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Past Horizons Issue 9 Aug 2009

Past Horizons Issue 9 Aug 2009

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Published by David Connolly
Welcome the latest edition of Past Horizons
Online journal of volunteer archaeology and training
August 2009

full version available here:
http://en.calameo.com/books/0000627297fcccc634fd5

Editorial
Rocky adventures in Croatia and Scotland.

News stories from around the world.

Fresco Hunting in Western Bulgaria
Since 2008 Balkan Heritage has been cataloguing beautiful Orthodox frescoes found in the crumbling remains of

mediaeval churches and monasteries in western Bulgaria. With the help of volunteers they aim to bring these

frescoes to the attention of the world.

Zulu
The eMakhosini valley in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, is known as the Valley of the Zulu Kings. Here, two

local legends are being explored concerning the Ngobese Zulu and the Siblikeni Homestead of King

Senzangakhona.

Starting Out
A group of like-minded Brislington residents in the UK get together to form their own archaeology project.

The Looting of Ratiaria
The tragedy of the wholesale looting of an ancient Roman city in north western Bulgaria.

Time Team America
A look at the five-part series of the brand new Time Team America.

Dig In
A selection of archaeological volunteer digs and field schools for 2009/2010.

Dig Cook
Culinary escapades from Annie

Interested In...
Distance learning.

Viewpoint
David Connolly discusses the benefits of viewing the familiar with a fresh pair of eyes.

Back Pages
Indiana Jones and the world of advertising.
Welcome the latest edition of Past Horizons
Online journal of volunteer archaeology and training
August 2009

full version available here:
http://en.calameo.com/books/0000627297fcccc634fd5

Editorial
Rocky adventures in Croatia and Scotland.

News stories from around the world.

Fresco Hunting in Western Bulgaria
Since 2008 Balkan Heritage has been cataloguing beautiful Orthodox frescoes found in the crumbling remains of

mediaeval churches and monasteries in western Bulgaria. With the help of volunteers they aim to bring these

frescoes to the attention of the world.

Zulu
The eMakhosini valley in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, is known as the Valley of the Zulu Kings. Here, two

local legends are being explored concerning the Ngobese Zulu and the Siblikeni Homestead of King

Senzangakhona.

Starting Out
A group of like-minded Brislington residents in the UK get together to form their own archaeology project.

The Looting of Ratiaria
The tragedy of the wholesale looting of an ancient Roman city in north western Bulgaria.

Time Team America
A look at the five-part series of the brand new Time Team America.

Dig In
A selection of archaeological volunteer digs and field schools for 2009/2010.

Dig Cook
Culinary escapades from Annie

Interested In...
Distance learning.

Viewpoint
David Connolly discusses the benefits of viewing the familiar with a fresh pair of eyes.

Back Pages
Indiana Jones and the world of advertising.

More info:

Published by: David Connolly on Aug 13, 2009
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Online journal of volunteer archaeology and training

August 2009

Past Horizons
Adventures in Archaeology
Zulu
Legends

Bulgarian
Frescoes

B r i s l ington
Project

Time Team
America

Looting
Bulgaria

Issue 9 August 2009 Editors: Felicity Donohoe Maggie Struckmeier Layout: Maggie Struckmeier Graphics David Connolly Past Horizons Traprain House Luggate Burn Haddington East Lothian EH41 4QA Tel: +44 (0)1620 861643 Email: editor@pasthorizons.com Web: www.pasthorizons.com  Contributors: Elize Bekker Ivan Vasilev Ken Taylor Krassimira Luka Time Team America Annie Evans

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Since 2008 Balkan Heritage has been cataloguing beautiful Orthodox frescoes found in the crumbling remains of mediaeval churches and monasteries in western Bulgaria. With the help of volunteers they aim to bring these frescoes to the attention of the world.

Fresco Hunting in Western Bulgaria

Front cover: The altar space in the church at the 11th century Archangel Michael monastery in Tran. Photo: Balkan Heritage

Note Past Horizons can give no endorsement of any listed project or guarantee the accuracy of the information supplied. The editors accept no responsibility for any loss, injury, or inconvenience sustained by anyone using the resources contained within this magazine and/or the websites mentioned herein. When considering a project, be sure to contact the director with any questions you might have about conditions, travel, health issues, etc. Check for references from previous participants, seek advice where possible and select a project that will be of the greatest benefit to you, the project and the team.

All content is copyright and no reproduction of text or images is allowed without prior permission from the author. Past Horizons 2009

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The eMakhosini valley in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa, is known as the Valley of the Zulu Kings. Here, two local legends are being explored concerning the Ngobese Zulu and the Siblikeni Homestead of King Senzangakhona.

Zulu

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Contents

32

A look at the five-part series of the brand new Time Team America.

Time Team America

26

The tragedy of the wholesale looting of an ancient Roman city in north western Bulgaria.

The Looting of Ratiaria

20 Starting Out

A group of like-minded Brislington residents get together to form their own archaeology project.

Re g u l a r s
4 6
Rocky adventures in Croatia and Scotland.

Editorial

42 45

Culinary escapades from Annie Evans.

Dig Cook

News stories from around the world.

News

40

David Connolly discusses the benefits of viewing the familiar with a fresh pair of eyes.

Viewpoint

A selection of archaeological volunteer digs and field schools for 2009/2010.

Dig In

46

Indiana Jones and the world of advertising.

Back Pages

V i e w all the places in the articles by clicking the Google Earth i m a g e to the left (you require google earth installed)

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Ro c k y Ad v e n t u r es...

editorial

I

t’s been an exciting few months for us, with an ongoing archaeology project in Croatia to take forward and a Scottish hill fort to excavate.

For the uninitiated, Croatia is a beautiful country with over a thousand islands dotted throughout the deep, blue Adriatic Sea. I t is on the largest of these islands that our archaeology project is beginning to take shape, focusing o n Tr a m o n t a n a at the northern end of the island of Cres, an enigmatic place w i t h d e s e r t e d villages surrounded by meadows, hidden away amongst great o a k f o r e s t s . G r iffon vultures soar high in the sky and brightly-coloured lizards d a r t o u t o f t h e rocks or just laze in the sun with only the occasional walker or i n q u i s i t i v e a r c haeologist to disturb their peace.

R o c k i s a v a i l a ble in abundance which has led to the erection of many walls i n t he a r e a : w a lls to keep sheep in or out, walls to walk on and walls to slide s l e d g e s d o w n . In fact, there are walls for most purposes and the people here w e r e m o r e t h a n up to the task of building them. However, when these walls w e r e f i r s t b u i l t is unknown and it this question that we would eventually hope t o a n s w e r. L e a v i n g t h e w alls of Cres behind until October, it was back to the Scottish B o r d e r s t o e x c avate the small hill fort of Blackpotts near St. Abbs. In equally p e a c e f u l a n d d ramatic surroundings, perched on a rocky outcrop overlooking t h e N o r t h S e a , we began a week-long evaluation accompanied by National Trust f o r S c o t l a n d v o lunteers, observed on ly by a flock of wary but curious sheep.

O n c e a g a i n , t h e hard stuff was to haunt us as hidden just underneath the turf and a t h i n l a y e r o f soil was - you guessed it - bed rock! Not surprisingly, trowelling o n b e d r o c k w as not such an enjoyable experience, made worse by brushing a w a y l o o s e s o i l which constantly blew onto our faces.We were quite a sight a t t h e e n d o f e ach day not to mention the telltale smell from kneeling in fresh d u n g l e f t i n t h e trenches by our woolly neighbours. Still, what’s a bit of dirt b e t we e n f r i e n d s? Everyone had a great experience and although we only found a f e w p o t b o i l e rs and one post hole we all went away with good memories. T h i s h a s s e t u s thinking, though. Something which Scotland has in abundance i s h i l l f o r t s a n d as we found out at St. Abbs, they don’t give up their secrets e a s i l y. S o w a t c h this space, and if ou r plans come to fruition over the next few m o n t h s y o u m i ght find yourselves up in the Lammermuir hills of East Lothian w i t h o n l y u s and a flock of sheep for company. Oh, and if you are really u n l u c k y y o u m i ght get to trowel som e bed rock!

Maggie Struckmeier
editor@pasthorizons.com 

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Vo l u nte e r s U n e a r t h U n i q u e S h r i n e at Vi n d olanda

news

A

unique religious shrine and associated altar pieces have been u n c o v e r e d b y two volunteers on their very first dig at Roman Vindolanda ne a r H a d r i a n ’s Wa l l in the north of England. One of the exceptionally well-preserved a l t a r p i e c e s , w e i ghing around 1.5 tonnes, is dedicated to an eastern god, Jupiter o f D o l i c h e .
The Vindolanda altar has a fine relief on one side, typically showing the god standing on a bull, the other side having the traditional jug and patera. Its Latin inscription reads ‘To Jupiter Best and Greatest of Doliche, Sulpicius Pudens, prefect of the Fourth Cohort of Gauls, fulfilled his vow gladly and deservedly’. Although most altars and shrines were placed outside, this altar, standing at around 110 cm high, was found inside the fort in what may be a smal l shrine built close to the wall. Dr. Andrew Birley, excavation director, said, “We have some 560 volunteers who take part in the excavations at Vindolanda every year, from Apri l to the middle of September. The Temple/ shrine to Jupiter Dolichenus and the associated altar s were discovered by a couple that were on week one of their very first excavation. They had an incredible exper ience uncovering the altars, assisted by the Vindolanda Trust’s archaeological staff. “When they arrived they were complete novices. By the end of the week they ha d made a direct contribution to British archaeo logy which has added a new and exciting dimension to our understanding of religious space inside the walls of Roman auxiliary forts.” With no literary references to Dolichenus, knowledge of the religion is based on around 300 surviving inscriptions and sculptures from different parts of the Roman E mpire of which 20 are known in Britain. Several dedications in the inscriptions state that the worshipper had set them up ‘by the command of the god’, commands most likely passed on by priests in the service of Dolichenus to the cult’s converts. The god, called Juppiter Dolichenus by the Romans, was originally known as Hadad, an ancient weather god of the Semitic peoples of the Middle East, and as Teshad to the Hittites. He was regarded as all-powerful and identified with the traditional chief Roman god, Juppiter Optimus Maximus. He is generally portrayed standing on a bull holding an axe in one hand and a thunderbolt in the other. The original cult centre at Doliche was on a hilltop close to the small town of Doliche west of the River Euphrates and was ruled by many different powers over the centuries. Later, in 162 BC, the land became independent as the kingdom of Commagene. Commagene was finally annexed by the Romans in AD 72 but the god of Doliche seems not to have attracted Roman worshippers until the early second century AD. Fro m then on the cult took off and spread all over the empire to frontier provinces. In the 250s AD the cult centre at Doliche was captured by the Persians and a period of disillusionment is thought to have followed, resulting in a loss of faith in the god and bringing the cult to an end. Dr Birley added, “This discovery helps to highlight the vital contribution that volunteers can make to further our understanding of a World Heritage site such as Hadrian’s Wall.”

T h e L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n d e d i ca te d to Jupiter of D oliche.

Photo gra p h s : Ad a m S t a n fo rd ht t p : / / w w w. a e r i a l - cam.co.uk 

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D olich e nu s s t a n d i n g o n a b u l l, h o l d i n g a n a xe i n one hand and a thunderbolt in the other.

For more news stories that are updated constantly, try: Past Horizons News Blog: Stonepages Weekly News and Podcast: CBA Archaeology News Feed: Archaeologica: http://pasthorizons.wordpress.com/category/news-and-articles  http://www.stonepages.com/news  http://www.britarch.ac.uk/newsfeed  http://www.archaeologica.org/NewsPage.htm 

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Kw a Zulu N a tal

South Africa

Above : U n cove r i n g a ce n t ra l h e a r t h a t t h e S i k l i beni homestead of K ing S enzangak hona R igh t : E x p l o r i n g o n e o f t h e f i ve ca ve s f o u n d by the Ngobese in the Thaba N tuzuma mountains

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Zulu
Exploring Legends
B y Elize B ecker

T

h e S o uth African province of K w a Z ulu Natal lies on the sub t r o p i c a l s h ores of the Indian Ocean and s h a r e s i t s borders with Mozambique, S w a z i l a n d and Lesotho. Deep in its r u r a l h e a r tlands there once lived the l e g e n d a r y Shaka, King of the Zulu.

T

h e r e h a v e been various written accounts b y f o r e i g n missionaries and traders, d o c u m e n t e d f r om oral histories, of the rise o f S h a k a , h i s r eign and his role amongst the g r e a t Z u l u k i n gs. However, many of these i m p r e s s i o n s r ely heavily on the writer ’s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f events and cannot accurately p o r t r a y t h e m an behind the legend and the c u l t u r e h e r e p r esented.

A rich oral tradition still ex i s t s a m o n g the Zulu today describing suc h h i s t o r i c a l events, but rarely are these st o r i e s t e s t e d archaeologically. Recently, ho w e v e r, t w o opportunities have arisen to do j u s t t h a t ; o n e involving a Ngobese Zulu legend a n d t h e o t h e r concerning Siklibeni, a traditiona l h o m e s t e a d whose story is linked with King S h a k a a n d t h e rise of the Zulu Nation.
continued 

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View f ro m t h e fa r m h o u s e a cco m m o d a t i o n f o r volunteers over the eMak hosini valley

T h e N g o b e s e l egend dates back around 200 y e a r s a g o w h e n their forefathers, reluctant to b e i n v o l v e d i n conflict, dwelt in caves high u p i n t h e r e m o te and rugged Thaba Ntuzuma m o u n t a i n s . T he location afforded security, s t r a t e g i c a d v a ntage and somewhere to herd t h e i r c a t t l e a n d grow crops in peace. King S e n z a n g a k h o n a , a nearby Zulu chief, was d e t e r m i n e d t o lure these people out. He sent h i s w a r r i o r s t o roast an ox close to the caves a n d u n a b l e t o resist the smell, the Ngobese e m e rg e d t o j o i n the feast and were promptly c a p t u r e d . B y t h e King’s orders they were told t o s t a y o u t o f t he caves from that day onwards a n d a s r e n o w n e d brewers encouraged to share t h e i r s e c r e t s w ith the rest of the Zulu people.

for which they earned a regio n a l h e r i t a g e award, has now resulted in fundra i s i n g e ff o r t s to ensure the group of caves is m a d e m o r e accessible as both a pilgrimage s i t e a n d a s part of a tourism trail.

In advance of this proposal t h e r e g i o n a l heritage agency has commissione d a d e t a i l e d archaeological examination of the c a v e s . T h e first stage, now completed, con s i s t e d o f a reconnaissance survey by archa e o l o g i s t s t o determine the extent of surface le v e l m a t e r i a l that included pottery, bone and me t a l , w i t h t e s t trenching revealing a metal axe o f p o s s i b l e 19th century origin. This materi a l w i l l f o r m part of a comparative study wit h f i n d s f r o m Siklibeni Homestead of King Sen z a n g a k h o n a I n 1 9 9 9 a g r o u p of Ngobese decided to mount an in the nearby eMakhosini valley t o c o n f i r m e x p ed i t i o n t o t he Thaba Ntuzuma mountains. if the artefacts are contemporar y w i t h e a c h D u r i n g t h e s e a r ch they discovered some well- other. h i d d e n c a v e s p erched on either side of a steep g o rg e . E x p l o r i n g the interiors they came across The eMakhosini valley, now a h e r i t a g e p a r k , a n u m b e r o f s u rface artefacts such as grinding contains some of the most importa n t h i s t o r i c a l s t o n e s a n d w o oden spoons. Their discovery, sites of the region including m a n y o f t h e past horizons

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Projec t team archaeol ogis t test pitti ng and sur veying

g r a v e s a n d h o m esteads of the early Zulu kings. engineered his half brother ’s (th e n o m i n a t e d S i k l i b e n i , l i k e most of these royal homesteads, heir) assassination and took the Z u l u t h r o n e w o u l d h a v e f o llowed a traditional blueprint by force, thus casting aside th e t r a d i t i o n o f ‘ b e e h i v e ’ s haped huts of patriar c h a l rule a r r a n g e d i n a c r escent on a and replacin g i t w i t h s l o p i n g p i e c e o f land with autocracy. F r o m 1 8 1 8 t h e c a t t l e , r e presenting onwards Sh a k a b e g a n f a m i l y w e a l t h , housed in a relentlessly expanding r i t u al l y i m p o r t ant central his power by t h e p r o c e s s area or Kraal. of conquest, b l o o d s h e d and tribute o v e r t h e S i k l i b e n i i s s ynonymous smaller, wea k e r r e g i o n a l w i t h t h e s t o r y o f the illicit tribes, many o f w h o m relationship between were assimila t e d i n t o t h e K i n g S e n z a n g a khona and burgeoning Z u l u N a t i o n . S h a k a ’s m o t h er. Nandi. Shaka, the King’s first son, His father, t h o u g h , d i d w a s a p p a r e n t l y born out not have a g r e a t a m o u n t o f we d l o c k a n d although Ph o to g ra p h of Zulu homestead taken in 1903. of followers d u r i n g h i s m o t h e r a n d s o n lived at (Co u r te s y o f O k inawa S oba) reign which l a s t e d f r o m S i k l i b e n i f o r a time they 1781 - 1816. T h e Z u l u , o n e w e r e e v e n t u a l l y forced to make their home branch of a larger clan, were rela t i v e l y f e w i n e l s e w h e r e . O n the death of Senzan gakhona numbers at this time and in that re s p e c t i t m a y i n 1 8 1 6 , h o w e v er, Shaka returned in strength, be easy to dismiss Siklibeni as u n i m p o r t a n t .
continued 

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H o w e v e r, i t s cultural significance as the ‘ s e e d - b e d ’ o f t he future Zulu Nation and the s h a p i n g o f m o dern South Africa raises its s t a t us d r a m a t i c ally. S i n c e S i k l i b e ni also represents the old t r a d i t i o n o f k i n gship which existed before the s u d d e n c h a n g e to autocratic rule, the chance t o s t u d y a s i t e like this is extremely exciting. I n i t i a l t e s t p itting has already revealed s e c t i o n s o f h u t floors, hearths and grinding s t o n e s a n d , a l o ng with the Ngobese cave site, t h e n e x t p h a s e of the project will move onto full excavation. T h e a r c h a e o l o g ical potential of Siklibeni, and i n d e e d t h e w h o le eMakhosini valley, is huge a n d th i s p r o j e c t provides a real oppor tunity to b e p a r t o f i t . T h ere is always plenty of work to d o , w h i c h v a r i e s according to the pha se of the p r o j e c t . I t i s a i med at those who want handso n e x p e r i e n c e before moving onto university b u t a l s o w e l c o mes anyone who has an interest i n t h e a r c h a e o l ogical research activities. Vo l u n t e e r s c a n explore the region, meet the l o c a l s o r g o o n safari. Indeed it is not unusual f o r rh i n o s a n d other wildlife to wander past y o u r k i t c h e n window in the early morning o n t h e i r w a y t o the waterhole. Now, nothing r e a l l y b e a t s t h a t as an incentive to get digging, does it?
E l i ze Becker graduated in anthropol o g y a n d a rc h aeology from the Universit y of Pretori a i n 2 0 0 4 b e f o re becoming senior heritage officer wi t h A m a fa K Z N Heritage. She is currently employed by K n i g h t Pi e s old consulting as the projec t archaeo l o g i s t .

Get Involved
A l a rg e p a r t o f t h e p ro j e c t i s d e vo te d to te s t p i t e xc avat i o n s, re s c u e p ro ce d u re s, re h a b i l i t at i o n o f t h e te s t p i t a re a s, a n d t h e co l l e c t i n g a n d c a p t u r i n g o f d at a . Vo l u nte e r s w i l l b e l e d by o n e o r t wo p ro fe s s i o n a l a rc h a e o l o gi s t s. D ate s : b e t we e n J u n e a n d S e p te m b e r 2 0 1 0 Co s t : £ 9 9 5 fo r t wo we e k s u p to £ 2 , 6 7 5 fo r 1 2 we e k s ( at 2 0 0 9 p r i ce s. 2 0 1 0 p r i ce s to b e co n f i r m e d ) . Th e co s t i n c l u d e s a cco m m o d at i o n a n d fo o d b u t n o t f l i g ht s o r i n s u ra n ce. Fo r f u r t h e r d e t a i l s g o to :
ht t p : / / w w w. t rave l l e r s wo r l d w i d e. co m / 0 8 a - s o u t h afr ica/08-sa-we -archaeology.htm 

Above: Three logos that represent th e par tn er organisations for this projec t: Travelle rs Worldwide, A ma fa and KwaZulu Natal Heritage Foundat ion.

A rcha e o l o g i s t s a n d vo l u n te e r s te s t p i t t i n g a n d sieving

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Advertising Feature

U

Birmingham provides the ideal footing for anyone wanting to begin a career in archaeology or the heritage environment. Along with diverse skills and opportunities provided, I also got to experience city life in Britain’s second city. Thanks to the course, I have been employed in archaeology since I graduated in 2007. Emma Sautejeau, MA Practical Archaeology

B
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The Institute of Archaeology and Antiquity offer a range of postgraduate and professional training courses aimed to provide you with the skills you need to work in the heritage environment today. From project management techniques in archaeology to the visualisation of past environments, we aim to give you practical experience in the diverse range of techniques and approaches available to heritage practitioners. All of the courses we offer can be tailored to your individual interests and needs, and can be delivered full-time or part-time degrees. Campus-based programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments MSc in Environmental Archaeology & Palaeoenvironments MA in Conflict Archaeology M Phil (B) in Archaeological Practice Distance Education programmes MA/PG Diploma in Practical Archaeology (DE) MA/PG Diploma in Landscape Archaeology, GIS & Virtual Environments (DE) To find out more, go to http://www.iaa.bham.ac.uk/Postgraduate/ or email us at archpgrad@lists.bham.ac.uk

Emma holding a medieval leather shoe recovered from excavations in Birmingham

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Above : T h e a l t a r s p a ce i n t h e c hu rc h a t t h e 1 1 t h centur y A rchangel M ichael monaster y in Tran. R igh t : D o c u m e n t i n g f re s co e s i n S t . Pe t ka c hu rc h, Balsha.

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Fresco Hunting
an expedition to the

M ediaeval Churc h e s o f We s te r n B u l g a r i a

B y I van Vasilev

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h e p a s t o ral landscapes and small villages o f t h e h i ghlands of Western Bulgaria are j u s t a n h our ’s drive away from the capital S o f i a . H o w e v e r, the differences between the b u s t l i n g m o d e r n city and the peaceful countryside a r e s o p r o n o u n c ed that you might be forgiven for t h i n k i n g y o u h ave travelled back in time. The c r a c k s o n t h e a s phalt roads are filled with grass, l a v i s h v e g e t a t i on inhabits the now empty yards a n d t h e f e w l o cals you might happen to come a c r o s s w i l l i n v i te you into their house in the old f a s h i o n e d w a y f or a drink or a snack.
continued 

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A D eë s i s f re s co f ro m t h e 1 3 - 1 4 t h ce n t u r y c hu rc h o f St. Peter near Berende. A D eësis fresco is a traditional iconic representation of Ch r i s t e n t h ro n e d, ca r r y i n g a b o o k a n d f l a n ke d by the Virgin Mar y and St.John the Baptist whose hands are raised towards Christ i n s u p p l i ca t i o n . T h i s f re s co h a s s u s t a i n e d deliberate damage during the O ttoman rule, with the eyes and mouths of the th re e f i g u re s s c ra tc h e d o u t .

T h i s r e g i o n , l o c ated in the heart of the Balkans, c o v er s t h e N i s hava and Upper Struma basins a n d b o r d e r s S e rbia and Macedonia, two of the s i x r e p u b l i c s t hat formed Yugoslavi a before i t s dr a m a t i c s plit in the 1990s. It is one of t h e r e m o t e s t areas of Bulgaria despite its p r o x i m i t y t o t he capital, largely due to the c o n s e q u e n c e s of the two world wars and 50 y e a r s s p e n t i n isolation from the rest of the c o u nt r y d u r i n g the communist era.

officially by all socialist coun t r i e s a s n o t properly socialist) and access to t h a t 2 0 k m broad strip along the frontier fo r t h e r e s t o f Bulgaria was strictly limited.

This 50-year long stagnation had a d r a m a t i c effect on the economic and d e m o g r a p h i c profile of the region making i t a m o n g t h e poorest and least inhabited regio n s . T h e o n l y advantage of this isolation was t h a t i t s a v e d the cultural and natural heritage f r o m l o o t e r s B e s i d e s t h e B e r lin Wall there were many more and poachers more than in any o t h e r p a r t o f f r o n t i e r s i n E astern Europe that prevented Bulgaria. c o n t a c t b e t w e e n the capitalist and the socialist w o r l d s b e f o r e 1989. One of them, the Cordon In the Middle Ages this region w a s s e t d e e p S a n i t a i r e , f o r m ed to stop the exit of millions in the territory of the Bulgarian ( 8 1 0 - 1 0 1 4 f r o m t h e s o c i a l ist paradise, was a border zone and 1180’s – 1330’s) and Byzan t i n e e m p i r e s s t r i p w h i c h c u t through the European socialist (before 810 and 1014-1180’s) bu t i n t h e 1 4 t h c o u nt r i e s . I t s tretched as far north as the century it became the border a r e a b e t w e e n A r c t i c a c r o s s t he heart of Europe and ended Bulgaria and the Serbian kingdom . A t t h e e n d a t t h e B l a c k s e a along the borders with the so- of the 14th century Ottoman Turk s c o n q u e r e d c a l l e d e n e m i e s . Western Bulgaria was part of the area and it remained under t h e S u l t a n ’s t h a t b o r d e r z o n e with Yugoslavia (considered government until 1878. past horizons

16

1 3 - 1 4 t h c e n t u r y Church of the Blessed V i r g i n s i t u a t e d high on a cliff near Razboishte.

I t h a d l o n g b e en a melting pot of cultural i n f l u e n c e s w h e re masters from all the major B a l k a n O r t h o dox painting schools were i n v i te d t o p a i n t the interiors of the churches a n d c h a p e l s w i th significant scenes from the b i b l e . T h e y w e re employed by local notables b e f o r e t h e O t t oman conquest and then by the l o c a l B u l g a r i a n Christian communities during t h e t i m e o f O t toman rule. This are a is one o f o n l y a f e w i n south eastern Europe where t h e t r a d i t i o n s of all major Balkan mediaeval schools of art, including Constantinople, Veliko Ta r n o v o , O h r i d, Serbia and Thessalonica, c o n ve rg e d . W h a t c a n s t i l l be seen today are the remnants o f t h i s f l o u r i s hing mediaeval Orthodox art. T h e s m a l l c h a p els and churches, mostly poorly b u i l t w i t h l i t t le attention to architectural d e t a i l , a r e t h e survivors of the Ottoman i n v a s i o n i n t h e 14-15th centuries. Although m a n y o f t h e s e m onuments have long been left to d e c a y, b e h i n d t heir dilapidated and somewhat u n a pp e a l i n g e xteriors lie exquisite frescoes w h i ch h a v e s u ffered much damage over the c e n t u r i e s , s o m e of it deliberate and some d u e t o n e g l e c t and exposure to the elements. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t hey still represent a body of w o r k t h a t h a s never been properly studied in a n y g r e a t d e t a i l and can tell us much about h o w t h e v a r i o u s mediaeval artistic styles of t h e r e g i o n o r i g inated and spread.

16th centur y St. Nicholas church in Malo Malovo. The church is the only sur vivor of a late mediaeval monaster y complex. continued 

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However, the professionalism and d e v o t i o n o f the project’s participants, and th e e x c i t e m e n t of the local people who belie v e t h a t t h e expedition is God’s message for t h e r e v i v a l o f their region, have motivated Bal k a n H e r i t a g e to upgrade the project’s framewo r k . T h e y a r e now working towards concrete p r o p o s a l s f o r conservation and restoration of s o m e o f t h e monuments and are applying for f u n d i n g . Over the next few years the p r o j e c t w i l l have three major components i n o r d e r t o meet these objectives. These w i l l c o n s i s t of fieldwork, with training bei n g g i v e n i n database recording, sketching, m e a s u r i n g a n d the creation of photographic re c o r d s o f t h e frescoes and edifices, including s i g n i f i c a n t Tracin g m e d i a e va l g ra f f i t i . mediaeval artefacts such as g r a v e s t o n e s , I n 2 0 0 5 , B a l k a n Heritage decided to initiate a icons, iconostases and chandelier s . T h e r e w i l l f i e l d s c h o o l p r ogramme designed to document also be educational lectures and w o r k s h o p s t h e s e m o n u m e nts as a first step towards in south east European mediaeva l h i s t o r y a n d t h e i r p r o t e c t i o n. The expedition focused on Orthodox iconography along wi t h c l a s s e s i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a for the publication of a ‘corpus fresco restoration. o f m e d i a e v a l f r escoes from western Bulgaria’ w i t h t h e i n t e n t ion of bringing the frescoes to Co-ordinated by the National Aca d e m y o f A r t s t h e a t t e n t i o n of interested scholars around in Sofia and led by the Balkan H e r i t a g e t e a m , t h e w o r l d a s w e ll as to raise public awareness students now come from all over t h e w o r l d t o study, photograph and document t h e c h u r c h e s i n s i d e B u l g a r i a and the European Un ion.

Documenting frescoes in St. Petka church, Balsha.

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Presentation on O r t h o d ox iconography at the 10th centu r y Rila mona s te r y.

a n d m o n a s t e r i e s. The successful field schools o f 2 0 0 8 - 2 0 0 9 h ave already begun to reveal the h i d d e n s e c r e t s of the 14th century c hurch of S t . N i c h o l a s o f Kalotina, the 13-14th century c h u r c h o f S t . Peter in Berende and the 16th c e n t u r y S t . P e t ka in Balsha, the 16th century m o n a s t e r y o f St. Nicholas in Malo Malovo a n d t h e 11 t h c entury monastery of Archangel M i c h a e l i n Tr a n. E a c h d a y t h e project has brought new and e x c i t i n g d i s c o v eries as a result of the students’ a t t e n t i o n t o d e tail and careful observations. B y s e p a r a t i n g out distinct fresco layers a n d d i s c o v e r i n g more about constructional t e c h n i q u e s t h e y have been able to begin to a s s i g n d a t e p eriods to both frescoes and buildings. Wi t h t h e s u p p ort of local stake-holders and i n t e r n a t i o n a l v olunteers, the Balkan Heritage t e a m h o p e s t o p r eserve these unique monuments b e f o r e t h e y b e come too badly decayed and b e y on d h e l p . T hey form a valuable part of the h e r i t a g e o f t h e Balkans and the wide r history o f E u r o p e , a n d its artistic and religious c o n ne c t i o n s a l l the way to Constantinople. I n d e e d , a n y o n e who decides to get involved w i t h t h i s p r o j e ct will be richly rewarded not o n l y b y t h e b e auty of the frescoes but by the w a r m t h o f t h e local people who are eager to s h a r e t h e s e l i t tle known treasures with the r e s t o f t h e w o r l d.

Get Involved
The projec t is open to students and volunteers over 21 years of age. G ood sketching/drawing sk ills and/or basic k nowledge of documental photography along with a strong personal motivation are requirements. Dates: Two weeks in M ay 2010. D etails not available yet, but keep check ing the website. Cost: €1299. Fee includes all educational and fieldwor k ac tivities, travel to and from the fieldwor k sites, accommodation and meals, excursions, sightseeing tours and entrance fees, transfer from and to S ofia air por t and administrative costs. Website: http://w w w.bhfieldschool.org 

The local people of Balsha generously prepared food for the team each day.

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S tarting Ou t
B y Ken Taylor

A l l b e g i n n i n g s h a v e o r i g i n s . To a n ar c h a e o l o g i s t , t h i s i s a d e l i g h t a s i t i s p a r t o f th e q u e s t f o r k n o w l e d g e , b u t t o a w r i t e r i t i s di ff i c u l t d e c i d i n g w h e r e t o b e g i n t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y. A l l o w m e t o s e t t h e s c e n e.

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O u r a r c h a e o l o g y project is located in Brislington, once a small village in Somers e t , s o u t h w e s t E n g land, but now swallowed up by the city of Bristol. It has its poin t s o f i n t e r e s t , a p artially documented history and archaeological remains that sugge s t c o n t i n u o u s o c c upation for millennia. As such there is nothing intrinsically remarkab l e a b o ut t h e p l a c e. It could be almost any parish in England, but an enthusiast fin d s i n s pi r a t i o n e v e rywhere making the most of what there is.

B e fo re t h e b e ginning B r i e f l y, t h ere were several a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y-related threads present i n t h e B r i s l i n g ton community, of which f o u r s p r i n g t o mind. P e o p l e e n t h u s i astic about archaeology b u t n o t k n o w i ng what to do about it; o rg a n i s a t i o n s such as the Portable A n t i q u i t i e s S cheme who need input f r o m, b u t s e e m unable to reach, the lay p e r s o n ; l o c a l s unaware of the benefits a r c h a e o l o g y c a n bring to the community a n d o f c o u r s e t he archaeological remains t h e ms e l v e s . Few of these strands were prope r l y connected, and how they began to gro u p together is something of a mystery ; a chance word here, a casual meeting the r e . Sometimes a cluster of these eve n t s would waken a sense of synchronici t y, or at least inspire conviction that o n e wasn’t utterly alone in having an inter e s t in local archaeology. Situations like t h i s can last a lifetime, with no-one maki n g the first move.
continued 

Vic tor i a n te r ra ce d h o u s i n g s we p t ove r t h e g re e n f ields of Brislington village as it was subsumed by the cit y of Bristol. Photo: Ke n Ta y l o r

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The R i ve r Avo n s n a ke s a ro u n d t h e n o r t h e r n b o u n dar y of Brislington, and also formed the boundar y bet ween the ancient counties of

H e re g o e s n o t h ing I n J u n e 2 0 0 7 I attended a show-and-tell m e e t i n g o f B rislington Conservation and H i s t o r y S o c i e ty (BCHS). Everyone else t h e r e h a d l o v e ly antiques, fascinating early p h o t o g r a p h s a nd amusing anecdotes. I had b r o u g h t a b a g of tatty pot sherds from my 2 0 0 3 Ti m e Te a m Big Dig back garden test pit. I f e l t a b i t e m b arrassed. To m y s u r p r i se, though, people became g e n u i n e l y i n t e r ested as I passed around the i t e m s w h i c h d a ted from the Roman period to t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u ry. The idea that the ground o u r m o d e r n h o uses occupy can retain relics o f d i s t a n t c e n t uries seemed to strike a chord.

Spreading the word I was expecting to be deluged a n d I w a i t e d with baited breath. No response . I w r o t e a similar paragraph for another loca l c o m m u n i t y group. Still nothing. So, we me n t i o n e d t h e project on Perry’s show. Zilch. A l t h o u g h , a s every archaeologist knows, a null r e s u l t i s a s significant as a tray full of finds. So were we discouraged? You bet . The idea of orchestrating a full s c a l e m e d i a blitz, pulling out all the stops and a d v e r t i s i n g a public meeting was discussed bu t d i s m i s s e d . We didn’t have the spare time to s e t u p t h e entire infrastructure ourselves.

T h e y a l s o a p p r eciated the fact that the least We knew we’d need a legal c o n s t i t u t i o n , a t t r a c t i v e l o o k ing sherds are often t he most auditable accounts, excavation i n s u r a n c e , a n c i e n t a n d i n t eresting. Data Protection Act registration, a D i s a b i l i t y Discrimination Act-compliant we b s i t e a n d s o E n c o u r a g e d b y volunteer field archa eologist on. a n d ra d i o p r e s e nter Perry Guidrey, I accepted t h e k i n d i n v i t ation from Jonathan Rowe, We were in a classic catch-2 2 s i t u a t i o n . B C H S c h a i r m a n, to write a paragraph for Before we could set up a group to a t t r a c t a n y t h e i r n e w s l e t t e r to announce the setting up members, we needed enough mem b e r s t o f o r m o f a p i l o t C o mmunity Archaeology Project a team that could set up the group ! ( C A P ) c a l l i n g f or people to contact us to have t h e i r o w n g a r d e n finds identified. past horizons

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Gl o ucestershire a n d S o m e r s e t . I m a g e : R o s i e To m l i n s o n

Brislington Brook from Pack horse Bridge. Image: Ken Taylor

D o i n g w h at co mes naturally R a t h e r t h a n t r y ing to catalyse change, Perry a n d I d e c i d e d t o become passive nuclei around s o m e t h i n g w h i ch might or might not grow. We c a r r i e d o n with our own research interests m e n ti o n i n g t h e pilot phase of CAP only in passing. I n N o v e m b e r I responded to a public plea f r o m a r c h a e o l ogist, Angela Piccini, asking l o c a l p e o p l e t o field walk. The venture was i n s up p o r t o f a community initiative to assess a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence of land use with a v i e w t o i n f o rming debate and inf luencing d e c i s i o n s a b o u t future use of the site by the local council.

M eeting of minds January began with four people i n a p u b , o n e of whom, Rosie Tomlinson, was c h a i r w o m a n of the local Reflex Camera Clu b . Wo u l d I guide them through a walk poin t i n g o u t a l l the archaeology? I was happy to a g r e e a s a t least it would create a photograph i c r e c o r d . Of course, it takes time for wo r d - o f - m o u t h to spread. In late December my w i f e p a s s e d on a message from one of her col l e a g u e s w h o had emailed on behalf of a friend : d i d I k n o w something about local archaeolog y?

In the meantime, one of the four p e o p l e f r o m the pub, Trudy Parker, made some p h o n e c a l l s to find out how to set up a grou p . E a c h c a l l N o b o d y e l s e s h owed up so Angela and I (each produced some good advice and m o r e n a m e s w i t h s o n s e n j oying the romp) had a good to contact. Soon she was phonin g p e o p l e a l l o l ’ ch i n - w a g a bout apathy and opportunities over the country. w h i l e w e s u r v e yed the site. Despite February snow, the photo g r a p h i c w a l k P a c k h o r s e B r i d ge, rebuilt attracted over a dozen people fro m a l l w a l k s a f te r flooding in of life. Most of them turned up a f o r t n i g h t t h e 1960s. The later to meet the city archaeo l o g i s t , B o b re m ains of an a n c i ent ford can Jones, who came to the pub to tal k a b o u t h o w b e s een through we could help each other.
t h e water. I m a g e: Theresa D r i s coll continued 

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En d o f t h e b e ginning A t t h e n e x t meeting in the pub, someone h e l d u p a c o n stitution downloaded from the i n t e r n e t . I ’ d a l ways assumed the Brislington C o m m u n i t y A rchaeology Project (BCAP) w o u l d b e s e t u p as a branch of BCHS. Suddenly m y v i s i o n w a s being outvoted eight to one. Wi t h f i v e o ff i c ers elected in as many minutes, B C A P w a s b o r n on March 3, 2009, one year a n d a d a y a f t e r the pilot project was formally a n n ou n c e d .

The rest is histor y By April BCAP had joined the Av o n L o c a l History and Archaeology group an d t h e C o u n c i l for British Archaeology. We also o p e n e d o u r first test pit (having first check e d w i t h t h e City Archaeologist), using the m e t h o d o l o g y advocated by the Time Team Big D i g . In the same month Kate Iles, assi s t a n t c u r a t o r of Archaeology at Bristol Muse u m , s h o w e d us the archives from an excav a t i o n o f t h e ‘dissolved’ mediaeval chapel of S t A n n e , a n ongoing focus of BCAP’s interes t . In May 2009 our website was cre a t e d a n d w e also attended our first stakeho l d e r m e e t i n g regarding a local planning appl i c a t i o n , a n d we set out our stall at the 25th a n n i v e r s a r y exhibition of BCHS, with whom w e s t i l l e n j o y very close links. This was our public launch a n d w e w e r e kept busy all day, signed up s e v e r a l n e w members and identified a surpri s i n g n u m b e r of artefacts.

Join Up
B r i s l i n g to n Co m m u n i t y A rc h a e ol o g y Pro j e c t ( B C A P ) a i m s to p rov i d e a f ra m e wo r k w i t h i n w h i c h to p ra c t i ce a rc h a e o l o g y. Wi t h a w i d e va r i e t y o f o n g o i n g p ro j e c t s, lo c a l p e o p l e c a n b e s u re to s e e t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d i n a d i f fe re nt l i g ht . A g o o d ra n g e o f l o c a l k n ow l e d g e, a b ro a d n e t wo r k o f co nt a c t s a n d grow i n g e x p e r i e n ce i n a l l a s p e c t s o f a rc h a e o l o g y, B C A P c a n o f fe r a d v i ce a n d p ra c t i c a l s u p p o r t to a nyo n e w h o i s i nte re s te d i n e x p l o r i n g t h e i r l o c a l h e r i t a g e. B C A P a l s o we l co m e s m e m b e r s w h o w i s h to t a k e a l e s s a c t i ve ro l e o r s i m p l y k e e p i n to u c h w i t h w h at ’s g o i n g o n .
First m e n t i o n e d i n 1 3 0 8 , t h e c hu rc h o f S t . Lu ke i s mainly of 15th ce n t u r y wo r k m a n s h i p, a l t h o ug h t h e p re a c hing cross is 13th ce n t u r y. I m a g e : R oy B ra n n

For more infor mation and an application for m:
ht t p : / / w w w. b r i s l i n g to n a rc h a e o l o g y. o rg. u k / a d min/index.html

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Lo o k i n g to t h e future E v e n w i t h a f airly large local population t o c a l l u p o n i t took us a year to get off the g r o u n d p r o v i n g that perseverance is at least a s i m p o r t a n t a s enthusiasm, and that luck also h a s it s o w n r o l e to play. Realistically, we can e x p ec t f l u c t u a t ions in our membership and a c t i v i t y, a s c o mpeting hobbies and work wax a n d w a n e i n t h e community. We a r e t a c k l i n g projects impossible for any i n d i v i d u a l t o u ndertake alone. However, as a g r o u p w e c a n e ngage in an ever-wider range o f a c t i v i t i e s a n d enjoy closer links with other o rg a n i s a t i o n s , enabling us to make a positive a n d l o n g - l a s t i ng contribution, both to our l o c a l c o m m u n i ty and to the archaeological c o m m u n i t y a s a whole. First dig

Pic tured from lef t to right: D an and Colette Linehan along with Rosie Tomlinson open BCAP ’s first test pit.

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Ratiaria
S
B y K rassimira Luk a

The Looting of

i t u a ted on the banks of the Danube in north w e s tern Bulgaria sits the ancient city of Colonia U l p ia Traiana Ratiaria, once considered one of t h e m o s t i mportant Roman and Early Byzantine centres i n t h e r e g ion. I t s d o w n f all came in the 440s when it was sacked by the H u n s , r e c overing briefly only to be devastated in 586 by t h e Av a r s . Now, some 1500 years later, the destruction o f t h e c i t y is nearly complete but this time Rataria is at t h e m e r c y of organised crime.
continued 

The D a n u b e, w h e re i t f l ow s p a s t t h e t ow n o f V i d i n . Photo: K learchos K apoutsis Above: B ro n ze h e a d t h o u g h t t o b e o f E m p e ro r Tra j a n found at R ataria and later stolen from the Regional Heritage Museum of Vidin .

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Vidin

Romania

Ratiaria
Serbia Sophia

Bulgaria

Black Sea

FYROM
50 km

Greece

Turkey

30 mi
© Daniel Dalet

Bulgaria

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Evidence of the scale of l o o t i n g a t Ra t i a r i a . T h e re d a r row i n t h e s e co n d i m a g e p o i n t s to a s k u l l t h a t h a s b e e n d i s ca rd e d by a tomb robber.

R a t i a ria lies cl ose t o t he vi ll age of A r ch ar i n t he Vidin regi on of B ulgar ia and wa s f ir st ex c a vated from 1958 - 1962 t he n f rom 1 9 7 6 – 1 99 1. However, si nce t hen no ar chaeo l og ic al w o rk h as tak en pl ace a t t he sit e. This i s at a t i me when all o ther s ignif i cant anc ien t cit ies i n Bulgaria are being st udi ed, conserv ed an d o pe ned to the publ ic as par t of a commi tme nt t o t he n ation’s c ult ural he ri ta ge w hic h th en b eg s the q u estion: w hy is Rat iar i bei ng le ft to t he mercy of the l ooter s?

Th er e h as b een n o cl ear an swe r. Th e d ut y l ies p ri mar ily wi th t h e R eg io n al H e ri t ag e M u seu m o f Vid in wh i ch is r esp o n s i b l e fo r a ll hi sto ri c si tes i n th e ar ea b ut s eem s t o d o n o th in g . H ig h li gh ti ng t hi s, t h e m os t rece nt d at a av ail ab le f ro m t he Bu l ga ri a n A cad em y o f Sci en ce s stu d y of a rc ha eo lo g ic al f i n d s an d e xc av at io ns i n 20 0 7 is ex tr eme l y rev ea l i n g . O f th e 2 9 5 site s in v esti g ate d i n B ul g ari a t ha t y ear on ly fo u r t oo k p la ce w i t hi n Vi di n a nd n on e w er e car r ied o ut b y t h e R eg i on al M u seu m. G ov er n men ta l leg isl ati o n s t at e s t h at

A rch i te c t u ra l fra gm e n ts wi th i n s cr ipt ion s fo un d du ring exca vt io ns f ro m 1976 - 1991.

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t h e r e m i t o f i t s r egional museums are to ‘search f o r, s t u d y, c o l l ect, acquire, store, document a n d p o p u l a r i s e cultural monuments’ , and in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the current Culture Heritage A c t ‘ t h e m a i n activity of the museum is to p r o t e c t a n d e x hibit movable and immovable c u l t u r a l a r t e f a c ts’. T h e R e g i o n a l Museum, therefore, has a duty o f c a r e t o t h e monuments under its control. L o o k i n g a t R a t iaria the evidence of looting is t h e r e f o r a l l t o see but in actual fact there is n o n e e d t o e v e n visit the site. Recent aerial p h o t o g r a p h s a vailable on the internet show a l m os t t h e w h o le area scarred with bulldozer t r a c k s . R a t i a r ia is being systematically d e s t r o y e d u s i ng everything from shovels t o h e a v y - d u t y machinery with standing m o n u m e n t s r e d uced to rubble, tombs broken i n t o a n d h u m a n remains and pottery scattered a l l a r o u n d . I t i s in a precarious state yet noo n e w i l l t a k e r esponsibility for it.

The problem is not new, however. I t h a s b e e n ongoing for at least 10 years and o c c a s i o n a l l y the Bulgarian government is f o r c e d i n t o taking action. In 2001, in respon s e t o p u b l i c pressure, the government set o u t a s e r i e s of recommendations requirin g Dimovo Municipality and the Region a l H e r i t a g e Museum of Vidin to take actio n r e g a r d i n g Ratiaria. Of course,they are only recomme n d a t i o n s a n d the various bodies involved are n o t o b l i g e d to act upon them. Indeed, promis e s t o b u i l d a police station on the site never m a t e r i a l i s e d and funding for a monument war d e n w a s c u t . Of those actually caught in the a c t o f i l l e g a l excavation and tried before the re g i o n a l c o u r t in 2000 and 2001 each person’s c h a rg e s w e r e dropped. Eight years later, despit e e x t e n s i v e coverage by the Bulgarian new s p a p e r s t o highlight the problem, not one o f t h e 2 0 0 1 directives has been implemented . T h e o n l y
continued 

G overnment recommendations fo r D i m ovo M u n i c i p a l i t y a n d t h e R e g i o n a l H e r i t a g e Museum of Vidin • • • • • • • • • Cons truc tion of a police st at i o n o n t h e s i te The implementation of all l o c a l l a n d u s e l aws The creation of a database o f l o c a l l a n d ow n e r s Monument boundar y to be d e f i n e d Repair of fences and signa g e Archaeologic al salvage wo r k to b e u n d e r t a ke n Backfilling of looter trench e s Obtain protec ted status fo r R at i a r i a Carr y out regular archaeol o g i c a l exc avat i o n s

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p e o p l e w h o b e nefit from the inactivity of t h e l o c a l a u t h o rity and the Regional Historic M u s e u m o f Vi d in are those who plunder and t r a d e i n a n c i e n t artefacts. D e s p i t e n e w government laws explicitly l a y i ng o u t h o w sites should be protected the t e m p t a t i o n t o earn substantial amounts of h a r d c u r r e n c y i s simply too great. Organised c r i m i n a l s t r a n s port artefacts through Germany a n d t h e n o n t o the world collectors’ market w h e r e B u l g a r i an antiquities are in high d e m an d . R a t i a r ia, it seems, is the tip of the i c e b e rg . S a d l y, Bulgaria is being drained of i t s h e r i t a g e a t s uch a rate that the antiquities m a r k e t i s n o w flooded. Volodia Velkov, head o f t h e B u l g a r i an police unit charged with c o m b a t i n g o rg a nised crime, said in 2 007 that t h e l o o t i n g o f h istoric monuments in Bulgaria g e n e r a t e s b i l l i ons of dollars per year. The p o t e n t i a l t o e a r n such vast sums of money leads t o t h e c o n c l u s i on that unless there is proper p r o t e c t i o n , v u l nerable sites like Ratiaria will n o t s u r v i v e t h e onslaught.

Those who want to see this situa t i o n c h a n g e must act immediately, directly an d p o s i t i v e l y. The Bulgarian Archaeological A s s o c i a t i o n along with other interested grou p s h a v e s e t themselves the goal of attracting t h e a t t e n t i o n of the international community a n d t o r a i s e funds to protect Ratiaria in the s h o r t t e r m . In the longer term it is hoped t o i m p l e m e n t a programme of research, interp r e t a t i o n a n d consolidation. The potential to save this site l i e s w i t h a l l of us but unfortunately it is nea r l y t o o l a t e . Bulgaria still has many wonderf u l t r e a s u r e s to be proud of but these resour c e s a r e b o t h fragile and finite. It is important t o s u p p o r t t h e fight to protect Colonia Ulpia Trai a n a R a t i a r i a and ensure this significant archae o l o g i c a l s i t e survives this terrible destruction.
K ra s s i m i ra Lu ka i s t h e d i re c to r o f t h e B u l g a r i a n A rchaeologocal Association (BAA)which was formed i n 2 0 0 0 w i t h t h e a i m o f s t i mu l a t i n g a rc h a e o l o g i ca l re s e a rc h i n B u l g a r i a a n d t h e B a l ka n s.

Ever y year the B AA organises an international field school based around the subjec t of Roman archaeology Find B AA at: http://w w w.archaeology.archb g.net 

I f you are viewing this magazine on SCRIBD, then you will not be able to see the video. You can view it on either the full flip page version of the magazine: w w w.pasthor izons.com/magazine or http://w w w.youtube.com/watch?v=8jD j4j2XecA

Watc h the video - Al Jazeera investigates antiquit y looting in Bulga r i a past horizons

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YO U C A N H E L P S AV E R AT I A R I A
The BAA is ask ing for a €1 donation per person to help save R atiar ia. To donate please go to:
http://w w w.archae o l o g y. a rc h b g. n e t / fs _ e xc avat i o n s _ rat i a r i a . ht ml

and sign the petition:
http://w w w.ipetitio n s. co m / p e t i t i o n / rat i a r i a / i n d e x . ht ml

3rd centur y Roman v i l l a m o s a i c f ro m Ra t i a r i a

2 n d ce n tu r y R o m a n co in o f Pe r t in a x f o u n d a t A rch a r.

2 n d ce n tu r y m a rb l e s ta t ue of Heracles f o u n d a t Ra t ia r ia a n d s tolen from the R e gi o n a l H er it a ge M u s eum of Vidin.

( c ) 2 0 0 9 G o o g l e - I m a g e r y ( c ) D i g i t a l G l o b e, Cn e s / S p o t I m a g e, G e o Eye, M a p D ata (c)2009 Tele Atlas

A rea of Ra t i a r i a h e a v i l y- s ca r re d w i t h b u l l d oze r a c tivit y.

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Chelsea Rose is the excava t i o n team leader. Her research fo c u s e s on the Frontier Gold Rushes o f t h e nineteenth centur y.

T i m e Te a m America
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O riginally hired as the Time Team Amer ica sketch ar tist and its only nonarchaeologist member, Colin Campbell was later chosen to host the series.

P

art extreme adventure, part hard science and part reality show, Time Team America takes viewers deep into the trenches of America’s most intriguing archaeological sites. In each of the five episodes, the team has just three days to uncover the buried secrets of their assigned dig. Every hour counts as they piece together the past using the latest technolo gy, decades of combined experience and their own sharp wits. Far from the comfort of a s cience lab, Time Team America faces searing heat, driving rain, alligator-infested swamps, frayed nerves and the inevitable technical setbacks. Through it all, the audience peers over the shoulders of digge rs at work, eavesdrops on intense conversations and shares the rush of discovery as artefacts emerge from the ground. Past Horizons offers a brief introduction to the five sites that make up the first exciting series of Time Team America.
continued 

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F O R T R A L E I G H , NOR TH C AROLINA T h e f i r s t - e v e r Time Team America attempts t o u n t a n g l e t h e mystery of the first English s e t t l e m e n t i n America where 116 settlers v a n i s h e d f r o m Fort Raleigh, Roanoke Island, o v e r 4 0 0 y e a r s ago. In 1586 the first group of hard y, h o p e f u l colonists settled in the New Worl d b u t w h e n English ships returned with sup p l i e s t h r e e years later they found the settlem e n t e m p t y. The colonists had left behind onl y o n e c l u e : the word Croatoan carved in the g a t e p o s t o f their fort. It took 20 years for t h e s t u n n e d English to establish another set t l e m e n t i n America and the fate of the Roanok e c o l o n i s t s remains unsolved to this day. Excavations at Fort Raleigh in 199 1 u n e a r t h e d the remains of a science cen t r e w h e r e archaeologists believe the first col o n i s t s w e r e testing various metal ores. Ho w e v e r, t h a t dig didn’t turn up any domestic ar t e f a c t s t h a t would indicate the location of the i r h o m e s . Although the tale of the lost colo n i s t s i s a n iconic story of the United State’s b e g i n n i n g s , surprisingly only about eight w e e k s o f archaeological fieldwork have been c o n d u c t e d at Fort Raleigh in the past decade .

D r. Me g Wa t te r s, Ti m e Te a m A m e r i ca’s g e o p hy s icist, uses ground - p e n e t ra t i n g ra d a r o n t h e s i te.

Chelsea Rose and team member Jeff Brown carefully sif t through the soil as they excavate at For t Raleigh National Park on Roanoke Island. In addition to searching for ar tefac ts, they were look ing for subtle differences in soil tex ture that would indicate post holes of the houses built by Roanoke’s legendar y lost colonists.

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Experimental archaeologist S cott Jones creates a replica tool at the Topper site in S outh Carolina.

TO P P E R , S O U T H C AROLINA I n t h e n e x t e p i sode, the team wades into the s w a m p s o f S o u th Carolina to look at evidence o f N o r t h A m e r ica’s first human inh abitants. D e b a t e c o n t i n u es about when and wh y people f i r s t c a m e t o t h e American continent: did they f o l l o w b i g g a m e 13,000 years ago or did they a r r i v e e v e n e a r lier than that? The tool making technique used a t To p p e r a n d other Clovis-period sites has b e e n l o o s e l y associated with the 17,000-year-o l d S o l u t r e a n culture in France. Although not c o n c l u s i v e , this may suggest that these early i n h a b i t a n t s migrated from Europe on a tr a n s - A t l a n t i c route rather than crossing the Be r i n g i a n l a n d bridge that connected what is no w A l a s k a t o Siberia during the last Ice Age.

I n t h e 1 9 3 0 s , distinctive stone spear points w e r e d i s c o v e r ed near Clovis, New Mexico. S i n c e t h e n , t h e Clovis culture has represented Clovis tools vanished within 500 y e a r s . S o m e t h e b e s t e v i d e nce for occupation of the New archaeologists believe their di s a p p e a r a n c e from the record reflects the natura l p r o g r e s s i o n Wo r l d a t a r o u n d 13,000 years B.P. of early culture on the America n c o n t i n e n t . C l o v i s h u n t e r-gatherers lacked permanent Another hypothesis suggests a c o m e t m a y s e t t l e m e n t s , b ut some archaeologists believe have exploded over North Americ a , t r i g g e r i n g t h e C l o v i s p e o ple regularly travelled to the a mini-Ice Age and wiping out m o s t o f t h e To p p e r s i t e i n South Carolina to make tools large animals the Clovis people h u n t e d . o u t o f t h e s t o n e they found there.

continued 

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NE W PHILADELPHIA, ILLINOIS In this programme the team atte m p t s t o f i n d some of the remains of the fir s t A m e r i c a n town founded by former slaves. Born into slavery in South Carolina in 1 7 7 7 , F r a n k McWorter moved to Kentucky wi t h h i s m a s t e r in 1795. Allowed to hire out his o w n t i m e h e eventually bought his wife Lucy’s f r e e d o m i n 1817 and his own in 1819. Although now a free man, Fra n k r e m a i n e d at risk from slave catchers wh o m a y h a v e sold him back into bondage. Th e f r e e s t a t e of Illinois offered a fresh start a n d a f t e r s i x months he reached Central Illin o i s w h e r e h e planted roots, started a town and s o l d e n o u g h property to purchase the rest of h i s f a m i l y o u t of slavery. Now green fields cover this c o u r a g e o u s testament to victory over e n s l a v e m e n t . However, the local landowners, d e s c e n d a n t s of the town’s residents, and th e M c Wo r t e r family want to uncover what rem a i n s o f N e w Philadelphia to commemorate i t s p l a c e i n history. Time Team America joins i n t h e s e a r c h for the pre-Civil War schoolhous e w h e r e N e w Philadelphia’s African Americ a n c h i l d r e n learned to read and write in freed o m .

Geophy s i c i s t B r ya n H a l e y u s e s re m o te s e n s i n g te chnology to look fo r t h e re m a i n s o f a 1 9 t h ce n t u r y s c h o o l h ouse in New Philad e l p h i a . T h e tow n’s s c h o o l h o u s e e d u ca ted AfricanA merica n c h i l d re n i n s p i te o f s t a te l a w s t h a t only funded school s f o r w h i te s t u d e n t s.

Colin Ca m p b e l l a s s i s t s t h e e xca va t i o n te a m by s i f ting through soil at New Philadelphia.

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Jeff Brow n d e s ce n d s i n to a cliffside g ra n a r y l e f t i n t a c t by the Fre m o n t I n d i a n s o n e thousand ye a r s a g o. Members o f t h e Fre m o n t culture were ‘scatter hoarders’: rather th a n ke e p a l l o f t h e i r stored fo o d i n o n e p l a ce, t h e y split the i r s u p p l i e s u p i n to many loca t i o n s.

R A N G E C R E E K , UTAH T h e t e a m h e a ds to the remote canyons of s o u t h e r n U t a h to examine what remains of t h e F r e m o n t I ndians who lived there 1000 y e a r s a g o . T he Fremont stored their food i n c l a y g r a n a r i es high on the cliffs, entered t h e i r u n d e rg r o und homes through a hole in t h e r o o f , a n d decorated the cliff faces with petroglyphs. R a n g e C r e e k was protected from intruders b y Wa l d o Wi l c ox, a Utah rancher, who knew h i s l a n d w a s special but did not publicise t h e t r e a s u r e i t contained. In the interest of p r e s e r v a t i o n , Wilcox sold the canyon to the Tr u s t f o r P u b l ic Lands in 2001 which later g r a n t e d R a n g e Creek to the state of Utah. Fremont Indian village sites c o n s i s t o f circular pit houses the remains o f w h i c h c a n be identified by the rings of rock s t h a t o n c e supported the wooden uprights. Members of the Fremont culture w e r e ‘ s c a t t e r hoarders’: rather than keep all of t h e i r s t o r e d food in one place, they split their s u p p l i e s u p into many locations. In 2006, a fire at Range Cree k c l e a r e d a large area of vegetation whi c h a l l o w e d archaeologists to identify sever a l n e w d i g sites.
continued 

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Sif ting t h ro ug h s o i l a t Fo r t J a m e s, S o u t h D a ko t a . The team searches for remains of the stone for t built by the United States Cavalr y i n 1 8 6 5 . A H u t te r i te fa r m i n g co m mu n i t y now owns the site and children from the communit y come along to get a first-ha n d l o o k a t t h e h i s to r y b u r i e d b e n e a t h t h e prairie.

F O RT J A M E S , SOUTH DAKOTA D u r i n g t h e A merican Civil War, a unit of c a v a l r y s o l d i e rs were sent west to defend p i o n e e r s e t t l e r s against angry Sioux Indians i n w h a t i s n o w South Dakota. Upon their a r r i v a l i n 1 8 6 5 , the soldiers built one of the f e w s t o n e f o r ts on the American frontier, t h e r e m a i n s o f which peek out from under a grassy field. T h r ee y e a r s earlier, the United States g o v er n m e n t h ad short-changed the Santee S i o u x t r i b e o n guaranteed annuities which i n c l u d e d f o o d payments. In the face of s t a r v a t i o n C h i ef Little Crow went to war. H e w a s d e f e a t ed, but even a mass execution d i d n o t e n d the conflict and the Santee j o i n e d f o r c e s with other Sioux in the Dakota Te r r i t o r y. D e s p ite the resistance, the fort was d e c om m i s s i o n e d after only 11 months as most o f t h e S i o u x q u ickly moved further west. Most Frontier forts were large l y m a d e o f wood and have long since rotte d a w a y b u t Fort James was one of the few m i l i t a r y p o s t s in the west made of stone. The quartzite remains of Fort J a m e s a r e located on private land owned by a H u t t e r i t e Colony which operates a farm the r e a n d l i v e s a communal way of life. Time Team America discovered a r t e f a c t s t h a t were probably related to Fort Ja m e s s u c h a s sherds from a bottle of Golden B i t t e r s , a n alcohol and herb drink billed as a m e d i c i n e . This sort of product would have b e e n s o l d b y a sutler; a person who followed t h e a r m i e s providing goods and services t h e s o l d i e r s wouldn’t have been able to acqu i r e t h r o u g h the quartermaster, such as alcoho l a n d a c c e s s to gambling and prostitution.

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Past Horizons
where quality matters

toolstore

www.pasthorizons.com/shop

whs 4” wood handled tr owel whs 4” soft handled tr owel whs m ar gin tr owel bat tiferr o sharpened tr owel t yzack leaf & square t yzack tr owel & square stanle y br a ss plumb bob stanle y aluminium line le vel sm all tools set stanle y powerwinder

stanle y mea suring tapes tool r olls dr afting film/perm atr ace r otring mechanical pencils helix scale ruler japanese pot tery combs finds bags t y vek l abels m a sking tape sharpie indelible m arkers

SPEAR & JACKSON

Tyzack

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D i g In

A selection of archaeological and conservation projects

A l b a n i a - K e e ping Tower Houses from Tumbling
Heritage Conservation Network (HCN) is developing a hands-on project to restore a kullë house in collaboration with community groups and agencies. Young Albanian professionals and youths from surrounding Balkan countries will work with HCN’s international volunteers to learn the hands-on skills needed to save the structures. Work will include tasks such as re-setting stones, applying interior and exterior plaster, and wood working such as hewing beams and relaying wooden floors. Volunteers will also refurbish iron elements while learning about traditional techniques for producing iron nails and hinges. Dates: 5 - 18 Sept ember 2010 Cost: 1 week $1050, 2 weeks $1950 (does not include airfare). Contact Jamie Donahue for more information: jmdonahoe@heritageconservation.net Web: http://www.heritageconservation.net/ws-albania-2010.htm 

We s te r n S a h a ra - Wester n Sahara Projec t
Excavation - The work will consist of the excavation of a number of burial monuments. The main objective is to acquire materials for dating and geochemical analysis in order to establish when the monuments were built and to infer information about diet, mobility and origins of prehistoric populations. This data will be related to environmental data in order to examine how prehistoric people in this area responded to climatic and environmental change, specifically the drying of the Sahara around 5000 years ago. All excavated monuments will be systematically recorded in order to provide a record and gather information about funerary practices and prehis toric lifestyles. The excavations will be directed by experienced field archaeologists with extensive experience in Western Sahara and elsewhere. Reconnaissance survey work - The reconnaissance team will focus on the identification of new archaeological sites and locations for environmental sampling. Recording of new sites, principally funerary, will form a major part of the reconnaissance work. The aims are to expand the inventory of archaeological sites in order to examine the type and distribution, and to ide ntify and sample environmental materials for subsequent dating and laboratory analysis. The reconnaissance team will be based at Tifariti but will spend several days at a time in the field, camping in the open. Although the excavation and reconnaissance teams will be in close contact while in the field, for logistical and practical reasons it is not possible to swap from one team to the other. Dates: October/November 2009 Costs: Excavation 4-week period £2595, Reconnaissance 3 week period £2395 (includes flights from London and all accommodation, food and transport while in the field). All costs go towards the running of the project, which does not make a profit. Contact: For reconnaissance details contact Nick Brooks: nick.brooks@uea.ac.uk and for excavation details contact Joanne Clarke: joanne.clarke@uea.ac.uk Web: http://www.cru.uea.ac.uk/~e118/WS/WSahara.htm 

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M o n g o l i a - A rchaeology in M ongolia
Through a settlement pattern study, the project aims to understand the nature of the social and economic organisation of Late Bronze Age societies of central Mongolia, a region believed to be occupied at the time by mobile pastoralists. Located in the grasslands of Central Mongolia, the research area is dotted with impressive stone built burial and ritual sites dating to the second and first millennia BCE, and continues to be inhabited by horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who have maintained much of their traditional lifestyle. Costs and dates for 2010 to be announced. Contact Jean-Luc Houle to register your interest at: jeh48@pitt.edu Web: http://www.pitt.edu/~jeh48 

J o rd a n - A b i l a Archaeological Projec t
Abila is best known as one of the cities of the Hellenistic league known as Decapolis, and then as the home of five prominent churches during the Byzantine period. The site has yielded beautiful mosaics including that of a grand path from the north-south Cardo Maximus leading up to the entrance of the impressive tri-apsidal basalt church. This, with six other basilicas and three water tunnels, shows that the population at Abila during the Late Roman and Early Byzantine periods was quite considerable. Dates: mid June - early August 2010 Cost: $1700 for 7-week period (does not include airfare). Application must be in by 31 January, 2010. Contact Dr David Vila for more information: dvila@jbu.edu Web: http://www.abila.org/html/history.html 

N i c a ra g u a - O metepe Petroglyph Projec t
The Ometepe Archaeological Project is a long-term volunteer archaeological field survey of the Maderas half of the Nicaraguan island of Ometepe, the largest island on Lake Nicaragua. In eight field seasons an area of approximately 15 square kilometres has been intensively surveyed. Within that area (along the northern slopes of the Maderas volcano) the project has recorded and mapped 89 archaeological sites. Over 1700 boulders with petroglyphs or other cultural modifications have been photographed, drawn and described as part of the survey. Dates: January 2010 Costs : To be announced but approximately $450 per week (does not include airfare). Conta ct: Suzanne Baker to register your interest: suzannebaker@earthlink.net Web: http://culturelink.info/petro/index.htm 

Th a i l a n d - O r i gins of Angkor
The rural village of Ban Non Wat in Northeast Thailand is one of the most important sites for understanding indigenous societies of the Empire of Angkor. Very few sites have been examined as extensively, nor yielded as many finds from the relevant archaeological ages. Help reveal how Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Age peoples here were affected by their environment, changing climates, development of agriculture, technological advances and by contact with those from other lands. Dates: December 2009, January and February 2010 Costs : 7 days $1850, 14 days $3050 Conta ct: info@earthwatch.org Web: http://www.earthwatch.org/exped/chang.html 

To s ee more projec ts go to: http://w w w. p a s t h o r i zo n s. co m / Wo r l d Pro j e c t s

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Recipes for Archaeologists
There are plenty o f p e o p l e w h o f e e l that dessert is the m a i n c o u r s e i n a n y meal and in my e x p e r i e n c e h u n g r y archaeologists are n o d i ff e r e n t . to ripe stone fruit such as peaches, a d e l i c i o u s d e s s e r t s u c h as t h i s c a n b e prepared in a few minutes: Cut peaches in half, discard stones, a n d p l a c e h a l v e s o n a f l a t t r a y. P u t spoonfuls of prepared marzipan paste into the stone hollows, brush with melted butter and grill till peaches are warm and glistening and marzipan has softened. Serve with cream or ice cream. Of course, many other seasonal fruits can be used for dessert, and plums, nectarines, apples, berries and cherries all work well with the addition of a luscious crumble on top.

Annie Evans The Dig Cook

I make the good o l d c o m f o r t f o o d desserts such as b r e a d a n d b u t t e r pudding, steamed s y r u p s p o n g e a n d crumble that ma k e s t h e m o s t o f seasonal fruit. For l u n c h t i m e s I u s u a l l y serve lots of fresh f r u i t i f i t ’s a v a i l a b l e and save the desse r t s f o r d i n n e r, s u c h as chocolate puddin g a n d s t i c k y t o ff e e pudding with caram e l s a u c e , w h i c h a r e always big hits. If bread is plentif u l , l e f t o v e r s l i c e s or loaves can be m a d e i n t o b r e a d a n d butter pudding, and i f y o u h a v e a c c e s s

FRUIT CRUMBLE Serves 8
Take 1kg of chopp e d s t o n e f r u i t , p l a c e i t i n a g r e a s e d b u t t e r d i s h w i t h s u g a r and moisten with h a l f a c u p o f b r a n d y o r w a t e r. To make the crum b l e t o p p i n g p r o c e s s h a l f a c u p o f p l a i n f l o u r, h a l f a c u p o f coconut, half a c u p o f s u g a r, o n e d e s s e r t s p o o n o f c i n n a m o n , h a l f a c u p o f nuts (for example , a l m o n d s o r w a l n u t s ) , w i t h 1 2 5 g o f b u t t e r. Sprinkle this mix o v e r t h e f r u i t a n d b a k e f o r 3 0 m i n u t e s i n a m o d e r a t e h e a t in the oven. Serv e w i t h c u s t a r d , c r e a m o r i c e c r e a m .

DRIED FRUIT SALAD WITH YOGHUR T & PINE NUTS
500 grammes dried fruits (apples, pears, figs, peaches, grapes, prunes, dates) 1 cup water ½ cup sugar 300 grammes good yoghurt (Greek) ½ cup rose water (or brandy) 150 grammes pine nuts (toasted)

The Dig Cook’s website

Place the dried fruit, water and sugar in a saucepan ove r a g e n t l e heat. Stir until sugar is dissolved, then cover and cook v e r y g e n t l y for 10 minutes. The fruit should be plump with some syrup l e f t i n t h e pan. Add the rose water to the warm fruit. Serve the frui t c o l d w i t h yoghurt and pine nuts.

http://www.digcook.com 

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S E L F - S AU C I N G C H O CO L AT E PUDDING
S e rves 8 P u dding 1 5 0 grammes d ark chocolate (chopped) 6 0 grammes bu tter 11 / 2 cups milk 11 / 2 cups self-raising flour ¼ cup cocoa powder G r ease an 8-cup capacity ovenproof d i s h . P l a ce chocolate, butter and milk in a sa u c e p a n a n d melt carefully over medium hea t u n t i l s m ooth. S i f t flour and cocoa into a large bowl a n d s t i r i n chocolate mix until well combined. P o u r i n t o prepared pan and set aside. C h ocolate Sauce ¾ cup brown sugar 5 0 grammes dark chocolate (chopped) ¼ cup cocoa powder 11 / 4 cups water 2 tablespoons Kahlua Liqueur (or s i m i l a r. O p tional) P l a ce all of the sauce ingredients i n t o a s a ucepan over medium heat. Sti r u n t i l m e lted and combined. Remove from he a t a n d c a r efully pour over pudding batter. B a ke in a moderately hot oven for 3 5 - 4 0 m i nutes. Pudding should still be soft i n t h e m i ddle. S e rve with berry fruits and cream. D e eelicious!

STICKY TOFFEE PUDDING WITH C AR AMEL SAUCE Pudding
250 grammes stoned dates 300 mls water 11 / 2 t e a s p o o n s b i c a r b o n a t e o f s o d a 125 grammes butter 200 grammes dark brown sugar 3 l a rg e e g g s 200 grammes self-raising flour 1 teaspoon vanilla essence Caramel Sauce 200 grammes dark brown sugar 200 mls cream 150 grammes butter 1 teaspoon vanilla essence Preheat oven to 190 degrees centigrade. To m a k e t h e p u d d i n g , c o o k t h e d a t e s i n t h e water until they reach a jammy consistency making sure there are no lumps. C r e a m t h e b u t t e r a n d s u g a r t i l l f l u ff y a n d sugar is dissolved. Add eggs one at a time and beat after each addition. Fold in the remaining ingredients and mix well. B u t t e r a n d f l o u r a n o b l o n g b a k in g d i s h a n d pour in mixture. Bake in the centre of the oven until cooked. To m a k e t h e s a u c e , p l a c e a l l t h e i n g r e d i e n t s i n a pan and stir until butter is melted and sauce is well combined. Bring to a high simmer and cook for five minutes. Cut the pudding into wedges and serve with the sauce and thick cream or ice cream.

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© Cousland Local History ProjectJohn I Brown

Throughout September, Archaeology Scotland will be laying on hundreds of free activities all over the country in a public festival of Scottish archaeology. You can be an archaeologist for the day, learn how to make fire like your ancestors did, or enjoy one of the many lectures, exhibitions or guided walks designed to bring you closer to the sites and monuments of Scotland’s past. There is now a separate programme of events just for schools as well as information and resources for schools wanting to create their own celebration of Scottish archaeology. For more details: http://www.archaeologyscotland.org.uk/index.php?q=node/33 

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V i ewpoint
S eeing the f a m i l i a r i n a n e w l i g ht

I

take great delight in l i s t e n i n g t o s t o r i e s a b o u t l o c a l h i s t o r y. T h e r e i s m u c h t o l e a r n from people who k n o w t h e i r a r e a e x t r e m e l y w e l l , b u t t h e r e a r e o f t e n q u e s t i o n s that they would lik e a n s w e r e d a n d I a l w a y s t r y t o h e l p i f I c a n . I f f e a s i b l e , I suggest that we work as a g r o u p d r a w i n g t o g e t h e r e v i d e n c e f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e s using a combination of o b s e r v a t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h a n d a r c h a e o l o g y. My first experience u s i n g t h i s m e t h o d i n v o l v e d t h e r e s i d e n t s o f C o u s l a n d i n Midlothian, Scotland. O u r s e a r c h f o r a n u n n e r y s o o n t u r n e d i n t o a c o m m u n i t y e x c a vation around a small castle and man s i o n h o u s e i n t h e c e n t r e o f t h e v i l l a g e a n d a l o s t 1 8 t h c e n t u r y p o t t e ry in a near by field. We haven’t ye t f o u n d t h e e l u s i v e n u n n e r y a n d w e h a v e s t i l l t o c o n f i r m t h e p o t t e ry, but along the way we have made m a n y n e w f i n d s a n d h a v e s u c c e e d e d i n b u i l di n g u p a m o r e d e t a i led history of the village. G o i n g deeper into Midlothian to the villa g e o f G o r e b r i d g e , I w a s a s k e d b y a l o c a l g r o u p t o l o o k a t t h e r e m a ins of the earliest industrial gunpow d e r m i l l s i n S c o t l a n d . E a c h b u i l d i n g h a d b e e n s e t i n t o s t e e p c l i ff s as protection from catastrophic bl a s t s , w i t h a c o m p l i c a t e d s y s t e m o f w a t e r w h e e l s , m i l l l a d e s a n d sluices powering the various powde r- m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s . To d a y, a l l t h a t r e m a i n s of t h e c o m p l e x a r e a couple of stone ruins and traces o f w a l l s h i d d e n i n t h e u n d e rg r o w t h . F o r t h e c a s u a l o b s e r v e r u n d e rstanding th e buildings and their fu n c t i o n w o u l d b e a l m o s t i m p o s s i b l e . G u i d e d b y m e m b e r s o f t h e l ocal group, I walked the valley and t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s c o v e r y b e g a n a s w e a l l l o o k e d t o g e t h e r a t t h e e vidence. Barely visible walls, a gre a t s c a r i n t h e c l i ff a n d a b l o c k e d t u n n e l w e r e a m o n g s t t h e t h i n g s that they could show me and I wa s a b l e t o a d d t o t h e i r k n o w l e d g e b y o ff e r i n g m y o b s e r v a t i o n s a n d interpretation of what I saw in the l a n d s c a p e . B y s h a r i n g a n d d i s c u s s i n g w e w e r e s o o n a b l e t o v i s u alise the great water wheels turning, t h e l a d e s f l o w i n g w i t h w a t e r, s l u i c e s c r e a k i n g o p e n , a n d t h e d e v a station of the inevitable explosions. I n t h e lea of the Pentland Hills near Edi n b u rg h , O l d P e n t l a n d G r a v e y a r d s i t s l o n e l y b u t c e r t a i n l y n o t u n l o ved. Dating to at least the 13th ce n t u r y, a n d m a d e f a m o u s b y a C o v e n a n t i n g p a s t i n t h e 1 7 t h c e n t ury, no-one was really sure where th e a c t u a l c h u r c h s t o o d . F r o m m a p s t u d i e s i t c e r t a i n l y l o o k e d l i k e a church existed there, but it remai n e d u n c e r t a i n a s t o i t s e x a c t l o c a t i o n . A l o n g w i t h t h e l o c a l s w h o care for the graveyard and with pe r m i s s i o n f r o m t h e o w n e r s , w e d e c i d e d t o a s k t h e E d i n b u rg h A r c h aeological Field Society (EAFS) to l o o k f o r t h e c l u e s a n d p r e t t y s o o n a g e o p h y s i c a l s u r v e y t r a c e d o u t t he shape of a building. On the 12t h S e p t e m b e r d u r i n g S c o t t i s h A r c h a e o l o g y m o n t h w e w i l l a l l r e t u r n to the site where locals and visito r s a l i k e w i l l b e a b l e t o w i t n e s s t h e e x c a v a t i o n o f a p o r t i o n o f t h e north eastern corner hoping to confir m t h e g e o p h y s i c a l r e s u l t s . L o c a l people with detailed knowledge of t h e i r o w n a r e a s h o u l d a l w a y s b e t h e f i r s t c o n t a c t . F i n d o u t w h a t t h e y know about a location and share in t h e j o y o f r e c i p r o c a t i o n . T h e s k i l l o f t h e a r c h a e o l o g i s t i s v i t a l i n u nderstanding and interpreting what w e s e e a r o u n d u s . E v e n t s s u c h a s S c o t t i s h A r c h a e o l o g y M o n t h p r o v ide a wonderful opportunity for that s o r t o f i n t e r a c t i o n a n d I h o p e t h a t m y s m a l l c o n t r i b u t i o n c a n l e a d to more discussion, discovery and t h e j o y o f l o o k i n g a t t h e f a m i l i a r i n n e w a n d d i ff e r e n t w a y s .

David Connolly is the direc tor of Br itish Archaeological Jobs and R esources (BA JR) Web: http://w w w.bajr.org 

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PAST HORIZONS
Journal of Volunteer Archaeology

Share your Projects with the World
Past Horizons is a unique online publication aimed at anyone who has an interest in archaeology and heritage conservation. Our remit is to inform people about projects around the world where you can participate either as volunteers with no previous experience, students looking for more fieldwork experience or professionals who need a break on an exciting excavation. Articles are written by project organisers or the participants in the project giving unique insights into what to expect. Topics range from the discovery of mysterious features in Cornwall to rock art survey in Nicaragua, restoring Ottoman period houses in Albania and surveys in the deserts of Jordan. We encourage PhD students to contribute stories about projects they are involved in, such as the recent article on Rwandan archaeology from two University College London researchers. Using the latest technology, with Pageflip, embedded videos and sounds, as well as live weblinks, this is an online magazine like no other, so log on to Past Horizons today and get involved in a world of archaeology and heritage conservation.

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