le. Fleur. de mal to the ode written by Mirabeau during his imprisunment at Vwcenuell. Cited in Le Cinquanrenaire de Charles BlIIIJelllire(Pa 'J'is. 1917), 1' . 19. [J33a,2] Verlaine (wher e?): ""I' he profound originality of Baudelaire is ... to h. \'e represented , in a powt: rful and esseutial way. modern man . . . By thill. 1 mean only modern man in the physical sem;e ... , modern man with his senses Iltir'J'ed up an.d vibrating. his IiJlirit painfully subtlt:. his brains aturatt:d with tobacco, a nd hiI blood on fi re wilh alcohol. ... Charles Baudelaire ... may be said tn personify the ideal type. the Hero if you will. of this individuality in sensiti vity. ~~w~lere.else. nol e\'en in Heinrich Heine, will you fmd it accentuated so 8trollg.iy. CIted In Le CinqUfln,enaire de Charles HCJlldelaire (Paris, 19 17). p. 18. {J33a,3] u:sbia ll motifs ill n abal' (Lt, Filie i\luupin); Dt'latu uche(FrasoletrCJ).
OIlX

According to Cha rles Toubill , Baudelaire in 1847 had two domiciles, Oil the Rue de Seine alld the Rue de 8abylone. On days when the rent wa' due , he often spent the night with fri e nd~ ill a third . See Crepet , <Churle. Balldelaire, (pa ris, 1906).> p.48. [J34, 11 Crepel (p . 47) cou.nts fourtl!Cn addresses fur Baudelaire between 1M2 a nd 1858, nut including I: Ionflcur Slid sonle temporary lodgingt. H e lived in the Quartier du Temple, tile lie Saint-Louis, the Qua rtier Saint-Germain , the Quartier Mont[J34,2] martre , the Quarticr de la Relluhlitlue.

yellx d'or); Gautic. ( M(ulemouelk de [J33a,4] (133.,5]

Poem! for Marit: Daubrun : "Chan t d 'autonwe ," " Sonnet d ' autoDlne."

"You are passing through a great city that has grown old in civilization--one of those cities which harbor the most imponant archives of universal life-and your eyes are drawn upward ."mum~ ad ;itkra; for in the public squares, at the comers of the crossways, stand motionless figures, larger than those who pass at their feet, repeating to you the solemn legends of G lory. 'War, Science, and Martyrdom. in a mute language. Some are pointing to the sky, whither they ceaselessly aspired ; others indicate the earth from which they sprang. They brandish, or they contemplate, what \V3S the passion of their life and what has become itS emblem: a tool, a sword, a book, a torch. vitai lampada!Sc you the most heedless of men, the most unhappy or the vilest, a beggar or a banker. the stoue phantom takes possession of you for a few minutes and commands you, in lhc name of the

past, to think of things which are not of the eanh. f Such is the divine role of sculprun:." Ch. B. , Oeuures, ed. Lc Dantec, vol, 2, pp. 274-275 ("Salon de 1859'V" Baudelaire speaks hen:: of sculpture as Lhough it were prest:nt only in tht: big city. It is a.scu.lptutt that stands in the way of the passerby. 11tis depiction contains something in the highest degree prophetic, though sculpture plays only Lhe smallest part in that which would fulfill lhe prophecy. Scu1ptuTe is found <?> only in the city. U34,3) Baudelaire speaks of his partiality for "Lhe landscape of romance," more and more avoided by painters. From his description, it beco mes evident that he is thinking of struCtures essentially Baroque: "But surely our landscape painters are far tOO herbivorous in their diet? They never willingly take their nourishment from ruins . .. . J feel a longing for ... crenellated abbeys, reflected in gloomy pools; for gigantic bridges, towering Nillevitc constructions, haunts of dizzi. ness-for everything, in ShOll, which would have to be invented if it did not already exist!" Ch. B., Oeuurt.l, cd. Le Dantec, voL 2, p. 272 ("Salon de 1859'V" [)34,.) "Imagination ... decomposf".lI all creation ; nnd with the Taw malcrial8 accumulaled and illi rosed in accordance with rules whose origins one canOOI find except in the furth est depths uf the soul , it creates a n~w world- it produces th~ sensation of newness." Ch . B. OeuvreJ. vol. 2 , p . 226 ("Sp.lon de 1859").ll>.l U341l. 11 On the ignorance of paint~ rs. with particular reference to Troyou: " He paints on alld 0 11 ; he 8Iol's up his soul and continues to paint, until at last be hecomes lik.e the artist of the 1II0ment .. .. Tbe imitator of th~ imitator fmd s his own imitators, and ill Ihis way each I/ursues hill dream of greallll:ss, Slopping up his soul more and more thorough1y, aod above aU reading nothing. 1I0t c'en The Perfect Cook, which al any rate would have been able 10 open up for him