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Computer Classes

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Computer Fundamental


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Computer Fundamental >


Introduction To Computer

Sd%I}8Z V[8,[ X]\m [What is Computer?]





Sd%I]8Z V[JL ;\ZRGF K[ S[ H[DF\ D]bI +6 SFIM YFI K[P



VFD4 Sd5I]8Z ;\U|C SZ[,L lJUTM S[ DFlCTLG\] IMuiF ZLT[ VY38G SZL
T[GL p5Z 5|M;[; SZLG[ h05YL VFp85]8 VF5T]\ ;FWG K[P

Generation of Computers :
Computer DF\ T[GL Technology GF VFWFZ[ H[ O[ZOFZ YIF K[ T[G[ Generation SC[
K[P
5|YD 5[-L s!)$Z YL !)55f
5|YD 5[-LGF Sd%I]8ZMDF\ Vacuum Tube sJF<Jf GM p5IMU YTM CTMP JF<JG]\
SN DM8] CMI K[P VFJF ,UEU !(___ JF<J V[S Sd%I]8ZDF\ J5ZFTF 4 T[YL
Sd%I]8ZG]\ SN lJXF/ CT]\P T[ B]AH UZDL pt5gG SZTF CTF4T[YL T[G[ A.C.
DF\ ZBFTF VG[ T[G[ RF,] SZJF DF8[ 52 lDGL8 H[8,M ;DI ,FUTMP

AL 5[-L s!)55 YL !)&$f
ALHL 5[-LGF SMd%I]8ZDF\ JF<JGL HuIFV[ Transistor J5ZFJF ,FuIFP Transistor
GFGF CMI K[P T[YL SMd%I]8ZG]\ SN 56 GFG] YI]\

+L 5[-L s!)&$ YL !)*5f
+LHL 5[-LGF SMd%I]8Z DF\ technology GF lJSF;G[ SFZ6[ H]NF H]NF 5F8;
(components) G[ V[SL ;FY[ silicon WFT]GL chip 5Z Integration SZJFG]\ XSI AgI]
H[G[ Integrated Circuit (IC) SC[ K[P
VF IC G[ SFZ6[ computer GL size DF\ B}AH 38F0M YIMP

RMYL 5[-L s!)*5 YL !)(5f
RMYL 5[-LGF SMd%I]8ZDF\ DM8L DM8L >,[S8=MGLS ;ZSL8G]\ ;\S,G SZL T[G[
GFGL AGFJJFG]\ XSI AgI]\P T[YL SMd%I]8Z B}AH GFGF AgIFP VF 5[-L
NZdIFG IBM, Apple VG[ Intel 4004 JU[Z[ SMd%I]8Z AgIFP

Computer Language
VtIFZGF SMd%I]8Z Digital signals GF l;wWF\Tp5Z SFI SZ[ K[P T[YL T[G[
Digital Computer SC[ K[P VFJF SMd%I]8ZGL V\NZ SM>56 ;]RGF S[ DFlCTL
LV\SL 5wWTL DF\ V[8,[ S[ 0 VG[ 1 V\SGL CFZDF/F :J~5DF\ NXFJJFDF\
VFJ[ K[P VlC 0 V[8,[ off VG[ 1 V[8,[ on ;DHJ]\P
INPUT UNIT PROCESSING OUTPUT UNIT
Sd%I]8Z V[ B]AH h05YL SFI SZT\] .,[S8=MGLS ;FWG K[P
H[DF\ UF6LTLS T[DH TFlSS SFIM(Logical) SZL XSFI K[P
H[DF\ 36L AWL DFlCTLGM ;\U|C SZL XSFI K[P ;\U|C SZ[,L
DFlCTL 5FKL D[/JL XSFI K[ VG[ V[GF p5Z H[ SF\. 5|lS|IF
SZJL CMI V[ 5|S|LIF V[SND RMS;F. 5}JS VG[ h05L SZL XSFI
K[P

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Computer Fundamental


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Sd5I}8ZGF ;FDFgI p5IMU [Basic Application of Computer]
Sd5I}8Z V[ NZ[S SFIDF\ DNN~5 YT\] I\+ K[P Sd5I}8ZGM p5IMU NZ[S
1F[+DF\ YFI K[P H[DF\GF VD]S 1F[|+M GLR[ D]HA K[P
= Scientific Research = Engineering
= Business Application = Book Publishing
= Entertainment = Banks
= Communication = Games
= Medicine = Education
= Personal = Accounting

Sd5I}8ZGF lJlJW EFUM VG[ T[GL SFI 5wlT [Components of
Computer System]:
GM\W o VF lJEFUDF\ central processing unit VG[ VDU, keyboard & mouse, other
input/output Device GM ;DFJ[X YI[, K[P


















Input Devices :
Sd5I}8ZDF\ H[ DFlCTL NFB, SZLV[ T[G[ Input SC[ K[ VG[ H[ ;FWGGL DNNYL
NFB, SZLV[ T[G[ Devices SC[ K[P NFP TP , Keyboard, Mouse JU[Z[P

Keyboard :
Keyboard V[ Input Device K[P Keyboard GL DNNYL Sd5I}8ZDF\ DFlCTL S[
;}RGFVM NFB, SZL XSFI K[P Keyboard D}bI RFZ EFUDF\ JC\[RFI[,\]
K[PCF,DF\ Keyboard 101 S[ 104 Key GF HMJF D/[ K[P

To


To


ALU (Arithmetic & Logic
Unit)
CU (Control Unit)
MU (Memory Unit)
Input Output
Function Keys
Alphabetical Keys
Numeric Keys
F1
F12
A
F1
Z
F1
0 9
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Keyboard DF\ NZ[S Key GF p5IMUM o
= Function Keys :VF EFUDF\ VFJ[, F1, F2, F3, ..... F12
;]WLGL Key G[ function key SC[JFI K[P NZ[S Program
DF\ function keys GM p5IMU V,U V,U CMI K[P
= Alphabetical Keys :VF EFUDF\ A YL Z ;]WLGF D]/F1FZMGM p5IMU YFI K[P
VF56[ document type SZJF DF8[ VF keys GM p5IMU SZLV[ lKV[P
= Numeric Keys :H[ EFUDF\ VF\S0VM VFJ[,F CMI T[G[ Numeric keys SC[ K[P
H[DF\ 0 YL 9 ;]WLGF V\SMGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P User GL ;Z/TF DF8[ VF key A[
JFZ VF5JFDF\ VFJ[,L K[P
= Special Keys :
Enter Key : VF key GF A[ p5IMU K[P V[S TM VF key GL DNNYL User
SDFg0G[ C.P.U. ;]WL 5C\MRF0[ K[ VG[ T[GM VD, SZFJ[ K[P ALHM
p5IMU V[S ,F.G 5ZYL ALHL ,F.G 5Z HJF DF8[ YFI K[P
Spacebar Key : A[ XaNM JrR[ HuIF KM0JF DF8[ Spacebar key GM p5IMU YFI
K[P
Caps Lock Key : Caps Lock RF,] CMI tIFZ[ S[5L8, ,[8ZDF\ ,BFI K[ VG[
A\W CMI tIFZ[ :DM, ,[8ZDF\ ,BFI K[P
Shift Key : VF 5|SFZGL A[ Key Computer DF\ VFJ[,L CMI K[P CapsLock
RF,] CMI tIFZ[ V1FZM ALHL [abcd] DF\ ,BJF CMI TM Shift NAFJLG[ H[
T[ S[Z[S8Z 8F.5 SZJM[ J/L4 VF key GL DNNYL key GL p5Z ZC[,F
S[Z[S8ZM 56 8F.5 SZL XSFI K[P
BackSpace Key : S;ZGL 0FAL AFH]GF V1FZM E\];JF DF8[ BackSpace Key
[] GM p5IMU YFI K[P
Tab : VF key GL DNNYL 5F\R :5[; VFU/ H. XSFI K[P VC\L Tab key H~ZL
:5[; 5|DF6[ 56 Set SZL XSFI K[P
S;Z D]JD[g8 Key / Arrow
^ VF V[ZMGL DNNYL S;Z p5Z TZO HFI K[P
+ VF V[ZMGL DNNYL S;Z GLR[ TZO HFI K[P
VF V[ZMGL DNNYL S;Z HD6L TZO HFI K[P
VF V[ZMGL DNNYL S;Z 0FAL TZO HFI KP[

= Ctrl VG[ Alt Key : VF A\G[ keys GM p5IMU V,UV,U Program DF\ V,U-
V,U CMI K[P

DFp; [Mouse] :
VF V[S Input Device K[ T[GF J0[ S;ZG[ h05YL Screen
p5Z O[ZJL XSFI K[P T[GL DNNYL SM.56 Application
[Program] DF\ h05YL SFI SZL XSFI K[P

:S[GZ [Scanner] :
Special Keys Ctrl Esc
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Scanner V[ V[S 5|SFZGL input device K[P Scanner HMJFDF\ V[S
h[ZM1F DXLG H[J] N[BFI K[P Scanner V[ paper p5Z ZC[,L image
G[ Computer DF\ electronic form DF\ ~5F\TZ SZ[ K[P H[DF\
5FK/YL ;]WFZF JWFZF 56 SZL XS[ K[P Scanner V,U V,U 5|SFZGF
VFJ[ K[ H[ GLR[ D]HA K[P


Process : Central Processing Unit [CPU] :
DFGJ XZLZ ZRGFDF\ H[8,] :YFG DUHG]\ K[[P V[8,]H DCtJ Sd5I}8ZDF\
C.P.U. G\] K[P C.P.U. G\] D]bI SFI DFlCTLGM ;\U|C, ;\RF,G VG[ ;\S,G
SZJFG\] K[P T[G] 5}Z] GFD Central Processing Unit K[P Sd5I}8ZDF\ YTL AWLH
5|lS|IFVMG]\ ;\RF,G C.P.U. DF\ YFI K[[ DF8[ H C.P.U. G[ Sd5I}8ZG] DUH
SC[ K[P C.P.U. Key Board FZF VFJTL DFlCTLG[ IMuI HuIFV[ DMS,JFG] VG[
T[G[ Process SZJFDF\ VG[ T[G[ Memory DF\ ;FRJL ZFBJFG] SFD SZ[ K[P TYF
H[ ;\U|lCT DFlCTL CMI T[G[ Monitor 5Z NXFJJFG\] SFD SZ[ K[P
Processing RFZ lJEFUDF\ JC\[RJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
(A) U6TZL (Calculation) (+, -, *, /)
(B) ;FdITF (Comparison) (=, #, <, >)
(C) Decision Making
(D) TFSLS (Logic)
C.P.U. GF D]bI +6 EFU K[P

(I) Memory
(II) Control Unit [CU]
(III) Arithmetic and Logic Unit [ALU]

[I] Memory Unit : VF Memory G[ D[.G D[DZL S[ l5|g8\LU Memory SC[ K[P VF
Memory DFlCTLGM ;\U|C SZLG[ H~Z 50[ tIFZ[ 5FKL VF5[ K[ VF D[[DZL
8[d5ZZL Memory K[P

II] Control Unit [CU] : VFGL ;ZBFD6L DFGJ DUH S[ ;DU| XZLZDF\ O[,FI[,F
7FGT\T]VMGF HF/FVM ;FY[ SZL XSFI K[P VF lJEFUG\] D]bI SFI Memory
DF\ 5|MU|DGM ;\U|C SZL T[DF\YL S|DAwW ;]RGFVM D[/JLG[ T[G\] VY38G
SZL AFSLGF lJEFUMG[ VFN[X VF5JFG\] K[P

[III] Arithmetic & Logic Unit [ALU] : ;FDFgI ZLT[ VF lJEFUDF\ ;ZJF/F4 AFNAFSL4
U]6FSFZ VG[ EFUFSFZGL 5|lS|IFVM YFI K[P Sg8=M, I]Lg8GL ;]RGFYL D[.G
Memory DF\YL D[/J[, DFlCTLDF\YL V[ZLYD[8LS S[ ,MHLS, 5|S|LIF YFI K[P
5|lSIFVM Y. UIF AFN Result G[ D[.G Memory DF\ DMS,L VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

Output Devices : Sd5I}8ZDF\ NFB, SZ[,L DFlCTL HMJF D/[ T[G[ Output SC[
K[P VG[ H[ ;FWGGL DNNYL HMJF D/[ T[G[ Devices SC[ K[P Sd5I}8ZDF\ H[
DFlCTL NFB, SZLV[ T[GL p5Z C.P.U. DF\ 5|lS|IF YFI VG[ H[ 5lZ6FD VFJ[ K[
T[ HMJF D/[ K[P 8\}SDF\ H[GL DNNYL Output HM. XSFI K[ T[G[ Output Devices
SC[ K[P NFPTP DMGL8Z4 l5|g8Z4 %,M8Z JU[Z[P

(1) Monitor : (V.D.U.) Visual Display Unit
Computer Classes
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Computer Fundamental


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Sd5I}8ZDF\ YTL SM.56 5|lS|IFGM HJFA HMJF DF8[ Monitor
GM p5IMU YFI K[4 T[G[ output device 56 SC[ K[P Monitor T.V.
GF screen H[J] CMI K[P T[G[ V.D.U. [Visual Display Unit] 56 SC[
K[P T[ Color VYJF Black & White 56 CM. XS[P S,Z DMlG8ZDF\
256 H[8,F H]NF H]NF S,Z X[0 D/[ K[P DMlG8Z ;FY[ SM5L
device sl5|g8Z/%,M8Zf GM p5IMU SZL CF0 SM5L D[/JL XSFI
K[P


(2) Printer : Sd5I}8ZDF\ NFB, SZ[,L DFlCTLG[
H~ZLIFT D]HA SFU/ p5Z KF5JF DF8[ H[ ;FWGMGM p5IMU
SZJFDF\ VFJ[ K[ T[G[ Printer SC[ K[P l5|g8Z V[ V[S
Output Device K[4 NZ[S jIlST S[ ;\:YF 5MTFGL H~ZLIFT
D]HAGF l5|g8ZGM p5IMU SZ[ K[P


l5|g8ZGF 5|SFZM
,F.G l5|g8Z o VF l5|g8Z V[S;FY[ VFBL ,F.G KF5[
K[P T[GL h05G[ LMP [Lines Per Minutes] DF\ DF5JFDF\
VFJ[ K[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ VF l5|g8ZMGL h05 300 YL
1800 DPM CMI K[P VF l5|g8ZGF A[ 5|SFZ 5F\0JFDF\
VFJ[ K[P

l;ZLI, l5|g8Z o VF l5|g8ZDF\ V[S ;DI[ V[S S[Z[S8Z l5|g8 YFI K[
VG[ l5|g8Z C[0 ,F.GDF\ VFU/ 5FK/ OZ[ K[P VFD T[GL ZRGF
8F.5ZF.8Z H[JL H K[P T[ ;FDFgI ZLT[ WLDF CMI K[P T[GL h05 CPS
[Character Per Speed] DF\ DF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[GL ZRGFG[ VFWFZ[ T[GF
A[ EFU 5F0L XSFI K[P

.gSH[8 l5|g8Z o VF l5|g8ZG[ 0[:SH[8 l5|g8Z VYJF
AA,H[8 l5|g8Z 56 SC[ K[P VF l5|g8Z 0M8 D[8=L1F
l5|g8Z SZTF ;FJ H]NF H 5|SFZG\] K[P T[DF\ 5LG
S[ ZLALG H[J] SX] CMT] GYLP SFAGJF/L ZLALG[
AN,[ T[GF l5|g8\LU C[0DF\ OST XFCL EZ[,L CMI
K[P 5LGG[ AN,[ ;]1D SF6FJF/L 8I]A CMI K[P H[GF
J0[ XFCLGF 8L5F ACFZ GLS/[ K[P .gSH[8 l5|g8Z 5|tI[S RMSS; .\R[
300 YL 600 XFCLGF 8L5F 5F0L XS[ K[ V[J] VFp85]8 VF5[ K[P VF
l5|g8ZGM VJFH 56 ;FJ VMKM CMI K[P 5Z\T] .gSH[8 l5|g8ZGF
U[ZOFINF V[ K[ S[ T[G\] l5|g8L\U 5|DF6DF\ E6] WLD] CMI K[P BF;
SZLG[ S,Z l5|g8\LUDF\ B}AH WLD] CMI K[P
,[;Z 5|g8Z o ,[;Z l5|g8Z V[ CF,DF\ J5ZFT]
;{FYL VFW]lGS VG[ prR l5|g8\LU U]6JTF VF5T]\
GMGv.gSH[8 l5|g8Z SZTF 36] H ;]1D4 ;\]NZ VG[
8M5 SJM,L8LG\] l5|g8L\U 36]H h05YL D[/JL VF5[
K[P ;FDFgI ,[;Z l5|g8Z 300 D.P.I.[[Dots Per Inch] G\]
CMI K[P CF,DF\ 600, 800 S[ 1200 D.P.I. GF\ K[<<FF
DM0[,M D/JF ,FuIF K[P VF l5|g8ZM lS\DTDF\ B}A
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H DM\3F CMI K[P T[GL h05 V[S lDGL8DF\ 20,000 ,F.G S[ 2 DLGL8DF\
20 YL 350 5FGF ;]WL CMI K[P

(3) LCD (Liquid crystal Display) : ;{F5|YD LCD GM p5IMU Laptop
DF\ YTM CTMP tIFZAFN CJ[ Computer DF\ monitor G[ AN,[
LCD GM p5IMU YFI K[P LCD JHGDF\ monitorr SZTF C,S]\ CMI
K[P LCD monitor SZTF 36L VMKL HuIF ZMS[ K[ VG[ LCD GL
picture quality 56 36L ;FZL CMI K[P LCD monitor SZTF 36L
DM\3L VFJ[ K[P


Windows Explorer :
Windows Explorer G[ open SZJF DF8[ A[ mode VF5JFDF\ VFJ[, K[P Default mode
V[ ;FNM VG[ p5IMU SZJFDF\ ;Z/ K[4 H[G] GFD My Computer K[P H[ TDFZF
Desktop p5Z HMJF D/[ K[ VG[ ALH]
V[8,[ An Advance Explorer mode AH[
TDG[ Start button 5Z right click SZTF\
HMJF D/X[P Windows XP DF\ VF A[
5|SFZGF mode K[P H[ TDG[ file TYF
manage SZJFDF\ DNNUFZ YFI K[P





Wallpaper and Screen Savers, Setting the
date & time :




(A) Wallpaper : Desktop p5Z V,U wallpaper set SZJF
VYJF AN,JF DF8[GF steps GLR[ D]HA K[P

Mouse J0[ Desktop 5Z Right click SZL T[DF\
properties option select SZJ]\P

Properties 5Z click SZTF Display properties G\]
dialog box HMJF D/X[ H[DF\ Desktop tab select
SZJ\]P

T[DF\ VF5[,F background list DF\YL IMuI
background picture select SZL XSFI VG[ HM picture T[ list DF\YL G ,[J\][ CMI
TM Browse button 5Z click SZL look in GF dialog box DF\YL IMuI path select SZL
photo select SZL XSFI K[P
Picture select SZL Apply button 5Z click SZL OK 5Z click SZTF\ GLR[ D]HA
desktop 5Z wallpaper change YI[,] HMJF D/[ K[P

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Screen Saver : Screen Saver GM p5IMU DM8F
5|DF6DF\ advertisement, document safety DF8[ SZJFDF\
VFJ[ K[P Screen Saver V[8,[ HM VF56[ SM.56 SFD
SIF JUZ computer G[ V[DG] V[DH ZC[JF N.V[ TM
VF56[ GSSL SZ[,F ;DI 5KL monitor 5Z V,U
V,U lShF.G VF56[ ;L,[S8 SZL CMI T[ VFJJF
D\0[ K[[ H[G[ screen saver SC[ K[P HM T[G[ A\W
SZL VF56\] SFD RF,] SZJ] CMI TM keyboard 5ZYL
SM. 56 key VYJF Mouse G[ ;C[H move SZJFYL screen save A\W Y. HX[P screen
saver apply SZJF DF8[GF steps GLR[ D]HA K[P

(1) Desktop p5Z right click SZL properties select SZM VG[ T[DF\ screen saver p5Z
S,LS SZTF GLR[ D]HAGF dialog box HMJF D/[ K[P

(2) tIFZAFN screen save list DF\YL H~ZL screen save select SZMP tIFZAFN Settings
Button p5Z S,LS SZL H~ZL setting SZMP tIFZAFN T[ screen save S[J\] N[BFX[
T[ HMJF DF8[ Preview Button p5Z S,LS SZM tIFZAFN wait DF\ H~ZL minutes set
SZMP Apply Button p5Z S,LS SZL OK button p5Z S,LS SZMP



Change Date and Time :
Taskbar DF HD6L AFH] V[ NXFJ[, ;DI p5Z double click SZMP tIFZAFN GLR[
NXFJ[, Date & Time properties G\] dialogbox open YX[P
T[DF\ Date site DF\ 5C[,F dropdown
list DF\YL DlCGM select SZL T[GL p5Z
S,LS SZMP tIFZAFN ;F,G[ scroll
button YL select SZM VG[ GLR[
NXFJ[, TFZLBDF\YL TFZLB select
SZM[ tIFZAFN HM time AN,JM CMI
TM 5C[,F S,FSGF BFGFDF\ S,LS
SZL Scroll button YL S,FS select SZMP
tIFZAFN V[H ZLT[ lDlG8 VG[
;[Sg0 select SZM VG[ V[H ZLT[ am
S[ pm ;L,[S8 SZM VG[ V[H ZLT[
am S[ pm ;L,[S8 SZL Apply button
p5Z S,LS SZL OK button p5Z S,LS
SZMP





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How to use storage devices?
Windows XP DF\ VF56[ V,U V,U
Storage devices lJX[ DFlCTL D[/JLP
H[DS[ Floppy, CD, DVD, Pen Drive
JU[Z[ CJ[ T[DF\YL Data computer
DF\ S[JL ZLT[ save SZJM VG[
computer DF\YL Data V[ storage device
5Z S[JL ZLT[ write SZJM T[ V\U[
DFlCTL D[/JLX\]P

How to Burn CD/DVD?
CD S[ DVD 5Z Information store SZJFGL
Process G[ Burn SC[ K[P VF DF8[
TDFZF computer CD Wrier/Combo
Drive/DVD writer CMJ] H~ZL K[P VG[
Nero Burn software GL DFlCTL D[/JLX\]P

; 5|YD TDFZF CD/DVD/Combo Drive DF\ blank CD/DVD D}SL T[G[ A\W
SZMP
tIFZAFN TDFZF computer DF\ Burn software open SZMP Start = All Programs =
Ahead Nero = Nero Express 5Z click SZJ\]P
Data Disc select SZTF GLR[ D]HAGL screen N[BFX[P
ADD 5Z S,LS SZTF\ select files and folders G\] dialog box open YX[P
Data Add YTF GLR[ D]HAGL Screen N[BFX[PVC\L CD DF8 GF Data GL size
ATFJ[ K[P H[ GLR[ ruler DF\ NXFJ K[P ;FDFgI ZLT[ CD GL size 700MB
CMI K[P V[8,[ HM p5ZGL Screen DF\ ATFjIF D]HA ,F, Z\U VFJ[ TM CD
corrupt 56 Y. XS[ K[P H[YL data size G\] wIFG ZFBJ\]P 56 CD DF\ 680 MB
data write SZJM lCTFJC K[
Data GL size 700MB ;]WL ZFBL Next 5Z S,LS SZTF\ GLR[ D]HAGL screen
N[BFX[P IMuI option select SZL Burn 5Z click SZTF\ CD Write YIFGL process
GLR[ D]HA screen NXFJ[ K[PCD Write YJFGM message VFJX[P T[DF\ OK 5Z
S,LS SZJ\]P
H[DF\ GLR[ D]HAGL :S=LG N[BFX[P Next 5Z click SZTF\ CD ACFZ VFJL
HX[P VG[ GLR[ 5|DF6[GL screen N[BFX[P



How to Use Pen Drive ?
Pen drive V[ V[S 5|SFZGL storage device K[ T[GL D]bI BF;LTI
V[ K[ T[G[ UD[ T[ SMd5I]8ZDF\ USB port DF\ attach SZLG[
TZTH T[G[ access SZL XSFI K[P Pen Drive G[ TD[ Pocket DF\
ZFBLG[ 56 OZL XSM KM[ VG[ T[G[ pocket DF\ ZFBL CMI
tIFZ[ T[ pen BL:;FDF\ D]SL K[ T[J]\ H ,FU[ K[P Pen Drive
easily move SZL XSFTL CMJFYL T[ CF,DF\ B}A H 5|Rl,T AGL K[P Pen Drive DF\
Storage Devices
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ZC[,M data GLSF/LG[ ALHM V,U data store SZJM CMI TM 56 SZL XSM KMP VFD4
Pen drive G[ 36L JBT p5IMUDF\ ,. XSFI K[P V,UvV,U Storage capacity GF Pen
drive market DF\ available K[P H[D S[ 64 MB, 128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB,. 1 GB, 2 GB
storage capacity GF Pen drive VFJ[ K[P CF,DF\ TM GJF Pen drive DF\ MP3 Player 56
VFJ[ K[[P H[DF\ MP3 ULTM store SZLG[ ;F\E/L XSFI K[ VG[ Data 56 store
SZL XSFI K[P
Pen drive DF\YL data G[ computer DF\ transfer SZJF DF8[GF steps GLR[ D]HA K[P
(I) Pen drive G[ cabinet GF USB port DF\ attach SZMP
(II) tIFZAFN My computer open SZTF Removable store device DF\ Pen drive ATFJX[P
(III) Removable Disk T[ drive 5Z double click SZTF\ T[DF\ ZC[,M data HMJF D/X[P
(IV) Copy SZ[,F contents G[ HIF\ paste SZJ\] K[ T[ folder VYJF drive open SZL Edit
Paste 5Z S,LS SZTF\ T[ Data Pen drive DF\YL TDFZF computer DF\ copy Y.
HX[P
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Internet

Introduction Of Networking :
Network tF[ A[ S[ T[YL JW] COMPUTER G] GROUP S[ H[DF NZ[S COMPUTER
V[SALHF ;FY[ HM0FI[,F CMI K[ V[S ALHF ;FY[ COMMUNICATE SZL XS[ K[
VG[ T[ FZF DATA G[ SHARE SZL XS[ K[P FILE GL VF5 ,[ SZL XS[ VG[
SFIM G[ J[CRL XS[ K[P














Network DF H[ COMPUTER HM0FI[,F K[P T[ Hardware VG[ Software GL DNNYL
HM0FI[,F CMI K[P
Hardware T[ COMPUTER G[ Network DF PHYSICALLY HM0L VF5[ K[P NFPTP
8[,LOMG ,FIg;4 OF.AZvVM%8LS S[A<;4 ZF8; " VG[ U[-J[ TYF Computer JU[Z[
Hardware SZJF DF8[ HZ]ZL K[P
Software G[ Network DF Hardware GM 5IMU SZL DFCLTL GL VF5,[ SZJF DF8[
5IMUDF ,[JFI K[P H[JL ZLT[ VF56F XZLZ GF VgI EFUM G[ S[JL ZLT[ SFI|
WWW
e Mail
Chatting
Surfing
Internet
.com Conference
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SZJ] VG[ ;FY[ S[JL ZLT[ SFI| SZJ] T[ H6FJ[ K[P T[DH Network
communication DF\ H]NF H]NF Computer G[ S[JF SFIM| SZJF VG[ S[JL ZLT[
;FY[ SFI||GL JC[\R6L SZJL T[ GSSL SZJFG] SFI\ Software G] K[P
H[ Software FZF Network T{IFZ SZJFDF VFJ[, CMI T[ Software S[8,FS
GLIDMG] 5F,G SZ[ K[ H[ GLIDMG[ Protocols SC[ K[P Network T[
INTROPERABLE 56 CMI XS[ K[P V[ JFSI GM V"Y V[ YFI K[ S[ H]NF H]NF
5||SFZGF Computers4 H]NL H]NL Operating System WZFJTF Computer V[SALHF ;FY[
Communicate SZL XS[ K[ S[ DFCLTLGL VF5,[ SZL XS[ K[ 5Z\T] T[ Network
Protocols G[ Follow SZTF CMJF HM.V[P

Network SZJF DF8[ D]bItJ[ +6 ;FWGM GL H~Z 50[ K[P
1) Communication Cable
2) Computer
3) Modem

ARPANET :
ARPANET G] 5]~ GFD Advanced Research Project agency (ARPA) Network K[P VF
Network GL XMW !)&) GF J"QFDF\ ARPA FZF SZJFDF VFJL CTL H[ DF8[
Department of Defense FZF GF6F ZMSJFDF VFjIF CTFP
VF Network V[S 5|IMU H CTM VG[ T[GM 5IMU ;\XMWG DF8[ T[DH Network
Technologies GM lJ:TFZ SZJF DF8[ YIM CTMP VF Network DF\ United States DF
VFJ[, H]NL H]NL RFZ universities GF H]NF H]NF RFZ host computer G[ HM0JFDF
VFjIF CTF VG[ T[GL DNNYL DFCLTL T[DH ;\XMWG GL VF5,[ SZJFDF VFJL
CTLP
J""QF !)*Z ;]WLDF ARPANET DF HM0FI[, Computer GL ;\bIF JWLG[ 5* Y. U.
CTLP VF 5ZF\T ARPA G] GFD 56 AN,F.G[ DARPA Defense Advance Research Project
Agency Y. UI] CT]P
J""QF !)*# DF\ ARPA FZF United States GL ACFZ 56 5MTFG] 5|E]tJ HDFJJFGM
5|ItG SIM "" CTM VG[ England TYF Norway GF computers G[ 5MTFGF network DF\
HM0IF CTFP
AEPANET GM D]bI C[T] T[ Network G[ H]NF H]NF EFUMDF\ lJEFHLT SZJFGM
CTM H[YL Network GF V[SEFUDF\ SM. BFDL VFJ[ T[D KTF Network GF VgI
EFUM SFI "ZT ZC[P VF 1F[+DF\ ;\XMWG SZTF H[ D?I] T[ CT]\ Network rules
V[8,[ S[ protocols H[ TCP\IP sTransmission Control Protocol \ Internet Protocol GF GFDYL
VM/BFI K[P
TCP \ IP T[ protocols GM ;D]C K[ H[G] SFI network DF\ DFCLTL S[JL ZLT[ VN,
AN, SZJL T[ GSSL SZJFG] K[P VFH protocols GL DNNYL H]NL H]NL opraing system
H[JL S[ Dos VG[ Unix WZFJTF computer JrR[ DFCLTL GL VF5,[ XSI AG[ K[P
!)(# DF\ ARPA FZF GSSL SZJFDF\ VFjI] S[ TCP \ IP T[ CJ[YL ARPANET
;FY[ computer connect SZJF DF8[GM standard protocol ZC[X[P V[8,[ S[ SM. GFGF
network GFGF network G[ ARPANET ;FY[ connect YJ] CMI TM T[DF TCP\IP GM
5IMU YI[, CMJM HM.V[P
TCP \ IP Protocol D?IM CTM T[YL network DF\ T[GM 5IMU JWJF DF\0IMP VFD
TCP \ IP GM JW[,M 5IMU T[ NEJ DF8[ 5IMUL AgIM S[ H[G[ network GF
network TZLS[ VM/BFI K[P

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INTERNET :
Internet G] full form International Network K[P Internet V[ lJ`JG] ;YL DM8] Computer
Network K[P H[G[ global network 56 SC[ K[P
EFZT DF\ Internet X~VFT !)*_ DF\ Education Research Network [ERNET] FZF Y.
T[ United Nation Development Program [UNDP] VG[ Department of electronic [DoE] of
Government of India FZF E[UF D/L setup SZJFDF\ VFjI] CT]P T[ VFH[ 56 5|F%I
K[ 5Z\T] T[GM access S[8,LS education institute VG[ research organization DF8[ ;LDLT
K[P
tIFZAFN !5
th
August !))5 GF ZMH Videsh Samachar Nigam Limited (VSNL) FZF 5|YD
private accessible internet service RF,] SZJFDF VFJL CTL H[G[ Gateway Internet Access
Services VG[ (GIAS) TZLS[ VM/BJF DF\ VFJLP X~VFT DF\ T[ OST Delhi ,Mumbai,
Calcutta, Chennai, Banglore VG[ Pune 5]ZTL H ;LDLT CTL 5Z\T] CJ[ T[ N[XGF
,UEU AWF H XC[ZM DF\ 5|%I K[P
CJ[ TM S[8,FS private service provider G[ 56 internet service 5]ZL 5F0JFGL D\H]ZL
VF5JFDF\ VFJ[, K[P H[DG[ ISP (Internet Service Privider) TZLS[ VM/BJFDF\ VFJ[
K[P T[DGF S[8,FS NFCZ6 VF 5|DF6[ K[o Satyam Online, Bharti Telecome , etc. H[D
H[D VF ISP GL ;\bIF JWJF DF\0L K[ T[D T[D Internet Connection GF rate 56 W8JF
DF\0IF K[P
DNS(Domain Name System) :
Domain Name G] registration computer host HM0[ SZFJJ] 50[ K[P H[D S[
www.aajtak.com V[ commercial website K[P VF 5|DF6[GF domain NFCZ6 GLR[ D]HA
K[P

edu Education
biz Auction
org Organization
gov Government
nic National Informatics Centre
mil Military
net Network
com Commercial Organization

VFD domain name 5ZYL HF6L XSFI K[ S[ website V[ X{1F6LS, 3\3FSLI S[
;[JFSLI K[ T[ HF6L XSFI K[P
VF H 5|DF6[ W6L website DF\ 5FK/ A[ V1FZ country code GF ,UFJ[ K[P H[D S[

in India
us United State
ca Canada
fr France
au Australia
nz New Zealand
uk United Kingdom
V[H ZLT[ URL G] full form Uniform Locator K[P Web address G[ URL 56 SC[JFDF\
VFJ[ K[P NFPTP

www.yahoo.co.in
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(Uniform Resource Locator)

Browser:
Browser T[ V[S Software K[ H[ Internet V[8,[ S[ World Wide Web VG[ user JrR[GM
interface 5]Z] 5F0[ K[P Client / Server model DF\ browser T[ V[S client program TZLS[
SF"I SZ[ K[P 5ZL6FD[ T[G[ Web client 5KL Universal client TZLS[ 56 VM/BJFDF\
VFJ[ K[P Browser user TZOYL SF"I SZ[ K[P Browser G] D]bI SF"I 4
Web server ;FY[ HM0JFG] VG[ T[G[ DFCLTL D[/JJF DF8[GL request SZJFG]
T[DH
Web server 5F;[YL DFCLTL D[/JJFG] VG[ T[G[ user GF computer 5Z
N[BF0JFG] K[P
Browser GF S[8,FS NFCZ6 GLR[ 5|DF6[ K[P
Microsoft Internet Explorer
Netscape Navigator
Net manage Web surfer
Spry Mosaic
LYNK
Mozilla Firebox
Microsoft Internet Explorer:
Microsoft Internet Explorer G[ 8]SDF\ IE SC[JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P T[GL XMW Microsoft
Corporation FZF SZJFDF\ VFJL CTL VG[ T[ Macintosh system S[ Windows #P! S[
tIFZ 5KLGL OS WZFJTF PC 5Z 5IMUDF\ ,. XSFI K[P Internet Explorer V[S
graphical browser K[ S[ H[GL DNNYL World Wide Web (WWW) 5Z 5|%I hypertext,
Photograph, videos VG[ Sounds GM VG]EJ YFI K[P
Title bar : TD[ H[ page HM. ZF KM T[G] Title T[ VF title bar DF\ N[BFI K[P VF
5Z\FT T[DF\ Maximized, Minimize VG[ close button CMI K[P
Menu bar : IE GF menu bar G] SF"I T[ VgI programs GF menu bar H[J] H K[P
T[DF\ H]NF H]NF Category GF menu S[ menu items VFJ[,F CMI K[P
Toolbar : Toolbar DF\ Navigation button , Explorer bar T[DH VgI S[8,LS hand tools GM
;DFJ[X YFI K[P
Address bar : Address bar G] SF"I TD[ CF,DF\ H[ page HM. ZF KM T[G] URL
(H[D S[ www.whatever.com) NXF"JJFG] K[P T[DH T[GL DNNYL TD[ RMSS; website
HM. XSM KMP

Features Of Internet :

Visit Companies, Government, Museums, Schools........
Read the News
World Wide Web
Country code
URL
Domain name
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Explorer Libraries
Get software
Read
Shop
Play Games, Watch Videos, Get a Degree...
Exchange Massages
Chat

Introduction To E-Mail :
Internet GM D]bI OFINM T[ e-mail K[P T[ Internet GF user G[ HM0TL V[S S0L
;DFG K[P e-mail GL DNNYL OST YM0LS ;\[S0MDF\ lJ`JGF SM.56 B}6FDF\\
;DFRFZ DMS,FJL XSFI K[P VG[ T[ 56 OST V[S local call GF BRDF\ HP ;Z/
XaNMDF\ SCLV[ TM e-mail GM p5IMU electronically ;DFRFZ D[/JJF DF8[ DMS,JF
DF8[ YFI K[P
HIFZ[ TD[ e-mail DMS,M KM tIFZ[ HIF\ ;]WL T[ e-mail
D[/JFGFZGF computer ;]WL G 5C\MRL HFI tIF\ ;]WL T[
Network DF\ computer p5ZYL ALHF computer p5Z forward YIF SZ[
K[P tIFZAFN VF message T[ e-mail D[/JFGFZ GF mailbox DF\
HFI K[P VF mailbox S[ V[S 5|SFZGL file H K[ H[ user GF
incoming message GM ;\U|C SZ[ K[P HIF ;]WL user message G[
delete G SZ[ tIF\ ;]WL T[ message mailbox DF\ H ZC[ K[P


Advantages Of E-Mail :
E-mail GF 36F H OFINF K[P H[DFGF S[8,FS GLR[ NXFJJFDF\ VFJ[,
K[P
E-mail T[ message DMS,JFG\] V[S J{`lJS VG[ telephone, fax S[ VgI
5|;FZ6 SZTF\ 56 h05L DFwIDM SZTF 56 h05L DFwID K[P
E-mail T[ message DMS,JF DF8[] B}AH ;:T]\ DFwID K[P OST V[S
,MS, GF BRDF\ lJ`JGF SM.56 B]6FDF\ message DMS,L XSFI K[P
VUFp H6FjIF 5|DF6[ e-mail FZF ;FDFgI mail SZTF B}A H VMKF
;DIDF\ V[8,[ S[ OST U6+LGL ;\[S0MDF\H lJ`JGF SM.56 B}6FDF\
message DMS,L XSFI K[P
Telephone S[ fax GL H[D E-mail SZJFDF\ ;FD[JF/F user GL line free CMJL
H~ZL GYL[ HIFZ[ e-mail DMS,JFDF\ VFJ[ tIFZ[ T[ e-mail T[GF box
DF\ HFI K[ VG[user 5MTFGL VG]S}/TF 5|DF6[ T[ e-mail JF\RL XS[
K[P
,UEU AWF H E-mail Program GL DNNYL V[S H 5|SFZGM message GM reply
VF5JFGM CMI tIFZ[ H~Z 50[ original message G[ 56 JFR\L XSFI K[P

E-Mail Terms :
HM TD[ e-mail G[ p5IMU SZJF DF\UTF CMI TM TDFZ[ T[ V\UGL S[8,L ;\7FVM
HF6JL HM.V[P GLR[ S[8,L ;\7FVM ;DHFJJFDF\ VFJ[, K[P H[ ;FDFgI ZLT[
AW[ H p5IMUDF\ ,[JFI K[P
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Attachments : E-mail message ;FY[ HM0JFDF\ VFJ[, file G[ attachment SC[ K[P E-
mail GL ;FY[ attachment TZLS[ Text file, formatted Document, Picture Files, sound JU[Z[
file G[ HM0L XSFI K[P VF ZLT[ TD[ data VG[ program A\G[ share SZL XSM KMP
Bcc : Bcc G\] 5]Z] GFD Blind Carbon Copy K[P T[ CC GM p5IMU YFI K[P VF AWFH
user id G[ commas YL H]NF 5F0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
From : VC\L Message DMS,JFG] address ,BJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P
Signature : VF lJEFUDF\ V[S S[ JW] line GL text GM ;DFJ[X YFI K[[ H[DF\
;FDFgI message DMS,GFZG\ 5]Z] GFD VG[ ;ZGFD\] p5ZF\T message DMS,GFZG[
H~ZL ,FU[ T[JL VgI DFlCTLGM ;DFJ[X YFI K[P
Subject : T[ message GM 8}\SM CFN NXFJ[ K[P
To : T[DF\ H[G[ Message DMS,JFGM K[ T[G\] address NXFJJFDF\ VFJ[ K[P

Common E-Mail Abbreviations : E-mail SZJF DF8[ TDFZ[ Message type SZJM 50[
K[P 5lZ6FD[ typing 38F0JF DF8[ CJ[ user S[8,FS shortcuts GM p5IMU SZ[ K[P
GLR[ S[8,FS shortcuts T[DGF VY ;FY[ NXFJ[, K[P 5Z\T] VF standard short cuts
GYL KTF\ E-mail DF8[ T[ B}A H 5|Rl,T K[P BTW by the way

FAQ Frequently asked questions
FOAF Friend of a friend
FWIF for what it is worth
FYI for your information
IMHO In my humble opinion
IMO In my opinion
IOW in other words
LR later
LOL Laughing out loud
MOTAS member of the appropriate sex
ROFTL rolling on the floor laughing
SO significant other
WRT with respect to
E-mail Address : HIFZ[ TD[ TDFZ[ ISP 5F;[YL TDFZ] connection ,M KM
tIFZ[ T[GL ;FY[ TDG[ V[S E-mail account 5]Z] 5F0JFDF\ VFJ[ K[P VF p5ZFT
56 TD[ VgI 36L H Websites p5Z TDFZ\] e-mail account O=L BM,FJL XSM KMP
GLR[ S[8,LS 5|bIFT Website GF GFD VF5JFDF\ VFJ[ K[ HIF\ TD[ TDFZ\]
O=L e-mail account BM,FJL XSM KMP

Yahoo www.yahoo.com
Hotmail www.hotmail.com
Rediff www.rediffmailcom
Mailcity www.mailcity.com
Sify www.sify.com
Netwala www.netwala.com
E-mail Account www.emailaccount.com
Everymail www.everymail.com
Mail Asia www.mailasia.com
Postmaster www.postmaster.com
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ZipLip www.ziplip.com
Watchmail www.watchmailcom
NightMail www.nightmail.com
Wowmail www.wowail.com
Ucky www.ucky.com
Gail www.gmail.com
Santabanta www.santabanta.com
Orkut www.orkut.com
Indiatimes www.indiatimes.com
VF p5ZF\T VgI 36LH websites K[ HIF\ O=L e-mail-account GL ;UJ0 VF5JFDF\
VFJ[ K[P

Limitations of E-mail :
E-mail GF OST OFINF H GYL 5Z\T] S[8,FS U[ZOFINF 56 K[ H GLR[
NXFJJFDF VFJ[, K[P
TD[ TDFZF e-mail account G[ UD[ T[8,L security 5}ZL 5F0L CMJF KTF SM.56
TDFZF account GF password GF H]NF H]NF combinations FZF 5|ItG SZL TDFZ\
e-mail account BM,L XS[ K[P VYJF TM TD[ SFI SZTF CMI tIFZ[ TDFZM
password RMZL XS[ K[P 5lZ6FD[ B}A H DCtJGL VG[ BFGUL message e-mail
FZF DMS,JF lCTFJC GYLP
T[ ;FR] K[ S[ e-mail GL VFNT 50L UIF AFN pen FZF SM.G[ letter ,BLG[
DMS,JFG SFI S\8F/FHGS ,FU[ K[P
HIF\ ;]WL SM. User T[G] mail address G SC[ tIF\ ;]WL T[G] e-mail address
HF6J\] VXSI S[ D]xS[, K[P 5lZ6FD[ SM. jIlSTG\] GFD ;ZGFD] HF6TF
CMJF KTF\ T[G[ e-mail SZL XSTM GYLP

How to create and E-mail Account?
; 5|YD website BM,JF DF8[ browser BM,M H[D S[ (Mozila Fire Fox)
tIFZAFN browser GF address bar DF\ H[ website DF\ e-mail account BM,J\] CMI T[
site G\] GFD ,BL enter press SZMP [VF book DF\ VF56[ yahoo GM p5IMU SZ[,
K[P T[YL www.yahoo.com ,B[,] K[P VFD SZJFYL GLR[ NXFjIF 5|DF6[
yahoo G\] homepage open YX[P
CJ[ VF page 5Z Mail GFDGL link p5Z S,LS SZM[ VFD SZJFYL GLR[ 5|DF6G]\
logging G\] page open YX[P
CJ[ p5Z NXFJ[, page DF\ Sign up Now GL link p5Z S,LS SZM[ VFD SZJFYL
GLR[ NXFjIF 5|DF6[G]\ registration DF8[G] V[S form B],X[P
tIFZAFN VF form DF\ H~ZL lJUTM EZL I Agree GFDGF button 5Z S,LS SZMP
tIFZAFN HM TDFZ] e-mail account B],L HX[ TM welcome message G\] page
VFJX[P

How to log into E-mail Account?
; 5|YD H[ website DF\ TDFZ] e-mail Account CMI T[ website BM,M[ (NFP TP
www.yahoo.com)
tIFZAFN VF page p5Z VFJ[, Mail GFDGL link p5Z S,LS SZM[ H[YL GLR[
5|DF6[G\] page open YX[P
VF page p5Z TD[[ yahoo DF\ AGFJ[, user id VG[ password GF A8G 5Z S,LS
SZMP
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How to Read an E-mail ?
HM TD[ TDFZF e-mail account DF\ login YXM TM GLR[ NXFjIF 5|DF6[G]\
dialog box open YX[P sHM TD[ login YI[,F G CMI TM VUFp NXFJ[, login
GF steps VG];ZMPf
VFD SZJFYL GLR[ NXFjIF 5|DF6[G]\ Inbox B],L HX[ T[DF\ e-mail
DMS,GFZ, e-mail GL TFZLB, e-mail GL TFZLB, e-mail GL size VG[ e-mail GM subject
JU[Z[ lJUTM NXFJT]\ page VFJX[P
CJ[ H[ e-mail JF\RJM CMI T[ e-mail p5Z S,LS SZMP VFD SZJFYL e-mail
GL lJUTJF/] page B],L HX[P H[ TD[ JF\RL XSM KM[ VG[ T[GL print 56
,. XSM KMP

How to Send (compose) an E-mail :
; 5|YD H[ site D\F TDFZ] e-mail account CMI T[ site open SZL TDFZF e-
mail account DF\ login YFVMP VF SZJFYL GLR[ 5|DF6[G] page B],X[P
CJ[ e-mail SZJF DF8[ compose GFDGF button 5Z click SZMP
tIFZAFN p5ZGF page DF\ To GFDGF BFGFDF\ [ jIlSTG[ e-mail DMS,JFGM
K[P T[G] e-mail address ,BM[P Subject JF/F BFGFDF\ e-mail SIF\ lJQFI 5Z
K[P T[ type SZMP tIFZAFN page GL JrR[ VFJ[, ;YL DM8F BFGFDF\
(Text Box) DF\ H[ message DMS,JM CMI T[ type SZMP
CJ[ VF e-mail DMS,JF DF8[ send GFDGF button p5Z S,LS SZMP HM TDZM e-
mail D[/JFGFZ G[ T[ 5C\MRL HX[ TM GLR[ NXFjIF 5|DF6[GM message
NXFJT\] page B],X[P


Sending soft copy as attachment :
; 5|YD VUFp NXFjIF 5|DF6[GF e-mail send SZJF DF8[GF 1 YL 3 Steps
VG];ZM (V[8,[ S[ e-mail GL lJUTM SZL N[JL 5Z\T] e-mail SZJF DF8[G]\
send button NAFJJ] GlC\)
tIFZAFN e-mail GF ,BF6GL lJUT type SIF AFN Attach Files GFDGF button
5Z S,LS SZJ\]P
VF screen DF\ Browser GFDGF button p5Z S,LS SZM H[GL GLR[ NXFjIF
5|DF6[G] File Upload G] dialog box B],X[P
VF dialog box DF\YL TDFZ[ H[ file attach SZJL K[ T[ select SZL Open button
5ZS,LS SZMP VF SZJFYL TD[ select SZ[, File GM path T[ JF/F text box DF\
VFJL HX[P
tIFZAFN Attach button 5Z click SZTF\ GLR[ D]HA attachment GL process NXJTL
screen N[BFX[P H[G[ uploading process 56 SC[ K[P
tIFZAFN uploading completes YX[ V[8,[ S. files attach SZJFDF\ VFJL K[P
T[G\] list NXFJ[ K[ tIFZAFN continue to Message GF button 5Z click SZTF
OZLYL message 5Z VFJL HX[ VG[ send button 5Z click SZTF\ e-mail send Y. HX[P

Download an attachment :
36L JBT TDG[ H[ e-mail D?IM CMI K[ T[GL ;FY[ SM. file attach YI[, K[P VF
file G[ download SZJF DF8[GF steps GLR[ D]HA K[P e-mail DF HM attachment CX[
TM VF ^ symbol ATFJX[P
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VUFp H6J[, e-mail JF\RJFGF steps JF\RJF DF8[ open SZMP\
CJ[ e-mail 5}ZM YFI tIF\ attach file GFD ,B[, CX[P T[G[ download SZJF
DF8[ scan and save to computer GFDGL link p5Z click SZMP
H[YL e-mail ;FY[ ZC[, attachment T[ antivirus software J0[ 5|YD scan YX[P
HM attachment DF\ virus CX[ TM attachment downloadable GlC SZL XSFIP V[H
5|DF6[ HM virus GlC\ CMI TM GLR[ D]HAGL screen N[BFX[P
V[DF\ Download Attachment GF button p5Z click SZTF\ File Download G\]
dialog box open YX[P
Save button 5Z click SZL file save as GF dialog box DF\ IMuI path VG[ file name
enter SZL save 5Z click SZTF download GL process NXFJ[ K[P File download YTF
automatic dialog box A\W Y. HFI K[P A\W Y. HX[ VG[ TDFZF computer DF\ TD[
H[ file download SZL K[ T[ TD[ TDFZL VG]S]/TF 5|DF6[ HM. XSM KMP

Sign out from and E-mail Account :
E-mail account DF\ SFD 5TL HFI V[8,[ mailbox securely A\W SZJFGM ZC[ K[
DF8[ p5Z sign out GFDGL link 5Z click SZTF\ GLR[ D]HA screen N[BFX[P
p5ZGL Screen DF\ CH] HM mailbox DF\ HJ] CMI TM password type SZL sign in
SZTF\ T[DF\ H. XSFX[[P GlC TM sign out completely link 5Z click SZTF\ mail
box securely A\W Y. HX[ VG[ GLR[ D]HAGL screen DF\ message ATFJX[P

Introduction :
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) T[ V[S Internet GL communication method K[P H[GF FZF
lJ`JGF H]NF H]NF lJ:TFZDF\ ,MSM V[S ALHF ;FY[ communicate SZL XS[
K[P V[S JBT Internet ;FY[ connect Y. UIF AFN TDFZ[ IRC server ;FY[ connect
YJF DF8[ IRC client server GM p5IMU SZJM 50[ K[P Server DF\ TD[ TDFZL
5;\NUL 5|DF6[GM Chat Room S[ channel GSSL SZL XSM KMP HIFZ[ TD[ V[S
JBT Chat Room S[ Channel ;FY[ HM0FI[,F VgI CHFZM user GF monitor p5Z ZFBL
XSFI K[P
NZ[S Chat Room S[ SM. RMSS; lJQFI ;FY[ ;\S/FI[, CMI K[ VG[ T[ Room
;FY[ ;\S/FI[, CMI K[ VG[ HM0FI[,F NZ[S user ,UEU T[ H lJQFI V\U[
JFTRLT SZTF CMI K[P NFPTP Geology GF chat Room DF\ ;FDFgI ZLT[ AWF H
user rocks VG[ earthquakes V\U[ RRF SZTF CMI K[P
HIFZ[ TD[ Chat Room DF\ CMJ tIFZ[ T[ H Chat Room ;FY[ HM0FI[, SM.
user S\. 56 type SZX[ TM T[ TDFZL screen p5Z N[BFX[ VG[ VF NZ[S ,BF6
;FY[ H[ T[ ,BF6 ,BGFZG\] nickname ,B[, CMI K[ H[YL SM6 JFT SZL Z]
K[ T[ HF6L XSFI K[P nickname T[ Chat Room ;FY[ HM0FI[, member G\] ID
K[P

Chat Acronyms : E-mail VG[ newsgroups DF\ H[ abbreviations J5ZFI K[ T[DFGF
36F H abbreviations T[ chatting DF8[ 56 J5ZFI K[P Chatting DF8[ J5ZFTF S[8,FS
VUtIGF acronyms GLR[ 5|DF6[ K[P
A/S/L Age / Sex / Location
APK Away from Keyboard
BRB Be Right Back
CYA See Ya
EAIS Eating At Keyboard
Computer Classes
TM
Computer Fundamental


19
A B
A
C
A
K O Kay
LOL Laughing out Load
NP No Problem
TY Thank You
ROTEL Rolling on the floor laughing
WB Welcome Back
B4U Before You

Messenger DF\ Chat SZJFGF steps :
; 5|YD desktop 5Z ZC[,F Yahoo Messenger 5Z double click SZL T[G[ open
SZMP
tIFZAFN Yahoo ID VG[ Password enter SZL Login 5Z S,LS SZMP
ID VG[ Password ;FRM CX[ TM GLR[ D]HAGL screen DF\ N[BFI K[P
Connect Y. UIF AFN Messenger GL GLR[ D]HAGL screen HMJF D/[ K[P
tIFZAFN HM chatting SZJ\] CMI TM p5Z chat button 5Z click SZJFYL room G\]
list open YX[P
V[DF\YL IMuI categories select SIF AFN IMuI room select SZTF\ GLR[ D]HA
chat room open YX[P
tIFZAFN Congratulation Window G[ Close Button 5Z Click SZL A\W SZM
H[ user HM0[ chatting SZJ] CMI T[ DF8[ 0FAL AFH]GF list DF\YL T[ user
p5Z double click SZTF Instant Message G\] dialog box open YFI K[P
tIFZAFN H[ message type SZJM CMI T[ textbox DF\ type SZM send button 5Z
click SZTF T[ message sent YFI K[P V[ 5|DF6[ HM ;FD[YL message DF8[ TM
T[ GLR[ D]HA ATFJ[ K[P