You are on page 1of 4

FEATURE : Bridge & Construction Engineering

Steel Spring Joint for Immersed Tunnel


Yoshihiro HamazakiKunihiko YamaguchiNaoto TakehanaKozo NagataKoji FukumotoTakao Nanjo

Spring joints installed at the joint sections of immersed tunnels are subjected to large compressive force
during the sinking operation and earthquakes. A new steel spring joint was developed and examined in
several loading tests, including the static loading test, cyclic loading test and eccentric loading test, to determine the fundamental mechanical properties of the jointThe tests confirmed that the steel spring joint
behaves within elastic range and responds stably for cyclic loading and eccentric loading. Based on these
results it was concluded that this new steel spring joint can be used for joints in immersed tunnels.

1
1

2 PC

500

1
2

50

100

Water Stop Element

Joint Cable

Rubber Gasket

Steel Spring
Joint

Omega Seal

End of Tunnel
Element

Coupler

1
Fig. 1 Immersed tunnel

;;;;; ; ;
;;;;;;; ;;;;;;;;;;
;
;;;;;
;;;; ;
;

Joint Cable

2
Fig. 2 Immersed tunnel joint in the past

ent

lem

lE
nne

Tu

3
Fig. 3 Steel spring joint

/Vol. 49 No. 2Sep. 1999

57

Steel Spring Concave Plate Convex Plate Case

Concave Plate Convex Plate

Primary
Load
P0

Load
P

Primary Condition

600
508
480

Steel Spring

Compression Condition

5
A-type
Fig. 5 Cross section of
steel spring joint

14@14
14@14
28 20 196 20 196 20 26
12
1 010

492

(Unit mm)

4
Fig. 4 Operation of steel spring joint
1
Table 1 Properties of specimens

Specimen

Spring Components

Test Methods

Designed
Displacement

Designed
Load

Thickness

Number

Static Load

A-type

13mm

4.2MN

14mm

14

B-type

20mm

4.6MN

14mm

10

Cyclic Load Partial Load

Hydraulic
Jack

Controler

5 480mm

Specimen

1 1015
4

Reaction Deck

6
Fig. 6 Experimental equipment

2
2
1

Measurment
of
Displacement

P. C.

mm

2 A-

30mm 60mm

type B-type A

-type 50

2
3

HT80y700 MPa

2
3
1

2
2
2
2
1

7
A-type 13
0mm4
2

MNB-type 19
5mm4
9MN 1

50100kN

2
2
2

2
1020
100

Compressive LoadMN

5
Atype

Btype
Unloading

3
2

Loading

2
2
3

58

KOBE STEEL ENGINEERING REPORTS/Vol. 49 No. 2Sep. 1999

5
10
15
Compressive Displacementmm

7
Fig. 7 Load-displacement relationship

20

800

Rubber Gasket

Atype

Btype

600

Compressive LoadMN

y
StressMPa

Btype
Atype

400

200

10
20
30
40
Compressive Displacementmm

50

Fig. 8 Comparison of load-displacement relationship between steel spring and


rubber gasket

5
10
15
Compressive Displacementmm

2 2
2
2

3
1st
2
1

5
10
15
Compressive Displacementmm

20

A-type
Fig. 10 Results of cyclic load testA-type

9
Fig. 9 Displacement-stress relationship
of center position

20

Compressive LoadMN

Compressive LoadMN/m

Partial Displacement : 60

30 0mm

4
3
2
1

m 1

5
10
15
Compressive Displacementmm

20

A-type
Fig. 11 Results of partial load testA-type

A-type
B-type

260mm 4

A-typeB-type

3
3
1

2
3
2

A-type 10

1 23

20 12

S-N A5

type 310 B-type 710

ABAQUS5
5

0
3

2
3
3

3
2

A-type 11

13

30mm

14
800

Steel Spring

Atype
4

Fig. 12

Simulation model of steel spring

Btype
Btype

3
2
1

0
Convex Plate

Simulation
Experiment

StressMPa

Concave Plate

Compressive LoadMN

5
10
15
Compressive Displacementmm

20

Fig. 13 Comparison between calculated


values and measured values
load-displacement relationship

600

400

Simulation
Experiment

Atype

200

5
10
15
Compressive Displacementmm

20

Fig. 14 Comparison between calculated


values and measured values
displacement-stress relationship
/Vol. 49 No. 2Sep. 1999

59

Ventilation Element

Ventilation Tower
Fairway
12m
520m

Land Tunnels

Joint Springs

No.1
Element

Land Element

No.2
Element

Ventilation Element

No.3
Element

No.4
Element

No.5
Element

No.6
Element

Land Element

Immersed Tube Units


34.4m
8.1m

Foundation Springs

Simulation model of immersed tunnel

Configuration of immersed tunnel


Maximum Longitudinal LoadMN

Fig. 15

Fig. 16

4
4
1
15
520m 34
4m 8
1m

80

60

40
Joint Parts
20
Land
Part
0

86
7m 6
36

No.1 No.2 No.3 No.4 No.5 No.6


Element Element Element Element Element Element

Ventilation
Tower Part

Land
Part

Ventilation
Tower Part


Fig. 17 Distribution of maximum longitudinal load

16

2100

1983

7 A-type

4
2

17

47MN 1

1
3MN

64MN

3 000MN


1 Vol.39A1993p.1447.
2

1975.
3
1984.
4 HKS : ABAQUSStandard User's ManualVer.5.5
1995.
5 26 1
1971p.317.
6 No.307
1978p.1.
7 41 1
1986p.1061.

50

60

KOBE STEEL ENGINEERING REPORTS/Vol. 49 No. 2Sep. 1999