Chapter 5

Working in Teams

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Chapter Outline
• Teams vs.Groups: What’s the Difference? • Why Have Teams Become So Popular? • Stages of Group and Team Development

• Creating Effective Teams
• Twenty-First Century Teamwork: Virtual Teams • Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Groups and Teamwork
1. What are teams and groups? 2. Does everyone use teams? 3. Do groups and teams go through stages while they work? 4. How do we create effective teams? 5. How do virtual teams work? 6. Are teams always the answer?
Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Teams vs. Groups: What’s the Difference?
• Groups
– Two or more people with a common relationship.

• Teams
– A small number of people who work closely together toward a common objective and are accountable to one another.

Chapter 5, Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins, Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour, Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada

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Nancy Langton and Stephen P.Why Have Teams Become So Popular? • A Conference Board of Canada report found that more than 80 of it 109 respondents used teams. • In the U. manufacturers use teams in their production area. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-5 . • The extensive use of teams creates the potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in inputs.S.: – 80 percent of Fortune 500 companies have half or more of their employees on teams – 68 percent of small U.S. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins. Chapter 5.

Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-6 .Exhibit 5-1 Stages of Group Development Chapter 5. Robbins.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins.Stages of Group and Team Development • Stage I: Forming – Characterized by much uncertainty • Stage II: Storming – Characterized by intragroup conflict • Stage III: Norming – Characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness Chapter 5. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-7 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance Chapter 5. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-8 .Stages of Group Development • Stage IV: Performing – The stage when the group is fully functional • Stage V: Adjourning – The final stage in group development for temporary groups. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins.

• Context can matter: airline pilots can immediately reach performing stage. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-9 . Robbins. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Chapter 5. • Groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage. • Conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group.Putting the Five-Stage Model Into Perspective • Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time.

– The transition initiates major changes. Chapter 5. • Last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-10 . • Transition – A transition takes place at the end of the first phase. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. – The first phase of group activity is one of inertia.The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model • Phase 1 – The first meeting sets the group’s direction. Robbins. • Phase 2 – A second phase of inertia follows the transition. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Nancy Langton and Stephen P.Exhibit 5-2 The PunctuatedEquilibrium Model (High) Completion Phase 2 Performance First Meeting Transition Phase 1 (Low) A (A+B)/2 Time Chapter 5. Robbins. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada B 5-11 . Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Copyright © 1990 by Jossey-Bass Inc. M. Table 2. 1990). Team Players and Teamwork: The New Competitive Business Strategy (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.. Publishers. Robbins. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. 33. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-12 . p. Inc. Chapter 5. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Parker.Exhibit 5-3 Characteristics of an Effective Team • • • • • • Clear purpose Informality Participation Listening Civilized disagreement Consensus decisions • Open communication • Clear rules and work assignments • Shared leadership • External relations • Style diversity • Self-assessment Source: G.

Exhibit 5-4 A Model of Team Effectiveness Context • Adequate resources • Leadership and structure • Climate of trust • Performance evaluation and rewards Composition • Skills • Personality • Roles • Diversity • Size • Member flexibility • Member preference for teamwork Team effectiveness Work design • Autonomy • Skill variety • Task identity • Task significance Process • Common purpose • Specific goals • Team efficacy • Managed level of conflict • Accountability Chapter 5. Robbins. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-13 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

Creating Effective Teams – Context • • • • Adequate Resources Leadership and Structure Climate of Trust Performance Evaluation and Rewards Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-14 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Nancy Langton and Stephen P.Creating Effective Teams – Composition • • • • • • • Skills Personality Roles Diversity Size Member Flexibility Members’ Preference for Teamwork 5-15 Chapter 5. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada . Robbins.

Robbins.Skills • Teams need the following skills to perform effectively: – Technical expertise – Problem-solving and decision-making skills – Interpersonal skills Chapter 5. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-16 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. • Maintenance roles – Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-17 . Robbins.Roles • Task-oriented roles – Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished. • Individual roles – Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on task. Chapter 5.

Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build Task Accomplishment Initiating Stating the goal or problem. Kochan. Ancona. OH: South-Western College Publishing.” in Managing for the Future. M. T. 1996). E. Westney (Cincinnati. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada . p. Scully. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. 9. Robbins. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Van Maanen. making proposals about how to work on it. ed. Chapter 5. and D. D. setting time limits Asking group members for specific factual information related to the task or problem Sharing information or opinions related to the task or problems Helping one another understand ideas and suggestions that come up in the group Building on one another’s ideas and suggestions Reviewing the points covered by the group and the different ideas stated so that decisions can be based on full information Periodic testing about whether the group is nearing a decision or needs to continue discussion 5-18 Seeking information and opinions Providing information and opinions Clarifying Elaborating Summarizing Consensus Testing Source: “Team Processes. J.

9. and D. E. Ancona. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-19 . Establishing a climate of acceptance in the group Encouraging Source: “Team Processes. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. ed. relieving tensions Admitting error at times of group conflict Making sure all members have a chance to express their ideas and feelings and preventing members from being interrupted Helping a group member make his or her point. Robbins. T. OH: South-Western College Publishing.Exhibit 5-5 Roles That Build and Maintain a Team Harmonizing Compromising Gatekeeping Mediating conflict among other members. Van Maanen. Westney (Cincinnati. p. Scully. M. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Chapter 5. Kochan. 1996).” in Managing for the Future. reconciling disagreements. J. D.

gaining satisfaction. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. – Cultural diversity in groups initially leads to more difficulty in building cohesion. which stimulates creativity and idea generation. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. • Problems pass with time (certainly by three months).Diversity • Impact of diverse groups – Diversity in personality. which leads to improved decision making. Robbins. age. Chapter 5. and experience promotes conflict. gender. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-20 . • Culturally diverse groups bring more viewpoints out. being productive.

Adler. J. OH 45227. 109. Robbins. Copyright © 2002. 4th ed. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.Advantages Exhibit 5-6 Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity • • • • • Disadvantages • Multiple perspectives • Greater openness to new ideas • Multiple interpretations • Increased creativity • Increased flexibility • Increased problemsolving skills Ambiguity Complexity Confusion Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement • Difficulty in agreeing on specific actions 5-21 Source: Adapted from N. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. a division of International Thomson Publishing.. By permission of South-Western College Publishing. p. Chapter 5. Cincinnati. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada . Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

– When problem solving. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Robbins. – To reduce social loafing. Chapter 5. teams should not be larger than necessary. and individuals should be held accountable for their actions. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.Group Size • Research shows that: – Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-22 . larger groups do better. • Social Loafing – The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.

Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. • Members’ Preference for Teamwork – Team members who would prefer to work on their own threaten the team’s morale. Robbins. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-23 .Team Member Attributes • Member Flexibility – The ability of team members to complete each others’ tasks. Chapter 5.

” Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins. They must be more than a “team-in-name-only.Creating Effective Teams – Work Design • Effective teams need to work together and take collective responsibility to complete significant tasks. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-24 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-25 .Creating Effective Teams – Process • • • • • Common Purpose Specific Goals Team Efficacy Managed Level of Conflict Accountability Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins.

where and when to meet.g. workload expectations)? • How will decisions be made (e..g. email)? • How will communication among team members take place (e. Robbins. majority vote. phone. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-26 ..g. email)? • What will the team ground rules be (e. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. consensus. attendance expectations..Creating a Team Charter • What are team members’ names and contact information (e.g.. leader rules)? • What potential conflicts may arise in the team? Among team members? • How will conflicts be resolved by the group? Chapter 5. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. phone.

competitors’ achievements) to rally the group.g. • Point out environmental threats (e.Increasing Socio-emotional Cohesiveness • Keep the group relatively small.. • Encourage interaction and cooperation. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Chapter 5. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-27 . Robbins. • Emphasize members’ common characteristics and interests. • Strive for a favourable public image to increase the status and prestige of belonging. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

• Frequently remind group members they need each other to get the job done. • Recognize and equitably reinforce every member’s contributions.” • Channel each group member’s special talents toward the common goal(s). Robbins. Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.Increasing Instrumental Cohesiveness • Regularly update and clarify the group’s goal(s). • Give every group member a vital “piece of the action. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-28 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-29 .Exhibit 5-7 Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness. Performance Norms. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins. and Productivity High Cohesiveness Low Performance Norms High High productivity Moderate productivity Low Low productivity Moderate to low productivity Chapter 5.

Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-30 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.Virtual Teams • Virtual Teams – Use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Robbins.

and celebrate achievements. allow time for informal chitchat and socializing. Copy the good points of on-site teams. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-31 . Robbins. Use visual forms of communication where possible. • Give and receive feedback and offer assistance on a regular basis. For example. • Agree on standard technology so all team members can work together easily.Managing Virtual Teams • • • • Establish regular times for group interaction. Chapter 5. Be persistent with people who are not communicating with you or each other. Set up firm rules for communication.

• Provide a virtual workspace via an intranet. This type of feedback comes from the full circle of daily contacts that an employee might have. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. website. or the team itself. or bulletin board. peers. but don’t wait for them to seek you out. Robbins. off-line conversation between team members. • Encourage informal. Chapter 5. • Smooth the way for the next assignment if membership on the team. • Note which employees effectively use email to build team rapport. • Be available to employees. is not permanent. and clients. subordinates. including supervisors. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-32 .Managing Virtual Teams • Consider using 360-degree feedback to better understand and evaluate team members. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Chapter 5. Robbins. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-33 .Exhibit 5-8 An Illustration of Virtual Workspace Source: Reprinted by permission of Shell Chemical LP. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Robbins.Beware! Teams Aren’t Always the Answer • Teams work best when the answer is yes: – Can the work be done better by more than one person? – Does work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals? – Are members of the group interdependent? 5-34 Chapter 5. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada . Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-35 . Robbins. with a large majority of companies now using them. performing. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. norming. • Does everyone use teams? – Teams have become an essential part of the way business is being done. and adjourning • The punctuated-equilibrium model: describes the pattern of development of specific to temporary groups with deadlines Chapter 5. Teams generate positive synergy through coordinated efforts. • Do groups and teams go through stages while they work? – Two different models were presented: • The five stage model: forming.Summary and Implications • What are teams and groups? – Groups are simply the sum of individual efforts. storming.

and process variables • How do virtual teams work? – Virtual teams function much as face-to-face teams. • Are teams always the answer? – Ask • Can the work be done better by more than one person? • Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the people in the group that is more than the aggregate of individual goals? • Are the members of the group interdependent? Chapter 5. careful consideration must be given to resources. Virtual team members need to communicate more about themselves at the start of projects. the team’s composition. work design. but have more challenges. Nancy Langton and Stephen P.Summary and Implications • How do we create effective teams? – For teams to be effective. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-36 . Robbins.

OB at Work Chapter 5. Robbins. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-37 . Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Nancy Langton and Stephen P.

Robbins. 3. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-38 . How can team members harm their team? Chapter 5. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.For Review 1. Describe the punctuated-equilibrium model of group development. What are the characteristics of an effective team? 5. 4. How can teams increase employee motivation? 2. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Describe the five-stage model of group development.

Contrast virtual and face-to-face teams. What is the difference between task-oriented roles and maintenance roles? 7. rather than letting an individual perform a given task? Chapter 5.For Review 6. What are the effects of team size on performance? 8. 10. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-39 . Robbins. How can a team minimize social loafing? 9. What conditions favour creating a team. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour.

Would you prefer to work alone or as part of a team? Why? How do you think your answer compares with that of others in your class? 4.For Critical Thinking 1. How could you use the punctuated-equilibrium model to better understand team behaviour? 2. Robbins. Have you experienced social loafing as a team member? What did you do to prevent this problem? 3. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-40 . Nancy Langton and Stephen P. do you think workforce diversity has on a team’s performance and satisfaction? Chapter 5. What effect. if any.

– Work teams are more varied and complex. – Successful teams debrief after failures and successes. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-41 . – Successful teams use halftime breaks. – Successful teams avoid losing streaks. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. – Successful teams score early wins. Chapter 5. – A lot of employees can’t relate to sports metaphors.Sports Teams as Models • Good Models – Successful teams integrate cooperation and competition. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. – Practice makes perfect. – Winning teams have a stable membership. – Work team outcomes aren’t easily defined in terms of wins and losses. Robbins. • Poor Models – All sport teams aren’t alike.

Chapter 5. Consider a team with which you’ve worked. One of the members of your team continually arrives late for meetings and does not turn drafts of assignments in on time. In general this group member is engaging in social loafing. What can the members of your group do to reduce social loafing? 2.Breakout Group Exercises • Form small groups to discuss the following topics. Identify 4 or 5 norms that a team could put into place near the beginning of its life that might help the team function better over time. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-42 . 1. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Robbins. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. Was there more emphasis on task-oriented or maintenance-oriented roles? What impact did this have on the group’s performance? 3.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. No building allowed during this step. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-43 . 12 paper clips. • Step 3 (5 minutes): Towers will be delivered to the front of the room. Plan your construction. 1 green). Nancy Langton and Stephen P. • Step 2 (15 minutes): Construct the tower. Be sure to put your group number somewhere on the tower. where they will be judged by the class. Using these materials you will build a paper tower that will be judged on: height. Chapter 5. stability.Paper Tower Exercise • Step 1 (10 minutes): Each group will receive 20 index cards. and beauty. and 2 marking pens (1 red. Robbins.

Reprinted by permission of the authors. To what extent did you follow the five-step model of group development? e. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. discuss the following questions: a. unpublished manuscript. The materials list was suggested by Professor Sally Maitlis. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada 5-44 . What percent of the plan did each member of group contribute. Hunsaker and Johanna S. Explain. 49.Paper Tower Questions • Step 4: In small groups. 2 (1979). no. f. Chapter 5. List dysfunctional behaviours. on average? b. by Phillip L. Sauder School of Business. Did your group have a leader? Why or why not? c. How did the group respond to ideas during the planning stage? d.” The Organizational Behavior Teaching Journal 4. Robbins. Hunsaker. Explain. A brief description is included in “Exchange. List helpful behaviours. p. University of British Columbia. Source: This exercise is based on The Paper Tower Exercise: Experiencing Leadership and Group Dynamics .

Prepare a meeting agenda. Be an effective listener. 10. Maintain a balanced style. 5-45 Chapter 5. Get participants to go over the agenda. Establish specific time parameters. Discourage the clash of personalities. Fundamentals of Organizational Behaviour. 2. 5. Encourage and support participation of all members. 4. 9.• Conducting a Team Meeting 12 steps to more efficient and effective meetings: 1. Distribute the agenda in advance. Maintain focused discussion. Third Canadian Edition Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education Canada . Consult with participants before the meeting. Bring proper closure. Encourage the clash of ideas. Nancy Langton and Stephen P. 7. 8. 12. 6. 11. 3. Robbins.

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