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Social Security

Social Security

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Published by: Learner84 on Aug 13, 2009
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Reference: Labour Economics by Jiuitesh Kumar Singh (Deep & Deep Publication Pvt Ltd) SOCIAL SECURITY: MEANING AND

OBJECTIVES: The issue of social security has been on top of the priority agenda of the international Labour organization. The I.L.O defines Social Security as “security that society furnishes through appropriate organizations against certain risks to which its members are perennially exposed. These risks are essentially unforeseen contingencies against which the individuals of small means and meager resources cannot effectively provide. These risks are sickness, maternity, accident, unemployment, old age and death. It is the characteristic of these contingencies that they imperil the ability of the working man to support himself and his dependents in health and decency”. According to this definition, all government policies may have a large number of security services but all of these cannot be regarded as social security schemes. Only such schemes which provide the citizen with benefits designed to prevent or cure diseases, to support when unable to earn, and to restore him to gainful activity may rightly be regarded as schemes of social security. A comprehensive service of social security designed to combat the Five Giants in the path of social progress----Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and idleness (or involuntary unemployment)----consist of Social insurance (for basic needs), Social assistance (for special requirements) of involuntary loss of all or a large part of income from work or to grant additional income to persons with dependents. Of the world’s more than 2000 million labour force, only 800 million or 40 per cent are socially protected as per the definition of social protection given to this world body. The remaining 60 percent are unprotected. Of the 77 per cent are in the developing countries, including India.

• ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL SECURITY Social security is a dynamic concept which is considered almost all countries of the world as an indispensable chapter of the national programme to strike at the root of poverty, unemployment and disease. Measures adopted by different societies for protecting the need of individuals have been manifold. Beginning with individual act charity and philanthropy, these devices progresses to include mutual benefit schemes, both formal and informal. The demand for the provision of social security by the government, issues from lack of economic security and stability, and it is a primary duty of the government to guarantee a certain amount of social well-being and economic security to every individual member of the community. A new conviction has now developed that social services are no longer a humiliating charity but a necessary and proper duty of the modern State. So far as means of providing social security is concerned, there are several alternatives available to the State. The State can organize it single-headed without counting on the resources or cooperation of any party or organization or it can work in conjunction with some private bodies or voluntary organizations for the benefit of the employees, which is not associated with the organization either through contributions or by participating in its administration.

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