A brief history of typefaces

The invention of printing
Movable type was invented by Johannes Gutenberg in ffteenth-century
Germany. His typography took cues from the dark, dense handwriting of the
period, called “blackletter.”
The traditional storage of
fonts in two cases, one
for majuscules and one
for minuscules, yielded
the terms “uppercase”
and “lowercase” still used
today.
Working in Venice in
the late ffteenth century,
Nicolas Jenson created
letters that combined
gothic calligraphic
traditions with the new
Italian taste for humanist
handwriting, which were
based on classical models.
I cc»:: I |c:. |cc c !:::!. ::·| c:»..
obert Slimbach styled
Ac:!.
Jenson
after Nicolas Jenson's roman types
c»c :|. ::c!::s :¡ Ioc::::: c.¸!: A··:¸|:,
created in hfteenth-century Italy.
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I cc»:: I |c:. |cc c !:::!. ::·| c:»..
obert Slimbach styled
Ac:!.
Jenson
after Nicolas Jenson's roman types
c»c :|. ::c!::s :¡ Ioc::::: c.¸!: A··:¸|:,
created in hfteenth-century Italy.
I c:»: !::| c cc, ::.· ¡::. |o»c·.c, c: I·
The Venetian publisher
Aldus Manutius distributed
inexpensive, small-format
books in the late ffteenth and
early sixteenth centuries to a
broad, international public.
His books used italic types, a
cursive form that economized
printing by allowing more
words to ft on a page. This
page combines italic text with
roman capitals.
Integrated uppercase and lowercase typefaces.
The quick brown fox ran over
the lazy dog 2 or 3 times.
ITC Garamond, 1976
The quick brown fox ran over the
lazy dog 2 or 3 (2 or 3) times.
Adobe Garamond, 1986

The quick brown fox ran over the
lazy dog 2 or 3 (2 or 3) times.
Garamond Premier Regular, 2005
Garamond typefaces, based on the Renaissance designs of Claude Garamond, sixteenth century
lazy d
lazy d
lazy d
Enlightenment
and abstraction
The painter and designer
Geofroy Tory believed that the
proportions of the alphabet
should refect the ideal human
form. He wrote, “the cross-
stroke covers the man’s organ
of generation, to signify that
Modesty and Chastity are re-
quired, before all else, in those
who seek acquaintance with
well-shaped letters.”
Whereas humanist designers such as Geofroy Tory
were inspired by the human body, this ideal letter-
form was created along quasi-scientifc lines. These
engravings by Louis Simonneau is from an alphabet
commissioned by Louis XIV in 1693. The engravings
were the basis of a royal typeface (romain du roi)
designed by Philippe Grandjean.
The types of the eighteenth-century English printer William
Caslon are characterized by crisp, upright characters that recall
the fuid strokes of the fexible steel pen and the pointed quill.
In the late eighteenth century, the English printer John
Baskerville created type with such contrast between thick
and thin elements that his contemporaries are said to
have accused him of “blinding all the Readers of the
Nation; for the strokes of [his] letters, being too thin and
narrow, hurt the Eye.”
Page printed by
John Baskerville
Working in the media of engraving and the fexible
steel pen, eighteenth-centurywriting masters such as
George Bickham created lavishly curved scripts as well
fnely detailed roman capitals rendered in high con-
trast. Such alphabets infuenced the typeface designs
of Baskerville, Didot, and Bodoni.
The French printer Firmin
Didot took Baskerville’s
initiatives to an extreme
level by creating type with
a wholly vertical axis and
razor-thin serifs.
These roman and italic
letters were printed by
Giambattista Bodoni.
They exhibit extreme
contrast between thick
and thin elements.
These roman and italic letters were printed by
Giambattista Bodoni in 1788.
Monster fonts
The rise of advertising in
the nineteenth century
stimulated demand for
large-scale letters that
could command attention
in urban space. In this
lithographic trading card
from 1878, a man is shown
posting a bill in fagrant
disregard for the law.
Fat Face is an infated,
hyper-bold type style
developed in the early
nineteenth century. It is
Bodoni on steroids.
Extra Condensed typefaces, frst seen in nineteenth-century advertisements, were designed to ft tall letters
in narrow spaces. Such letters were made from wood rather than metal, because lead is too soft to hold up
under the pressure of printing large-scale letters.
Egyptian, or slab typefaces, introduced around
1806, transformed the serif from a refned
detail to a load-bearing slab.
The type historian Rob Roy
Kelly created this chart to
illustrate how the square
serif was manipulated
to create ornamental
variations.
This 1875 American
advertising poster uses a
dozen different fonts to
maximize the scale of let-
ters in the space allotted.
Although the typefaces are
richly varied, the centered
layout is static and con-
ventional.
This Dada poster uses
a variety of typefaces
as well as advertising
“cuts” (stock illustrations
available in the printer’s
shop). The layout is
innovative and dynamic,
fghting against the grid
of letterpress. Iliazd, 1923.
Reform and revolution
Edward Johnston created
this chart of the essen-
tial characters of Roman
inscriptions in 1906 as
part of his quest to revive
the search for an essential
standard alphabet. He
was reacting against the
monstrosities of nine-
teenth-century commercial
advertising.
Golden type was created by the English design reformer
William Morris in 1890. He sought to recapture the dark and
solemn density of Nicolas Jenson’s pages. Morris was a design
reformer who was critical of industrial production and saw
ugliness in nineteenth-century commercial printing.
Compare William Morris’s
Golden to its Renaissance
source, the typefaces of
Nicolas Jenson.
I cc»:: I |c:. |cc c !:::!. ::·| c:»..
obert Slimbach styled
Ac:!.
Jenson
after Nicolas Jenson's roman types
c»c :|. ::c!::s :¡ Ioc::::: c.¸!: A··:¸|:,
created in hfteenth-century Italy.
I c:»: !::| c cc, ::.· ¡::. |o»c·.c, c: I·
Compare to Adobe Jenson,
used today.
This logo for the Dutch avant-garde journal De Stijl
was designed by Vilmos Huszar in 1917. The letters
consist of pixel-like blocks.
Theo van Doesburg, founder of the De Stijl movement
in the Netherlands, created this alphabet using only
perpendicular elements in 1919.
Herbert Bayer designed universal, consisting of only
lowercase letters constructed with circles and straight
lines, at the Bauhaus in 1925
Designed by Paul Renner in
Germany, 1927, Futura is a
practical and subtle font that
remains widely used today.
The Dutch designer Wim
Crouwel published his
designs for a “new alphabet,”
consisting of no diagonals or
curves, in 1967.
u Hu1I1Y 15 Iu1B1I6 1u BI u5BuHII uI.
1 m+i||s |s +ti||+| it |- +s|+m-1 t|.
A muttìx ìs uutbìuq tu be usbumed ut.
R wctrIX I: nothIng to be c:hcwed of.
H mOtr¡× ¡S HÐtH¡Hg tÐ he OSHOmeU Ðf.
H m=¥nz× zS WÐ¥HzWc ¥Ð ee =SH=meÐ Ðv!
lo-Res lamily de:¡qned by ¿uzana L¡cko for Ln¡qre, I965
lamily Ireðo?
The French designer Philippe Apeloig created
these contemporary variations on reduced,
geometric typefaces.
Type as narrative
Ûe-ìqned hy ßarry Ûeck ìn !990, !emµÌate Ûothìc
wa- ìn-µìred hy Ìetter- drawn wìth a µÌa-tìc -tencìÌ.
!he tyµelace thu- reler- to a µroce-- that ì- at
once mechanìcaÌ and manuaÌ. Accordìnq to Lmìqre,
!emµÌate Ûothìc ¨relÌect- Ûeck'- ìntere-t ìn tyµe
that ì- not µerlect, tyµe that relÌect- more truÌy the
ìmµerlect Ìanquaqe ol an ìmµerlect worÌd, ìnhahìted
hy ìmµerlect heìnq-.¨
! am not µerlect.
DON'! KNON MUCH A8OU! Hl5!Ok¥?
don't know much obout history?
D£AD Hl5!Ok¥
»so0r Þ¡»Þ uìsro×v
P. Scott Makola cioatod tho typolaco Doad Histoiy
loi Enigio in tho oaily ¡¸¸o`s ly nanipulating
tho voctois ol two oxisting lonts: a tiaditional soiil
lont and tho Pop classic VAC kcunded. Makola
lalollod his woik º¡oo% digital."
Back to work
I am a iad¸. I don: i:ss and :~ii.
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r .¬ . i.r·. r ro×. ×rss .×r .rii.
i .x . :.uv. i uonr xiss .nu rv::.
Th~ :¸p~ia.~ m:s La«~s «as nam~d ai:~: ¡ohn Basi~:«:ii~s hous~i~~p~:, 8a:ah
La«~s, «ho aiso happ~n~d :o b~ h:s m:s::~ss and .:~a::«~ ass:s:an:. L~s:gn~d
:n :jj6 b¸ zuzanna L:.io, m:s La«~s b~.am~ on~ oi :h~ mos: popuia: :¸p~ia.~s
oi :h~ ia:~ :«~n::~:h .~n:u:¸. In an :n:~:«:~« L:.io sa:d :ha: .:~a::ng h~: o«n
:~«:«ai oi :h~ ~:gh:~~n:h~.~n:u:¸ :¸p~s oi Basi~:«:ii~ ¨p:~s~n:~d [h~:] «::h :h~
oppo::un::¸ :o d~s:gn som~ ian.:iui i:ga:u:~s «h:.h h~ip .:~a:~ «:suai :n:~:~s:
and a:~ :~m:n:s.~n: oi .us:om:z~d i~::~::ng.¨
u.1 ,oo |cc· c|oo| M·. 8c·|c·c.||c c»1 M·· |ccc·°
Mrs Eaves
Mrs Eaves
Baroque · ¡»¡cçu¡ · 8ataqu:
¡ m»\ ¡ccx ¡»¡cçu¡, ¡u1 ¡ bcR·1 R¡¡b ¡¡x¡Rc.
Fred Smeijer`s Quaataar offers a crisp interpretation
of typographic tradition.
It looks back to the sixteenth century from a
contemporary point of view, as seen in its
b¡c¡s¡v¡¡\ c¡cm¡1¡¡c s¡¡¡¡s.
Quadraat
Quadraat
Note the vertical italic; this is seen a lot in
contemorary European typeface design
&¡cu»nìc»ì s×ìÞ¡s
Advertising and design serve to ampIily
the vaIue ol useluI things, trunsjcrning
juncticnu| tcc|s intc u||uring
tnut prcnisc tc sutisjy cncticnu| us wc|| us
nutcriu| nccds. A Euioka vacuun cloanoi
clains not only to swoop cloan tho iug,
lut to givo its usoi all hoi hoait dosiios.
Scholais ol ioligion uso tho woid to dosciilo oljocts
that sociotios invost with tho nagical alility to contiol tho loic-
os ol natuio. Tnc witcn´s brccn, u uppcuring in Eurc-
pcun jc|k|crc, is u c|cuning tcc| cnp|cycd jcr nugicu| purpcscs,
tnc witcn is u dungcrcus|y bud ncusckccpcr, u sing|c wcnun witn
ccbwcbs in cvcry ccrncr. k»×ì &»×x bcrrcwcd tnc wcrd
tc cnuructcrizc tnc cu|t cbjcct cj cupitu|isn. ru¡ co&&oÞìrv, a
pioduct nanulactuiod piinaiily to lo sold, and only socond-
aiily to satisly a hunan nood. Tho oljoct loconos a
as its lunctional iolo givos way to psychological incontivos.
Tho connodity spoaks thiough advoitising, packaging, styl-
ing, and liand nano iocognition. Tnc ccrpcrutc pcrscnu|ity invckcd by u
juni|iur brund inugc sucn us |cgcs jcr !ccvcr cr Muytug cun ruisc tnc vu|uc
cj un upp|iuncc, rcgurd|css cj its juncticnu| dijjcrcncc jrcn ctncr brunds. Mur×
ussigncd u jcnininc pcrscnu|ity tc tnc ccnncdity by dcscribing
tnc u||uring, c×tru-juncticnu| jcuturcs cj tnc ccnsuncr prcduct us ´uncrcus
g|unccs" tnut sc|icit tnc inncr ncpcs und pussicns cj tnc buycr. Fioud usod tho
woid to nano an oljoct oi lody pait that stands in placo ol a
loiliddon sox oljoct. A loot oi a shoo, a hand oi a handlagoach can
locono tho taigot ol dosiio, invostod with onotional signihcanco.
·q]·8 pt
zz]z8 pt
·z]·) pt
Toxt lion Ellon Lupton, Mccnunicu| Bridcs. Wcncn und
Mucnincs jrcn !cnc tc Ojjcc (Now Yoik: Piincoton
Aichitoctuial Pioss and Coopoi-Howitt, National Dosign
Musoun.¡ Wiitton in Scala, ¡¸¸¡.
Bold
Italic
}ewel {Pearl)
Regular
}ewel {Crystal)
}ewel {Diamond)
}ewel {Sapphire)
Scala and Scala }ewel
Caps
Þ¡sìcn »nÞ v×oÞ0crìon ìn ru¡ &¡cu»nìc»ì »c¡
MODERN DESICNERS, wORkINC IN
1HE AM8I1IOUS DECADES 8E1wEEN 1HE LAS1
CEN1URY'S 1wO wORLD wARS, EMPHASIZED
AND 1RANSFORMED 1HE 1ECHNOLOCIES OF MECHANICAL REPRODUC1ION.
1HF¥ SOMF1IMFS BURIFD FvIDFNCF
OF 1HF HAND IN ORDFR 1O OB}FC1IF¥ 1HF MACHINF.
fir utss ut×urtcfuvrvs
6r fir ×i×rfrr×fi cr×fuvv ito vv6vr× fitf i×ousfviti
vv6oucfi6× c6uio vrviictfr fir w6vx 6r fvtoi fi 6×ti tvfi st×s.
Avant-garde designers aimed, instead,
to express the techniques oF production in the Form and appearance oF the object.
Tbey sougbt to espose tecbnology and loosen
|ts constra|nts, ||eu|ng tbe processes oj nanujacture as de||ces equ|pped u|tb
cuifuvti t×o trsfirfic citvtcfrv.
Bold
Toxt adaµtod lion Ellon Luµton, ºDosign and
Pioduction in tho Mochanical Ago," Giaµhic Dosign in
tho Ago ol Mochanical Roµioduction: Soloctions lion
tho Moiiill C. Boinan Colloction, Maud Lavin, od. (Now
Havon: Yalo Univoisity Pioss.¡ Wiitton in Scala, ¡¸¸8.
zz pt
·z]·¸ pt Modernlsm Fetishized the very means oF manuFacture,using the systems
oF urcit×icti vrvv6oucfi6× to build a mode oF design that openly en-
dorses its technical origins. 1he ruler and ruler ruler conpass, the canera and balj-
tone block, the letterpress sbop and the ojjset press: these were technologies
charged with meaning, their presence heroically narrated in the visual Forms
they served to produce.
Artlsts and deslgners tapped the cuifuvti r×rvcv 6r fir utcii×r, viewing industrial
production as a vehicle For utopian social change. Although the visual languages oF the
avant-garde were suppressed in the Soviet Union, they continued to grow in the vest, where
grapb|c des|gn emerged as a practice that translates the technologies oF communication
into compellling visual Forms.
·8 pt
·6 pt
·o pt
zo pt
·q pt
Regular
¸o pt
·q pt
·· pt
Caps
zq pt
·· pt
Regular
Italic
Caps
rr Scala Sans
Bold, Regular,
Caps, Italic
Bold, Regular,
Caps, Italic
zz pt
·z pt
zz pt
Scala and Scala Sans, designed by Martin Majoor
Typeface with coordinated serif and sans serif variations
Jonathan Hoefer, typography.com
Hoefer & Frere-Jones. Knockout, typeface
originally developed for Sports Illustrated
Jonathan Hoefer, typography.com
Hoefer & Frere-Jones.
Giza, by David Berlow, Font Bureau
Logotype for MICA (Maryland Institute College of Art),
using Giza typeface by David Berlow (modifed).
< Highway Gothic
< Clearview
< Highway Gothic
< Clearview
Clearview Hwy is the new typeface developed for use
in U.S. highway and street signs. As they are adopted
over time, the United States will become the most
legible place on Earth. The designers’ goal was to
create more readable roadsigns without having to make
the existing signs bigger (which would cost a huge
amount of money as well as causing more visual clutter
and crowding.) Designed by Don Meeker and James
Montalbano. Available from http://clearviewhwy.com.

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