You are on page 1of 81

 

    
 

  



 
  
  
  

  


:
 

  
! "#


  


 

$
  % & 
'(   

&  % & 

      



 
     


   ! 
" #$

!- # )  .   &' ' &' ()


* + #, %  
./ () ' '- &,  ' &.  () 0 &!'
: &'
# 2  -), &3  456
  &'  %
  !- # 2 
: #" 7. 
8 "9   .1
.3'  ;!   .2
    .3
:9'4

"   .  # <= >9 
 7.  # ?- &3    0) 
-), )  @
  0) /A
* /
6 - / 3  
" / 
.7.  &'-
.7.  &),  .' # #,C &!' /   6    B
:&!' "
2 ) &2) )- A 7.  # '-  .  0  ) ;!'  < 
. D &,  /  ?B)  &8 / B4, 
 >, / >
.&3 ' # #  ! )  -,

;' / &8 A "9 9'4   ) A &, / ;!'  ,  .1
 ' -) +) >9
 E &3F) -
 
 .+8 !< .--'    ?B &8

!- A "9 @
"

(... ) &4H&- ' ))  >=)  ? +  ,
:)  &, .2
-,
 . D  &,  # 2  #)  !< / ;) #"
%' %D- %&8 2 )

%& 7! )'  .  )) ) 

 
 . -' < #" (7 J % ? %!- # ) 
/ ; ,) )    ! '- &,  )KA /A
6 + )
.. <' /A

*
: )=  .3
%
4 /   0 A @!'
 .--'   /   A )  + ?-
/A 6 .) - # &  J &-   - ' +) >9) .'
. 8  ! L !- ) # &. 

: ") 9'A .4
() ' M') , %/ B / +) 9' /A   

" <=
  " ! 

..! # "9 !- . N<=


: - &B,) .5
! %' A DB , A % A  ) &!A  ' 8  #"
..) - # &,  >= # .9
 .
:! .6
& / !
 #, , - 08 A  &,  '
.'- M') ,  "! /A
* / %"9 ()  A  8 #
.
4 
:/ .7
/
 E .8) %  = / /   ! ;!'  . #
A 6 &8   +) >8) + E =O () + / !$
.

/F

&''<
. / ), @
" # &! # 2,= () E'< #  #,
 






pH

70



77

19

80

84



86

87

10

97

10

99

(4

103


5

109

! 7 #  #6 )&   ) 

113

118

.            

1.6726x10-27 kg ! 

" 

        

Cu2O #$ &  ( CuO %&' .. Cu2O %&' &  ( CuO #$ ..
./* !  (

18
8

%,& -  +)* !  (

50 %23  (H+NO-3)
e+ = 1.67x10-19C ! 

e+ = 1.67x10-19kg ! 

&*

Li[K2L1] ..
Al 3e- + Al3+

17
8

16
8

:  .../

Cl  H

&*

L[K2L1] ..
Al 3e- + Al+

X168 X178 X168

:  .../

X
! $ #  #6 )&   ) 

18
8

% 5023  (H+NO3)

18
8

6   - % ' / 3

Cl  H

6   - % ' / 3

.8$ ,
( :  !&

 3" :  !&

C6H12O6 3"9 ...

C6H12O 3"9 ...

(cm3)

(cm) ; V(ml)

(mC)

CO2 :2= & ;H2O :3= &


0,30 -3x

0,05-2x

0,30 -3xf

0,05-2xf

OC :2= & ;O2H :3= &

-3x0,30

-2x0,05

: %7& 

-3xf0,30

-2xf0,05

8.0

! >

(mC) ; V(Lm)

:  &> 

12.0



0.12

0.8

141
14



< 

:  &> 

: %7& 

: 8 )    - 

153
158
160



162



162

?&&

164

A* @%

* @%

12

177

C  / :B 

C  A :B 

12

177

M6 / 8 2(

M6 A 8 2(


$

177

M1 / 8 2(

M1 A 8 2(


$

178

199


$

217

218

20.26 km/h

20.26 m/s 8

8 

 :9! 

"% E" # " & #

D E 
 & # 

"% E" # " & % B&..

D E 
 & % B&..

& , &    ...= &  6



G


G & ...= &  6

21

225

 24 I
7&....+$ !( "& 6H

 42 I
7&....+$ !( "& 6H

18

226

...!   6( 6

...!   6( 6

28

233

J 
*
 8

J 
 8

237


  

5..................................................   


14............................
      
23.............................................    
   

35............................          


45.........................          
48....................................     !"

52................................    #$%   &
  

59........................................................  &
60...................................  &% ' (&
68...................................    ' (&
72.......................
 %
)   *+" ,&
78

............................. )   ,  - /%

:1 

 


  

  
   .1 1
           
   
&' ($  # ' :!" #  
# $ % #
.(...( )# 
 (*
,  -/   0 # 1# * &'  # %   2 
(!;   2 3  34 5% "   2 6 % 78 9$ % (9
.!; " 3 #  #2 3  34 5% 6"   2
1  .* &' # 3 1 #   ! 2 32 %    
)  # # 3 < 3 =" ' 1 7 6="   0
.( 2 # 3 32 
 3 1?    -@ AB :
%=
. ? 1/
3  #  
7   0 ,  # ? D C
))#   $ D 2 3 <
.(2 )# 
&' ?= 1  E$ 
 32 
&' ((1(2(3   #)
)#   D (4(5   #) 
D  &' B   -  )   - 32 3 ,% $ C
&' B   -  )   - (( 1 4 E$ 

.3 # ( 1 4 E$ 
 D 
:F  !G
. C )# C )#  C  C  C   
C
.  C  C
 2 F ' .2 1
A (I#) #  
#   *  
  !" B H
. 
  #   2 !% = D J
  * F   G (H-? ?  
(5#  
% B
.  ,*% 
(polystyrne)

 K%G .3 1
:1  C
 3  4 I%   - (    #  
# !2 3
((=?2 !' L$4 & ) )- $  !#     3#%# . LG
2 3 #  $  # * %   ' 1  /   # #
.(5 $% 3 F1? N 2) 3 - M
 D $ % A1# 4  # 34 K%  * -% 32
%= C
.)#   3 # -%  -% 32
%=  .*-
: 
" #  
"  7;  
  L# . K% C (*-  C
.)# C # C C
:2  C
2 - LG  3 I 4  K% #    -
(3  #  2 9 , (1#2 KB # !#
=/ # $ 
.  
# 3 ,% (   6=" * &'  #  #     7#
.1 7 #0 1 
. 1 4 3 $ 
  &'  :
%=
(plexiglas)

(N)

SI

# !7 ' * &' # 3 $  # ' 5 # C
. #
1 4 #$ A1# I$ 
 D  &'  , 1 %  I2
%= C
. &' K%  (
6


%= (5 4 3 #  # # (
 D  -  &'  DB 4 C
# 34  &' K%
# 3 * &'$ K% 6%  I2 3 % 
%= C
I
- 4 #$  I L$4 )4 * I;  LG
KB L$4  !% # !7 #)1  2  I
 1#2 KB # - 1 3 < 41
3 * &'  1 !"
.(# LG 
F 4  7;   4G  C
&' 32
%=   -  /
.
 3   # *
:3  C
K% #    

LG  3 ! 4 
  

 # &' 32


%= (
.
 34
 
: F  !N P#
.# C K' C
.# C  C
.# C  C
.)#  C 1 C # C  C
.


  

   ! "              

  + , ! ,   #  $%  &'  (  )!( *  +
:- ,  , , /0 !   "12
. i , :!     "1 6  3 ! 4 5
 (5 2  ! ,
, :!     "1 6  3   4 5
 (5 2    + ,
.r

#  
   # .1 2
 3 ?= :1 
r

8 " 91 ;# ,' 07 ( &'    #  ! 
. (" >  ( )  < )2 6  ,$% *2
. /!   /     + , 7 *8 ! ! , #
:(%1 95 + * 4%C)   B;   /! @A
i ()

10

15

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

85

90

r( )

3,40

6,50

9,70

12,50

19,00

25

30,00

34,50

37,90

40,00

40,20

40,50

i/r

1,47

1,54

1,55

1,60

1,58

1,60

1,66

1,74

1,84

2,00

2,11

2,22

sin i

0,09

0,17

0,26

0,34

0,50

0,64

0,77

0,87

0,94

0,98

0,99

sin r

0,06

0,11

0,17

0,22

0,32

0,42

0,50

0,57

0,61

0,64

0,65

0,65

1,5

1,54

1,52

1,54

1,56

1,52

1,54

1,52

1,54

1,53

1,52

1,54

sin i/sin r

:F
%=

.!5   + , D !5 ! ,  ! 


.  sin(i)/sin(r)   6$
@  7 7 * '  60 *i = 15 i= 0 6  6     i= f(r) !  
(i<15 / 7 ) E2 , /     + , ! ,  !  
(1    )
7 B  *7!   6     sin(r)
sin(i) FE  
/ 7  '  >  / 5 &' * 0 sin(i)/ sin(r)   7 7 sin(i) = .sin(r)
2    ) .6







#  ?  :2 

G(  G# /     H   I      ! A  )!(
KE ( 82  7 )2  K' 6! )J /;  9A G(  G  9A
.  +  $ 6( 9A /2  (%0 /' *J /;  60 G   >;1
 ' G /G  '1     0 @ sin i/ sin r   7 B  2  
 7 7 * /  )1   F 0  M , /G    ' /0 /'/G
 $ 6( 7   1    .G# >      H15 <
.  +

Q   4 # ? 1

! !! !5 5 7 ! *  +   !  /'   F '  /% 
7 1 2 + 9'   !5  * 22 ; ,  15 6  
!  .N   /' F  A *6!5  J ; ,  (    
 (  F 2 61  /' 8   ) .615   5 G 15   ,A
.(!'
 !  11' G  0 N 15 82  K5 M !A /%  )!( 7 
.% !  O  
:%0 * (  K5   ' *  !  F  F '$+ 
 I  3   " 91 6    4 5
 ! 4 5

! , E2 6$ / 7  !   + ,  ! $% @ 
." 0 sin(i)/sin(r)  

#  ?  4 )# 1 $ sin(i) = f(sin(r))  L% I  !  ?
 L% I  !  ? .n = 1,54 5     (-
  #  ?  4 )# (/ %  2 $ sin i= f(sin r)
.n=1,33    
: #  
 *14G 3 3 $ 3
.)#   D # A1# L$4 
 # &'  &' C
#  ? 6 % (
:  (  !; 1# 3  G C
:3 SB  %  .$  # " 1#
(
3  L4 ." 1# #  ?  !; 1# #  ? 6 %
."F  C!# 3?"
$  )% # . C
)% # C2
:
%=  F / 3 3
* # 17 34  4 L% (15 0  ) i T  /B   !  32
r = .i 32 P#
(%   405)  "  ? LG !0  ? ( i > 156 %    # C
.90LG  ? !0 4
1

sin i/ sin r = n

n1.sin i = n2.sin r

n1

n2

2 2

$  C5
.! !G 1
34  # * &' (( LG - 3  !) %   2
3  * &'    -    ? 4 # A1#$ 

. $ -
.%  
  )#      -   ? % 3
.2  $  %  -  ? )#    32
%= 4
.485  / %  #=  %  -  ? 5
  C
: F  !G
. % C  C
.$  C ( = 40  % C
C =40 C
, 1 *
3 !# !%  (- 3 ! #=  %  -  ? 5#%
:V7 2  I$' F  C!# "
(
. # 5 3 F#  # 3*?  ? %   7#
48  - 4 $  6%  / %  C
 - 4 $  6%  /- %  C

 - 4 $  6% -/ %  C

:$   ? F#  1


(
(
(
i= 40

D = r-i

sin l= n1/n2

.sin 90 = n.sin l

42

62

l = 48,75

 = 1,33

l = 41,8

n = 1,5

l = 47,33

n 
 = 1,36

10

 

W' - 4 $ 6%   . C


 2 5
L$4 1# 6 % ( ' '2 3  * -% 4 -% !- ( '  
I  3      32 5 )2 (5# D?  & '  %2

%= .!
  3 !B 17 3 D?  ' 2 3  (!
 
? 
4  '  I ' '$ " I 3 $  * -% -
.H-?
W' -  "G $ 6%   C
4 3 5  I;) 32 4 ' -  "G  ; '  L142
# 34 3 ! K% 6 % ((! B %= %  X 9# 32
L#  (' !7 ( ; $ 6%  (78 3$ 34 $7)   -
.3;  
  ;   2  !$%
-% L$4 !B% ,  ,' - 3$ A' '   4 C
=" .(I 4  3; ! V  7;  3;) A' 3   *
(72  -% 1 72 A' (%2  -% 1 %2 A'
....  
-  2
%= '  %2 L$4 $  * -%  1# 4 C
.( L$4 
% D) # 34 % I 78 I 3
(H-? ? 32 1  ' -  "G    ;  32 P# I
.I   / 3 # 34 K%  3$  %  
'  K%   # . C
 
-    -  - 32 A$1B  i2 i13  -    1 H?
 % * B (' !# X  5  L$4
D
: ? 3$
' D ! ? O  - * ? L$4 # C
i
?
) 3$  %  * -%  2 ? L$4 1$# C
i
"2 X 6 % (3$ A' +  2  2 (- $
)  # 17 # # " (? A1# L$4
.* - 3  (BB1
I#2 3 6 % ? , ' X  D C
) ) BBL$4 )4 3  %2 ((- 1/ I#2) * - 
* B X) * - !% ?   .(I   
 !"
.(!  # 
) #  i1   - % ( "

2 3

3 3

B'

11

? L$4 "2 # ('$ 78 I 3 -  &' L$4 !B% 4 C
.I4- " ' !'  
.' I 
 # &' - 1 4 C
.DK%  -  ? 3  &'  #  ( i2  $ C
W' 3 * &' - 1'   . C
!; 1' C2
 &' 3N ('$  %  -) 3  2 r2 - F  G I21 4
(r1<   972  3 r2< 3 32 5   .'$ " I 4  $
.- $ !; 1'   A< 2 :)2 r1+r2 < 2 I
- $ " 1' C5
 - 34 , #   5  6%  " (,% - $ !; 1' 32 3 <
.I " I$  # ' 3 -  &' 3 $2 3  io
 ! (' 3 &' -  io3 !?2 i   - !2 3 I2
%= C
.I " I$ IB 4  $
r1> A- 2 A-r1< :3N r2< )2 A< 2 32  
sin r1> sin (A- ) :I
sin i1> n.sin(A- ) 2 n.sin r1> n.sin(A- ) : n T 3 1 5 
:5 I '$ " I$  # -  &' 3 i1=io !2 3
i1>io :3 32  - $ " 1' 32 P# sin io=n.sin(A- )
(Dm)L; K%  - CT
DmK%=  ? L2 L$4 !B% '  -  "G  * -% K% 4
r1=r2=A/2 :  ' F?=4 5#% %   i1=i2 3 4
Sin(Dm+A)=n.sinA/2  i1=i2=Dm+A )2 Dm=2i1-A=2i2-A :I

4 3

12

1     
90
90
39

48
48
40

30
30
18

20
20
12,5

0
0
0

i
r'
r

  %  - C
5
70 (39 C (39 C5 (70 C2
3 - -  &'  &'  CT
l

= 39

57

32 6

: #= " 3 !#

25
25
20 15 10 5 i
19 ,47 16,36 13,18 9,94 6,65 3,33 r
i = n.r
25
25
20 15 10
5
i
20 16,66 13,33 10 6,66 3,33
r
10
15 10 5
n =1,342
n = 1,53
A = 41,5
D = 61,27 io = 21,27

?= !# C

 -    # ( - )!  <17 %  % %B ?=    C


.1 ( ( 
(

9
10
12
13
14

- $ !; 1' 3N( %  -   2 = 82,3 6 % (A < 82,3 32  C5


.,%
.(13 3  
).%   io  ? ; (13,5   3 i  ? F2 CT
.(i = i 4 D = Dm 3) Dm = 30 5#%  3  3 C
l

13

: %
-   * -% # 34 P     
 %  
 % F4'M 3 , )  $    5$ )  1#  (' 1#
 !1 ,$ #  ? )  ' 7# .5 $ 0 3$
1   '   ( !1 V? 5#%  - % 1 )  &'M
# 34 $7  
, 3 $   6% 6 % ( - )   K 1
  G ( G ,1$ !  3  !7   
  (' 
%  I2 
%= D .'' L$4   2 )B  K 1 !=7 3 
I   -    #  3  LG K 12 4 L$4 !B% N ( ' 7#
  K 1 32 ! 5  B  ' -  (' %    K7
(    " " L;    K 1  ' #  3    L$4 2 ( 2 4
.L;   ) !; K 1  '   
      
34 K' LG K F1' 3 4 F%?
3    -   (I   5  ! $% 3 1 #   5 
- $  !1 7#  (3$  % &'M 2 1 #   5 
!1  *  @ F * ! L$4 K  .3$  % &'M
.
  7  2 #  9 5 2 F ' !' L$4 F1'  3 C
&  6%  $B 2 ( 5 ! 2  %) # 7 F
.(972 D ,*" L$4 #
   C
1
F4 2 1/ V? 3   H-? ?  
 ' !=7 3
:32 # LG = !B 3 B
I ! )  '$  ;  !"      3; B
      3;  32 .5 3  "  $ B  "
  3;  6 % 3  
  I '  ;  ! $%
.H-?
2
.I ' K 1 ! # ''    ' 7# % 5 
: = 3 5$1
(72 (B2 ( (%2 :5    '  5#% ? L$4 K 1 # C2
.# ($  (,-2
  7 %; 3$  '' L$4
%= %; 3$ A' D 4 C
  4  % -% D 3  ((A' B ) ) 3;
      

: 
.

:   
   .

14

L$4  * -% 3  / A' 3  /  .! K 1 % ( #  
.I V7 K% Y$4 )  $B;   D 3 ''
:#
." ;  K 1 " 3Z 2 1 IN ( ;  '  4
."  "  
  L#
.5  I2 !  ;   K 1 32 B C
I 6% )  3$  %;  .3  5  , ' 3 3;  - 
.K%  2 #   K% !?2
:F
%=
 ' P  H B  ; $ D )  5   7# ! C
('' C' CM
$B 3  (3  -% B$ K' , 2  ? 34  4 '' 3 C
. $ F D  %  $4 # #
"3$ #" ,<   3  ( 7   $ F%' 7# C
.(9$% !") =#   K $/ !# )  X #=  2 $
5   (3$  %   K 1 3    4 1 AY'
.3$    F4'G 3
  # - % 2 ,' I -% H B 2 * D  D 7# C
9# 4 D  3  ( ;  3  - -% L$4 3M ? !B%$
.#$ )0 
3
 5   G LG = =7 3 !B 5  % "=" ,1
.I 0 3; 2 F4'M 3  ;
3  (K 1$  # 3; 3 !?; L$4 0 F41 3 "3  V?" C
N !%; !  .!?2 4# !2  ' L$4 !B% L%   4
 ' LG    () LG !  ) M ! $?  2  L$4 !B%
.5   LG 3  #% 6 % 3; 5    ' .V 3 
7# " (#4 3 '' L$4 ! # K 1 L$4 !B%  "  1  C
 LG !B (# 2) '' X %  3  D  D  #
.'' L$4  ;  )2 5
!; ' 3 -   * -% 5   
7# (""  1  C
  117 (" ' 1#   3     # 1#
-% I  3 G [$ # & 2  L$4 5  
 L$4  
 #  5#%   * -% L$4 # D )    )<  *
(# L$4 7
    .

15

!B% " !; ' 1#  ;  ! $% 2   6%    


 ' (  3 " '  5  " -  $   -% L$4
.5  ! $%  $4
:#
3  (32 LG  ;  ! $% 3 I2 P#  # 5 3
. ;  L$4 !B%$ 3; 5 
 !1  3$  % &'M C
1
 7# "; (3$  % 2 1  7  7# - $  D 
.972 32   %; 
 % I# 5  (K  * B 3 &  !# 17 3G :I  
.I 3 $ '    3 17 (1 #; K1 3
# 5 #   '    3$  % 2 1 #   32 P#   3 C
A ' 34 P  K=7  % 17 34  4 K 1 .5 4 1 #
K 1 I%    32 4 3 5   % 3$  3 3G
.I $4 !B%
2
  7#  ( I% 1 I !1 3$  %  - # C
.P  7   "-"T 
LG  4 =   6%   # X   3 I2  @
. $ =% 3 32 3 (D# "<  * F
(m) =" (! ! 5#%  !1 F% 7#  D  ! C
.* !  (nm) 2
!%  1 F=7   ? (400nm ; 800nm 3  * ! % C
.3#M 3 4  ##% LG 2 # ! LG #;   % 
.* K 1 3 3; %  # 
%= 
3$ .B2 I = 0,6 m I !1 )  &'M :32
%= 11 !' 3 C
3   3 ($# D !'; K$7 ?)   B% 1 '  7;
.[0,51m - 0,57m]

   

:      


  
!" ! # #$% 

1  32 $ 3   (12 !')   3


 ? 1   3  !1 K% 
: 5$1 . !1 '  #
' !7 *  #$ # !G C
, 1 34  ; $ 6% )    K' 
16

I# I$  H !' 3 # $ !   .(!; I L$4) !; #
6%  2 .  % K' 1#  $  # ' 2  L$4 
.$ -% ! " #  " I 4
: 
!  !1  /  /  #  ? ?=4 LG  ' !7 K%
n/n0=c/v 32 6 % 3  1#  &'M 4# ?=4  #  ? ( &'G
 v =7   4#  c ( 2 =7  n0=1 3 2 (v=n0.c/n 2
.(" ;
%2 "  
) .1#  &'M 4#
:&'G ! # ?=4 C
sini= nR.sinrR ; sini= nO.sinrO ; ; sini= nVi.sinrVi.
:I ((' LG  -   F4'M !) F "  sini 6 %
)  1#  I4# F$? I%  - F$? 3  3$ #  ? F- $
.I  '
() 7 !4) H-? ? C
#  (H-? ? !% 5 3 4 = - ) 7 !  
. 
  !% 6% H  -$  7
:F
%=
 &' ! ? !-  L;   -G 3 C
 

1  %  I % 7<  (# #
 # # = 3 5$1 6 % (*= 5 
LG '    !; B 3 *
. !' (K 1 ! #  ''


4  # !% I $ K
 C
  (/ " / 3 1# -

 * -% ?= 4 6% )  
 

.% / E


.($# ? L$4 I$ )  '  K 1 # C
3  * -% ' 4 $    6%    LG   C
 !B    - 5#%   () % 7 LG () % !7
3 5$1 X !B% 4 ./ 3 !B A1# 4  * -%
%   G 4  $ ?  F B 3 3   ( 
 ! $ =
.!-
 3 .$B 3; 3  1 3 1 " 41B"   1 H-? ?  
C
)# , )$ -  
 * F$% !' L$4) #Z L; %
 .'' L$4  - -% !' L$4 3; L$4 !B%  " %  ((,;
3

17

$7 A1# 4  " %  2  1? !7 # 6% 3 %
1 3 3" #  72 % !7  # E L$4  2   1$
   6% *  # !=7 . LG %  3 2  LG
. ; '
H-? ?
   F1? 3  L$4 1?# '     
 H-? ?
L$4  " !Z2 #  1? %  &'$ 6% 6 % .1 !- 
I 3  ( LG - $ 3" # " 1 !7   3 !B A1#
,$ (# 3? 5#% (&'  K%   -  3G .D$ K%
 @    3 (90LG 0 3   7< 32   - 3  (i   -
 -  ?  /  %  (K% &'$  '  1 = (*
' 3    3  2 ( 
42 '  4 3 (Dmax L 0 3 K%
.
3  
42 3 ' 32  (n  #   ,$ Dmax 
4; K% 
6 %)%^  # Dmax =42,4  ((nB=1,344 6 %),-^  # Dmax =40,5!2
.(nB=1,331
 - K%  32 9  LG 
 )  ( O 3   )  ' 3G
L/1  $  F1? 3  8 ( ' 3  '; L%  # ) 42,4
L$#  F1? 3  8 40,5  - K%   (%; 3$  $4
$%) %; 3 5 6 % 3; 3 #? X 9  (,-; 3$  $4 L/1
 '    %  * '; 3    (( $# $%),-; LG( $
  (42,4  - % 1  F1?  "# "  '; & ,
)-  # % (O 1  I#2 17 !' $ -% 0 ';
 - )#  #2 17  - KB (O 1 3   '^
.!'.Dmax  
4; K%
:   ' 1'

3  (5%# 2 1  F1? '  4   ' 3
' '2 L% 3  - 3 (   
  ' !   '
,^  # 7 D  ' F  G .42 40 3  - DB 
 
 G (%1$  B $ ' F $ ()* KB  !' 3
 .# 2 H B F?    '   [  @  0 3  " F
.=" !='  , I ' 3
)2) 4 # 3 32 3  1? !7 6% )   3G :
%=
' !?2 3  (")" "L4 7E ? 
X 34 P  ((3  3 #
)" $ 3  3 &     .(  32)*   3
%   )# (17$  #2  - KB)  - (3^  5 
18

1 ' "T L# $


 3 )" *   3 L1# 1  . 53,7
."#G
.H-? ?  
 % !'; 

2 

19

% 3  !$%


(I !1 2  3$ ,$ '  #  ? 3G :(T 5 1
&'G ! 3N ($7 2 !12 F F4'G 3 5   ;  32  
. ;    6%   ($7  - K%
.K  @ 3 A %B (2 5 :
%=
1#   I4# B;
&'_  # "  #  ? 3 ?=   (2 2
8
c=3,000.10 m/s ( v=c/ n
:I (n /n = v/c 
v=3.108/1,3506 = 2,22.108 m/s . n =1,0000 ( n = 1,3506 :)4 , 1
( " 1#    4# : -2 8 ' I?/#
)  3- (5
-10
t=d/c ; t= 20.10 /3.10 = 6,67.10 s
:I
: (X# ) " ;   '
I?/#
)  3-
(
-2
8
-10
t= d/v = 20.10 /2,22.10 = 9,01.10 s
d/v
:3   3  C
8
8
t/t d/c = c/v=3.10 /2,22.10 =1,35
2







#  LG %; 3 &'G ! K% 6 % ( ;    6% (2


 -
K%
n R<nO<<nVi 3; DR < DO < < DV
:%; &'M K% 5#% (5
:" !; 3  4 " # 3? , 1
sin =nRsin ; sin =sin /nR :!; I 4
sin =sin50/1,6= 0,4877
=28,6 :&.F
=A- = 60-28,6=31,39
31,4 : 
n sin ' = sin :" I 4 C
1,6.sin31,4=sini=0,8336 ;
i=56,46 :.&.F
:%; &'M K%  - C
DR = i + i- A ; DR = 50+56,46-60 = 46,45 DR = 46,45
: ( # F17  &  :#  &'M K% 5#% C

=27,12 ;

=32,87 ;

=65,76 ;

DVi=55,76

 
       ! "# $% & % ' %
 () +% ,% : 
 *
.sin-1 ,% %  #

20

: /B2 K% 3 4   - 5#% (1 4


sini = nsinr ; nsinr=sini :  (" # 3? 3
:  ,% )/B; K% 4 C

r=r=A/2 ;

i=i ;

Dm= i-r+i-r = 2i-(r+r) = 2i-A ;

A
Dm

sin Dm+A = n.sin A/2


2
n=

r
B

:I

sin Dm+A
2

sin A/2

:.&.F

n=1,66 Dm=52,8 ; =589nm ; A=60


i=56,4
1
D1
D=(i-r) + (i-r) = i+i (r+r) = i+i-A
AB
sini = n1sinr1
sinr1 = sini
n1
D1

i1

i
B

i = Dm+A
2

(2

:  !1 ) &'= K%  - 5#% (3


:' F?=4 3 C
: I 4(#= " 3 3 C
)2
:& .F
n1 = 1,69 ; sinr1 = 0,4928 ; r1 =
r1= A-r1 ; r1= 30,47
29,53
sini=n1sinr1 BC

D2

: I 4 C
C
:& . F
sini =0,857 ; i1 = 58,98 ; D1 = 52,8+58,98-60 = 51,78
: (2  !1 ) &'_ D2 K%  - 5#%  1  C
r1

r2=30,32 ;

r2=29,69 ;

D =51,19
2

:' #  ? 5#% (1C5


D=i1+i-A ; i=D-i1+A
:.&.F
i=48 I (i1=48 D=36 ; A=60
C
B
r=r= A/2=30 I i1=i
:# 3? 3
sini1=nsinr ; n=sin(i1)/sin(r)
n1,48 :.&.F
32 5 ((I  3 &' - =)AC I 4 * &'  L% (2
:I (i=90 :)2 (AC I L$4  # &' 3
i1

21

:&.F ( sin90=nsinr ; sinr=1/n


:&.F
r=A-r
i1=26,7
:.&.F sini1=nsinr :AB I 4 # 3?
400m-]* !$  =450m I !1 )  3$  %  C6
. #  9 '' L$4 I1#G 4 ([800m
LG    (  3 B &'M  !1 !" !1  =6m 7
.(  # '; 3) *  @ &'G  (* !
 3$  % F4'G2   F  LG I$ $% 3 (5  '  8
. ' 2 ' !" $   -  K<
L$4   "< !=7 3 X 3 < 3  ( (IR)% F% '2 ' B C
.( $ #%)  '  % 2 % !" %$ ! #
##% H;  L$4 "0 '2   ( (UV) # , '2 ' B C
.# I 6% )  3#M $ ##%  ( @
.%2 X$# 3 3  4 B *  )% D' !/' 4 9
3 % F% '; LG M * ! 3 % F4'M D'  C
.*$ % B   *  @ !
.(IR) % F% 2  % ';  -;  ##%  '; 10
, '; !"  '; 3  %  (^ ,  I ) K=/ C
.  - VB 3-; -@  6 % ( # 
(  -; 3  ") -$ -   34 %$ 7# &'M 3G 11
.(   % F% !  )% &'G  ) % F% F4'M 3
.(*  @ ! ) 800 nm 3  2  !1 3;  *  @ '2  
K' 78   &'M 3 &   4 #;  32  5  C
.I
= 10,6m = 10,6 103 = 10600nm 12
LG    (%; &'M)800nm 3  2 &'M   !1 32
%= C
.% F% '; !
r=42,3
r=17,7

UV


& 

IR

'(  
& 


& 


 " & )

230nm
0,650m= 650nm
9.10 m = 900nm
430.10 m = 430nm
5,8.10 m = 58nm
-7

-9

-8

22

13

:3 

 
 

K 12 BM K 12 ( * K 1; L$4 = K 32 %    


 B   *   B  1 K 1;  3 ?= K' (VB
%  BM K 1 3 ?=   ( - )   V  2 
!  B7 (F  !% F$ L$4 !B%$ $ # L$4 !B%    .D 
.   B 3 3 2 $
K 1 ##2 (1 # !*# L$4  F1' 3 4 %   F%?
 * B 2 (B 3   7  !*#   (' 2  ' 
' 1  A B 7# ! )   P  A B L$4 VB7 
A B X  (( - H B !" (% "2 K 1 3 L%   G
.117 K 12 # B7
VB K 12 BM K 12 C
 2 F ' C
1/ V !" 972 !*# 7#  ;  K 1 1'   K'
 '     (( = 4 <  1 # $ #  )  I $4 1$# ) 
((H-? ? '   )  # %  E   ' K 1 32 3
3G L% ((L;  3 K 1 ) K 1  L$4 !B%$  ' 7# 
.#   I G   )  K$7 * -  2  3
I '  (K 1  0 (=" %) 1 '  7# 3  ' 3  -
.D  J 3 1? 2 ( '
K 1; K B C
1 #  
 F ' 5$1 ( B    K 1; &; 4   LG K
3  (4 5 2  ' -G 3 $4 K 1 DB       (<
.K 1$ '   0$ %B
: ' 7#
3 4 * B 3 D (K 1 LG =7 3 
 F ' 3 & X
 0 K $ K 1  0 3G . G     ' X  ( '
K$7 4 '' L$4 K 1 ! # 3 ( 1 !#2   K 1;
7# 2 ! 1 L$4  B  -;  LG %   %). '
( 7   B  
:  
. '  %  * B$ -  !B K 1 LG    !B
1

23

:  
K 1 !#  (  1 A B   (I  <  @)   B L$4 K
.$  F1'   $4   #$ <
 $4 !# P  H B !B  K 1 2  ' K 1; D # 3G C
.117 K 1 !B BM  1 3 
(   V7 ($7 D 3  3  *   B K 12 3G C
3 *   B4 ! K 1 1 )  (SpectresL4  8 =4M  V7 P
   F4'M 34   F$ LG M () ! !=7
.K 1
:P*
.117 K 12 2 1 BG K 12 $B BG K 12 LG K 1; KB C
I ' 32 L$4 )% $B BG K 12 F?% 5   D  B C
.H-? ? 32
(Hg, *- He $ (Na B H B !") <  * A B B C
!' L$4  % F4'M  L$4 )% (1  12 1 2
. 34  $B 117
.D  3 '  B ; BG K 12 K 1;  ! L# C
2 D1 BM K 1 " & L#  (!B BM K 1 !; & L# C
.117 K 1
CK 1;  "0 ! C
.  
H B $  (5) )% B ) K 1  4 3 ?= LG 1'  K C
# 2 5$ 3 3    ?=  
%= 3  .%  (P 
3 ,2  (X$# P  3 3    % B !" 37# 5$B
%  F  G !  @ I !B K 1 34  4  )  K 1  '
    37# # D' G (%  F- $  -  7
'; !B L%    '; - " (%; F% %;   F4'M
.(" ;
%2" LG 
) .* !  K 1 !   # 
:#
 #  C D  C % C   C )% C %  C !B C )%
.  2 C  C
2

12

24

K 1 ( B ' $ ' L$4  B $ !$% )% :   C
"%   3 (5$ -  B; 3$ 1 )   B B4 LG  P
 7"T 2 (972  %$ ! % !"  B B4 L$4 )% 972 5 N
"< ) X$# 2 L$4 D 6 % (( 3G)   B I  7# )  "5$
3  ( B K 1 17  ' 3  I !%  5$ ? 4   (5$
7 K 1 D   .5$ L$4 "  '   B $ F$ 7#
3  B   -  K 1  32 K' ( #  ) H B   B
.I   )  #
( -   V7 K 1     K
  *   B B :#
B 34 K'$ BM K 12 # L$4 6%  F# 3  "    
.  B  $    *  
VB K 12 C
    *   B   VB K 1 K' 5  
%   #)   ( B $ F$ )  B 7 ( *   &;
# K 1  $7 L$4 # 117 !' L$4 (117 VB K 12 1 (7
2 1 ' !' L$4 3 )  BM K 1  '   (   - )  $
.# 
 B F4'M 3 1*'
:F
%=
.M  ' H B  ;  $   $ B 7# C
K 1    I " Z2  B $ # K 1  ' C
.BB
 ! #  ' VB K 1   ; $ # K 1 # C
2 5 # %  (4 117 34  4 K 1 3   #; %  C
34  1*' 34  4 K 1 3  (*   B4 3 "2 )% )2) 1 $7
.#   *   ; K$7
L% (3000C % )    5$ 3 32 ) 3    C
 " 5 )  '$ 8 % %B   LG  . B $ X
.(, !*%  - % B 7# 2 ? 3
(!$% 2 7 )    B 3   32 3 < C
 ##2  B7 
%= 3 3 IBB K 1  B BG K 1 3  C
)  ##2 3? 34     (" B # !; K 1 B 32  
.BB L$4 ? 3  F4'M G V  B 32 
32 ) 3 17 !%   2 3 7# 7#  5 ! :
%=C
.? 17 LG  !  I  #;  
. C K$7 C  7 C F4'M C 7 C  / C  C - :#
3

25

C2
:  K 1 C1
VB 34 P VB K 1  2  7 3 1$   K 1 3G
  B LG M $ 7 K=/   *   B
) K=/  "< !-4 !2 3 ,2   1 # 3  (; ) K=/
, .   * 1% L$4 I#  7 D I 7 ) 3 (;
0 B ! 3 P 2 "2  *  7 3  $4 !B% K 1 32
   ((B  3 " $ $?     # F LG  ) $
. F  32  1
: K 1 # C2
#  $7 2 :3 *- 3 5     1 -  VB K 1 3G
117 # 1/ K 1 F4'G ! L$4 )%   5$? 3 B $
L$4   *   B VB 34  '   F #
.117 3 4  # B4 ! ($  7  1
3$ $ 1 B? 2 $  $7 3 ! $  %1# %  32 
.( " 
) I 
) 
! BG K 1 !=7 3 ( Y2 X3 B %2 L$4 )%  (H !"  C
117 32  (3 B F B  F4'M 0  3  %
.   VB 117 D   1 YB
3  ((   117)    VB 117 4 3N '  %  C
K 12 D  2 - LG  $ % ('  !'  $4 K !#
. B
% :3   !$%
:F  !2 1
 BG C V C # C -Z  C 117 K 1 C %  C =B  1 C
3; ( ; $ !B K 1  *    I $4 !B% K 1 2
.( 1  1 1 )  -/ %)7 LG !%  3 
 LG(  M)  ; 3  / I 3N ( # K'  1G 4 3
32 LG  %; LG %; LG   %; 3  3$  /  ((1)
. b1
0 F4'_ D #   7 3 3$  / 3 !# 1 !=7 C
.K 1 3<  %; LG #  3  ; $
    

26

.( ' 2 ') K 1 LG % H B 3 B  K 1  C


:5  117 C

/0

1 2 '

) 3

%
 
4 5

67 
8%#

 D 4 ('' L$4 H B  K 1 ! # (, # 5  , % 4 C
)  H B P    /
%=     *=  /  7;  %
  %; 3 F4'M    B 6 % (!B K 1   / I
$ 0 F4'M   5#% .#  $  ,-; 7; B;
4  2  B L% B; (  %; (%; 3  /  3 3N
. K 1 F4'G ! 3
 # *4
%= (7  *    ' 3N   7 4 C

%= %; LG #  3 F4'_   7 6% )2 ., #  #
.H B G '    B?


K 1 L$4 !B% .I   M 1 )   )2 I$4  9 / H B C
. * F4'M 5$@2  L$4 !  !B BG
K 1 I   / )  F?  H B P   V?
%=   ?  7 4 C
.(, # 3  
2) . B  F4'M V?  B )  
.H B X$# - )    ' V? LG )0  V? C
V? LG )0   ' V? (- )    ' ,$ X$# %  C
.K 1   X$# % 
117 BG K 1 : !B BG K 1 : VB K 1 : 6
3    ( B K 1 17  317 3 .1=589,5nm ; 2=580,0nm 7
 (, ? (K 1)  !$% 3 4 3 17 3
%= .B2  
.  % 17
%=   F%
:K 1 ! " C



27

L$4 ((=B  1 % 1 )  ;  N  B VB K 1 ,%


$ !$% !" ((' 2 F % ) Na  B B4 L$4+ )%

.(VB K 12 (41' (1  
2) (Na +Cl ) B
H B  B ) ) I 3 - Z 3 4'M  B ' 2 F V
D $  ; BG K 1 #  $7 VB K 1   ( B

2) 3 4 3 17 !' L$4 (1=580,0nm ; 2 =589,5nm3 4' I V
.BG K 1  # B 
 ((, # 3 
690,7

623,4

579,1

577

546,1

496

491,6




6

;0

;0

5<

5<

5<

435,8

407,7

% ;

   #
nm 9
! 

  5  117 C

/0

%
 
4 5 67 
8%#

1 2 '

) 3

:3 %  & !$% VB K 1 C


( !')  ;   (2

420nm

560nm
546

496

491,6

435,8

, *- H B   (5


(!')


(nm)

656

(nm)

656

10

:3   H B K 1 (1
  3   H B  K 1 (2
! VB A'  (%2 A'
F4'M 4 -  F4'M
.4=656nm I !1 )  &'M  X A#  (%; 
486

434

410

28

 $ H B  K 1 11
  )# I !1 (90%) G ' ";  B; &'M 32
%= C


400

500

600

700

nm

590nm

 $ %   - ((7 I=@) I%   3 ,$ 12
! 50
;0 ?@  8%0 6%  &   ) (,-  ; LG %; 3$ 3
.(,
B   ( 37#) 40000C 2 ( ) 2000C I%  )   C
 ! !^  # % F%  !  (* ! 7 F4'G
 B  F4'M B 3 3 3    = ("$  # #  ,
.';   V7 K 1
.*   B  BM K 1 VB K 1 13
 F4'M  !1 #  117 BG K 1  F4'M  !1 C
.117 VB K 1


(3; 3 $B  $7) !B K 1 !' ' 3 B  K 1 


14
!  ("" 117 K    ('  # 117 $$7 3
5#% F4'M   '    *   B VB L$4
.(, ! 49
;0 ?"@ $%    " 6%  ) .B   1
VB 117 I 3 I$  !B BG K 1  '  K 1 3 I
., ? K 1 G   F '    
  ? 


.5 3 49 %B ( #  "   !' I#  K 1 !' :
%=


15

I4     (* !  '^ 7  !$% VB  !"  3 


 % (  B ) 3 L% 3 3  3 .VB K 1  ( *  #
: % 3 31 '   3  . $ 5# 7< B F4'M 3 1 '
.[650nm-680nm]  [400nm-450nm]
1=430nm ;
:3    ((VB  # L$42) % ? LG 
 C
.2=660nm
29

( -  A#  )2 (B  @  $ F4'M L$4 K? !$% 3 3G C
3 $ I V  ;  )2 (3; 3 L   5   3$ 3 
.72 3$% 3 
 (,-; %; 3 B (3 1 ')
= $? K$7 !B% 3$ 3 32 3 -  !$% F  1 5#% :
%=
 A# . * F4'_ IBB     LG    (K$7 72 3)
.  3<    ! % K$7 3 -    1 P*
16
 - 4  #  F/ !$% 3   F4'M !" 3 
.# 1*' !' L$4 
 B ';  (VB K 1  
 ( ;
4)     !"  *  # 3   4     3;
410nm-]; [630nm-780nm] :5    3; 1*' % I ((VB
F4'G  L   (#  C,-;    C%; 1 '$ 3  [440nm
.B
";  =420nm I !1 )  &'M 32
%= (VB K 1  3  3 C
.IG '  2 !"  (80% %  #  (!$%   )  

 ( # 3 1' )2 (I   (3;) F4'M 5   !$% 3 C
.) 3$
Spectres P 3 7# C *   B  BM K 1< V7 ,%$


30

[4000-7000] * !  BM K 1

31

#


Ag

 ;

Al

3@;

Ar

5 

Au

 

 $  

Be

 

Br

3 

 #

Ca

 

Cd

$

Cl

F 

Co



32



Cr

%

Cu

$

 %

Fe

3  

 $

He

, *-

Hg

 

 # 

3 

Kr

 " $

Li

 -/

Mg

33

- /

Mn

F-;

 B

Na

3 

Ne

! 

Ni

3 #;

#

VB

Pb

  

Po

3 = 

Pt

 $ 

Pu

F  

34

 # $ #

Si

 B

Sn

  

3 #/

3 -

Xe

X-

Zn

 
       

:1 

(espces chimiques)  



 
    

entits) 
  

(

  

 
(  
)

 



"# $%
" ...    ! 



 

  


 : 




(


   

.  (& 
) &#
'
*+

&0 1*2 "% 34


&, 56
  
" 7#
 " , -
/! 

: 


.8+
.3
  %     9; &,    2#
 
&,   : 

53$ * 6  98 +


 6 +   
 
/! 3
  72  * 

. 8   8

<  

8  " 6

8  :


 
1 



CuSO4 , nH2O

1  / * > * &,   * ?8


  :7
28 =
. 
$ @  A3 
, $
> &, 74 " 

.D#
 
&,  
BC %
8 <  D4   
 
 #
=
.,  
"* 7  9;  ,   #
"  =

.  
/ *   
  2#   2
,
?8
   =
.1, " 8 
  
B F  
8 &
E$%
883

#
 =
: 3

#
 
=
: ;4
" G 

#
B =
. 
=7 = 
%
=@%
=1 =?8

.>%
/ * 
8
F "$
" 6 >  
?8
 "$ * =

. 
  1
. "        #2

35


 
2 

"  H 

2 1



B A

1 " 7




   7
28



! "  .7  I 
"$ 7   6
/ *

:7
28 =

8
 
72   "  

 D  ; 1 


8
*   6  
8
/ * 7
  8    E$ 1
4
.
" E$ '
  ' / * D8
: 3

#
 
=
. 6
=7  = 6
=D 
 8%
= %
=1 =J ,

:
 
3 

 
! )  

 

 

 
&, (



    )







 #
" .
D8 &
 
/ * 7
 


"     > :7
28 =




 

3  # K

 





( ""#  

!

.?  
K , 
"* 7  , 
: 3

#
 
=
.
=7 =
= %
=1=


 !  
4 

:7
28 =
@ 8 D F 3

*4 " 84
 &K 7
/ * 38
" 
 &K "* 7  D; > D  #
"    .@ 8%
" L;  $
@ 8 K
.1  
84

NaHCO3(s)+CH3COO-(aq)+H+(aq)CH3COO-(aq)+Na+(aq)+CO2 +H2O

: 3

#
 
=
.84
 &K ;=7 =#
=? 


' &


 
 2 " #$
%&

* K
 # 


"* 7
  !
5$

 
, 

>  &, 72 K



$+

9 >

: +$(
)# * 

# 

6 (
)





"* 7 
 1 >


9 A3 >  &, 38 
>

"    , 


.8 
 
8 
&, # 
# 

36

     



     .(
: 

 

 


 





 



 



.
4 

- " 
" @%
 
M  , =1
. ,
 
A3

8
  
 
 / * K 
N
/! L+
=2
. -   
%
 4- $ 
 #
 =3
. " 3P"  3 
 #
>  4
 "*  

 
5 * =4
. 33$ #     3

 
< * =5
. 53$ 
" 
>8 

>  #
#  
; =6
.<C  8  <8 1 + $
> &, $     ,2! K =7
> <  1 > $
> $
 1$  (?  @ 8)  8 ,2! * =8
.  Q  8 >%
9, 1 (C
M K &$ < )
. * KR + C 
 &, #2 
 
 
" " 0
=9
.?#
  @ 8 ,  
> * =10
.?#
 "$ & !   D4 =11
.18
 / *  *+  ; / * 7#
8 * =12
. 18 -8C  19,   "#
F2 > &, -
8 * =13
.1  #C   D  * " 0
"  #!  =14
. 
 / * D8 &


8P  =15
.  $  # 4 N
 8 S8 *=16
73
@8 &, > 
 8 
9   73
@8 &, # 
8 
> * =17
.-8 
@#  

&, >
  
 *%
C$ S8 S8 8 &,  
C  
=18
.  
-  8 > "#
E &, 3N
D4  " =19
."
" " +
D4 8
> 
?%
 @ 8%
 K =20
.$ 
&,  2 D4 8   
 =21
 # ( 2  "!) $ "  
 4
, S8 &
>
>  &4 =22
.(%
&,) ,   8 
/!    "    C &

.> " > #C  
  
 < * =23
.    
 *%
$ &, "$
"* ' +
=24
. 6
 ; > 6
>
8
* =25

37

Extincteur) 4 N
 , " 0
=26

. 8
*  #
/ * >
 $ 
&, (

.  
"* #   "  &,  

 
"$ =27
.5$ >  3+
>  %
,#N &4 + S8 S8 8 &,

: -#+


  
;
4
 

.1

.J ,  8  = . %
/! @%
"  6 =  
= 7

= ? $
0 $ (T = A83 (> = 0 $ ( :0 $  A83 >

.2

:A83
$

.3

( 6
) 
(T = . 8 2 8 ? (> =.  C
?8
 (
<   8%
" 
- %
" 
/4$
"P, I 
"$ J ,  8 F 
3 H 
98 "* 3  

! 
&,

8

#

.6

  6
  . 6
 / *
.D

 5$
>3

.
&,  6


Glycmie 
&,  6

38



Glucoserie


      

1  D
 8
 >
 
N &$
 
4
L   &,  *

43

 
'
%
 ; 7  8  I
 3 ! . * &, "K8

.  
+   8
-
- "   
 4
3
$ >8
D 
>
/ *    . #
5
$
/ *  *+
" 
" 1 D
.
 
S8  

;
4


-N 

  
  "

  8
@#  

D 
&,  
" ; 
L9 " 4
5$  ,  C
" >#
K! >
.U
4
 8 + 3
  &#

" 
 (!


%+

 %/

%+
2.1.3) " 


3.1.3

.& 
3#
-48

! 9   7
" !    ,
/8  @
;%   
  #
4
5
$
@# 
! " "  C +
"  
.&  ' / * 7#
 5$  *  # &
5
$
 *+
"# $ / *  
#
.L;  ?8
3* -48

 "  D  #
" 
: 3

#
 
=
=  
?8
"# = &K
=  %
" 
 !  

  = ?8
=?8 
.-48 3*

:"#
 

.  
+8
" * K ?8
3* -48! 
! :7

:%/
0

?8
/ * %
@ 8 #,

"   

2+

Cu

 /!

Cu

I

&, -8C 

?8
"# 8

.?8

$ 4$
=

. %

.>%
$ =
/ *  $ & ; C 
=
."#
 7%

. %
"  8 
"  =

39

8
/ * ?8

 #,

Cu

2+

I

-8C 

?8
 8 =

. %
" 
&4$ =

Cu

?8
"# /!

. 8
"# &4$ =
.2$%
" 
/!  8 
  =
. 8 >
 8
73 / * > =
?8

 / * ?8
9 #,

I

-8C 

"  >
 ?8
9 / * 38 =

.>%
* 7K  >
 " =

Cu(OH)2

" 9 
84
 
8

I

-8C 

/! 
8
#4 &K
?8
 8 =

>


CuO

/!

.?8
3* "#
Cu

/! K

CuO

>

8 =

Cu(OH)2

." 
 &#

/! Cu(OH)2 :8 =

.? 

  8 # =
.?8
"  8 >
 - =

:!
0

   


        !    !  " #      $% &


.  -    
"
 ' !( %  ) *+ !( (   ,)  $
.  
/0# 1  ' )   (, 
.%  (  *+ ! 3     .% " #     
12   -   3

&
 8

H NO

Cu
O


8

#,

C #,

#,

Fe#,

Cu

2+

Na +HO
+

#,


8

CuO

 

40

Cu(OH)

 +
1&# %
:;
4
 
. # = # =  = ! =  = 
.
= N
=  = 
= #
.
= 
= 

 =  = N

: 883
N
 >

$

 .3

"
 "
.

1.6 x 10 C .

10 kg > .T
-27

-19

.1

= ."N
 " K  . :&9 "


.3

: 883
%
 >

$

.4

.D
1  . T
.
.T
.

-1.6 x 10 C .

.2

-19

.2

. T

:T & 


3#
  .1

: ?4 8

3#

  .2

:* ?4 8

& 
3#
-  8 .3

* &, 7C$


 
* &, ,
 (H = D2
" ? (> = 
* (.4
3#
  (9

. 

He

4
2

"

Ne

20
10

";%

Ar

40
18

( = .

C84
Na3
NV
S
O"%
F 4
:  K 
 

He 
LiK 
Cl 
S
Al %
:  
3#
    (
C 84
3* (T9 .P434

.?8
3* - &9 "! 29   ?8
3*
Cu Cu
Cu .
.

12

34

35

36

29

29

29

16.00 u .7

y=81% :&9 B


11

R 



x=19% :&9 B 


10



R 

.8

251018

.14

1022g .15

1.0675

.W
&, % &C
D%
>
&, 84
 
 

41

.20

   
 

&N
F
/ *    D


 "%

$  '2 



9 


 .W
*  * 7
  &
3#
53$ " " 

 / * +

H
 >
 "* 8

#

 3#
5
$ 53$ -! " N
 8
.& #
538 &, 3#
" 1
 4

3#
/! # &

3$
-!  "
 *

 >  


 BC % $
"
.L8


  

.3 &  4+  (


.
/ 6(
) = (  /6 03) (  /'#) = (  /

.'5
6#7
 )

+$
.1


 ) 6 + (

.( +


 
/

/ 
) = 

9
) = (6# /,) (


 ,
 
"    >

.
 F   $Q /!   "  =
.
&, $
?4 /!  3* - &  =
.

 
:>8 
&, +
' T
.

8 : T n=2  
 
F

.

:
" %
 #
3* .T9
.  & # =(H.T9

.8
 "! $%
9
 &, = (>.T9
. # 3$  = (.T9

.   & # = (T. .

?4 /! 



6
&  = (>

. $

7 $%

 
&, 
 = (>.

+


?4 

6  = (

..
.

.7#2 &   



6  = (
. #

16
17
16
8 X
8 X
8 X :?
 #
&, V


F = (T8

K $ L $M
2

= (>. :&V * !

16

(S) 
 = (

:5 '$
6
+;(
  &+
 
F  * $Q /!   "  =>

.D*3
D
9* , 3#
> =
. 
(%
)

42

:(  &# )
.3
. , $%

 
&,
("!

1)

.2 9 &K
 
3* R,

.3 &  

P434
(T .15D
#
(>

K L M &V  


F "! .

.5 (

30

.15

.


 &, +
'  .6

Y%

  F
 = >

. +
8 &, 

 .8

3  
 
&, +
* (> .K L (
K L M &V
F
 .9
.3$%
 

* (>
.13(
)Z . 138 
* (
Al :9 3#
K L M 

 
&,  &+
F
(T
11 = Z &
Na  <! .10
11e (> .K L M 

 
&, +
F (
Na : 1e  $%
 
&, +
* (T
9e (> .K L  

 
&, +
F ( .11
F :  7e  $%
 
&, +
* (T
NaF .12
 Z=2 A=4 He .13
. 
S8 " " - 6,4.10 C ( .+ 6,4.10 C (T
. X =2n ( T .n 
 
 
 8 " "  &
+
* . 14
.A=Z+N(> .$%

  
&, & 

"*  
+
&  ( .15

3+

 # "
F 

(T .

27

13

-19

-19

 # , # (T


.
&, 
* 
* D " D2
" ? .16

K L M K L  K L K L
2

:   3* 
 &+
F
/ # .18

.6 
84
"
"%
:&9 3#
L9
.
  / * ?#
&, 8
 .19

K L
2

(T

K L
2

(>

K LM
2

. 

  / *  
3*  .20

( :&
&N
F
 &


.21
.84
"%
6 
:&9

43

K L
2

8"%
 D8 .22
V


 
  &+
F
"* .23

:&V ' 

: %
8 &,

K (Z=19 K L Cl (Z=17 K L M ) Mg (Z=12 K L ) C(Z=6 K L )


Si(Z=14 K L M )  M )
35
"9 1 LR, 3  
7  #
Cl (Z=17 K L M )<: 17 X 3#
.24
23
3
9 1 LR, 1  #
3 
K L M :11 Y 3#
< .25
23
35
.NaCl & # 11 Y 3#
F 17 X 3#
8 " "  .26
Be (L K ) ( = .27
:# 6 
3# 
L9 &  K L &+
# X
  =.28
. 3  
" 2  #
&, K L M
K L :#  4
3# &  K L &V &+
# Y   =.29
+

2+

2+

.7  #

2  
D

&, #

%       + 2%



A  %
 
"

K 3* Na 3* =.31

.  
  / * " %
 #
"
&, K 
9 D

" &K
 
 %
 #
F  &,  D

Li

+1

44

" 1 "!

A3#
=  .32

1 $%
L


 
   




.D
9 4
   =
Y& 

&N
H
  $
&N
H
" 4
9 

Y 8 1 " ; "N


, +
 



 
&, N
F

. #
 3$ $%

 
N & 
K%
" 

9 =
8 Z




1 

8
/!  Y 8 K  " ; # 
"N "  7

 * "Z  * #  6 - S8 14 8 
 8 "!  ,  


spin) "
/*  6

8 
 8   < & 

; &N
H
8 &, .(
$[ #  6  *    > S8 $V
"




4#

 &, " 14


.  > S8,

."* "P    "    C* 


9-  =

2 

.? 6 "  6 ! > < / * +K  * &  
 9 

=

3 

./
"\)



8 &, & 




-N   K  =



 > N
K

 


5 4 

4
13
$ "
K D

9 "

...< ;   
&, '
C8! (;   & 
'  4
8

.  ,  9C 


"
* #
 # 
@#   *
C6
 * 
 5
 
& 
K 
 *! "  D 

;
4


-
9

o
o

.D  24


: 3

#
 
*
1,

4 9

#
+
*  .  $
 
/ * &
F
? * & #
 
 ;  $ H
 /* 
H
 " 
(8 7 6 5)
8
 L
&, 
  " ,
8
 !   $%
 
8

!

D "# "9
&, " 
  " , "* "!   $%
 
8

!
. -* "N
" ,
" S8
S8

9! SCK &, .... E 


?4 &, 


*2  &

KCK
N
" ,

 "

180  

 " , 


1209



"

* 


  F3

.'C2%
? K K

45

. 109


   , F3 
  9

  ", * 

&* - 9 ?R  '2 &, 


" $%

  "
!

 
&, +
F2

.'C2%
 
 
K K 
1%

.+ 8N
  8 
" 
 

. %&    :"#


 

&, "



 

" 


N



 8 " 



 *



.... 4 80 4 $ "


 "   # < "K 

 
D

HCl :  
163 D
"
  D K  K
Cl H :D  4R 
3#
/ * 7#
Cl (K L M ) H (K ) :9   &+
F

  

 +      :# 


 '   * 
.

Cl , +  

Cl H :  &, K


F
:$%
&+

 
F * 8 S8 HCl D / * 38 Cl H &  =
(He  K ) "
  +
K
* 8
(Ne  K )  
  +
 K
* 8
H Cl ? H  >8 "
  D K 
 
 ; ( %
"  82 
) +
H
%

.& 
 ( 8%
"  A2 
)&+
H

:K

HCl :

63

"
  :+

2
8
7
(K) (L) (M)

(K)

Cl H "




Cl

7+1 = 8
8/2 = 4

, 8
  
 K

Cl  / *  

 
 ; K

&+
F

N
N
N

electrons
total

doublets

H- Cl

3=

H  / *
. 8 Cl  / *
8

.#  K
F

K
* 
8
=



 K
* 
8
=

 

;  

K
:Nd .  N
+
:

46

D

Nt.

$%

 
&, +
:Ne


  
.' 

 - (
: V
 
&, ;
4
  =1
.& 
 &! H =  = $%
= "! =

,
=

. $ = ! H
 =
. N
K
=  &,  
 
 K 
 "

. 3* = $%
9
 &, = N
 K
= 
8N = E$%

:A83
$

.D
  .D " &, $



* /  (1
."! = T :" ,


I (2
 $ ! H


4  .! 8 = : $

6  $%

 
&,  (3
.! 6  :"%
 $%

 
&,  (4
.2 LR, = T9 ."C $ " "* "! = T
(1%
* /  9) 9  
D  (5
( , / /  ) 9   
D = T
.(  
63
):?4   "
! >  " " (6

.A83 * D D  = T

.D 
&KCK D
"  (7

. N
K
 !  K
* D
$
 

8 = T
.&  '
%
 &, 

* D
" = T (8

.' 
01 (/

C(CH Cl) Cl

C H Cl :D   
63
= 4
.$Q   .CH CH CHO: V
34 
1 63
=8
H
%
* .NH 
.Z=1 8  "
 Z=7 8  V
 9
.D

9 &, 1  

; 3  


:CH O&9 & KN


8
D  
63
"! 11
.>  D 9 = T9 . , 
 1   , 1 = T .51 

* = T
2

:(> )"  84


 &K D ? K  <!

14

."%
& R, 8 + 1P, (>   ( 9 CK  A3 .   &, 8  K
*

(

47

O C O

 
 

:3 

   


 

YD
 
7
  
F " 
 # " 7*
YD 
D 
&, D  H
" &#
E 
&, > " C 

  7 *

1 

# 
>83  # 
 "  N
?  
 # 
  K  " C 

#  A  8  # + #


 A 
$ 
6

,#  " 
%
F * 
. #
8
"  
4 /!   1#  #
"  "# 
  #  8

:
#
 
*
.# =  C
=@6
= 
= 4 $ 
='
% = 43

:2
. 1! 3
    <
! 9 >8

9 " 7

.&# 
3#
$ "   
*%
 * 
;, * /! F
%
I 
:
#
 
*

.       


   

 
:"#
 


.   7 $

 


  "%

  "! ?8


 *+
"# $%
>

. ,  #

.8

 * 
   * #
 ,%


/! 

. K 

6
" /!  
" 

8 &, 8

 &4

48

.=

:
  
=;, * =;, * =   

= 4$  >5

1
2

(A83)  (A83) = T (-2#) = > (-2#) = 

3 & 

1.6g &9 8



M = 5,48.10 kg :1mol   q = - 96320 C :! " 1mol 8
+2,88.10 C >
6,02.10
-7

23

:&9  
3# 
 

25 L (P,) " 


&, "
&K ; " 2g 6

1 + 2 25 L = >
."%
&K " 32g

= 

6

= 7

= 

11

2,0.10-3mol  

 

13

0,422 mol 

 

15

16

1 6 D
8
?4 .

 H2O NH3

 - 7


=

35.5

.
;

CO

Cl2

CO2

CH4

O2

H2

6

18

17

28

71

44

16

32

0,62

0,59

0,97

2,45

1,52

0,55

1,1

0,07

,K





 












&, F2

49

 


  




 

:12 
"
9 44$  8 
" "  " 8 
 
 8 
 
8 *
 >
. # 
 
8 D I
 8 
8
3
 8 "     ,2P * 7 &


Cu2+ 
   8  %
" 
#
:2 2 

K 
8 
  
8 
 "%  
8 
 /! I
L9  # "  +
. 
8 
?# &

 + D
D
 8 

. , ? 
F,   " 
;

10

$


:3 2  
   
8 
K 8 <9 "%  ? "  
9 8 
L9  >6
" 

.>6
8 
9 8
S8 8 8 <9   
K



  '


# 
BC %
K



  '
 / * 
 
L9 D8
.

1.10 g/L = 6.11 m.mol/L


 

>8 H
$N "

  &4

.8 
8 F "5"  8 
":"P, 8 
" 4 $ 8 &, 8 
" 
?4 
! * =
.8 

 F "
"  8 
" :"P, 8 " 8
?4 &, 4 $  
! * =

#
'
 
 3 3
.
"   #
"8 8

 "8 / * 1
 1  '2 

9 %
6
.8 
8  
  
C* -N "    $Q A  #
" 

:2   

_ 
 #  #
*  
@ 8%
F  #
 $ / * " 

9 &, 
>
&
!   " 

 8 &

N
B  #
>    3 
 #
>
...9; 
/ *  

 

C6
  8 
.72 
8
9 ?  
 8  &
8
" /! N
: -8C

4
  
%  '

3 :"#
 

6 + 
N
#
&, + 
*

n "P, %
 8 
74$ * 72 
 
8 "   =
C.V= C.V=C.V=C.V=.n K /

50


  
:' 

 -
:  
  ;
4
   
= 
*=

1 L= mol/L* =
=  *= .D = 8

 = 0 $ =  =  = 

:>
3  0 $

1
2

:' 
01

250 mLL 8 &,


L9 
!

m = 0,635g 4
C=0,097mol.L 5
-1

C =0,6 mol.L-1 6
C =0,014mol.L-1 7
C =0,057mol.L-1 8
.
, 1 8 5,  
$ 
, W 
<

9

C =0,056mol.L-1 => 0,028mol = 10


C=10.p.d/M C=14,44 mol.L-1 H m=1840g > m=1840g  11
v=0,05L > m=0,032g , n=0,002mol  13
V1=0,125L > V=0,175L  14
C2=1,242 mol.L-1 = > C1 =0,106mol.L-1  15
C =0,048mol.L-1 > nNa+=8,64.105mol  16
F=4

V=0,001L

51

>

>   

17

F = 100  18

C =1,77mol.L-1 21

:4 


 
 


   
      
. %
" *   "&  \8  
 
" $%
 #

8
L9 &, $

= <

C< 3 D 
 ?...6#
 ?@ 5 AB
?A 

=- #&  =


% +
< 
=< + '
6(+
5 
 (  ) 

   ( 
 ) 
   : 

$  

  

 
 !" # 
 
#. /!  - 
  -
*

%  
 &
' *  +
,%

 %  -    -


 
 01  #. %  0
 ,

1  ,) 
 01+

#. 
#   2
&! - 
 

3 -   


$ #. 
$  (
 -
*


.   -#



$ 6 7 

  , 1  
89  : .5
. $

:
$
 ; <


' = -
>


;  -  ?
 #. -     ,%  @
.-  *2 '  -#

" 

0.1

:1
 > / * " N
 38
 " (> 3 => 3) 
L9 $

9  #
"8 8

9 38

 < 


" 

0.1

 8

&
8 
 > 
  " &
K
@# # K 8 , 8
8 F 7


.I 
/ * V
A  F 

30

.  I K 8


 + * >8

:2
.D  8 Y&  8 &
 8
9
.I
 - C*4 4$
1 "% #
 % +  8 YD8 9 9 8
&, $ + D
3
9 
 - <9
,(  
  &
 8
)& 
8
38 + (L;  1 K )    # 
.&

 +   
 
"% _8
S8 D2
"
&K "* >K
*   #!  "%
&K   

6
"* 7
" 
.>  12# * #, S8

52

3
%
, 6   43 " ?
$  &  8 9 8 
"   +8
. 
?
" C* &9

n=C.V

*4 
+ 
* C*
: -8C

8

 # ?8



  8  2 D +

24

  8  A

.  &
N
I 
"  /8 & 

.   
8
*  ?8
/ 8

9 &, A
>
 -,  
BC  8  8 > \8

 *

Ag+



 " 0 A
.@
:
#
 P I

. #  = 8
= *4
=
.W!... 
 62
 
8
   
  =
. 84
=
 = &, =  = .8  = *4 +
. 
8  = S8 +

53


  

*4
#

:EE3 &  4EE+


=  = C*4 
I

=&  8 =
 
  =
A83 =T

0 $ >


8
=

A83 

: 4$  >5
:3 & 

: V
# 
, 
F  %
*4

2

.&, 8    +\8 ? \8



9 =H

5

2 Al(s) + 3 S(s) Al2 S 3 (s)


mAl2S3=14,6g - mS = 9,6g =

CH4 +O2 C +2H2O , 2H2O2 2H2O +O2 , CaCO3 CaO +CO2  6


Zn(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) Zn2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq) + H2(g)
.84
 &K & 
'
D8 + C2H6O KN
7
. 
& 
'
D8 + C2H6O KN

C2H6O(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)


CuSO4 "   
& 
'
.? 

 # 84
 &K & 
'

&  8 2CuO +C CO2 + 2Cu = >


  $ =   9
Y 1$  $ 
&, 43
L   "
 &K ; ?8
"# = H
. 8 / * 9
C*4 

"?8
 &, ?8
"

2Fe2O3(s)+ 3C(s) 4Fe(s) + 3CO2 (g)

m=135kg &
8 8

I


=

 12

 

&, ?  $
A

 =

C2H6O(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)  15


VO2=171,2L VCO2 =114,1L mH2O =123,26g

54


    
  

Y9
-
L9 &, S8
 ...
  `3 C 
 8

Y1* # 7 Y& 


*4
9 
Y9   
+8
73 7
.   C*4 S8 / *    %
" * 
1  & 
*4
, "  
"  (8
)    "* '2 

 2# 
& &, 12#  
 ! +# 
8 # 8 
*4 
I K H!  
K
.8 
*4 
 &9 1 ,  E$%
+# 
# D
 , +# 

28 - 2x = 0 x = 14
39 - 3x = 0 x = 13
18 2x = 0 x = 9
"$%
"# 
# x = 9  " -8C

.8 
*4 
&9   , "

9 / * $
@ 8  8 #, 9   C*4  # " K 
 
&, _& 
&,  # 
)3
 
8 
&,  &
3

.(... _ 8+

"

5.04g

  


&, F2

$
@ 8  8 "

20mL

(1) 
&, F2

NaHCO3 > 3
3
9
.$
&, NaHCO3  S8 / *%
/! 
F,

. 

 
9,  K

.  
  "  #   84
 &K ; I
9 8 
*4 
" /8

$
@ 8  8 "

  ?4 (1) 


&, $
@ 8 ?4 "
."4 $ " 8!  9

20mL

80mL (2)


&,  #


 #
K 3
9

$
@ 8 9 8 
*4 
" /8

5.04g &9 &


 NaHCO3

.pH ?  # 8 


*4 
I " 0
" 
:
#
 P I

.& 
\8
K   #   # 
*4 
9 8 
*4 

55

   <! 8


28   & 
*4

 #*

 
  

 

  
!
# $ %&
 '  
!
 (  
)
*   +
# -   , "
.  

 

   
 
   

  "
  %&
   
, %& 
*)* '  

        


:  
.   !"  #$      

 @
  C
+
@ , '@ D E /! D1 /1F
 8+
8B

@
3 /1F
3@   C
+
G$   /  , 
/1F

.
@
3 G 
3@   C
+
H
G$
:!
 '$
+
2+
Mg(s) + 2H (aq) +2Cl (aq) Mg (aq) +2Cl-(aq) +H2(g)

8+
8B C


10

24g
m (g)

2mol
C.V = n.mol
  m0 =0,03g /1F

 

5mL G 
/ 
8=
m = 0,3g D 

.8 #$  $ 


'@ J J &
 G   '@ 8+
D*

56


  

: 3 &  4+
#

= *4
 =  -*  #

A83 = A83 0 $ = A83

2

: 3 & 

nNaHCO3 = 0,0096mol nCH3COOH = C.V = 0,027mol =


84
 &K  
  9 x = 0,0096mol &

 NaHCO3 9 8 
*4 

:
  CO2   I

mCO2 = 20,810 - 20,406 = 0,404g nCO2 = 0 ,404/44 = 0,0092mol


x =0,05mol (F n = 0,05mol () 2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s) (
4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s) , nFe = 0,4mol ,nO2 = 0,3mol

4
5
6

8

"
3H2(g)
 -  
4mol
& -  
4-3x=1
'  
4-3xf

+ N2(g) 2 NH3(g)
9mol
0
9-x=8
2x=2x=1
9-xf
2xf

xf = xm = 1,33 mol
Cu(s) + 2Ag+(aq) Cu+2 (aq) + 2Ag (s) 9
nAg+ = C.V = 0,02.0,15 = 0,0030 mol nCu = 0,127/63,5 = 0,0020 mol
."
&K 9 8 
*4 

Cu(s)+ 2Ag+(aq) Cu+2 (aq) +2Ag (s)


"
0
 -  
0,0020
0,0030
0
2x
& -   0,0020-x
0,0030-2x
x
2xf
'   0,0020-xf 0,0030-2xf
xf
'  

0,0005mol

57

0,0015
mol

0,0030 mol

Xf = 0,0015 mol
NH3(g) + H+(aq)+NO-3 (aq)
24L
63g
m
V
0.3

0.2

CCu2+ = 0,075 mol/L


NH4+ (aq) + NO-3 (aq) 10
80g
107g
mHNO3 = 1500 g
3
V = 3000m m HNO3 = 7875 kg

n(H2)mol
n(N2)mol

n(H2)
)

N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2 NH3(g)

nNH3 = f

.# " # " *4 


C "% 8 *4  +

0.1
Ag+(mol)
0,0030 Cu(mol)

n(N2
0

0,2

13

X(mol)

0,002

nAg+=

0,001 nCu= f(x)

0,001

58

X(mol)
0,002

  

 

:   
  
     :1  
     :2  
   
    :3  
!       :4  
+,, , ) - ./  *  "     # $%& " ! (' &   ) %  
%
+"0 + +/ 1 +  2 %& 3 45 )6     % -  -   % 78&
9  0 * / "  4 0  
+6 < "  *" &  5 ="    /        "  ;-
* >    /     %= %   1( / 3%  
%+ @&    1      21  #   ?  %
.   5=
2+ +     * % @& .&  < * (      *
1   3% 1 .0  5
+6 +0 %+  " C  4D  E   ?  @   1 &B
.*  F1  64 !  .0 0D
+  ,=,  264 ! /         1 &B
.  )  G   %-   2&
.+0  ,> 5  0 <H   # <  "   /   % B
2+ %& +5 +    "   "   F*  % 4  * 6   
: .0 ;
"  2 # J 5 -  )  C  2   2 .0 )  C"
+0  (+ C) 5 /
!-( )  )    J     
+  2+  + +&  "0 )  ()  D  , ) M  *! )  N 
.C 
.20 ,>  !-   C     (  6 ) 

59

:1 


   

O%B    ,   1 / ) 2 )  * ?   3% *
....0  B B  "
R="( Q   P    , *   4 =0 P    "
<  M -   >   ,       # <  "  
  HD ! M  *0    !  >  % 2   % /
.  = *
1 M    " O% * )  %&  5"   / ?  2   %
  C 0  SH  "H   %    ) .& R " ),  
2,  24F4-    0  J SH 2 ),   S <-  2, 3  
.  .0  "  SH ;F4-    3 0(
C 0 
 @ % 0  J  C 0  0H R5 , .0    "H 
.   5"  D H/ 3%* R5 , .0 %= @  0D  
" *  % T , )   @  ,   = 
.*  <H R 
   " * ) % *    )/          6
%U  .    1   =-  
!   7  F
&  4 .    F @" ( %&    R 4 %= ) @  3%  &
.   
v 0  J SH v C 0  0H ,  
v C 0  H ,   (
0  5  *5  .0 " 0  5=0  5=" C 0  < 
 <4 .0 R " ( 1  <4    1  <4  "
.5 C    
!   0 % (C    (&) F!
*4   
! , %  4- .0 0D  HD 3%
 
 H  2   !  Mi
!  C 0    .  1 (
 <4 %F R  Mi  t=2 1   *4 E Mi+1  Mi-1
.1
: Mi+1 Mi-1 !  " 0  0 Mi  C 0  5 
v = M M /t = M M /2
i-1

i+1

i-1

i+1

5 R 2"   * 2*   2 Mi


! 3  :SH *,
.0  @ )  0 0 
:C=
0"  " .0    0D   1 (  
. ? .0 0   " <4 
! 
.

. !      


   
  v 
     

 * )  ) *  (


  "       # $   %&'

60

v 0  J H ,   (@

0  SH ,     % "- ?


 v 0  H J SH ,
 C 0  0H , .& O  Mj
!  vj 0  SH ,
Mj
!  4 Mj+1 Mj-1 !
vMj = vMj+1-vMj-1 E  5"   ! 0H  " 
P , .0 2" ? v "       v ;F4-   
( -& )1 v     0  H , - ) .0 0D 2 5
.0        2  5 1
V v SH , %
SH   J C( %&  !-     . <  "   0  
;F4-  ;-'   C 0  SH  J  .& O % C 0 
.v SH
v 0H    ,    & F  "  ;F4- SH % ;F4-  
=,  J E  F  H  J   R " " ?  * ?  ? F
O  7     74 ? v F  0: v 5 
.?  -W ;F4  ( S  )* - D     /       " 3%
../  P 0  -  %* F* J4  %& 

61

 
 

:/ "H B1
: % "H 3% <  
.*  =
  .0 % @  B
. "  5="   <4 .0   B
...   0  H ,   M  = M   , B
  * )  D !  0 (   )    (,) )    B
. "H
 C    .0 1  % "   *0   ./  /  
. J    0 1  *4F4- 1 D   3%  R"  
OD  *  
!  0"    .0  % 
.0 3 > C    O%  % %  C     0 
 %  1 ( =- 0"   ( " " )  &
 -     S %  <H 2    =- 0   , 
=,   * , N - 
   ( C)   .0  " 5  ) 0 .0 ) 2 "  .0 0D 
. %* ,  1 
V   0  J  <
2 J   .0  - 5 R "  %= ?  X %  < *
.(5)  - -  )1 T% J % .0 5 6    (20 ) 
V;5  1   0     
=5 "
 )=, Q . @" R   O  % * >   5D   
*  (  J(  0) ?"J D  *  N - *    
  * 
.(schoir) H < *  
0 #  * .0 0  )* 2!  @5 4  , %  "  < *
?  0"   1 0   1    1    0" 
. 74
:    P
:6        Q  F=   0  %& %  5  
.0  1 ( B )
:"     
5 B C  C   5 5 C :   

62

 ,     B2


 0  SH 5=0 0 * E  (   R 4  , )       3% 
H  )  H  , ;F4-           R %  
% ) .  *  *    " "   "    #  * (%
.0     .0  #  4 " =,   *       " -
.  =- " 3%
! <H R 
0H   (
 ,    3  % v 0  J SH ;F4-    " 0H   7
SH 4 R " 4 3%    "  .0 R "   *  "
.  .0  " 
: PF .& % 4  C 
.0     B
*   * ?   ?  SH  0  J SH 0  SH B
. 
. , 0  J   0H "   =-  1 0  SH " B
:   
.2" B2* B2: v
.5 B* B=: v
:    (@
(1914  5"  C )           N -  " % <H
  .0  # 0  %     T1 ( 0  . , .0  
:O - 2"  %&
( @ ) 0"  B
.F ) "- . /  ,     #  1 ( =- 0   J B
 J     B3
  *   * (
:  1 5   .0 R " "" "-   3%  
 1 * B
  * ** B
("" " ;5)   =- 45 "" " R * H B
: PF . 4 0H   7
(" "" )  0     B
.  *  * ?  ? 0  J SH  SH 0  SH B
(" "" )   1 0  SH " B
.(" "" )  45 0  J SH  SH " B
:   
1 B2* B2
45 B* BR "
63

  *   * (@


:2 
74+ H "" *"      -/
! *C %& ;5 @  , H
:

: ;F4- "" < "    .0  "    3% 
(2 1  )  .0 R " * B
  * ?0 ** B
("" " 1)   =-  1 * H B
.2" B2* B2 :   
(45) B5 B* B* B
:0H   PF
F"     B
 ? 0  J    0  H/ B
  *  0  SH * B
  *  * 0  J SH  SH B
.  =- 45 0  SH " B
  =-  1 0  J   0H " B
:)0 O
: P   ,=, @  
O+ + 2+ F ;  F4- v 0  J SH  
  
.74 ? 0  J SH ;F4-    .0  "  SH ;F4.*      "    :(188;)R "
 -+ + .@+5 4    "   %  R " %  "
3%+ + *  5  -  .0  J SH ;F4-    .0  "  ;F4.( > % , %   FT/C   .0 M / ,> 5   
:C=
)+ *  )/ M "    4   " H  0  /  H   
.Avistep ,  %  44- P   " * *  *1
(195 4) 1
R 4+ + <, " ? @5 
  4  " 0 ,> 4 3% 
. 3%* 04   " 0   "0&
64

+"/ ?+5  +  E  <  "0D ! 0   0   197 4 
.! 0  .0  0

:
  
  

A, B, D
C, D
A, B, C

+  *  
, 

:1 

 

C
A, B
D

      


    
    

(  *  







  


()   





 
  

! "# $ 





 

  !

:2 

' 
 


  
 
    

:3 

  
                   !
. 

.>"- ) 74 @ :6  

X
X

X
X

(" $- /0)
 4  !  5 !6 7  
2" ! 6  
.! 9   ; <  !6  
. =  !6  

1 '
 %8
 %8
 %8
 %8

:8 
: 9 
:2 @    20.26 m/s   20.26 km/h    R   !  0 
t = 7495 s , v = 20.26 km/h = 5.63 m/s
d=v.t = 5.63x7495 = 42195 m :    
t=d/v=42195/1.66=25419s :  !"# $%  & 
:10 
.C    )     C   %&    1
." ,>  M / @% 5 ,>    2
.(! *! )  ) 5 /
!- (     "  .0 0D 3
." M / ,>   
!- B " 1 0 4
."  .0 0D %  C   *  
!-     5
v = d/t =10.24 m/s =36.86 km/h

65

@#4

    

 4    >      

 /   *  ? >      


.  & *5

X
X

(" $- '  /0) 1


 4 (  
< (&   
'> +"

v v



:11 

  

            

.(& (   '> (#      


 4    * 4   # @A  %8
.B1  

v v 

       

:13 
  " %  > )    / C  )   1
. , 0   
v=d/t=M M /2 :    0  2
.0 4  )  T 1.5 cm    , .0 M M  ?
:  0   2 M M = 1.5x10 = 15cm = 0.15m  
v = 0.15/2x0.04 = 1,9m/s
M M M MM
0  H , 3
v
v
3A 
C     
, 1cm1m/s :=,  0  ) - TC    , 0   
1.9cm 2" )* 0  0H M  M ! 
:0  J SH %&  0  H   4
.C   )   v = v v = 0
.5 /
!- ( ) T"  @ 5
0  ""- 6
v(m/s)
0

 

t(s)

:17 
:  )   2  ) T(1884) R " "- ? S &
1cm ( 4  = ) 0.214m (   ) :2 4.2cm ( 4  = ) 0.9 m (   )
0

0.04

0.08

66

0.12

0.16

0.20

0.24

:18 
C 7  5 B
5   C 6        R" C   B1
v
.2 M / @% 5   3%    * 
.M /  *  2C C M / @% 5  F B2
F
* ?   ? v F 0H B3
C 7  B
f
(     "  @ C      B4
  %& F   M / @% 5    5 /
!-
,>  E C .0 ,> .0/  * 5H f , 5
.  D
T/C

T/C

T/C

T/C

67

 
 



0 <-   ?  ./    *    *   3%  % <C
O          *   /    
 S %  F  @      .0  "  ;F4- 4- *4F4. 

  B1
2  <C * *4 2 @" %    %->   !  6
, T@5 4)      5"      /   
.  .0  ,X 5 @6   0 <H " "  0  (...0H
 
  B2
 !     R 4  ,  *   5    ! ,   !
74 *& 4  (   *=-   / "H  % * 5
   *     O  .0      " % * ?  .* F"-
."
.*0   ? PF )  @   * <H 
(205;)  %      B1.2
 Q "   3%  ,&  . " H (  )  E      
"    .0 *     " 4      * 1  (X
:Q  F/ 3%  .  R *  )  R  ,
V* "   .0 "  R "   B
V"    J  ), " R :5 .&   5 % B
V0H    ( % B
*0 4  4D    V  R      F   B
V  3%*
   !" #    
     

 
 

:  +) (    %& ' ( ) * "   
$

ox   ,  " $  ! "&' +)    ")$  
 ' /& ' "( ,
*  ox  R       7  % T oy
." * J   % R C  *  +) !01"
  +& "2'  ox . .0  0   3%    .0  "   
. " 1 6 7 ) %"3 +)    ' 5&& 4 ) %"3 v
)"3
,    ' "3" "&   (   +&  9;  oy   ,    
  +) -.

 " /<  "" $ )  ( !   " "  "(   

) 9' < ) %"3 >"?. ") (   >"?. , =3 " ,  
.1"3  0 0 
 " !3" 

68

:  " 0

      3%  " .0 *  =-   .0  "  R " ( .1
.        0 3    *& R "
 "  R   )   H  5 :F  D " H N  5=0 .2
  *   N  - & * R ! 3  <% N   F  D 0 
  3  .0  1 0"4D 5/  & 0   *   @  =
.0 <F% "
!  

206

. )A ,A #A / A 1A " A  'A) :

> !"@ " $

207

>    

   ' $ )  


  DE ( 1) $ )   (  ! "& 1
.  $ )  
   G& ' 9.    
 F& 
 "  
: +$ & 9.    
 .
3 ' = # *
/ 1 EH ! D/  "&' +) 
   "3  D" A
. < (3" , 
 EH ! 2' ( D 
" )"3 

;

 1 * 0 ) !6 +) (   E' ; A


+&  6  )  16

 . "E

"

)"3   +)   

6  +&   6

'

=/2

.(  .  0&    " +) 01" 


 ' 9'

.2" ;5
 0  SH . J T 
.2" 1
 0  SH . J T 
0   0H  1  C  F       3% *
./2 F 
      3

) 0 T"-  , ; 5        4 Q  T*4  F    <  


?5 3 ) C  F   @ .0 3  % F "  T  H ""(
.("- "  "5 <4  , "  1   F
    7   =- ) *
!*   ;F4-   3% 4
@%  !- *   F        0 M /  0"4( 5/ 
.M /
:218;  5" 
   *, 0  J C 0  0H     % * 
 "0 @ % .  =      /  /  
 ) 0H
  "- ) 0 .0 ; 
 * .0 %=  =, 3%*   
? * *H/          *" (Q " )
 (* "
69

 ) 0  )  .0 ? v 0  J SH "   ) .
.0  ,
0"4( 5/ R=" :217; 1
 M "0Z  4- 3 5   H 4 , .& S4 % O
    S M <  (...T./ F! 0 ) F! 0   " 
.4 E   S!    4-( %  < * .0"4( 5/ *
!
. , R5  2
 4    ( %= 2!  E    
P =,     0 7!  P .0 0( ! 
.Newton  satellite

70

:   

:1 
:C  F     B
+  (  

     ?  (#   "


& +   @A

  # @A


.(5 < 
.    '   
   < 

(  
  >    @A

X
X
X

4   "
,   @A

  # @A


  

    < 

   B

+  (  

=  # " * 4   @A


(  &  !  4 " !   # @A
(  &  ,    4 ( ;  /0)

(  

 4 >    "

X
X
X
X

* 4   @A
'   # @A
    @A
(" - ;  /0) 1

:6 
 ,   0  %& T   C2
.C  F   C3
.C   / M M   ? C 0  C4
:  .0 4 )  )   , .0 M M =1.9cm
v =M M /2 =0.19/0.2= 0.95m/s :   %8 M M =1.9 x 10=19cm=0.19m
1cm 0.5m/s ) =, - :0  H , 5
v
v'
0.95 x1 / 0.5= 1.9cm 2" SH 0  ,
o
3

v'3

v3

M3

M2

v2
v6

o
v10

   
 


   

v1
M1
M0


   

.      


  

.         !" # 


   

 $%   $% 


    &
 '  (")   ( 

.    *+, 

. ) &  " "-  */ 0(

 ) " 10

:10 
 4 .0 " %   / E 8H   ) O - :7
  0.50m , .0 1.5 cm : % M 0
 , .0 1cm
  0.333m , .0 1cm :  %&
71


      

:3  

 0 <H  2  "  0     .0 % @  
S .0 F  D " H , 2H  v 0  J SH "   .0  "
.  3% 
   1 & .&   3%   T 
.! / " )   !        %&
:"H
<4  % <H E   <4  (
 )C=  1 Z / "H 7
.  2&  %
  <=- -W C=  <-  
  * .0     <4 1 "H  M / 7"    C=
. * .0 *4 2 "H    .0   C=
"   C=  (FT/C) ? !-    % P "H =  
0  %   <4  "   C= F  & 0   "   *  
." .0     ,  F  &
E 2 1 "H  % * )  !  R 4    ,  E, "H
  0  *%     , 1 "H  *4        > 2
  "      0   <% 0   %& ! " )
  0   O  *   T! / " )  T  F  D 0  
*        H N -     .  ) 0      C *
.5H D ? .0 O       M / *= 0 /
  <- M / 7" .& 4    R  2Z 0     O   %& 
2 R )
!  M / .0 "  2      F"    O   %& 
  0    F  & 0         .(O  ) )  
.5H *0  "  / *  =- / 0  3% .0 C  *  C
:   &
  ) J ( * .   F  D <-  C 
.C  B
226; " ) B2
  ( 4- 1 " )     ) > % ?     3% 
   "  J ( -[ "0 ) "0 J       X
 * .    .0  "   (& F  D " H   H <=-& )6
.F " )  " 
    0&     " "0    (    %   
.    S   74   " H  "0
  0 7  " H 1  *  ,=, ) * <  2274
.* =- *& @    S "0 )

72

     B2


"  R "     .0  " N 0 E  )   3%  .&
;F4-   .0  45 ( <-    .0  ,X 5 @6   <H(
*C  (    ) M / @% 5 * .0  0  N 3% N &
.   " .0    H  ,X  *
(  6 )   )/ .0  ,X N -/ N 0 E      3% 
       E,  - & .& O % . 4  * " 1 
.       ,> <4 <  %
2 ) % .0 @    )* * %  45   - M J %*
  - " < "     .0  ,X N 1  .0  5  .
1     N  - N5 .& *4   * .0  , *   
.    .0 * , ( - N5 .& *4  * 
:228;      B2.1
<H  46 *    "H 20   ( "  ,     
 . .0    , *C    - %&      5 
 0)D     - =0 % -  0  Q  Q!  ,/ % 1 
.(4 3%* 1 "/ @
)     *5=" C= *  ),     ,/  0 <H
."J   ! @ M 0 *!  0 
*0  " 5    T(  .&  )  * J  0   
. *   .0     * . N -/ .0 ,X *  
.*4 C M 0 *!  0  0 2 ) @   ?
      ,> 1 D =-  % , % .0  4 (    
.  [   *
: C=
 /    , % ? 
  .,  20 % 0    0
2    R     .0 )*   %-> % "   ":  
@ % . @ 5 3  "    "     * 1 R   
B A -  .0  " FB/A FA/B , 5    %  2*
   , 3  % FB/A FA/B     1   0 .  [  ,> (  
%/ =1  @" % .1  ?   ,X   ,X  .& H %&
.* ) ? 
   1  %   3% 0
0   *  ? T  H      .0  ;
+FA/B = 0 H .0 5= 3%     %  74 FB/A = B FA/B :5= %
FB/A
 " N (& 1 
 ( %& 1  4 6 * ! 4   3%
  E    3%   B A -  .0  "    ? .0
. H   5 ,>  ) 1 / " H 5=0
 ** H
73

:     .0 0( N 0 <H B2.2


 R " * *&       "H    ! J
% @  4      .0  " - N <H    
1   " !( .0 ; 
 - N , .0   % R " .0
.(R " " * ) N - ;F4-  , @ ) 0  H ) 
 45       2 "   Q H <4 .0 % @  ! 4  
.(3 2"H)      ,   J
:( N5 B3
232; / "H
?=   N  S 0 <H   !   2  % <C
 " R * <H ( N5   )* .0 H  ,> *  )
.     "  R " *4F4-  ), .= " H
:   &
    " 7"  .45    7" *0   
. " R   J4
233;  "
<H * 2  <C 4 %    %-> *   !
F"- / M *=-  74 *     ( 5  *=- 
."  5 0       *  *  F  ( N5 " , FH
:234; - 

F B@4  @4 B@4  : ( N5  0 R " %  Q 
:@4 B @4 
. " # 6 7  8 *  *
  ( " !2  ) 4)
) *" 1 *
2  *)
 *  +,
(  %=   ") F B @4 
0  *  -/ 3% 4 *,    .&   0  1 ( 5 5 1
..  J  1 , -[ F     0  .  0  .  ,
.(F  16)
F 0 4  F S R 0  3%   
 (.. *  C    1    ") ,      
. /  H  "J! ; 5  *    " H 

74

:
  

:4 
  

D + 1

>   *


>   *

E+ 
        4   <
B A  &  B<  A  '  
     ' 44  ,
.A

X
X

3 2

X
X
X
X

D +

' 
  

 

  '+
  

 

A
B
C
D

:6 

(  
.   /  
   < 
 
             

.  4  !   #  / 


, B (  &  B<  A  '  
.A      ' 44 

O  3   :B "  B


<4  .0 <5 C= 3   B

 "   D " B


.O    " 
:7 
6     B
   %& 
(& B  A)  
 B  A)  
 H- 2 C 
.* M / @% 5  
!-
.)  R F   0   "  H- 1   B
 F   0  "  H- "   B
3.12 m
.  R -    * 
=
  / T  =  R "  B
   ! C   - 
."0    M / 7"
5 
:9 
..   M / 7"   
  C2
+
.! "
        C3
t = 15 x 0.04= 0.6 s : "  5 J 1   %& T1 ( 15  C4
  < "  0"   C5
7cm ( 4  = ) 3.12m (   ) :E  )  4  O - (
75

L=(6.2x3.12)/7=2.76m :  @ (@


v=d/t=2.76/0.6=4.6m/s :" 0  C6
:10 

  
! , B


v
5   (  ? !-   B
M / @%
    ? !-     B
 R   F  ( 0 
6 
  ?   %&   5H
M / .& =4   2 5H R
.C ? 
:11 
. ! " 
     .1
:
 #$ 
  
    %&
@4
Y ;
    
. .0  "  X
 N  .0  "
,> " 5  X
. ,> " ? *
# H  
X
 *  X
* ? *
 ? *
X
[ * ,>
X
:16 
A

  ( N5 CDE 1  / 10m/s  E  D !    0  C


  0  .0 C   Z "  @  5 /
!- (   %&
.C "  *
.C      CDE 1  B
:21 
N S 4
3 S N
2 H B
2 1   B

2 
2 .0    ,> " T 2 .0 1 * "   
F1/2
1 .0    ,> " T1 .0 2 * "   
F2/1
. *  H ? T ? 
F2/1

F1/2

76

?     " "J  )*   (4+2)  (3+1) :  B
F(4+2)/(3+1)  F(3+1)/(4+2) :7 4 J 1    ;F4-
.0  - D 1  J
 @ ? (3+2)  (4+1) :  B
      T      3%  (4+2+3+1) :  B
    ;F4- ? * - 5 *  ?  ("J)F1
..(
. -W H   "- ? S  B
FB/A
FA/B
:22 
A
B
FA/B = B FB/A
3 
. * T ? # H ? * T- ,> " 
:25 
. N5  F2  F1  B
-     /   R="     F1 B
5 
.  
.  .0 S ! / < "   " F2  F1  B
1 E FS/2  FS/1:   1  S + ! U 1 %& B
./  2 -  1 
.  *   : 74 @ C
:28 
)*  
$ &    +

, -    ( .70km/h  , '

./*

  *  ! $& & 


0   1 2!
3
&  4 2!
3 )* 
$ , -     & ( '
5$ 6!
 %  07 



&  $! $& 2
 (& 

.  ( * $& 5$ 8*
 &

:30 

.* $& 8 *   9 /*

  ( '


! 5$ !  9 /*
 *    *  
.* ;7 1
3 4"  <
  
&
7 
 9 5
( = (   2!
3 )*   (
  8 2!
 )* 
3  9 = ( 
> &       
   %&  <
   
&  8
! 
   * #$  
.6 7   -?
$
( 07   68& 1  3 =
 7  ?    = ( &  !   '
A? 0& 6$     B< C  
%!  @   
.&

77

D1 5$    5* 2&




:4  

:  3% <  


@ 0   2F"0& J4  3= .&   3=    / .0 % S="
   ( %) * N    6     * H 2H  / 3%
. N 
 T *) -     H       2  <!
. "   / / N ;F4-  (
:  3%   *
 % ) E  "   4-  "    3%  @ 
.0
" ,  0 , %= * @ 7 .    % <H
 O
*C  2  .0   " F 3 "  >H  ,  F1  C
. C 3%*  )* 
(2424).  .&  % 
!D 2   " M  H )C ;- <4 .0    3% 
?5   - &  )5 / 3% -! .0 % *
" .  / M .&
.*  "  )5 U    0 (B * )  F=
:(2444)) @% 5B3
3% <4 *     /  ,>    F1  C 
  / /  ,> . S  .&  4  "  ,> 0 @  ,>
: 1
 2H .*           ,>  :  % ,>
:; % ) @% 5          ;F4- ."0 
"              
    "
4    * *  *     .0 R " )0 5 
! 5  G = 6,67.10-11U(SI) ) @%  , ) <  G @  , *
T * N  * (!   )  N  T ,> % <! .0 
     2  (...  T"J  ) N -/  ,> )
.*   "  ) /   F  @  2
:)/ , ) @% 5 5=0
@% 5 ;F4- R " 24F4-   <H , 2-  5 , 5 % < 
 M / @% 5 R " ,  N %    .! " )  )U M /
.  ) <=- * <=-( Q H R "

78

:"J * ,>


2 H   F * H     ) 5 J4 "0Z   3%  4-
.H  H& @ H   @%  ) @% 5=0 *H 
  7 %   )/ .&  %      @   ,> %
 * % *   N S   %&  N   " C
(  =,) C 5 *=- )6 "J * *4 T, 5 N 0  *
("J * N *  F1 F
) / /      @ (  ) @% ,> , F* ( ,> % N 
    ) *    N  .   F *   
D   ,  * H       N  (   45  
.*   
:!  
  ) 5 ./  P O -   " 0HD "H  C  @  
.! *   "J 

:  
)6        ( %&       
N5  % 5  M  (&  %  ( )*H    *  H 
  %&   45  3% N   F1 <H .F *  5  ,
. H  2    .0 (& ,X ( 
V 3% 4 
 <H  (& % ) ) . 4  (      @  *H
   . * J4  @  (&        
( */  -X (& ) ) *H    * @  /    ,  
F1
" ) .4-    < C   45    (&     * 
. 5" %  0  04  "  (& < C 3% R
* 1     / /  ,> 4- 250 4    "
F1  C " ;-   2  %  E "0D 20 0D 
.E   0 "    %  40 .& "  *    C
,  1  /  ;- <     , 251 4 
.*1 M R *   *4  *4F4-

79

:
  
:2  
:     
! 

3
6790 km =6.79x10 km 12750 km= 1.27x104 km
4
104  @ 5 6790 / 104 km    !  "5  10 km     M / "5

:3 

:  ! 3 
 8(   (E    
! 

1.27x10-7m 2.0x10-9m 3.4x10-7m
2.8x10-8m
C  & 4" 10-9 
  5B )+   10-7 
  5B ) !  
.


:7 
Fm= G = 6,67x10-11.1,67x10-27. 9,11x10-31 / (0,53x10-10)2 =3,6x10-47 N ) @% 5
mpme / r02
=k qpqe / r02 = 9x109 (1,6x10-19)2/(0,53x10-10)2 =8,2 10-8N
F * 
Fe
-39
Fm/Fe=0,4x10
:  @   
F *   % N   Fe ) * Fm %& , 1  J4   3%  C=
./   @  
:14 
( ) qB .0 qA H * ,X    FA/B
FA/B F
( ) qB .0 qC H * ,X    FC/B
*4 F  T5 ,>  qB H %
a
qC
FA/B= kqAqB/a2 =9x109.(6x10-6)2/(10x10-2)2 =32.4 N
qB F
C/B
( 6,) F = F A B + F C B
a
:2 FC/B=FA/B % 2 a    qB= qC= qA  
F = FA B 2
qA
F=45.81 N
FC/B 
 45 1
4 * 45.81 N * H F  ,> qB H
2

80