Study and Analysis of Innovative Financing for Sustainable Forest Management in the Southwest Balkan

Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Financed by: WB – PROFOR Contract no: 7160594

Study and Analysis of Innovative Financing for Sustainable Forest Management in the Southwest Balkan
Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production
Authors:
Haki Kola, CNVP

Date prepared:
2013

Financed by: WB – PROFOR

Study and Analysis of Innovative Financing for Sustainable Forest Management in the Southwest Balkan
About PROFOR
PROFOR is a multi-donor trust fund program housed at the World Bank within the Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (ESSD) Forests Team. PROFOR is funded by the Department for International Development (DFID) of the United Kingdom, the Finnish Department for International Development Cooperation, the Japanese International Forestry Cooperation Office, Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC). The German Government is an in-kind contributor. Initially established in 1997 at the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), PROFOR relocated to the World Bank in 2002. PROFOR’s objectives are consistent with those of the World Bank’s Forest Strategy and Policy (approved in October 2002), and PROFOR collaborates closely with the Bank in implementing the Strategy, which is built on three pillars: harnessing the potential of forests to reduce poverty; integrating forests in sustainable economic development; and protecting global forest values. A Management Board comprised of representatives from donor agencies, client countries, international organizations, NGOs and the private sector provides strategic guidance to PROFOR and determines what activities are included in the PROFOR portfolio. The Management Board holds one formal meeting each year, maintaining an active role through correspondence and informal meetings in the interim. (www.profor.info)

Disclaimer
The opinions expressed in this report do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank or PROFOR or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of their use. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this volume do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

This project is financed by: WB - PROFOR

About the Project
CNVP in a consortium with NRS Kosovo, REGEA Croatia, Diava Consulting, Albania, Faculty Forestry, Macedonia and Wageningen University, The Netherlands is implementing the WB-PROFOR project on ‘Study and Analysis of Innovative Financing for Sustainable Forest Management in the Southwest Balkans. This is a two year project, started November 2011, focused on reviewing and studying the role and contribution of Sustainable Forest Management to securing environmental services. The project is implemented through two cases; in Albania on SFM and watershed management in the Ulza watershed, and in Kosovo on SFM and wood biomass production and use. The project using the two cases will define scientifically sound methodologies, establish key baseline data for these cases and provide quantitative estimates of the value of some specific targeted environmental services. The project will based on the learning and results propose mechanisms to start or increase payment for environmental services in the two cases. An important aspect of the project is dissemination of the results and experiences. The outcomes of the study and analysis will be shared and provided at a regional and more international level. A deliberate participation and consultation process is used throughout the project.

This Document
This document provides different forest management practices applying Sustainable Forest Management in support of increasing wood biomass production. The practices are related to young Beech forests applying pre-commercial thinning; coppice forest management in degraded Oak forests; and agroforestry with fast growing species.

CNVP – Connecting Natural Value and People Foundation

Kosovo Office
Rruga Sejdi Kryeziu, No. 19 Pejton area, 10000 Prishtina Kosovo Tel: +381-38-227 543 Fax: +381-38-227 73

Albania Office
7th floor Zayed Business Centre

Rr. Sulejman Delvina, Tirana Albania Tel: +355-4-222 9642 Fax: +355-4-222 9551

E-mail: info@cnvp-eu.org Website: www.cnvp-eu.org

Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Table of Contents: Table of Contents...................................................................................................................................... 1 1. Introduction............................................................................................................................................ 2 2. General Forest Situation Kosovo..................................................................................................... 4 3. Coppice Forest Management........................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Overview on coppice forests ................................................................................................... 6 3.2 Situation in coppice forest according to the ownership ............................................... 7 3.3 Methodology approach ............................................................................................................ 9 3.4 Desk study ...................................................................................................................................... 9 3.5 Second phase ..............................................................................................................................13 4. Beech forest pre-commercial thinning.......................................................................................26 4.1 Situation and problem with young Beech forests .........................................................26 4.2 Proposed measure and practice...........................................................................................27 4.3 Wood production – biomass production ..........................................................................27 4.4 Conclusions .................................................................................................................................28 5. Agroforestry practices ......................................................................................................................29 5.1 Situation and problems on agroforestry ...........................................................................29 5.2 Current use and practice .........................................................................................................29 5.3 Wood production – biomass production ..........................................................................31 5.4 Potential of increased biomass .............................................................................................31 5.5 Conclusions .................................................................................................................................32

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production
1. Introduction
The report of this study presents the actual status, analysis and recommendations related to the Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production. Efforts to establish sustainable levels of forest biomass use in Kosovo need to consider the potential of biological supply and a range of legal, technical and social limitations. The sustainable development of biomass, although subject to many limitations, also potentially provides benefits that can promote sustainable development of forestry. This study provides synthesis of current understanding on actual forest management practices, legal and institutional constraints and recommendations to achieve the sustainable levels of biomass supply. It was realized during the year 2012 until July 2013 and is part of the wider study on innovative financing for sustainable forest management. Forest management practices are based on silvicultural systems a complex integration of both the art and science of forestry, and reflects an understanding of ecological relationships, long-term desires of the landowner, operational realities, and a creative spirit of innovation and discovery. Kosovo forests are generally young and show big potential in biomass production. Actually, the forest growth is well below optimum, basically because of degradation of coppice forest and the high density in the young high forest. The latter caused a reduction of the green crown size. A considerable portion of the growth is on low quality trees with little or no value as industrial wood. With a thinning programme implemented in high forest, the density will be reduced and the low quality trees be removed, moving the growth to the trees with a higher quality and giving the trees a chance to develop a crown size, which optimises growth. Generally planned and implementation of management practices in high forest as pre-commercial and commercial thinning are well supported and recommended by actual legal framework and experts in Kosovo. Despite the clear theoretical guidelines, difficulties are more in practical implementation, like annual operative planning for forest stands, financial complications, standard procurement procedures and the lack of monitoring experiences. The main challenge for forest administration in all levels and private forest owners in Kosovo is the legal and technical interpretation of silvicultural systems of coppice forest, how to determine the full range of choices available, and to sort through the confusing use and misuse of terminology in different legal and administrative acts. Successful silviculture depends on clearly defined management objectives. Kosovo has not legalized yet the forest management practices or silvicultural systems in the Forest practices code. This creates difficulties on obtaining standard definitions on forest management practices for different management regimes in forest stands. As much as possible use is made through review of existing important documents guiding partly related to the forest management practices as (I) Kosovo forest law 2003/3, (II) Policy and Strategy Paper on Forest Sector Development in the Republic of Kosovo 2010 – 2020, (III) Field instruction on Forest Management planning methodology for Kosovo (version 6 of 2009 KFA, NFG), (IV) National Forest Inventory Report (FAO 2005), (V) long term forests management plans financed by NFG and KFA, (VI) annual operative plans, thinning projects,

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

as well the interpretation of this documents related to the management practises. Careful study shows some contradictory recommendations, definitions and interpretations of these documents, related to the management practices, particularly related the coppice forest management, creating confusion on decision making and management practices implemented in coppice forest. The finding and recommendations of the main legal, administrative, forest policy strategy documents, studies on national forest inventory, long term management plans are underlined related to the recommendations and rules related to different silvicultural regimes and management practises. Lack of understanding and harmony related to the management systems and practices between the legal, policy and administrative instructions/guidelines can be considered as real constraint, leading to the difficulties on annual operative planning and deep gap between forest offer, people and business needs and legal forest management realized. It creates confusion on judging for the effectiveness of actual used management practices. Actually 86% of wood harvested is not registered1, the source and the used management practice is unknown for this amount harvested. The impact of the illegality is reflected in the actual situation of forest cover especially in low growing stock and annual increment in public oak coppice forest.

1 - Kosovo forest sector study 2013

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

The geographical basin of Kosovo covers in total an area of 10,840 square kilometres and is situated at an altitude between 500 - 600 m and is surrounded by mountains The geographical basin of Kosovo covers in total an area of 10,840 square kilometres and is situated at an and divided by a central north-south ridge of hills into two regions. The soils are altitude between - 600 m and is surrounded by mountains divided a central north-south generally500 nutrient rich, providing a good growth and medium forby natural plants and ridge of hills into agricultural two regions.crops. The soils are generally nutrient rich, providing a good growth medium for natural plants The variety of elevations and soils have contributed in rich natural biological resources, very providing food, shelter, and a biological source of resources, and agricultural crops. The variety ofimportant elevations on and soils havefuel, contributed in rich natural income for Kosovars. Currently, Kosovo is divided into 37 municipalities and circa Kosovo is very important on providing fuel, food, shelter, and a source of income for Kosovars. Currently, 1,298 villages situated mainly in the plain part surrounded by oak coppice forest, divided into 37 municipalities and circa 1,298 villages situated mainly in the plain part surrounded by oak meantime high forest of beech and coniferous cover Kosovo’s mountains.

2. General Forest Situation Kosovo

2 General Forest Situation Kosovo

coppice forest, meantime high forest of beech and coniferous cover Kosovo’s mountains.

The first National Forest Inventory (NFI) was completed in 2003. The main results and findings of the inventory were 2: 379,200 ha were classified as forestlands through The first National Forestof Inventory (NFI) was completed in 2003. The main results findings of the interpretation aerial photos and field surveys. Another 85,600 ha and was classified as inventory 2 were : 379,200 ha were classified as forestlands through aerial photos and field surveys. forestlands through photo interpretation, but interpretation could not be of surveyed in the field of mines and other logistic through constraints. Out of the total but area made up Another because 85,600 ha was classified as forestlands photo interpretation, could not beof surveyed in surveyed and not surveyed forestlands 278,880 ha was classified as public forestlands the field because of mines and other logistic constraints. Out of the total area made up of surveyed and not 185 920 ha as ha private forestlands. The total area of 464,800 ha slightly surveyedand forestlands 278,880 was classified as public forestlands and 185 920 hawas as private forestlands. larger, or 6-8%, than previous estimates. Broadleaved forest, created through natural The totalseeding, area of 464,800 ha was slightly larger, or 6-8%, than previous estimates. Broadleaved forest, created covers more than 90% of the forest area. Dominating broadleaved species are through oak natural covers more than covering 90% of the forest area. Dominating broadleaved species are oak andseeding, beech. Coniferous forest, 7% of the total forest area, is dominated by and beech. Coniferous forest, covering 7% of the total forest area, dominated alba, Picea abies Abies alba, Picea abies and Pinus species . Based on the is actual status by of Abies the forest, corresponding toestimated 77% of at the annual cut actual was estimated at forest, 900,000 m3 allowable and Pinus species.allowable Based on the status of the annual cut was 900,000 m3 3 be m3 harvested in harvested calculated increment on areas surveyed. About 700,000 About m should corresponding to 77% of the calculated increment on areas surveyed. 700,000 should be High Forest and about 200,000 m3 in Low Forest. These were gross estimates and in High Forest and about 200,000 m3 in Low Forest. These were gross estimates and included tops, bark and included tops, bark and larger branches.

larger branches.

and inefficient, or non-existing, systems for registration of harvesting data. The and Kosovo Estimates regarding actual harvesting level vary a lot due to inconsistency in reporting inefficient, or Forest Agency (KFA), responsible for thedata. reporting, seems to have limited control of non-existing, systems for registration of harvesting The Kosovo Forest Agency (KFA), responsible for the forest harvesting activities. The delegation of forest staff, hence forest competence, reporting, seems to have limited control of forest harvesting activities. The delegation of forest staff, hence has been transferred from the central institution to municipalities. The extent of illegal, forest competence, has been transferred the central institution to municipalities. The extent or informal, harvesting seems tofrom be extensive. All these factors make it very difficult to of illegal, or informal, harvesting seems to be extensive. All these factors make it very difficult to estimate estimate the real annual volume of wood extracted. The graph below is constructed the real annual volume of wood extracted. The graph below is constructed basedfrom on the dataand of KFA/MAFRD on the based on the data of KFA/MAFRD on the reported harvesting public private The last column the Annual Allowable Cut,represents recommended in NFI. Allowable Cut, reportedforest. harvesting from publicrepresents and private forest. The last column the Annual recommended in NFI.

Estimates regarding actual harvesting level vary a lot due to inconsistency in reporting

Potential and legal wood harvesting 2005-2012 in Kosovo in m3 based on KFA data
1000000 500000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Harvested by public forest Harvested by private forest Harvesting total

Figure 1: Differences between potential and legal production, based on KFA data 2005-2012
2 All volume figures expressed in solid m3 over bark 2 - All volume figures are expressed inare solid m3 over bark

Figure 2: Legal planning and production, AAC and real harvesting average 2005-2013 compared with annual needs

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

The fieldwork of Norwegian Forestry Group (NFG)3 includes an assessment of illegal/informal harvesting within the Forest Management Units. Based on the data from these FMP, the total illegal/informal harvesting was estimated to 550 000 m3 for all state forestlands. Since the planning was conducted in high mountain forest, the extensive informal/illegal cutting in public low Oak forest used generally for firewood production is not included in this estimate.

3 - NFG has supported the drafting of about 20 Forest Management Plans (FMP) in Kosovo

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

3 Coppice Forest Management

3. Coppice Forest Management 3.1 Overview on coppice forests

3 Coppice Forest Management

Overview on coppice Coppice forest covers 3.1 in forests total about 173,600 hectares forests (46% of 3.1 Overview on coppice 4

the surveyed forest land) . Based on the NFI data, in coppice system forest management are included Coppice forest covers in total or about 173,600 hectares (46% of the surveyed fo three sub/categories: (i) mixed coppice/seeding planting; (ii) simple coppice; and 4 Coppice forest covers in total about 4 173,600 hectares (46% of the surveyed forest land) . Based on the NFI . Based on the NFI data, in cover coppice system hectare. forest management are inclu (iii) coppice with land) standards. Simple coppice forest 115,800 Mixed data, in coppice system forest management are included threecoppice/seeding sub/categories: (I) mixed coppice/seeding or three sub/categories: (i) mixed or planting; (ii) simple coppice; coppice (originated by stools and seeds/plantations) cover 36,600 hectare. Coppice planting; (II) simple coppice; and (III) coppice with standards. Simple coppice forest cover 115,800 hectare. (iii) coppice with standards. Simple coppice forest 115,800 hectare. Mi with standards (high trees scattered inside the stands) covers 21,200 hectare. coppice (originated by stools and seeds/plantations) cover 36,600 hectare. Copp Mixed coppice (originated by stools and seeds/plantations) cover 36,600 hectare. Coppice with standards with standards (high trees scattered inside the stands) covers 21,200 hectare. Structure of coppice forest (high trees scattered inside the stands) covers 21,200 hectare.
coppice with standards 12% simple coppice forest 67%

Structure of coppice forest
coppice with standards 12% Coppice/see ding or planting (mixed) 21%

simple coppice forest Figure 3: Coppice forests in Kosovo 67%

Coppice/see ding or planting (mixed) 21%

Figure 3: Coppice in Kosovo Figure 3: Coppice forests in Kosovo Coppice forest covers mainly the plains forests of Kosovo (between 400 – 800 meter) surrounding villages and agricultural lands. They are predominated by the oaks as Coppice frainetto forest ); covers mainly plains cerrie of Kosovo (between 400 – 800 me Hungarian Oak (Quercus Turkish oak the (Quercus ) and Sessilia oak Coppice forest covers mainly the plains of Kosovo (between 400 – 800 meter) surrounding villages surrounding villages and agricultural lands. They are predominated by and the oaks (Quercus petrea), followed by the beech (Fagus silvatica) on slopes of mountainous Hungarian Oak ( Quercus frainetto ); Turkish oak ( Quercus cerrie ) and Sessilia agricultural lands. They are predominated by the oaks as Hungarian Oak ( Quercus frainetto ); Turkish beech habitat. In the overused stands, oaks are frequently replaced by hornbeam ( Quercus petrea ), followed by the beech ( Fagus silvatica ) on slopes of mountain (Carpinus ) and other species. oak (Quercus cerrie) orientalis and Sessilia oak (Quercus petrea), followed by the beech (Fagus silvatica) on slopes of beech habitat. In the overused stands, oaks are frequently replaced by hornbe mountainous beech habitat. In the overused stands, oaks are frequently replaced by hornbeam (Carpinus (Carpinus ) andsilvicultural other species. coppice system is anorientalis even-aged system for which the main orientalis)The and other species. regeneration method is vegetative sprouting of either suckers (from the existing root Theorcoppice system an even-aged silvicultural system for which the m systems of cut trees) shoots (from cut is stumps). While clear cut, seed tree, shelter The coppice system is an even-aged silvicultural system for which the main regeneration method is vegetative regeneration method is vegetative sprouting of either suckers (from the existing r wood, and selection systems have often been referred to as high forest systems systems of cut trees) or from shoots (from cut stumps). While clear cut, seed tree, she generally originates seed if shoots planting occurs). The sproutingbecause of eitherregeneration suckers (from the existing root systems of cut (even trees) or (from cut stumps). While wood, and selection systems have often been referred to as high forest coppice system has been referred to as a low forest system due to reliance on clear cut, seed tree, shelter wood, and selection systems have often been referred to as high forest systems syste because regeneration generally originates from seed (even if planting occurs). vegetative reproduction. because regeneration generally originates from seed (even if planting occurs). The coppice system has been coppice system has been referred to as a low forest system due to reliance referred to as a low forest system due to reliance on reproduction. vegetative reproduction. Table 1: The coppice forest according to vegetative the altitudes (NFI FAO 2005)
Owner200400600800100012001400Management ship coppice forest according to the altitudes (NFI FAO 2005) 400 1: The 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 regime/Altitude (m) Table private 2004006008001000120014001000 10400 2800 3400 800 200 400 Management coppice/seeding 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 regime/Altitude (m) private simple coppice 5000 10200 22000 13600 1800 1000 200 1000 10400 2800 3400 800 200 400 coppice/seeding private 600 3000 5600 1200 800 coppice with standards simple coppice 5000 2 10200 1800 1000 200 public Coppice/seeding or 200 4 000 3 000 000 4 22000 800 2 13600 000 1 000 planting (mixed) 600 3000 5600 1200 800 coppice with standards public 800 7 600 21400200 25000 Coppice Coppice/seeding or 4 000 2 800 3 000 2 600 2 000 1 400 4 800 2 000 1 000 planting (mixed) 3 000 5 000 2 000 public 800 7 600 21400 25000 2 800 2 600 1 400 Coppice Coppice with standards Total area hectare

Own shi

pr

pr

pr

p

p

Table 1: The coppice forest according to the altitudes (NFI FAO 2005)
7000 21200 49200 47600

7000 21200 49200 Coppice with standards

47600

3800 3 000

2000 5 000

600 2 000 3800

131400 2000 600

p

4

Total area hectare National Forest Inventory Report FAO 2005

131

4 4 - National Forest Inventory Report FAO 2005 National Forest Inventory Report FAO 2005

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Coppice is a traditional method of woodland management in which stools are cut on a regular cycle; this provides a valuable supply of small-wood used mainly to provide annual needs on firewood for the households, and a variety of habitats for wildlife.

3.2 Situation in coppice forest according to the ownership
According NFI (FAO 2005) from 185,920 hectare the total of private forest about 92% (169,600 hectare) are broadleaves with oak predomination. About 48% of coppice forest (83,200 hectare) are on private ownership and are managed by the owners, assisted and controlled by KFA. There are no specific data how is the share of area of oak forest between private and public forest. Generally oak forest is dominated by coppice regime. It can be supposed that the share of oak area is roughly half by half, as is the share of coppice forest (48% private; 52% public forest).

Figure 4: Private coppice forest in Malisheva coppiced each year in small size coups

Generally in Kosovo (illegal) coups have the strip forms with different dimensions, not more than 30 meter wide, with length depended from the size and annual amount needed. In some guidelines the coupe area smaller than 2 hectares is considered as “patch cut”5. Generally the annual coupes applied in private forest in Kosovo are in the range of 0.05-0.5 hectares. Smith (1986) recognized the patch cut system (less than 1 hectare) as a type of clear cut silvicultural system that promotes natural regeneration in small openings. All definitions of patch cuts include the concept of small openings that will be managed as individual stand units, unlike the openings created in a group selection or group shelter wood situation. NFI shows an essential difference in the annual increment and stocking growth between the oak private forest and oak public forest. 74.6% of the total annual increment is in private forest and 25.4% is in the public forest. Growing stock is shared between oak private and public forest with a rate 71 and 29%. The graph below shows annual increment and growing stock on coppice forest according to the ownership.

5 - Introduction to silviculture BC Ministry of Forests Forest Practices Branch Victoria, BC

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Figure 5: Annual increment m3/ha/year on oak forest private (74.6%) and public (25.4%) forest

Figure 6: Growing stock (m3) private (71%) and public (29%) oak forest

There is no specific analysis on the reasons of these differences. There are some comments on differences in increment and growing stock in the report of national forest inventory: “As for coppice forest, private higher Figure 5: Annual increment m3/ha/year on oak forest forests Figure are 6: Growing stockstocked (m3) privateand (71%)grow private (74.6%) and public (25.4%) forest and public (29%) oak forest better than public forests” or… ”the portion of even-aged forests, and areas under regeneration, is slightly higher than in public forests. It is difficult to judge whether There is no specific analysis the reasons of these differences. There are some comments differences in these differences are the on result of management interventions, different site on conditions increment and growing stock in the report of national forest inventory: “As for coppice forest, private forests or other factors” (NFI FAO 2005). are higher stocked and grow better than public forests” or… ”the portion of even-aged forests, and areas There are no specific data to compare annual legal production from the these public and under regeneration, is slightly higher than inthe public forests. It is difficult to judge whether differences private forest. Generally the different annualsite operative isfactors” based on the valid are thecoppice result of management interventions, conditions plan or other (NFI FAO 2005). management plans. The last are prepared specifically for 20 forest management units dedicated state high forest. In other side there are data in annual harvesting There areto no the specific data to compare the annual legal production from the public and private coppice in forest. total public and private forest. Despite the fact that the state owns 60% of total forest Generally the annual operative plan is based on the valid management plans. The last are prepared specifically area, and the most of units it isdedicated high forest with high increasing area side covered with for 20 forest management to the state forest. In other there are data valid in annual management plans, the legal production from the public forest is lower than the and harvesting in total public and private forest. Despite the fact that the state owns 60% of total forest area, production of forest in the last area 7 years. the most of itprivate is high forest with increasing covered with valid management plans, the legal production from the public forest is lower than the production of private forest in the last 7 years. Harvested on state forest m3 104975 104599 89334 91429 82043 35791 33780 Harvested on private forest m3 124041 126241 102908 134316 104484 134655 158839

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2011 6 2012

Figure 7: Legal wood production (forest harvesting) according to the ownership 2005-2012, Source: DoF MAFRD Figure 7: Legal wood production (forest harvesting) according to the ownership 2005-

2012, Source: DoF MAFRD

6 - There are not data on the harvesting in public and private forest on year 2010

8
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3.3 Methodology approach
The project team has organized a study to find the reasons leading in differences related to the annual increment, growing stock volume and wood production realized, between state and private coppice forest. The study is organized in two sequent phases: (I) first phase: desk study on the legal framework, policy and strategy documents; administrative guidelines; reports on forest inventory, long and short-term management plans related to the orientations, recommendations and guidelines on coppice forest management, (II) second phase: field surveys to compare the management practices applied in private and public coppice forest, establish permanent sample plots; organize small scale experiments.

3.4 Desk study
3.4.1 Definitions on management practices & silvicultural systems
A well-designed silvicultural system is a complex integration of both the art and science of forestry, and reflects an understanding of ecological relationships, long-term desires of the landowner, operational realities, and a creative spirit of innovation and discovery. Silvicultural systems cannot be selected “readymade” from instructions, laws or different forest guidelines. Instead, they must be tailored to each forest stand. Kosovo has not legalized management practices in Forest Code practices. There are no legal guidelines on treatment of different silvicultural regimes. The policy and legal documents remains the base for planning and implementing of different interventions. The content of the main legal, policy strategy, guidelines and important reports on forest inventory, management plans are analysed related to the general terms and categories used for the coppice forest systems. Recommendations are the starting point to harmonize them and enable to implementation of policy strategy for forest sector development.

3.4.2 Policy and Strategy Paper on Forest Sector Development
The Government of Kosovo launched a process of formulating a National Forest Policy and Strategy Plan from May 2008 and approved the final version in March 2010. Related to forest management and silviculture the strategy call for particular attention in following directions: (I) to tending of young forest, (II) restoration of degraded forestlands and (III) establish the scientific base for the elaboration of criteria and guidelines for conversion of degraded young and middle-aged (low) forests into more productive forests. (IV) to reduce the extent of unlawful activities the government shall support the introduction of joint forest management systems in low forest and where the overwhelming part is firewood (V) operational planning shall also take into consideration the expected needs for forest wood products during the coming year, by the local society and the business community.

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3.4.3 Forest Law 2003/3
In the actual forest law 2003/3, includes some articles (3.77 and 12.2) guiding tree felling and marking procedures, without referring to any silvicultural system create confusion on implementation of management practices in coppice forest. Table 3: Forest Law articles related to the forest management practices
Articles
3.4 Forest plans shall call for scientific management based on practical research, experience, and professional judgment. 3.5 The objectives of Forest Plans shall reflect: (a) Local needs for forest resources; (b) The needs of Kosovo generally; and (c) In the case of private forests and forestlands, the needs of the landowner. 3.6 Where consistent with management objectives, Forest Plans shall favour: (a) High forest over low forest where a high forest is a forest whose trees originate from individual seeds, and which by its structure is intended primarily for the commercial production of high quality timber (b) Low forest is a forest whose individual trees consist predominantly of coppice and macchia shoot-trees whose growth originates from root suckers, stumps and similar vegetative propagation, and which is intended primarily for the production of residential firewood and other low value wood products; and (c) Native species over exotics. 3.7 On a piece of forest or forestland covered with natural forest vegetation, no person removing trees may leave the land with less than forty per cent tree cover unless: (a) The removal is part of a management program intended to restore appropriate forest and forest growth cover to under-stocked or degraded lands; (b) The removal is to allow land to be used as a log yard, nursery, fire break, forest road, recreational area, wildlife management area, or other forest-related use; (c) The removal is related to efforts to control or respond to damage from insects, disease, or physical injury to the forest; or (d) The removal is incidental to conversion of the land to non-forest use and the competent authorities have approved the conversion. 12.3 On private forests and forestland: (a) No person may cut and no owner of a Parcel may allow to be cut any tree unless an authorized official of the Forest Agency has marked the trees. (b)Officials may only mark trees if the harvest is consistent with the requirements of this Law and any rules promulgated and plans made under this Chapter.

Comments

This article supports forest management objectives oriented to the needs of the owners or society. the different If defines silvicultural systems (management practices), as high forest and low forest regimes.

This article creates confusion and constraints in the implementation of article 3.5, and to implement the treatments as coppicing based on the rotations and agreed annual coups size on low (coppice) forest systems.

Create confusion to the field experts: How they can advise forest owners in the case of their coppice forest, when they plan for coppicing?

Table 3: Forest Law articles related to the forest management practices The interpretation of these articles lead to confusion and contradicts inside the law. Article 3.7 indirectly bans the implementation of the coppice system. As a result there The interpretation these articles lead activities to confusion and contradicts inside law. Article 3.7forest indirectly bans were notof planned coppicing in public forest after the the approval of the the implementation of this the coppice system. As owners a result try there nottheir planned coppicing law. Despite most of the forest to were manage coppice by theactivities method in public ofthe annual coupes area, adopting the harvested area the oldtry forest trees and forest after approval of the forest law. Despite this most of thearound forest owners to manage their coppice sometimes leaving some scattered trees for some months to mask as much as possible by the method of annual coupes area, adopting the harvested area around the old forest trees and sometimes the coppiced Terms are justto words. The actions associated with these usedTerms are leaving some scattered coupe. trees for some months mask as much as possible the coppiced coupe. terms in the forest law articles, related to the rehabilitation of degraded coppice oak just words. The actions associated with these used terms in the forest law articles, related to the rehabilitation forest are much more important than the actual terms. The confusion created by them of degraded oak are much more important than the actualforest. terms. The confusion created by hascoppice resulted in forest no planned management for public coppice In many cases them has illegally resultedharvested in no planned management public coppice forest. many cases illegally public and private for coppice forest after the In forest law 2003/3 washarvested approved on March 20, after 2003. public and private coppice forest the forest law 2003/3 was approved on March 20, 2003.
3.4.4 NFI Recommendations on coppice management practices
7 - Described in the table 3 of this report

NFI report (FAO 2005) determines that the coppice forest (115,800 ha) results as degraded forests with low stocking and slow growth rates (average growing stock 27.2 m3/ha, and annual increment 1.3 m3 per ha/year). The NFI report recommend: “that the harvesting (in degraded coppice forest) should be well below anticipated growth,

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

3.4.4 NFI Recommendations on coppice management practices
NFI report (FAO 2005) determines that the coppice forest (115,800 ha) results as degraded forests with low stocking and slow growth rates (average growing stock 27.2 m3/ha, and annual increment 1.3 m3 per ha/ year). The NFI report recommend: “that the harvesting (in degraded coppice forest) should be well below anticipated growth, oriented on pre-commercial thinning in over-dense stands”. The rational of this was based trees. Pre-commercial thinning was recommended management practice. Based on Pre-commercial thinning was as as management practice. Based on on the trees. assumption that, these forests, bothrecommended public and private, have been subject to heavy cuttings with the above mentioned rationale, the NFI report (FAO 2005), recommended for the the above mentioned rationale, the NFI report (FAO 2005), recommended for the 3 short cutting cycles and with a annual focus on the largest trees. Pre-commercial thinning was recommended as and public forest private oak forest allowable cut (AAC) 162,000 and forfor public forest private oak forest an an annual allowable cut (AAC) of of 162,000 m3m 3 3m . The reduction factor for public forest was 0.5 and for private forest 0.55. 50,000 management practice. Based on the above mentioned rationale, the NFI report (FAO 2005), recommended 50,000 m . The reduction factor for public forest was 0.5 and for private forest 0.55. The data are presented below in the table including the Oak and Beech forests. for the The private oak forest an annual allowable cut (AAC) of 162,000 m3 and for forests. public forest 50,000 m3. The data are presented below in the table including the Oak and Beech reduction factor for public forest was 0.5 and for private forest 0.55. The data are presented below in the table 3 Table 4: and Distribution annual allowable cut specie and ownership, (1,000 including the4: Oak Beechannual forests. Table Distribution allowable cut by by specie and ownership, >7>7 cmcm (1,000 m3m ) )
Public forest Public forest Private forest Private forest

Total Total net net volume Specie Gross Factor Net Gross Factor Net volume Specie Gross Factor Net Gross Factor Net 99 0.50 50 290 0.55 162 212 Oak ( Quercus ssp ) 99 0.50 50 290 0.55 162 212 Oak (Quercus ssp) 320 1.00 320 116 1.00 116 436 Beech ( Fagus ssp ) 320 1.00 320 116 1.00 116 436 Beech (Fagus ssp) Table 4: Distribution annual allowable cut by specie and ownership, >7 cm (1,000 m3) There are long term management plans public private coppice forest. The There are no no long term management plans forfor public or or private coppice forest. The data and recommendation of the last National Forest Inventory was considered to data and recommendation of the last National Forest Inventory was considered to be be used general guidelines. The table below summarize areas by treatment There are no long term management plans for public or private coppice forest. The by data and recommendation used as as general guidelines. The table below summarize areas treatment opportunities and stand structure recommended (FAO 2005). of the opportunities last National and Forest Inventory was considered to be used as general guidelines. The table below stand structure recommended (FAO 2005).

summarize areas by treatment opportunities and stand structure recommended (FAO 2005). Table 5: Treatments recommended for coppice forest
Table 5: Treatments recommended for coppice forest

Ownership Ownership Private hectare Public Public hectare Private hectare hectare 21,000 28,800 No treatment 21,000 28,800 No treatment 1,200 400 Regeneration without site preparation 1,200 400 Regeneration without site preparation 600 800 Regeneration with site preparation 600 800 Regeneration with site preparation 4,800 6,000 Conversion 4,800 6,000 Conversion 45,800 47,000 Cleaning-thinning 45,800 47,000 Cleaning-thinning 3,800 1,000 Thinning 3,800 1,000 Thinning 200 200 Clear cut, strip clear cut 200 200 Clear cut, strip clear cut 2,400 2,200 Selection 2,400 2,200 Selection 4,200 3,200 Salvage 4,200 3,200 Salvage 84,000 89,600 Total 84,000 89,600 Total Table 5: Treatments recommended for coppice forest The forest conditions degraded coppice oak forest are very specific and with actual The forest conditions in in degraded coppice oak forest are very specific and with actual management system the trend of the forest development seems to continue to further management the trend of the forest development seems to continue to further The forest conditionssystem in degraded coppice oak forest are very specific and with actual management degradation. Having this in mind the above-mentioned recommendations treatment system degradation. Having this in mind the above-mentioned recommendations on on treatment the trend of the forest development seems to continue to the further degradation. Having this in further mind the abovecleaning and thinning, looks away from real urgent needs stop the by by cleaning and thinning, looks farfar away from the real urgent needs to to stop the further degradation. The actual problem degraded oak forest is coming different reasons mentioned recommendations on treatment by cleaning and thinning, looks far away from the real urgent degradation. The actual problem of of degraded oak forest is coming forfor different reasons including legal, ecological and social. Such a standard recommendation on annual needs to stop the further degradation. The actual problem of degraded oak forest is coming including legal, ecological and social. Such a standard recommendation on annual for different allowable cut calculations does not represent sufficiently the urgency of this forest allowable cut calculations not represent sufficiently the urgency of this forest reasons including legal, ecologicaldoes and social. Such a standard recommendation on annual allowable cut management category. After a long time of neglected management (no plan or management category. After a long time of neglected management (no plan or calculations does notintervention) represent sufficiently the urgency ofthere this forest management category. After a long time controlled and illegal cuttings, is an urgent need to return the controlled intervention) and illegal cuttings, there is an urgent need to return the of neglected management (no plan or controlled intervention) and illegal cuttings, there is an urgent need neglected degraded coppice system normal and controlled forest management neglected degraded coppice system in in normal and controlled forest management of of to return the neglected degraded coppice system in first normal and controlled forest management of which a which a good option is coppice system. A step in this direction from an ecological which a good option is coppice system. A first step in this direction from an ecological point of view is the removal of the actual degraded vegetation creating opportunities of good option is coppice system. A first step in this direction from an ecological point of view is the removal point of view is the removal of the actual degraded vegetation creating opportunities of stools to restart a normal regeneration. This recommendation, however, is in conflict stools to restart a normal regeneration. This recommendation, however, is in conflict with the article 3.7 of forest law. the past period pilots have been established with the article 3.7 of forest law. In In the past period pilots have been established on on re-reintroducing coppice forests with small strips in Kosovo in public forests. This is allowed introducing coppice forests with small strips in Kosovo in public forests. This is allowed the authorities based the reasoning that when applying strip harvest a sufficient by by the authorities based on on the reasoning that when applying strip harvest a sufficient forests’ cover remains and therefore fulfilling the law requirement. 11 forests’ cover remains and therefore fulfilling the law requirement. Treatment opportunity in coppice forest Treatment opportunity in coppice forest

Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

of the actual degraded vegetation creating opportunities of stools to restart a normal regeneration. This recommendation, however, is in conflict with the article 3.7 of forest law. In the past period pilots have been established on re-introducing coppice forests with small strips in Kosovo in public forests. This is allowed by the authorities based on the reasoning that when applying strip harvest a sufficient forests’ cover remains and therefore fulfilling the law requirement.

3.4.5 Guidelines on forest management planning
Guidelines on forest management systems and practices approved, (version six of 2009; KFA, NFG), do not reflect joint forest management in the forest management systems. It remains far away from participatory approach, or objective setting approach based on the annual needs for different products, as indicated in the article 3.5 of forest law 2003/3, or in the policy and strategy paper for forest sector development. The instruction is still similar as in other countries of the former Yugoslavia8, only with small variations. There are seven basic categories of forests included in a forest management plan. These categories are: (I) high forest with natural regeneration, (II) degraded high forest, (III) forest plantations, (IV) coppice forests, (V) bare land, (VI) nonproductive areas and (VII) forest with unknown owner. Each of these are then divided into broader ecologicalproduction classification units (management classes), based on species composition and soil productivity. Every stand is assigned to a management class based on their ecological composition and planned method of silvicultural treatment or management practices. The definitions of criteria for classification are not clear and they are not easy to understand and use by forest field staff in local offices and municipalities. Some recommended management practices according to the proposed classes are far away from the actual situation of Kosovo forest described in NFI 2005. About 88 management classes are described in this guideline; five of them classify management classes related to the coppice forest. No one of this management classes include recommendation for degraded coppice forest. This management class covers however 30% of total forest area in the country9. In other side there are 22 management classes referred to the degraded high forest. The sources for this management category are not clear. NFI (2005) shows good growing stock and annual increment in high forest and does not consider any forest area qualified as category as degraded high forest.

3.4.6 Forest strategy implementation
Coherent studies on the strategy implementation analyse the progress achieved. Kosovo forest sector study shows the deep gap between annual planning and real annual harvesting. “Results from five different studies, estimating the annual forest cut in Kosovo, varying between approximately 1 – 1.9 million m3 wood per year, and 95% of them used for firewood. Out of the total annual harvested forests, 86% is defined as un-recorded harvesting”10. Actually forest degradation and associated loss of ecosystem services represents one of the major environmental challenges facing Kosovo. The most significant obstacles to a viable forest products sector in Kosovo are considered the inadequate forest planning and management. There is an urgent need to adjust to pave the way on the implementation of the Kosovo Forest Strategy and Policy and harmonization with it all other legal and administrative documents supporting active rehabilitation of degraded coppice forests, including joint forest management and practicing coppice forests management.
8 - FAO National Inventory Report September 2005 9 - The same as 3 10 - Kosovo Forest Sector Study 2013, Framework consortium led by SIPU International AB

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

3.5 Second phase
3.5.1 Field surveys
For this study use is made of field testing carried out under the Sida Kosovo Forestry Development project. Having time constrains, it was decided to have to study cases, in the areas with private and public coppice forest, where forest administration and local forest owners associations have an interest to cooperate and where the ecological conditions, (soil conditions, inclination, exposition) are similar. Making use of earlier made studies provided the opportunity to use data collected. Additional field visits are organized to create an overview of the actual situation in public and private coppice forest and to compare the management practises applied and their impact in the actual status of forest. After some field visits in Klina, Nova Brde, Malisheva, Suhareka, Peja, Decani, Gjakova and discussions with the local forest administration and forest owners associations, related to the traditions and management practices implemented in the private forest, two local workshops were held in Gjakova and Nova Brde.

3.5.2 Management practises on private coppice forest
The choice of the called “clear cutting” or coppicing by forest owners is much dependent upon their needs to produce firewood for their own use or for the market offering in last year’s good prices. Generally, in most cases, the oak coppice owner’s management objective is for maximum firewood production. They consider coppicing as financially efficient, with lower costs for timber harvesting than other tree harvesting systems. Generally private forest owners apply this system based on the family traditions. They are not trained to define for example the rotation. From one owner to the others the rotation time differs 10 – 40 years. Different private forest owners have different preferences on the size of the wood that they use for firewood. Based on their forest area and desired size they then divide forest area in annual coupes in number equal to the number of years in the rotation, and one coupe is coppiced each year. For most of the owners the goal is maximum annual volume of firewood production. In this case the rotation of maximum; mean annual increment should be determined. Experienced forest management owners explain that the rotation was defined mainly in empiric ways, by felling year after years sample coupes of different ages, ascertaining by measurement of the volume per hectare produced on each, and dividing this volume by corresponding age; that age which gives the maximum quotient is considered by the owners the rotation producing the maximum volume per annum over the whole forest. By adopting this procedure the total area required to produce a given outturn of firewood for annum maybe reduced in minimum limits. They try to calculate the maximum annual volume in their forest, but they do not share this management practise with other forest owners, to avoid the penalties from the forest service because by the law it is considered as banned management practice.

3.5.3 The annual coupe size
“Poteze” and “Konop” are the names used by rural people for coups, when coppice forest is managed based on traditional practices. Traditionally in some parts of Kosovo, forest owners have used one “Konop” as a

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

measurement unit of the coupe’s wide. It is about nine meter long, and it is easy for woodmen to get it, because it is one standard rope, that is part of the special saddle horse used from woodman for the firewood loads and transport from forest to home. The part of woodland coppiced for one year is called in some part of Kosovo “Poteze”. The use of the horse in transport is actually very limited in mountain areas. As demonstrated by private forest owners in such cases, they prefer the annual cut in strip forms with different dimensions, not more than 30 meter wide, with length depended from the size and annual amount needed. In some guidelines the coupe area smaller than 2 hectares is considered as “patch cut”11. Generally the annual coupes applied in private forest in Kosovo are in the range of 0.05-0.5 hectares. Smith (1986) recognized the patch cut system (less than 1 hectare) as a type of clear-cut silvicultural system that promotes natural regeneration in small openings. All definitions of patch cuts include the concept of small openings that will be managed as individual stand units, unlike the openings created in a group selection or group shelter wood situation.

3.5.4 Permanent sample plots
The project team decided to establish the permanent sample plots in Nova Brde and Gjakova private and public coppice forest. The aim of survey is to compare the growing stock and annual increment in the similar forest stands under different management practices. It can be considered only the starting point and require further and extended research and experiments covering all coppice forest of Kosovo.

3.5.5 Sample plots in Nova Brde
The municipality of Nova Brde is located in central Kosovo. It covers an area of approximately 204 km² and includes Nova Brde town and 31 villages. According to the Kosovo Population and Housing Census 2011 the total population is 6,729 Albanians: 3,524 and Serbs: 3,122. Supply of households with firewood is done by their private forests but also through illegal logging in state forests or from the wood market. In the last ten years there are no operative management plans for public forests. Management practices in public forest consist of negative selective cutting, a form of intensive thinning by selecting trees with larger dimensions. While in private forest harvesting is realized generally with clear cutting in patches or narrow strips, with some simple calculations to remove about 1/10 -1/20 of the total growth stock, or forest owned area for each year. With this simple calculation they approximately fulfil their firewood needs for each year. To compare the impacts of different management practices in public and private forest, 4 sample plots were established, 2 in public and 2 in private coppice forest.

11 - Introduction to silviculture BC Ministry of Forests Forest Practices Branch Victoria, BC

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Indicators Ownership Locality Silvicultural regime Management practice Sample plot area Coppiced Measured Age Height Trees with diameter less than 8 cm Trees with diameter more than 8 cm Average diameter Growing stock m3 /sample plot Growing stock m3 /hectare Annual Increment m3/hectare

Unit Village name

SP No 1 Manishince Low forest Coppicing

SP No 2 Llabjan Low forest Coppicing 100 1997 March 2011 14 7 28 19 7.5 1.512 151.1 10.8

SP No 1 Llabjan Low forest Illegal Thinning 100 1980 March 2011 25 6.4 54 0 3.8 0.316 31.6 1.3

SP No 2 Manishince Low forest Illegal Thinning 100 1994 March 2011 17 7.4 55 7 4.7 0.59 59 3.5

Private forest

State forest

m2 year Month/year year meter no of trees no of trees cm m3 m3 m3

100 1975 March 2011 36 14.6 0 31 12.9 4.108 410.8 11.4

Table 6: Results of measurements in sample plots of Nova Brde

The following observations are made: a. The comparison on the dendrometric indicators as average stand height and average stand DBH is complicated because the sample plots have different ages b. Visible difference makes the growing stock. Growing stock in private forest is generally higher than growing stock in the sample plots in public forest. c. Very visible difference between result is the annual increment is 11.1 m3/hectare in private forest and 2.4 m3/hectare in state forest

3.5.6 Sample plots in Gjakove (Pashtrik FMU)
Gjakova, with a population of 150,800, is Kosovo’s third-biggest municipality. Located in the western part of the country, Gjakova is an agricultural centre with extensive arable land, extensive sources for irrigation, wide areas of oak coppice forest and a sunny climate. Both agriculture and the forestry have high development potential in the municipality. From the total area of 58,600 hectare agriculture land covers 30,768 hectare and forest land 34,200 hectare from which the private forest cover 14,200 hectare. Oak coppice forest covers more than 80% of forest area. The surveys and sample plots are focused on the Pashtriku 2, forest management unit in the cadastral zones of Kusar and Lypovec, with a total forest area of 4,931 ha, covered 3,238 hectare or 72% of total area with oak and other broadleaves coppice forest. Four permanent sample plots are established covering with the same share public and private forest. The results of measurements are summarized in the tables below.

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the municipality. From the total area of 58,600 hectare agriculture land covers 30,768 hectare and forest land 34,200 hectare from which the private forest cover 14,200 hectare. Oak coppice forest covers more than 80% of forest area. The surveys and Forest Management Practices sample plots are focused on the Pashtriku 2, forest management unit in the cadastral zones ofWood Kusar Biomass and Lypovec, with a total forest area of 4,931 ha, covered 3,238 Supporting Production hectare or 72% of total area with oak and other broadleaves coppice forest. Four permanent sample plots are established covering with the same share public and private forest. The results of measurements are summarized in the tables below.
Table 7: Results of measurements in sample plots of Pashtriku FMU Indicators Ownership Silvicultural regime Management practices Sample plot area Coppiced Measured Age Height Trees with diameter less than 8 cm Trees with diameter more than 8 cm Average diameter Growing stock m3 /sample plot Growing stock m3 /hectare Annual Increment m3/hectare m
2

Unit

SP No 1 Low forest Coppicing 100 1995 Sept. 2011 18 8 39 22 11.1 1.528 152.8 8.5

SP No 2 Low forest Coppicing 100 1993 Sept.2011 20 8 38 23 11.7 1.712 171.2 8.6

SP No 1 Low forest Thinning 100 1970 Dec.2012 15 4 120 0 2.53 0.168 16.8 1.1

SP No 2 Low forest Thinning 100 1970 Dec.2012 15 5 103 0 2.7 0.21 21 1.4

Private forest

State forest

year Month/year year meter no of trees no of trees cm m3 m3 m3

Table 7: Results of measurements in sample plots of Pashtriku FMU

The following observations are made: a. The average Stand Height in private forest (8m) results two time higher than the average height of the sample plot in public forest (4-5 m) b. Average stand DBH: The average diameter on private forest is 11.4 cm while in public forest sample plots is 2.6 cm c. Number of the trees per hectare: is about two times higher in public forest (11,500) while in private forest sample plots result 5,100 trees per hectare. d. Growing stock per hectare resulted in the sample plots of private forest 160 m3/hectare while in public forest sample plots an average by 18 m3/hectare e. Annual increment is 8.5 m3/hectare in private forests and 1.25 m3/hectare in state forest.

3.5.7 Forest tree species composition
Based on the tree inventory in each sample plot, all forest species present are recorded for each sample plot. The presence of each forest species in the sample plots in private and public forest is presented in the table below.

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Forest Supporting Wood Biomass Production 3.5.7 Forest tree species composition

state forest. e. Annual increment is 8.5 m3/hectare in private forests and 1.25 m3/hectare in state forest. 3.5.7 Forest tree species composition Management Practices

Based on the tree inventory in each sample plot, all forest species present are recorded for each sample plot. The presence of each forest species in the sample plots in private Based on is the tree inventory each sample plot, all forest species present are recorded and public forest presented in the in table below. for each sample plot. The presence of each forest species in the sample plots in private is presented in on themeasured table below. Table 8:and Thepublic forestforest species composition sample plots, on managed and
non-managed coppice forest Table 8: The forest species composition on measured sample plots, on managed and Private forest Public forest Stand composition non-managed coppice forest
SP No 1 Latin names Stand composition English names % of SP No 2 SP No 3 SP No 4 Private forest Public forest cover % of cover % of cover % of cover SP No 1 SP No 2 SP No 3 SP No 4 100 100 46.7 25.2 % of cover % of cover % of cover % of cover 41.7 33.0 100 100 46.7 25.2 5.0 22.3 41.7 33.0 4.2 14.6 5.0 22.3 2.5 4.2 14.6 3.9 2.5 1.0 3.9 1.0

Table 8: The forest species composition on measured sample plots, Dogwood and non-managed coppice forest on managed Stand composition according to management practices 100 100 100 Stand composition according to management practices 100 100 80 100 Sessile Oak 60 46,7 80 Ash 40 Sessile Oak 60 25,2 46,7 20 Hornbeam Ash 40 0 Bosnian Maple 25,2 20 Hornbeam % of % of 0 Chestnut % of Bosnian Maple cover % of cover % of cover Hungarian oak % of cover Chestnut SP No 1 SP % of cover No 2 cover % of SP No 3 cover Dogwood Hungarian oak SP No 4 cover SP No 1 SP No 2 Private forest SP No 3 Dogwood Public forest SP No 4 Private forest Public forest Figure 8: Stand composition of the sample plots
Cornus mas

Sessile Oak Quercus petrea Latin names English names Fraxinus ornus Ash Sessile Oak Quercus petrea Carpinus orientalis Hornbeam Fraxinus ornus Ash Acer obtusatum Bosnian Maple Carpinus orientalis Hornbeam Castanea sativa Chestnut Acer obtusatum Bosnian Maple Quercus fraineto Hungarian oak Castanea sativa Chestnut Cornus mas Dogwood Quercus fraineto Hungarian oak

Figure 8: Stand composition of theplots sample plots Figure 8: Stand composition of the sample Public forest (SP 3 and 4) has a long time under intensive negative selection cutting. Despite the fact that all sample plots are more or less in the similar ecological Public forest 3 visible and 4) changes has a long time underspecies intensive negative selection conditions, there are(SP very in the shape, composition, growing cutting. Public forest (SP 3 and 4) has a long intensive negative selection cutting. Despite the fact that Despite the fact time that under all sample plots are more or less in the similar ecological all sample plots are more or less in the ecological conditions, there are very visible changes in the conditions, there are similar very visible changes in the shape, species composition, growing

shape, species composition, growing stock and productivity of this forest. It is clear that there are not enough arguments to take conclusions on the relation of management practices to the actual status of surveyed forest stands. On the other side different researchers define forest degradation in lower future biomass accumulation in recovering forests owing to a shift in species composition (i.e., ecosystem state; see Criterion 2) and tree size class structure (Díaz and Cabido 2001, Russell et al. 2010).

3.5.8 Impact of management practices on oak coppice degradations
Significant differences resulting from the measurements and data processing for each sample plot show the need for further surveys and analysis for the reasons of degradations focused on the impact of different regimes in coppice forest. Illegal intensive selective cutting seems the main reason. The presence of high

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

illegal cutting levels is demonstrated from the fieldwork on the preparation of long term forest management plans. From the planning fieldwork process on about 20 FMU realized by NFG, was estimated the total of 550,000 m3 illegal/informal cutting from high public forest. Considering the fact that total non-recorded amount of annual harvesting is 1,054,000 m3 wood, the differences of about 500,000 m3 needs to be from the remaining forests, the oak coppice forests As highlighted very clear in the NFI report (FAO 2005) “In low forest (Quercus), seem to have been subject to heavy cuttings (short cutting cycles and with concentration to the largest trees)”. Analysing both frequent cycles and “taking the best and leaving the rest” in the point of view of management practices can categorized as selective cutting in short rotations. Coppicing in short rotations generally has positive impact in regeneration and increment rate. As selective cutting or illegal cutting is not “cutting everything the non-identified cutter want.” Coppicing is cutting everything in the coupe. The objective is to provide full sunlight with other words not partial sunlight, with a heavy dose of shade from runt, cull, and unwanted not felled trees. Oaks are lovers of light. Each stool resulted after illegally felled tree, is supposed in normal coppice regime not to die, but to be reproduce shoots, known as stool shoots, or coppice shoots. These stool shoots arise either from dormant buds situated in the side of the stool at or near ground level, or from adventitious buds arising from the cambial layer round the periphery of cut surface. There are some studies on the relation of oak development with light regime: “The seedlings exposed to very little light not only grew much less, but were also prone to a much higher mortality rate. The greatest differences became apparent only after a few years, when the greatest distinction was visible even with a relatively slight reduction in the amount of daylight, i.e. a reduction in the light intensity from 85 to 43% (Vera 1995). The growth of the root of the shaded plants was not only greatly reduced overall, but was also restricted to a few periods of the year; on the other hand, in young Pedunculate Oak growing in full daylight, the growth of the root system continued throughout the year”, (Hoffmann, 1967; Brookes et al., 1980; Harmer, 1990; Alaoui-Sossé et al.,1994). In this point of view one of the hypotheses of degradation reasons, is considered the inappropriate light regime coming after intensive selective cutting from each stool where there are sprout in the desired diameter. The new sprouts coming from vegetative buds of stools, to replace the small space created after the bigger tree is cut, would have fewer chances to have normal growth in absence of the sufficient light. These new sprouts have fewer chances to survive, reducing and losing the photosynthesis capacity of reduced vegetative mass, leading step by step to the reduced vitality of roots, vegetative buds and sprouts after each cycle of new selective cuttings. This combination of illegal logging with wrong silvicultural practise (preferred for covering the signs of the illegal activities) can be considered as a main phenomenon leading step by step in decreasing the potential of vegetative regeneration and finally in general degradation of all forest from root system to the tree crowns. Further experiments, surveys and studies are needed come to full diagnoses and recommendations. The sample plots and analysis undertaken are in this sense indicative.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

3.5.9 Permission to experiment the ways for rehabilitation
Main findings from the surveys and data processing in sample plots established in Nova Brde, related to the role of management practises on the development of coppice forest were shared in the workshop organized in Nova Brde in March 2011. It was agreed with the community, commune and KFA to experiment the strip clear cutting with different dimension of the strips and different intensity of cutting and number of standard trees left.

3.5.10 Experiments on rehabilitation of degraded coppice oak forest
The first experiment on rehabilitation of degradation coppice forest was established in Manishince in April May 2011. Total forest area under the experiment is 27 hectare (see figure 9) received by Google earth images. Study of the actual vegetation and its development are based on the data from two permanent sample plots established as indicated in scheme.

Figure 9: Area of the coppice forest experiment

The forest is dominated by oak in 95% (Sessile oak 68%, Turkish oak 20% and Hungarian oak 7%) mixed with hornbeam, hazelnut and dogwood about 5%. Crowns are situated in the upper part covering 35% of the total tree height, generally narrow, not well developed. The stand is in the second age class (11-20) as average 17 years old. Average height: 7.2 m. Average Diameter: 5.6 cm. The crown cover density: 0.8 Volume for one sample plot (100 m2): 0.589 m3 Volume for one hectar: 59 m3. The toal volume of experimental area is 1345 m3/ha

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

The aim of the experiment is toof identify the oak appropriate on the rehabilitation degraded coppice.management practices leading on the rehabilitation of degraded oak coppice.
The implementation was realized based on the prepared design.

The aim of the experiment is to identify the appropriate management practices leading

The implementation was realized based on the prepared design. Table 9: The proposed cutting schemes
Strip no Strip area m2 Intervention scheme Number of the trees /hectare after intervention 200 Explanations

1.

19.340

The strip is 20 meter wide, in the middle one tree each 10 meter left un cut 20 meter wide, to be cut after 5 years 20 meter wide, in the middle each 5 meter one un tree left un cut 20 meter wide, to be cut after six years

Coppice with standards

2. 3.

29.242 31,460

5615 400

No cutting Coppice with standards No cutting

4.

33.238

5615

5.

36.239

The strip wide is 20 meters, it is divided in three parts, the first part 9 meter wide and the third part nine meter wide coppiced.The midle part 2 meter wide not touched The strip is 20 meter wide It will be cut after seven years The same as strip two.

560

Coppicing combined

6

48.260

5615

Ne intervention

7-8

Table 9: The proposed cutting schemes
The scheme is graphical provided in the figure below.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

The scheme is graphical provided in the figure below.

Figure 10: Implemented strips schemes in the experiment

Strip coppicing is used to coppice the stand over a period of three to seven years by removing several strips rather than coppicing the entire stand at once. The strip will be alternate as explained in the table. The general width of each strip is 20 meter (about 1.5 times the tree height). Three different schemes will be implemented to test different number of standard trees. • Scheme of standard trees 10m x 10 m = 100 trees/ha, • Schme of standard trees 5m x 10 m = 200 trees/ ha, and • Narrow strip 2 meter wided in the schme 9+2+ 9 m with about 565 trees.

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May 2011

November 2012 Figure 11: Situation of coppiced strips by years

July 2013

Time of intervention was April 28 - May 2, 2011. The first measurements are realized in end of October 2012. Further surveys are realized in May, July September 2013. The second experiment was established in November- December 2012. The surveys and sample plots are focused on the Pashtriku 2, forest management unit with a total forest area of 4.931 ha, covered 3,238 hectare or 72% of total area with oak and other broadleaves coppice forest. The experiment data are: Name of the place: Guri i Kuq Management regime: Coppice forest Under experiment area: 1 hectare Ownership: Public Altitude: 539 m Strip exposition: South Width of strips: 20 m Inclination: 11-30% Soil type: Brown Depth: Deep Productivity of forest: Low Sanitary situation: Good The quality of trees: Poor Erosion: No erosion

Figure 12: Area of the experiment (Coordinates: N: 420 18.721’; E: 0200 27.429’; N: 420 18.738’; E: 0200 27.359’)

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production
Figure 12: Area of the experiment (Coordinates: N: 420 18.721’; E: 0200 27.429’; N: 420 18.738’; E: 0200 27.359’)

Forest stand description: Forest stand description: Last coppicing: Last coppicing: 1980 1980 Formal Age: 32 years Formal Age: 32 years Actual age: 10-15 yrs Actual age: 10-15 yrs Average diameter 2.7 cm Average diameter 2.7 cm 5m Average height Average height 5m No of trees per hectare 10,300 Volume hectare No of trees per hectare 10,300 21 m3 increment VolumeAnnual hectare 21 m3 1.3 3 /hectare Annual m increment 1.3 m3/hectare

Stand composition Quercus petrea Fraxinus ornus Carpinus orientalis Acer obtusatum Quercus fraineto Cornus mas

English names Sessile Oak Ash Hornbeam Bosnian Maple Hungarian oak Dogwood

% of cover 25.2 33.0 22.3 14.6 3.9 1.0

Table 10: General data on stand description Table 10: General data on stand description
Aim of intervention is to rehabilitate the degraded oakThe forest. The full lightwill regime Aim of intervention is to rehabilitate the degraded oak forest. full light regime give will the opportunity give the opportunity to develop to develop straight and healthy sprouts. straight and healthy sprouts.

Implementation is realized in November 2012. The coppiced and non-coppiced strip alternation coppiced intervention strip alternation is combined as in the scheme. The on-going monitoring will is combined as in the scheme. The on-going monitoring will be realized through measurement in sample plots, in both coppiced and non-coppiced strips, to compare the annual increment.

Implementation intervention is realized in November 2012. The coppiced and non-

Figure 13: Intervention scheme

The first results are shown in the figures below.

During implementation November 2012

New regeneration September 2013

Figure 14: Results of the intervention

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3.5.11 Potential of biomass production
Through two demonstration workshops and brainstorm during collective field visits to compare the results of different management practices applied in public and private forest reflection was made on the results. In this way support and understanding of MAFRD and KFA was achieved. It was allowed to experiment the opportunities of degraded oak forest rehabilitation. In each of case studies realized two experiments are already set up, enabling to have surveys on the regenerations, coming species compositions, annual increment and growing stock. The significant differences between systematic coppice management practices with the selective cutting the best and leaving the rest in very short cycles, demonstrated the urgency of intervention on the degraded forest rehabilitation. With an objective to rehabilitate about 10,000 hectare in year, inside ten years, is an opportunity for to increase the biomass production about 200,000 m3 per year from the annual rehabilitation works. Growing stock on private oak forest was assessed by 6,803,000 m3. If step by step the attitude related to the coppice forest will change, the short rotation will be accepted and recommended to the forest owners according to their management objectives and annual need on firewood. This change can lead in the review of calculations of AAC, based on the rotations applied by forest owners for firewood production (10-30 years). Based on the agreed rotation and AAC in private oak forest can be in the range of 226,667 m3 - 680,300 m3.

3.5.12 Conclusions
Based on the experience and traditions on management practices on low forest implemented by forest owners there are some advantages in management, production, and revenues: • The system is very simple in application, needs less expertise in field and regeneration is usually more certain and cheaper than in the case of reproduction by seed. • Some preliminary measurements and literature data shows that in the earlier stages coppice growth is more rapid, hence where a large outturn of firewood of small to moderate size is required coppice is generally superior to high forest • Coppice is worked on a shorter rotation than most high forest crops, and very soon can have positive impact in reducing illegal logging and fill the gap between the plan and demand on firewood; • Coppicing in careful demarcating coups can transform the problem of “illegal cutting” in the “solution”, legal cutting in each planned degraded forest parcels with clear definitions, to transform the degraded forest in an improved forest; • This system can enable a radical change from ”no management” approach leading to ‘illegal management”, to the management approach, leading to employment and forest improvement, with less investments and capital tied up in the growing stock, and earlier returns obtained, than in the case of high forest. Coppice forest shows a high potential in biomass production. Being for a long time a problem, it can be transformed in the current solution. Forest rehabilitation works represents a real opportunity for employment, to increase the productivity of biomass on large areas of currently degraded forests which under efficient management can produce a much higher yield of timber, fuel wood and wood biomass. The impact of the NFI recommendation to include only 50-55% of AAC on the annual harvesting for coppice forest needs to be reviewed and the appropriate improvements in policy, legal and annual planning to be recommended. The

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legal confusion (ban on coppice management practices) need to be clarified as soon as possible, and replaced with clear statements without ambiguities.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

4. Beech forest pre-commercial thinning 4.1 Situation and problem with young Beech forests
The forests policy strategy document highlighted the urgent needs on “Intensified management of young forests will provide immediate benefits in form of employment opportunities and increased access to wood.” Related to the forest management and silviculture the strategy calls to “commence with large-scale tending programs in young and over-dense public forests resulting in (I) improved structure of the forests, (II) increased production of firewood and small-sized wood suitable for a wood processing industry designed for processing small size logs and (III) provision of employment opportunities for the rural population.” The results of NFI 2005 also show that many young and middle-aged forests are in an urgent need of management interventions, ranging from cleaning/pre-commercial thinning to commercial thinning. Stands established by natural seeding (171,200 ha) are relatively well stocked and is dominated by high productive beech and coniferous forest. Related to the beech forest is stated that “Many young and middle-aged beech forest is over-dense, and in needs of thinning. This means that there are: • many more stems per hectare than in “best practice” leading to lower than expected stem diameters and lower value increment; • higher volumes per hectare due to the high stem density; • low growth due to reduced green crown volume; and • low quality since high quality stems have been out competed by lower quality stems. The young beech forests are today generally over-stocked. The density is in many areas so high that the stands are self-thinning, which means that trees die because of lack of light and loss of crown volume (the crown being the engine of the tree). The growth is well below optimum, basically because the high density has caused a reduction of the green crown size. A considerable portion of the growth is on low quality trees with little or no value as industrial wood. Some interventions on cleaning thinning on 897 hectares of young forest are realized in 2012, assisted by the Ministry of Labour.

Figure 15: Beech forest in Kosovo

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

4.2 Proposed measure and practice
Istog Suhareka Dragash and Ferizaj Municipalities. In the first intervention about for 25% The young beech forests in Kosovo generally have not been treated by cleaning and thinning many years. of growing stock is felled. The actual legal framework does not give clear indications on Some models on cleaning and thinning are established in Istog Suhareka Dragash and Ferizaj Municipalities. thinning work implementation. Joint forest management as an opportunity suggested In the first intervention about 25% of growing stock is felled. The actual legal framework does not give clear by forest development strategy, has not any appropriate legal frame for indications on thinning work forestforest management asprocurement an opportunity suggested by forest implementation. Itimplementation. is not enabled Joint by actual law and procedures. development has not any appropriate legal for implementation. It is not The strategy, right interpretation of the Law onframe private-public partnership, and enabled a real by actual of the main stakeholders, can create the spaces for piloting. Some forest lawcommitment and procurement procedures. The right interpretation of the Law on private-public partnership, financial support might be needed. and a real commitment of the main stakeholders, can create the spaces for piloting. Some financial support might be needed. It is proposed to review the actual investment structure in forestry sector. The main requested improvements are: balance better the investments in long term planning It is proposed toactual review planning the actual100% investment structure inon forestry sector. The main requested improvements (with of investments forest planning is dedicated to the preparation the long term management plans actually). The review and share on forest are: balance better theof investments in long term planning (with actual planning 100% ofbetter investments can improveto the annual planning and create the opportunityplans to put young forest under planning is dedicated the preparation of the long term management actually). The review and better treatment. The second adoption needed is to review the silvicultural investments. share can improve the annual planning and create the opportunity to put young forest under treatment. The Actually 100% of investments are dedicated to the afforestation. It is needed to share second adoption needed is to review the silvicultural investments. Actually 100% of investments are dedicated the investments between the young forest thinning and degraded forest rehabilitation to the afforestation. It is needed to on share the investments between young forest thinning and degraded and afforestation, based accurate study for the return the rate of each investment.

forest rehabilitation and afforestation, based on accurate study for the return rate of each investment. 4.3 Wood production – biomass production

related to the standing volume. The total standing volume on public forest lands is estimated at about 33.5 million m3, 3 Beech can35% be considered as the main forest species related to volume the standing The total standing are trees with volume of this volume is in beech forest. Out of this 25.9 volume. million m 3 3 calculated for trees diameter >7 An estimate of an additional 7.6 million m was on publicaforest lands is cm. estimated at about 33.5 million m , 35% of this volume is in beech forest. Out of 3land and for trees <7 cm. on other wooded this volume 25.9 million m are trees with a diameter >7 cm. An estimate of an additional 7.6 million m3 was

4.3 Wood production – biomass production Beech can be considered as the main forest species

calculated for trees on other wooded land and for trees <7 cm.

The silvicultural treatment model for young beech forest was experimented through a USAID project, implemented by NRS in cooperation with SNV in the autumn of 2010. The silvicultural treatment model for young beechare forest was experimented through a USAID project, The results on thinning intensity proposed described according to the Municipalities implemented by NRS ineach cooperation with SNV in the of 2010. Thetable results on thinning and FMU-s for sample plot established inautumn beech forest, in the below. It gives intensity a summary of data on average volume, and intensity of thinning according to the (i) in beech proposed are described according to the Municipalities and FMU-s for each sample plot established number of the trees proposed to be removed; (ii) the reduction of basal area as wellaccording forest, in the table below. It gives a summary of data on average volume, and intensity of thinning the percentage and volume of wood to be removed in each stand conditions.

to the (I) number of the trees proposed to be removed; (II) the reduction of basal area as well the percentage and volume of wood to be removed in each stand conditions. Table 11: Models on management practices on young beech forest
Volume m3/ha 124.9 28.4 94.2 88 144 34.8 69.1 Percent of trees to be removed % Proposed thinning intensity based Reduction The wood of basal volume te be area % removed % 46.4 15 36 39 39 22 31 44.3 15 33.3 35 23 33.7 32 on Volume to be removed m3 /ha 55.3 4.3 31.4 30.8 33.1 11.7 22.1

Muncipality Istog Suhareke Suhareke Dragash Dragash Kacanik Kacanik

FMU Lugu I bute Maja e Ahut Mushtisht Koritnik 2 Koritnik 2 Ahishte Ahishte

55.5 16.5 42 44.4 46.4 25 22

Table 11: Models on management practices on young beech forest The amount to be removed is depending on the standing volume and age of beech stands. Most of the sample plots show a potential volume to be removed of more than 22 m3/hectare. Out of 171,200 hectare of beech forest, 88,000 hectare results younger than 40 years, overstocked and in high urgency for thinning. It means annually roughly 8,000-10,000 hectares can be planned for thinning, with an annual potential

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

The amount to be removed is depending on the standing volume and age of beech stands. Most of the sample plots show a potential volume to be removed of more than 22 m3/hectare. Out of 171,200 hectare of beech forest, 88,000 hectare results younger than 40 years, overstocked and in high urgency for thinning. It means annually roughly 8,000-10,000 hectares can be planned for thinning, with an annual potential for small dimensions firewood or biomass by 176,000-220,000 m3 produced for each year. With a thinning programme implemented, the density will be reduced and the low quality trees be removed, moving the growth to the trees with a higher quality and giving the trees a chance to develop a crown size, which optimises growth.

4.4 Conclusions
The forests in Kosovo have a great development potential and the forestry sector can become an important contributor to the national economy, both in terms of income from the wood production and as a generator of employment opportunities. To realise this potential, however, a range of silvicultural measures needs to be launched to make up for many years of neglected proper management. At the same time as the forests contain large volumes of low quality wood most Kosovars are struggling to find, reasonably priced, firewood for heating and cooking. With a thinning programme implemented, the density will be reduced and the low quality trees be removed, moving the growth to the trees with a higher quality and giving the trees a chance to develop a crown size, which optimises growth.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

5. Agroforestry practices 5.1 Situation and problems on agroforestry
The use of firewood remains as a main source for the majority of families in rural areas and considerable families of urban areas. The firewood is considered as a most valuable alternative with low costs, taking into account the current economic situation in the country. Local people are aware that the main cost on firewood in its transport. This is one of the main reasons why everywhere in Kosovo the sides of canals, roads, streams and demarcation of the private agricultural farm, are lineated with strips with tree species in different shapes, ages and landscapes. From scientific point of view this land use is getting an increasing attention and is considered as an integrated approach enabling the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with annual crops and /or livestock named as agroforestry, combining agricultural and forestry to create more diverse productive profitable healthy and sustainable land use systems. The term agroforestry is usually not known by local people. This is more known as “mezhda”. Forest Law no 2003/3 in the definition related to the forest land accept very small areas from 0.1 hectare and higher in size as forest land. On the other hand it excludes agricultural territories forest trees planted in strips, for land protection from erosion, crop protection from the sun or wind, or aesthetic functions, despite their composition with forest trees or the size that can be more than 0.1 hectares. In the Forests Law of Kosovo, promulgated 20 March 2003, “Forest”, unless other is stated, is land registered as such in the cadastral records. “Forest land” is land that is being managed for the production of wood or other forest products or whose best use, given its natural characteristics and economic condition, involves the growing of trees. Forestlands should be at least 0.1 ha in size, which differs from the international definitions. Lands where trees have been planted in strips primarily to control erosion, create shelter from wind, give shade, or improve aesthetics are not forestland. As in many other countries, in principle, agroforestry is regarded as belonging to ‘all sectors’, but in practice, it belongs to none and do not occupies a special line in a governmental body or has its own policy space. It falls between the agriculture, forestry and environment departments, with no institution taking a lead role in the inventory and management of agroforestry. Agriculture departments emphasize crop production on agricultural lands; thus agricultural policies directly contribute to excluding trees from farms and the landscape. Integrating trees into farms and landscapes and sustainably manage is a very important alternative to reduce illegal practices in the surrounding wooded area. Agroforestry share with forestry sector a very important part of firewood needs for local population and generates significant public ecosystem services, such as watershed protection, soil and biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration and avoided emissions, as well as minimizing climatic and financial risks and landscaping.

5.2 Current use and practice
The crop of agroforestry is harvested generally based on the traditions and in the urgent needs of the farmer in different products as firewood, poles for vineyard and other agricultural uses as support for beans, tomatoes etc. Agroforestry also provides for forests fruits and nuts as well as fodder and even timber. Since in

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

agroforestry often also other less regular forest species occur it can provide wood for specific purposes and at times with high quality. Traditional treatment in willow alder and poplar is pollarding, in oak, ash, maple is trimming or shredding. It consist of cutting the tops or branches of trees with the object of stimulating the production of numerous straight shoots near the top of the cut them; these are trimmed periodically at intervals of one or more years to furnish material for basket- work, fencing, hurdles, fascines etc. Pollarding is carried out most commonly in the case of willows and alders and poplars along the sides of streams canals and ditches; it is frequently practised in moist meadows, where the pollarding can be carried out at a height sufficient to ensure the shoots being out of reach of cattle. Another practice of a similar kind is the periodical trimming of the shoots which produces poles of certain poplars, oaks, maple etc. In the case of firewood production the cutting cycle is 3-5 years. Time after time the mother tree is used for firewood and replaced by a new one.

Figure 16: Agroforestry practices in Kosovo

In general the practice and level of production from agroforestry is neglected within the Kosovo forestry sector. Neither forest law, nor the strategy for forest development has any article or directive toward agroforestry. But forest guards do not allow the farmers to transport products resulted without transport permission. The forestry department has no records and data on agroforestry contribution on firewood production in Kosovo. On the specific objectives of EU alignment, as part of Kosovo strategy for rural development from 8 rural development measures, a specific focus on agro-forestry systems is given to measure 5 by assisting afforestation and the establishment of agro-forestry systems, particularly in Natura 2000 areas, where some farmers may see an opportunity to shift from agricultural production to forestry. A modification of land-use towards an increased share of land with a more permanent plant cover will contribute positively to present policies on climate change through carbon sequestration, and by promoting sustainable forest management measure but currently there is not action planned.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

5.3 Wood production – biomass production
There are no official data on the level and the production of agroforestry system in Kosovo and no assessments or evaluations are known. A general assessment of the agroforestry in Kosovo was realized during 2012 in three pilot municipalities as part of this study. The first step was the selection of the representative municipalities. Dragash, Junik and Kacanik were selected. Before sample plot sizes and positions selections, one general evaluation began with interpretation of ortophoto maps and crossing points of wood and shrub vegetation that developed in edge agricultural properties and sides of streams. The second part of the evaluation began with determining the location and definition of sample plot areas. Subject of the assessment was the measurement of all standing trees with DBH > 5 cm within the radius of sample plot by 12.6 m. The total volume of vegetation in 15 sample plots, at the level of the three municipalities is estimated to be 48.54 m³, while the average level of wood volume for each sample plots was found to be 3.24 m³. Regarding the wood species participation alder has 56.8 % followed by black locust 12.9%, oak 12.8%, hornbeam 6% and other species 16%. More well defined methodologies related to intensity, area, the form and edge compensation on the boundary between hedgerow and agricultural lands needs to be applied, in more communes in Kosovo. However from this indicative study is shown the relevance of agroforestry in wood biomass production. Assuming that at the country level have roughly similar situation with the findings in the three pilot municipalities estimate that 450,000 ha of agricultural land, the total hedgerows area is assessed between 45,000-90,000 hectare. These are very preliminary data. More surveys and inventory are needed to know the actual standing volume and the annual wood production from Kosovo agroforestry. The rotation varies from land conditions species and objectives from 3-20 years.

5.4 Potential of increased biomass
More detailed study of actual practices can be the first step to identify the actual best practices and share it between the farmers. There are not data related to the rotations applied, the production capacities of different traditional species as well the candidate species for short rotation energy production. After the study analysis for assessment of current situation in agroforestry, potential and contribution of agroforestry for production of wood and biomasses for heating of the population is seen as important. It is therefore recommended to investigate in appropriate practices for agroforestry. The current practices and systems should be investigated and reviewed for to improve and economise the practices. Options to support further development of agroforestry can be on improvement and enrichment of hedgerows and line plantations. The use of different species among which fast growing species are an option leading to increased production.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Figure 17: Fast growing Salix in Ferizaj, year 1 and year 2

One case One study implemented by CNP in cooperation with Ferizaj FOA, is focused on the testing annual case study implemented by CNP in cooperation with Ferizaj FOA, is focused on the increment and potential a hybrid and willow. The proposed measure and practices for measure the use of agroforestry testing annual of increment potential of a hybrid willow. The proposed and potential includes species: Salix Alba. practicesfast for growing the use of agroforestry potential includes fast growing species: Salix Alba From presented in the table. Table 12: The dendrometric indicators of short rotation willow hybrid in Ferizaj
Agroforestry- Willow testing area - Ferizaj First Year Measurements From testing of selected area planted with fast growing tree in Ferizaj, the results of measurements presented in the table. testing of selectedare area planted with fast growing tree in Ferizaj, the results of measurements Second Year Measurements

are

Average Diameter cm 2.8 4.9 cm Average tree high m 3.25 m 4.73 m No of trees/ha 10.000 10.000 Volume/hectare m3/ha 15.9 52.5 Annual growth 15.9 36.6 Table 12: The dendrometric indicators of short rotation willow hybrid in Ferizaj This kind of fast growing species show good potential and could be supported by programmes on increasing wood biomass production This kind of fast growing species show good potential and couldby befarmers. supported by programmes on increasing

wood biomass production by farmers. 5.5 Conclusions

5.5 Conclusions Agroforestry is a neglected aspect of forestry, but is known for its use and importance

by the rural communities and producing substantial amounts of wood biomass and provides a wider aspect range of other products and services. Agroforestry is a neglected of forestry, but is known for its use and importance by the rural communities

and producing substantial amounts of wood biomass and provides a wider range of other products and The general opinion is that agroforestry is an important contribution on firewood services. material for rural families. Being very spontaneous and out of any technical parameters
in the layout, composition and treatments it is difficult to assess how this potential is

The general opinion is that agroforestry an important contribution on firewood material for rural actually used. When designedisand implemented correctly, agroforestry combines the families. best practices and of tree and agricultural systems, resulting in the sustainable Being very spontaneous out growing of any technical parameters in the layout, composition and treatments it is . and multi-use ofpotential land including products services difficult to assess how this is actually used.and When designed and implemented correctly, agroforestry
Agroforestry therefore serves to enrich farmers through the harvesting of diverse products at different times of the year. It also brings job opportunities from the processing of tree products, expanding the economic benefits to rural communities and national economies. There is a big potential to evaluate and undertake interventions for improvements. The

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

combines the best practices of tree growing and agricultural systems, resulting in the sustainable and multiuse of land including products and services. Agroforestry therefore serves to enrich farmers through the harvesting of diverse products at different times of the year. It also brings job opportunities from the processing of tree products, expanding the economic benefits to rural communities and national economies. There is a big potential to evaluate and undertake interventions for improvements. The first step can be institutional considering as part of agriculture or forestry. This can be followed by an inventory and strategy for development as part of rural Kosovo. Agroforestry systems can be conceived for spaces varying from plots to farms to landscapes. At plot level, farmers may combine nitrogen-fixing trees with cereal crops. At farm level, they may plant trees in woodlots or along boundaries. At landscape scale communities may rehabilitate degraded areas through trees and other vegetation. Effective agroforestry systems make the most of positive interactions between their various components, so that the final product is more valuable than in the absence of trees, while the risks of failed harvests and dependence on chemical inputs are reduced. Even at plot level, where trees may compete directly with crops, experiments demonstrate that in well-managed agroforestry plots, trees have added value that exceed any loss in crop production value. However, these outcomes are not guaranteed, so attention must be paid to the type of agroforestry system used and species selected.

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Forest Management Practices Supporting Wood Biomass Production

Working together to grow a canopy of trees providing home, shelter, food, a livelihood as well as a place to wander CNVP is a legacy organisation of SNV in the Balkans. Established through a legal demerger, CNVP will continue the SNV forestry and rural development programme in the Balkans and beyond. CNVP envisions: • Local communities achieving their own development goals; • Maximising the production and service potential of forests through Sustainable Forest Management and locally controlled Natural Resource Management; • Forests contributing to equitable local economic development supporting rural livelihoods; • Forests contributing to wider societal interests and values including biodiversity conservation and wellbeing; • Connecting natural values and people!

Connecting Natural Values & People 7th Floor Zayed Business Centre Rr. Sulejman Delvina, Tirana e Re Tirana, Albania PO Box 1735 T +355 4 222 9642, +355 4 222 9551 www.cnvp-eu.org

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