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# CURVES AND SURFACES EMBEDDED SOLIDS

## A parametric surface supports a two-dimensional

curvilinear coordinate system on which we can define curves. In a directly analogous way, a parametric solid supports a three-dimensional curvilinear coordinate system on which we can define both curves and surface, the simplest being the isoparametric curves and surfaces.

## The curve Pabw results when we assign u=a and v=b,

where a and b are constants. In the same figure, we find two isoparametric surfaces Pavw and Pubw. A parametric cell is a subelement of the solid bounded by six isoparametric surfaces. For example, in figure the six boundary surfaces are Pavw ,Pbvw ,Pucw ,Pudw ,Puve , and Puvf .

## Such a cell is orthogonal if the curve nets of the three

families of isoparametric surfaces are defined on orthogonal parametric curve nets. We define a nonisoparametric curve by introducing an additional parametric variable t. The curve c(t) is shown mapped in a tricubic solid in both model space and parameter space in fig. The curvilinear vector components of points on the curve are

## In model space, the curve is expressed as

C(x,y,z) = P[u(t), v(t), w(t)] The procedures are identical to those we use for

curves embedded in surfaces. In figure a surface patch is mapped in both the unit cube of parameter space and in a corresponding solid in kodel space.

## The vector components of the patch in parameter

space are R(s,t) = u(s,t) + v(s,t) + w(s,t) In model space, the patch is expressed as r(x,y,z) = P[u(s,t), v(s,t), w(s,t)] Again we proceed as with curves in solids and on surfaces, A variety of complex solids is possible if we permit them to have irregular or nonisoparametric boundaries, often called trimmed boundaries.

## The has one of its corners clipped defined by a

nonisoparametric surface. The surface is conveniently defined initially in either parameter space or model space, depending on the modeling situation.