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vn bn k thut o lng Vit Nam

lvn 76 : 2001

p k, chn khng k kiu l xo v hin s - Quy trnh hiu chun


Pressure and vacuum gauge with digital and dial indicating type
Methods and means of calibration

1 Phm vi p dng
Vn bn k thut ny quy nh phng php v phng tin hiu chun cc loi p k, chn
khng k kiu l xo v hin s.

2 Cc php hiu chun


Phi ln lt tin hnh cc php hiu chun ghi trong bng 1.
Bng 1
Tn php hiu chun

Theo iu no ca QTHC

1 Kim tra bn ngoi

5.1

2 Kim tra cc ch tiu k thut

5.2

3 Kim tra o lng

5.3

3 Phng tin hiu chun


3.1 Chun
Chun tin hnh hiu chun l p k, chn khng k chun loi piston, p k cht lng,
l xo, hin s c gii hn o trn khng nh hn gii hn o trn ca p k, chn khng k
cn hiu chun v khng m bo o hoc sai s cho php phi nh hn hoc bng 1/4
sai s cho php ca p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun.
3.2 Phng tin ph
- H thng to p phi to p sut ti thiu bng gii hn o trn ca p k, chn khng k
cn hiu chun, phi kn, tng hoc gim p sut mt cch u n. st p ca h thng
to p gii hn o trn khng vt qu 5% trong thi gian 5 pht, sau khi chu ti 15
pht.
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lvn 76 : 2001
- Nhit k c phm vi o ph hp v sai s khng ln hn 0,5 0C;
- m k c phm vi o ph hp v sai s khng ln hn 5 %RH.

4 iu kin hiu chun v chun b hiu chun


4.1 iu kin hiu chun
Khi tin hnh hiu chun phi m bo cc iu kin sau y:
4.1.1 Mi trng truyn p sut
4.1.1.1 i vi cc p k, chn khng k thng thng, theo bng 2.
Bng 2
Gii hn o trn ca dng c cn
hiu chun (MPa)

Mi trng truyn p sut

n 0,25

Khng kh hoc nc ct

Ln hn 0,25 n 60

Du bin th

Ln hn 60

Du thu du

Cho php chuyn mi trng truyn p sut t cht kh sang cht lng, nu s chuyn i
ny khng gy ra sai s ln hn 10 % sai s cho php ca p k ,chn khng k cn hiu
chun.
4.1.1.2 i vi cc p k oxy c gii hn o trn n 0,6 MPa, mi trng truyn p sut l
khng kh hoc nc ct cho php dng cc bung ngn cch kh-cht lng, cht lng-kh
hiu chun. Cn i vi cc p k oxy c gii hn ln hn 0,6 MPa, mi trng truyn p
sut l nc ct, cho php dng cc bung ngn cch cht lng-cht lng hiu chun.
4.1.1.3 Khi s dng mi trng truyn p sut l cht lng, khng c khng kh lt vo
h thng hiu chun.
4.1.2 Mi trng hiu chun phi bo m:
- Nhit mi trng:
+ (20 2) 0C i vi p k c cp chnh xc cao hn 0,4;
+ (20 5) 0C i vi p k c cp chnh xc thp hn hoc bng 0,4.
- m tng i nh hn 80 %RH;
- Phng hiu chun phi thong kh, khng c bi, khng b t nng t mt pha, trnh
chn ng v va chm.
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lvn 76 : 2001

4.2 Chun b hiu chun


4.2.1 p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun v p k, chn khng k chun phi trong
phng hiu chun cho n khi chng t c nhit quy nh mc 4.1.2.
4.2.2 Kim tra mc du bm to p hay thit b chun, cn bng ni-v (nu dng p k
piston chun), y ht bt kh ra khi thit b.
4.2.3 Lm sch u ni ca dng c cn hiu chun.
4.2.4 Lp p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun vo v tr lm vic theo quy nh. lch
cho php so vi v tr quy nh ghi trn p k, chn khng k l 50.

5 Tin hnh hiu chun


5.1 Kim tra bn ngoi
5.1.1 p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun phi tnh trng tt: khng b n mn, bn, nt,
han g, kim khng b cong hoc gy, mt s hoc phn ch th phi sng sa, r rng, ren u
ni v cc chi tit khc khng b h hng.
5.1.2 Mt knh ca p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun phi trong sut khng c vt nt,
bt, bn, mc v khng c cc khuyt tt khc cn tr vic c ch s.
5.1.3 V ca p k o kh nn phi c ch thot kh v phi c mng chn bi.
5.1.4 K m hiu
Trn mt mi p k, chn khng k phi ghi y :
- n v o;
- Cp chnh xc ca p k, chn khng k (nu c);
- Mi trng truyn p sut (i vi mi trng truyn p sut c bit), s ca p k, chn
khng k (nu c), k hi lp t (nm ngang hay thng ng). i vi p k, chn khng
k khng c k hiu lp t th lp theo phng thng ng.
5.2 Kim tra k thut
5.2.1 n v o lng p sut ghi trn mt p k, chn khng k l Pascan (Pa) hoc cc
n v o p sut khc do nh sn xut ghi trn p k, chn khng k.

lvn 76 : 2001
5.2.2 Gi tr chia nh nht hoc phn gii ca thang o phi phi ph hp vi cp
chnh xc v tun theo dy sau:
2.10n
5.10n
1.10n
Trong n l mt s nguyn dng, m hoc bng 0.
5.3 Kim tra o lng
5.3.1 Xc nh s im hiu chun
p k, chn khng k phi c hiu chun mt s im ti thiu phn b u trn ton
b thang o khi tng v gim p sut, tu thuc vo cp chnh xc ca p k, chn khng k
cn hiu chun.
- i vi p k, chn khng k c cp chnh xc cao hn 0,25: S im hiu chun ti thiu
l 10 im (10 % phm vi o cho mi im);
- i vi p k, chn khng k c cp chnh xc t 0,25 n 1: S im hiu chun ti thiu
l 6 im (15 % phm vi o cho mi im);
- i vi p k, chn khng k c cp chnh xc thp hn 1: S im hiu chun ti thiu l
5 im (20 % phm vi o cho mi im).
Trng hp khi trn p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun khng ghi cp chnh xc, xc
nh s im hiu chun ti thiu th cp chnh xc ca p k, chn khng k c c
lng tng i theo biu thc sau:
- i vi p k,chn khng k l xo:
1/2 Gi tr chia nh nht
Cp chnh xc =

100

Phm vi o
- i vi p k, chn khng k hin s:
phn gii
Cp chnh xc =

100

Phm vi o
5.3.2 Khi s dng mi trng truyn p sut l cht lng th u vo cu p k chun v p
k cn hiu chun phi nm trn cng mt mt phng ngang, nu c chnh lch chiu cao
th phi hiu chnh gi tr p sut do chiu cao ct cht lng gy ra.
P = gh

lvn 76 : 2001

Trong :
: khi lng ring ca cht lng, (kg/m3);
g : gia tc trng trng ni hiu chun, (m/s2);
h : chnh lch chiu cao ct cht lng u vo ca p k chun v p k cn hiu
chun, (m);
P : p sut cn hiu chnh, (Pa).
5.3.3 Cc bc kim tra o lng
- T t tng p sut n gii hn o trn ca p k ,chn khng k cn hiu chun ri kho
cc van li v duy tr trng thi ny trong 5 pht, sau kim tra s r r p sut trong h
thng;
- Tip theo m cc van ra p sut gim t t v tr v trng thi ban u;
- Sau khi p sut hon ton tr v trng thi ban u th iu chnh im 0. i vi nhng p
k, chn khng k khng iu chnh c im 0 th ghi li gi tr v a vo giy chng
nhn hiu chun;
- Vic hiu chun tin hnh bng cch: c s ch tng im o nh trc khi tng v
khi gim p sut. Khi gim p sut ch khng c gim qu gi tr p sut tng im
o quy nh;
- Trc khi c s ch cn ch g nh vo v p k , chn khng k cn hiu chun
gim sai s do ma st;
- Thi gian chu ti gia lot o khi tng p sut sang lot o khi gim p sut l 5 pht (
gi tr o trn ca p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun).
5.3.4 Kt qu hiu chun phi ghi vo bin bn hiu chun theo mu ph lc 2.
5.3.5 X l kt qu hiu chun.
5.3.5.1 Cng thc hiu chun:
y = a + bx
Trong :
y: l gi tr p sut ch th trn p k, chn khng k cn hiu chun
x: l gi tr p sut trn chun

lvn 76 : 2001

Vi n l s ln o th:

x=

y=

b=

n
i

(x x )(y y )
(x x )
i

a = y bx
5.3.5.2 Tnh khng m bo o
5.3.5.2.1 khng m bo o kiu A
khng m bo o kiu A (uA.i) c tnh nh sau:

Sy =

{y

Sa = Sy

(a + bx i )}
(n 2 )

x
n (x x )
2
i

Sb = Sy

(x

r (a, b ) =

1
i

x
n x

2
i

Trong :
Sy : lch chun ca y;
Sa : lch chun ca a;
Sb : lch chun ca h s gc b;
r(a,b) : h s tng quan ca a v b.

u A,i = S 2a + x 2i S 2b + 2x i S a S b r (a, b )
8

lvn 76 : 2001
5.3.5.2.2 khng m bo o kiu B
khng m bo o kiu B gm hai thnh phn:
- Thnh phn th nht - khng m bo o ca chun (us):
+ Nu gi tr khng m bo o U ca chun trong giy chng nhn hiu chun l gi tr
p sut th:
us =

U(Pa )
k

+ Nu gi tr khng m bo o U ca chun trong giy chng nhn hiu chun l gi tr


tng i (%) th:
U x Phm vi o
(%)
us =
100xk
Trong : k: h s ph c ghi trong giy chng nhn hiu chun ca chun khi cng b U
- Thnh phn th hai - khng m bo o ca phn gii trn p k, chn khng k l
xo hoc p k, chn khng k hin s cn hiu chun (uR):
+ i vi p k, chn khng k l xo: ly gi tr uR theo phn b hnh tam gic nh sau:
Gi tr chia nh nht
uR =

6
+ i vi p k, chn khng k hin s: ly gi tr uR theo phn b hnh ch nht nh sau:
phn gii p sut ln nht
uR =

3
5.3.5.2.3 khng m bo o tng hp
khng m bo o tng hp c tnh theo biu thc sau:

u c,i = u 2A, i + u 2S + u 2R

lvn 76 : 2001
5.3.5.2.4 khng m bo o m rng
khng m bo o m rng c tnh bng tch ca h s ph k vi khng m bo
o tng hp ln nht (uc,max):

U = ku c,max
H s k( dng phng php bnh phng cc tiu ) c xc nh theo s ln o vi mc
tin cy 95% cho trong bng 3 di y.
Bng 3
Gi tr k theo s ln o vi mc tin cy 95%
S ln o

Gi tr k

S ln o

Gi tr k

S ln o

12,706

13

2,201

23

2,080

4,303

14

2,179

24

2,074

3,182

15

2,160

25

2,069

2,776

16

2,145

26

2,064

2,571

17

2,131

27

2,060

2,447

18

2,120

28

2,056

2,365

19

2,110

29

2,052

10

2,306

20

2,101

30

2,048

11

2,262

21

2,093

31

2,045

12

2,228

22

2,086

32

2,042

5.3.5.2.5 khng m bo o tng i


khng m bo o tng i c tnh theo cng thc sau:
khng m bo o m rng
khng m bo o tng i (%) =
Phm vi o
Chi tit v tnh khng m bo o xem v d tham kho ph lc1

10

Gi tr k

100

lvn 76 : 2001

6 X l chung
6.1 Kt qu hiu chun phi c ghi vo bin bn hiu chun v lu ti phng hiu chun
theo mu ph lc 2.
6.2 p k, chn khng k sau khi hiu chun c cp giy chng nhn hiu chun km
theo thng bo kt qu hiu chun.
Trong giy chng nhn hiu chun phi c cc thng s sau:
- Cng thc hiu chun;
- khng m bo o m rng hoc khng m bo o tng i (%);
- H s ph k;
- Mc tin cy;
- iu kin mi trng ni hiu chun.
6.3 Chu k hiu chun: 01 nm.

11

Ph lc 1
V d v tnh khng m bo o dng
phng php bnh phng cc tiu
Hiu chun p k hin s DPI 605 s 60504660
Phm vi o: (0 20) bar
phn gii: 0,001 bar
Chun dng hiu chun: RUSKA 2485 - J245
khng m bo o: 30 ppm (0,003 %)
Nhit mi trng (20 2 ) oC, m: (60 5 ) %RH
Kt qu o:

12

Pchun
(bar)

Ptng
(bar)

Pgim
(bar)

P = Pchun-Ptng
(bar)

P = Pchun-Pgim
(bar)

2,000

1,994

1,994

0,006

0,006

4,000

3,996

3,996

0,004

0,004

6,000

6,003

6,000

-0,003

0,000

8,000

7,993

7,995

0,007

0,005

10,000

9,991

9,995

0,009

0,005

12,000

11,992

11,995

0,008

0,005

14,000

14,008

14,005

-0,008

-0,005

16,000

15,998

15,998

0,002

0,002

18,000

18,001

18,000

-0,001

0,000

20,000

19,995

19,998

0,003

0,003

Tnh ton biu thc hiu chun dng phng php bnh phng cc tiu

(x

(y

) (x

)(

x yi y

) {y

(a + bxi )}

xi

yi

xi2

2,000000

1,994000

4,000000

-9,000000 81,000000 -9,003350

81,030150

0,000002

4,000000

3,996000

16,000000 -7,000000 49,000000 -7,001350

49,009450

0,000000

6,000000

6,003000

36,000000 -5,000000 25,000000 -4,994350

24,971750

0,000046

8,000000

7,993000

64,000000 -3,000000

9,000000 -3,004350

9,013050

0,000013

10,000000 9,991000 100,000000 -1,000000

1,000000 -1,006350

1,006350

0,000038

12,000000 11,992000 144,000000 1,000000

1,000000

0,994650

0,994650

0,000031

14,000000 14,008000 196,000000 3,000000

9,000000

3,010650

9,031950

0,000099

16,000000 15,998000 256,000000 5,000000 25,000000 5,000650

25,003250

0,000000

18,000000 18,001000 324,000000 7,000000 49,000000 7,003650

49,025550

0,000004

10

20,000000 19,995000 400,000000 9,000000 81,000000 8,997650

80,978850

0,000019

11

20,000000 19,998000 400,000000 9,000000 81,000000 9,000650

81,005850

0,000002

12

18,000000 18,000000 324,000000 7,000000 49,000000 7,002650

49,018550

0,000001

13

16,000000 15,998000 256,000000 5,000000 25,000000 5,000650

25,003250

0,000000

14

14,000000 14,005000 196,000000 3,000000

9,000000

3,007650

9,022950

0,000049

15

12,000000 11,995000 144,000000 1,000000

1,000000

0,997650

0,997650

0,000007

16

10,000000 9,995000 100,000000 -1,000000

1,000000 -1,002350

1,002350

0,000005

17

8,000000

7,995000

64,000000 -3,000000

9,000000 -3,002350

9,007050

0,000003

18

6,000000

6,000000

36,000000 -5,000000 25,000000 -4,997350

24,986750

0,000014

19

4,000000

3,996000

16,000000 -7,000000 49,000000 -7,001350

49,009450

0,000000

20

2,000000

1,994000

4,000000

-9,000000 81,000000 -9,003350

81,030150

0,000002

Tng 220,00000 219,94700 3080,00000 0,000000 660,000000 0,000000

660,149000

0,000335

xi x

GTtb 11,000000 10,997350

b=

(x x )(y y ) = 660,149 = 1,0002258


660,000
(x x )
i

a = y b x = 10,99735 1,0002258 11,000 = 0,0051333


Cng thc hiu chun s l: y = - 0,0051333 + 1,0002258x
13

Sy =

{y

(a + bx i )}
0,000335
=
= 0,00431406
n2
20 2
3080,0
x 2i
= 0,00431406
= 0,0020839
2
20 660,0
n x i x

Sa = Sy

Sb = Sy

= 0,00431406

(x x )
x =
r (a, b ) =
n x
2

2
i

1
= 0,0001679
660,0

220,0
= 0,886405
20 3080,0

- khng m bo o tng hp kiu A


u A,i = Sa2 + x i2 S 2b + 2x i Sa S b r (a, b )

u max = (0,0020839) 2 + 20 2 x(0,0001679) 2 + 2 x 20 x0,002839 x0,00011679 x(0,886405)

= 0,001792945 bar
- khng m bo o ca chun uS
us =

U Phm vi do
0,003 20
(%) =
= 0,0003 bar
100 k
100 2

- khng m bo o ca phn gii trn p k hin s uR


phn gii ca p k l: 0,001 bar nn:
uR =

0,001
3

= 0,0005774 bar

- khng m bo o tng hp
u c,max = u 2A + u S2 + u 2R = (0,00179249) 2 + (0,0003) 2 + (0,0005774) 2 = 0,00190735 bar

- khng m bo o m rng
S ln o l : 20, tm trong bng 2 c k = 2,101
U = 2,101 0,00190735 = 0,00400732 bar 0,004 bar

Hay

U = 0,004/20 = 0,0002 = 200 ppm.

- khng m bo o m rng tnh theo %


U = ( 0,004/20)100 = 0,02 %
T cng thc : y = - 0,0051333 + 1,0002258x x = 0,0051333/1,0002258 + 1/1,0002258y
Hay Pthc = 0,005132 + 0,999774Po vi khng m bo o l 0,004 bar v xc sut
tin cy 95 % (k = 2,101)

14

Ph lc 2
Tn c quan hiu chun

......................................

Bin bn hiu chun


S: ..........................

Tn phng tin o.................................................................................................................................


................................................................................................................................................................
Kiu:.........................................................S:.........................................................................................
C s sn xut:.......................................... Nm sn xut:......................................................................
c trng k thut:.................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
C s s dng:.......................................................................................................................................
Phng php thc hin:..........................................................................................................................
Chun, thit b chnh c s dng:.......................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................
iu kin mi trng:
Nhit :................................................................ m: ....................................................................
Ngi thc hin:.....................................................................................................................................
Ngy thc hin :.....................................................................................................................................
a im thc hin :...............................................................................................................................
S liu v kt qu :
STT

p sut chun

Gi tr p sut trn dng c cn hiu


chun
p sut khi tng
p sut khi gim

Ngi sot li

Sai s khi

Sai s khi

p sut tng

p sut gim

Ngi thc hin

15