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Chuong 3.

L thuyt chui
1. CHUI SO
1.1. D|nh nghia. Cho dy s c v han cc s hang
Biu thuc duoc goi l chui s
- Cc s l cc s hang v duoc goi l s hang tng
qut cua chui s.
- Tng n s hang du tin ; n = 1,2,...
duoc goi l tng ring thu n cua chui s.
- Nu tn tai gioi han (huu han) th ta ni chui s hi tu
v c tng l S. K hiu
1 2 n
u , u ,..., u ,...
1 2 n n
n 1
u u ... u ... u

=
=
_
n
u
1 2 n
u , u , ..., u ,...
n
n k 1 2 n
k 1
S u u u ... u
=
= =
_
n
n
limS S

=
n
n 1
S u

=
=
_
Nguoc lai, nu hoc th ta ni chui s PK.
VD 1. Xt su hi tu cua chui voi
Kt qua duoc su dung d khao st su hi tu:
Chui hi tu nu < 1, phn ky nu
VD 2. Xt su hi tu cua chui
VD 3. Xt su hi tu cua chui
1.2. Diu kin cn d chui s hi t
D|nh l. Nu chui hi tu th
n
n
limS

=
n
n
limS

n
n 0
aq

=
_
a 0, q =
( )
n
n 0
aq ; a 0

=
=
_
q 1 _ q
( )
n 1
1
n n 1

=

_
n 1
1
ln 1
n

=
1

( )
_
n
n 1
u

=
_
n
n
lim u 0

=
Ch . Dinh l trn chi l diu kin cn chu khng phai diu kin
du. Chng han, xt chui s (chui diu ha). Ta c:
, nhung chui phn ky.
Kt qua duoc su dung d khao st su hi tu:
Chui diu ha phn ky.
Tu Dinh l trn suy ra nu hoc th chui
phn ky. Chng han l cc chui PK.
n
n
lim u 0

=
n
n
lim u

n
n 1
u

=
_
( )
( )
n
2
n 1 n 1 n 1
cos , n 1 , 1
n

= = =
t

_ _ _
n 1
1
n

=
_
n
n n
1
lim u lim 0
n

= =
n 1
1
n

=
_
1.3. Cc tnh cht cua chui s hi t
Nu hi tu th cung hi tu v
Nu hi tu th cung hi tu v
Tnh hi tu hay phn ky cua chui s khng thay di nu ta thm
hoc bot mt s huu han cc s hang du tin.
n
n 1
u

=
_
( )
n
n 1
u ;

=
o o
_

n n
n 1 n 1
u u

= =
o =o
_ _
n n
n 1 n 1
u , v

= =
_ _
( )
n n
n 1
u v

_
( )
n n n n
n 1 n 1 n 1
u v u v

= = =
=
_ _ _
2. CHUI SO DUONG
2.1. D|nh nghia.
duoc goi l chui s duong nu
2.2. Cc tiu chun so snh
D|nh l. Cho hai chui s duong . Gia su sao
cho . Khi d
i) Nu hi tu th hi tu
ii) Nu phn ky th phn ky
n
n 1
u

=
_ n
u 0, n _ \
n n
n 1 n 1
u , v

= =
_ _ o
n
n n o
0 u v , n n _ _ \ _
n
n 1
v

=
_ n
n 1
u

=
_
n
n 1
u

=
_ n
n 1
v

=
_
VD 1. Xt su hi tu cua chui
VD 2. Xt su hi tu cua chui
H qua. Gia su l hai chui s duong v
i) Nu A = 0 v hi tu th hi tu
ii) Nu A = v phn ky th phn ky
iii) Nu 0 < A < th v cng hi tu hoc cng PK
Ch . Nu cc diu kin cua H qua trn duoc thoa mn v ,
khi th v cng HT hoc cng PK.
3
n 1
1
n

=
_
n
n 1
1
n2

=
_
n n
n 1 n 1
u , v

= =
_ _
n
n
n
u
lim A.
v

=
n
n 1
v

=
_ n
n 1
u

=
_

n
n 1
v

=
_ n
n 1
u

=
_

n
n 1
u

=
_ n
n 1
v

=
_
n n
u v
n
n
n 1
u

=
_ n
n 1
v

=
_
VD 1. Xt su hi tu cua chui
VD 2. Xt su hi tu cua chui
2.3. Tiu chun DAlembert
D|nh l. Cho chui s duong v .
i) Nu L < 1 th chui hi tu
ii) Nu L > 1 th chui phn ky
iii) Nu L = 1 th chua c kt lun
VD 1. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
VD 2. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
( )
n
n 1
n 1
2 n 1
n3

_
n
n 1
sin
2

=
t
_
n
n 1
u

=
_
n 1
n
n
u
lim L
u

=
n
n 1
n!
n

=
_
n
n
n 1
e n!
n

=
_
2.4. Tiu chun Cauchy
D|nh l. Cho chui s duong v .
i) Nu L < 1 th chui hi tu
ii) Nu L > 1 th chui phn ky
iii) Nu L = 1 th chua c kt lun
VD 1. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
VD 2. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
2.5. Tiu chun tch phn
D|nh l. Cho hm s f lin tuc, khng m v giam trn
Khi d v cng HT hoc cng PK.
n
n 1
u

=
_
n
n
n
lim u L

=
2
n
n 1
1
1
n

=
1

( )
_
n
n 1
4n 3
2n

=
1

( )
_
[ )
a, ; a
( )
n a
f n

=
_
( )
a
f x dx

]
VD 1. Khao st su hi tu cua chui (chui Riemann)
Kt qua duoc su dung d khao st su hi tu:
Chui hi tu nu > 1, phn ky nu
VD 2. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
n 2
1
n ln n

=
_
n 1
1
;
n

o
=
o
_

( )
n 1
1
;
n

o
=
o
_
o 1 o _
3. CHUI SO C DAU BAT KY
3.1. D|nh nghia.
Chui duoc goi l chui c du bt ky.
Chui duoc goi l hi tu tuyt di nu hi tu.
Nu chui hi tu m khng hi tu tuyt di th duoc goi l
bn hi tu.
D|nh l. Nu chui hi tu th hi tu.
VD. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
Ch . Nu dng tiu chun DAlembert hay Cauchy m bit duoc
chui phn ky th cung phn ky
n n
n 1
u , u

_

n
n 1
u

=
_
n
n 1
u

=
_
n
n 1
u

=
_
n
n 1
u

=
_ n
n 1
u

=
_
2
n 1
cos n
n

=
_
n
n 1
u

=
_ n
n 1
u

=
_
3.2. Chui dan du
D|nh nghia. Chui s c dang hay , trong
d: u
n
> 0; duoc goi l chui dan du
D|nh l. (Tiu chun Leibnitz)
Nu chui dan du thoa mn 2 diu kin sau:
i) l dy giam
ii)
th chui hi tu.
VD. Khao st su hi tu cua chui
( )
n
n
n 1
1 u

_
( )
n 1
n
n 1
1 u

_
n \
( )
n 1
n
n 1
1 u

_

n
n
u

n
n
lim u 0

=
( )
n 1
n 1
1
n

_
BTVN. 1. Khao st su hi tu cua cc chui s sau
( )
( )
4
2
n n
n 1 n 1
2 2
2 n
n 1 n 1
n
n 1 n 1
2
n
1) n n n 7)
4 5
n 1 n
2) arctan 8)
n 1 2 n
2.4.6... 2n
1
3) 1 cos 9)
n
n
1
4) ln 1 tan
n

= =

= =

= =



( )
1

(
_ _
_ _
_ _
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
n
n 1 n 1
n n 1
n 1 n 1
1/ n
n 1 n 1
4 n!
10)
2n !
1 n 1
5) sin 11)
n n 1
2n
cos n
1
6) e 1 12)
n n

= =


= =

= =

)
1
t

( )

_ _
_ _
_ _
( )
3 12 27 48 75
8 27 64 125
n
n 1
1 2 3 4 5
13) ...
3 9
3 3 3 9 3
1 1 1 1 1
14) 1 +...
e e e e e
1 1 1 1 1
15) 1 +...
e e e e e
1 1 n
16)
1 n

_
2. Khao st su hi tu v tnh tng cua chui s nu chui hi tu
( )
( )
2 n n
n 1 n 0
n 1
n 1
1 1 1
1) 3)
n n 3 5
2n 1
2) 1
n n 1


= =

=
1

( )

_ _
_
4. CHUI HM
4.1. D|nh nghia
Cho dy cc hm s cng xc dinh trn .
Tng hnh thuc:
duoc goi l chui hm s hay chui hm trn .
Nu tai , chui s hi tu (tuong ung: phn ky) th
x
o
duoc goi l dim hi tu (tuong ung: dim phn ky) cua chui (1).
Tp hop tt ca cc dim hi tu cua chui (1) duoc goi l min hi tu
cua chui (1).
Chui (1) duoc goi l hi tu tuyt di tai nu chui s
hi tu
1 2 n
f , f ,..., f , ... X
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 n n
n 1
f x f x ... f x ... f x 1

=
=
_
X
o
x X ( )
n o
n 1
f x

=
_
o
x X
( )
n o
n 1
f x

=
_
K hiu: ; n = 1,2,...
duoc goi l tng ring thu n cua chui (1).
Gia su l min hi tu cua chui (1). Khi d dy hm
hi tu trn X
o
. Ta ni chui (1) hi tu
v hm f(x) trn X
o
, cn f(x) duoc goi l tng cua chui (1) v vit
l:
VD. Tm min hi tu cua chui hm
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n k 1 2 n
k 1
S x f x f x f x ... f x
=
= =
_
o
X X _ ( )

n
S x
( ) ( )
n o
n
limS x f x ; x X

= = \
( ) ( )
n o
n 1
f x f x ; x X

=
= \
_
( )
n
n
n
2
n 0 n 1
n
x
n 1 n 1
n
1) x 3)
1 x
1 x
2) 4)
n n!

= =

= =

_ _
_ _
4.2. Chui hm hi t du
D|nh nghia. Chui (1) duoc goi l hi tu du v hm f(x) trn X
o
nu dy hm hi tu du v hm f(x) trn X
o
, nghia l > 0,
<
4.3. Tiu chun Weierstrass
Cho chui (1). Nu tn tai mt dy s duong
sao cho v chui s duong hi tu
th chui (1) hi tu tuyt di v hi tu du trn X.
VD. Xt su hi tu du cua chui hm
4.4. Cc tnh cht cua chui hm hi t du. (Xem gio trnh)
( )

n
S x \
( ) ( )
o o n
n sao cho n n ta c S x f x \ _
o
; x X \

n o
a v n
( )
n n o
f x a ; n n ; x X _ \ _ \
n
n 1
a

=
_
[ [
n
2 2 n
n 1 n 1
sin nx x
1) ; x 2) ; x 1,1
n x 2


= =

_ _

5. CHUI LY THUA
5.1. D|nh nghia. Chui luy thua l chui hm c dang
hoc , trong d:
Bng cch dt: X = x a th ta c th dua (2) v (1)
x = X a th ta c th dua (1) v (2)
Do d d don gian v mt k hiu, ta chi khao st dang (1).
5.2. D|nh l Abel.
Nu chui (1) hi tu tai th n hi tu tuyt di tai moi x m
< .
H qua. Nu chui (1) phn ky tai x
1
th n phn ky tai moi x m
> .
( )
n
n
n 0
a x a (2)

_
n
n
n 0
a x (1)

=
_
n
a, a ; n \
o
x 0 =
x
o
x
x
1
x
5.3. Bn knh hi t
D|nh l. Di voi chui (1) lun tn tai s sao cho (1)
hi tu trong khoang v phn ky trong cc khoang
v . Tai chui (1) c th hi tu hoc phn ky. Khi
R = 0 th (1) hi tu tai x = 0. Nu (1) hi tu tai th ly
Ta goi R l bn knh hi tu cua chui (1). Khoang duoc goi
l khoang hi tu cua chui (1).
- Cch tm min hi t cua chui ly tha (1):
B1. Tm bn knh hi tu R cua (1), suy ra
khoang hi tu cua chui (1) l
B2. Xt su hi tu cua (1) tai
[ [
R 0,
( )
R, R
( )
, R
( )
R,
x R =
x \ R =
( )
R, R
( )
R, R
x R =
Kt lun min hi tu
=
- Cng thc tm bn knh hi t cua chui ly tha (1):
D|nh l 1. (Du hiu DAlembert)
Nu th
D|nh l 2. (Du hiu Cauchy)
Nu th
VD. Tm min hi tu cua chui luy thua
5.4. Cc tnh cht cua chui ly tha. (Xem gio trnh)
5.5. Chui Taylor. (Xem gio trnh)
n 1
n
n
a
lim L
a

=
1
R
L
=
n
n
n
lim a L

=
1
R
L
=
L 0 R
L R 0
= = =
== =
Quy uoc:
( )
( )
n
n 1
n
n 1 n 0
n
n
n 0 n 1
5x
1) 1 nx 3)
n!
nx
2) n!x 4)
n 1

= =

= =

( )

_ _
_ _
BTVN. Tm min hi tu cua chui luy thua
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
n 1 n
2n n
n 1 n 1
n 2 3
n
n
n 1
n
n
n
n 1
1 x 2 cos n
1) 5)
n2
n x 2
1 x 1 x 1
x 1
2) 6) ...
1! 3! 5!
n3 x 5
1
1 x
3) 7) 2
2n 1 1 x


= =

=
t

( )

_ _
_
_
( )
n n
n 0
n
n
2 n n
n 1 n 1
3 x
n 2x 3 7
4) 8) x
n 1 x 10 x

=

= =

1 1








( ) ( )

_
_ _