Scientific Management

(1910-1935)
Frederick Taylor Henry Gannt Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Luther Gulick III Max Weber Henri Fayol

Scientific Management
 The

process of approaching various aspects of organizations in a scientific manner using scientific tools such as research, management, and analysis.

Scientific Management Theorists
PURISTS Frederick Taylor Henry Gannt Frank and Lillian Gilbreth TRANSITIONALISTS Luther Gulick Max Weber Henry Fayol

Autos. and radio became common . movies.Migration to cities . airplanes.History of the Era Industrial Age .Changes both on the farm and in factories .Reliance on electricity and gasoline .

History of the Era 1913 – Federal Reserve System created  WWI begins and Panama Canal opens  1919-1933 Prohibition  1920 .Nineteenth Amendment  1929 .Stock Market Crash  .

preference. manager.  A “superintendent” was responsible for all planning and staff functions. and what tools were available for the job.Prior to Scientific Management Owner. sales.  Work methods were determined by individual mechanics based on personal experience. No recognized staff functions. “Rule of Thumb”  . and front office personnel had little direct contact with production activity.  Worked with “journeyman” mechanics to try to schedule production.

S. Steel Industry Invented New Tool Designs and Handling Methods Designed Stop-Watch Task Timing Created Piece-Rate Payment Scheme Developed Industrial Departments .Frederick Taylor      Efficiency Expert in U.

Time Studies and the Piece-Rate System      Studied most efficient worker Used stop-watch timing to measure each production step Eliminated any unnecessary movements Designed standardized instruction cards for employees Employees paid for meeting the established rate of production .

Henry Gannt  Worked with Taylor at Midvale Steel Company  Specialized in incentive wage plans  Introduced a differential piece rate system – Task work with a bonus  Permitted workers to improve the production system  Introduced a bonus for foremen based on the number of their workers who earned bonus .

Gannt Chart Information Developed to help industrial age managers plan for mass production  Utilized to coordinate WWI shipbuilding  Visual display used to schedule based on time  .

Frank and Lillian Gilbreth .Developed the laws of human motion from which evolved the principles of motion economy . their work was intertwined with his and their motion studies predated Taylor’s system first published in 1903.Associates of Fredrick Winslow Taylor. .

. Professed: effective training.Frank and Lillian Gilbreth      Pioneers in the field of motion studies and provided the foundation for job simplification. and incentive wage plans. improved work environment. Made the connection between standardization and efficiency Believed that time could not be separated from motion. effective work methods. Analyzed each motion of work for wasted efforts in an attempt to reduce each task to the smallest amount of expended time and energy. positive psychological perspective. the two were intertwined. meaningful work.

This consisted of identification of individual motions.Frank and Lillian Gilbreth    Systematically examined how repetitive tasks were performed These repetitive tasks were broken down into Therbligs. Invented and refined Therbligs roughly between 1908 and 1924. as well as moments of delay in the process. which are systems for analyzing the motions involved in performing a task. Each Therblig had a mnemonic symbol and standard color for charting . designed to find unnecessary or inefficient motions and to utilize or eliminate even split seconds of wasted time.

” Gulick believed that. Gulick stated. It is important to recognize that there are limits beyond which labor cannot usefully be divided. but any attempt to divide the cow in this fashion would. All organizations are characterized by a tension between the need for division and the need for coordination.Luther Hasley Gulick III      Believed that public administration could have made more effective if it were practiced according to a set of guidelines. labor divided makes for efficiency. “It might be more efficient to have the front half of the cow in the pasture grazing while the rear half is in the barn being milked. for obvious reasons. fail. Work division is the foundation of organization. but only if the labor and its outputs are harmonized with the organization’s goals .

Gulick Purpose – the aims of the work unit  By Process – what the unit actually does  By Clientele – work with similar materials or clients  By Location – organized together due to geographic location.Organization of Work Units . regardless of function  By .

Five Factors that Limit Full Coordination . particularly with regard to man and life  .Gulick Uncertainty concerning the future  Lack of knowledge on the part of the leaders  Lack of administrative skills on the part of the leaders  A general lack of knowledge and skills on the part of the other members of the organization  The vast number of variables involved and incompleteness of human knowledge.

Seven Administrative Procedures Gulick        Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Coordinating Reporting Budgeting .

it is leadership.Gulick’s Definition of Leadership  The most difficult task of the chief executive is not command. which is the development of the desire and will to work together for a purpose in the minds of those who are associated in any activity. .  Gulick sees ideas as more potent and more powerful than organizations.

rather than the people doing the work .Gilbreths and Gulick Compared - - GILBRETHS Devoted to Efficiency Analyzed Motion and Movements of Workers Created Therblig System Their studies were part of the manufacturing revolution in the U. GULICK - Applied Scientific Method to Management “Dean of American Public Administration” Division of Labor and Integrated Organization Applied Scientific Approach to Personnel Management - Defined work in terms of positions needed to carry out a process.S.

Max Weber  Weberian Model of Bureaucracy Division of Labor and Specialization  Impersonal Orientation  Hierarchy of Authority  Rules and Regulations  Career Orientation  .

Weber’s Description of Power and Authority in Organizations Charismatic Traditional Legal .

Criticisms of Weberian Bureaucratic Model  Dysfunctional Consequences  Neglect of the Informal Organization  Internal Inconsistencies  Gender Bias  Oppressive Features  Organizational Pathologies .

 Described organizations as social systems that interact and are dependent upon their environments.  Provides a starting point for modified structures. .Weber’s Influence on Educational Organizations  Described the bureaucratic characteristics used by most educational institutions.

Coordinate 5. Control . Command 4.Henri Fayol (1841-1925) Fayol’s Five Functions of Management 1. Forecasting and Planning 2. Organization 3.

5. Order 11. Specialization/Division of Labor Authority with Corresponding Responsibility Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of Individual Interest to the General Interest Remuneration of Staff Centralization 9.Fayol’s 14 Principles for Organizational Design and Effective Administration 1. Initiative 14. Stability of Tenure 13. Esprit de Corps . Scalar Chain/Line of Authority 10. 3. 2. 4. Equity 12. 7. 6.

Weber and Fayol Compared Similarities - WEBER Ideal Type Hierarchy of authority Division of Labor Career Orientation Rules and Regulations - FAYOL One Best Way Top Down Management Specialization Stability of Tenure Discipline .

Weber and Fayol Compared Differences - - WEBER Organization as a Social System dependent on environment Rationality Impersonal Orientation Administrative Efficiency - - FAYOL No parallel Personal experience and observation Esprit and Initiative Future Planning .

Scientific Management’s Impact on Organizations Defined Administrative Roles  Supervision of work rather than people  Work specializations  Span of control  Cost accounting  Homogeneity of Positions  Engineering for Efficiency  Assembly Line Production  Emphasis on Quality Control  .

Scientific Management’s Effect on Schools         Teaching Objectives Vocational Curriculum Design Division of Labor Subjects Departmentalized Improvements by Analysis  Data-driven decisions Standardized assessments Outcomes for Instruction  Teacher Merit-pay Staff Development Programs .

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted - - Scientific Management The most efficient manner to perform a task is determined and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management - - Humanistic Approach Concern for people not the task Participatory decision-making Emphasis on Individual Contributions and Personal Awareness Flexibility .

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted - - Scientific Management The most efficient manner to perform a task is determined and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management - - - Social Systems Approach Focused on the interaction of the organization and its larger environment Leaders are high-task oriented (work structure) and highrelationships oriented (concern for others) Organizations are a set of interrelated elements functioning as a whole .

Scientific Method of Management Contrasted - - Scientific Management The most efficient way to perform a task is established and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management - Situational Leadership No one style is appropriate for all situations Increased involvement in decision making Collaborative Planning Flexible Change Strategies Unique Organizational Personality must be accounted for in structure. and decision-making . leadership.

decentralized system of management “Learning organizations” able to predict for and respond to a changing environment Organizational Change Models that help organizations prepare for future challenges .Scientific Method of Management Contrasted - - Scientific Management The most efficient manner to complete a task is determined and everyone does it that way Task Analysis Personnel Selection and Training Bureaucratic Organization Structure Span of Control and Top Down Management - - - Futuristic Approach Focus on an improved.

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