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Developing an active balancing model and its Battery Management System platform for Lithium Ion batteries

Bibiana Lorente Alvarez Sergio Villar Garca

Battery Management System(BMS)


3 Topologies Centralized Distributed Modular

Centralized
Each cell has a connection to the main controller Most economical, least expandable, and are plagued by a multitude of wires

Distributed
The distributed topology consists of providing to each cell its own controller to monitor locally the battery cell parameters Most expensive, simplest to install, and offer the cleanest assembly

Modular
A few controllers, each handing a certain number of cells, with communication between the controllers Compromise of the features and problems of the other two topologies

BMS modules
Master controller Current sensor Multi-cell battery stack monitor User interface The active balancer

Master controller
Manages and controls all the modules in the BMS Monitors the voltage and temperature values from the battery cells Calculate the SOC by Coulomb counting

Current sensor
Measure current

The multicell battery stack monitor


Measure cell voltage Measure cell temperature

The user interface


Visual Basic application collects the data from the master controller through USB and it forwards them to an excel file, to be treated and stored to be used afterwards

The active balancer


Does active balancing of the cell

Modules
Master controller-PSOC CY838 Current sensor- Allegro ACS712T Integrated Hall Effect-Based Linear Current Sensor The multicell battery stack monitor- Linear Technology LTC6803-4 Active balancer-Buck-boost converter

Simulation Results

Simulation results

Reason
At each energy transfer a loss of energy is forced Makes the cells downgrade its SOC If a cell balances more times than another, it losses more energy In other word: At less energy to balance, the less time you spend