ISF – Welding Institute RWTH – Aachen University

Lecture Notes

Welding Technology 1 Welding and Cutting Technologies

Prof. Dr.–Ing. U. Dilthey

Table of Contents
Chapter 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Subject Introduction Gas Welding Manual Metal Arc Welding Submerged Arc Welding TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding Gas– Shielded Metal Arc Welding Narrow Gap Welding, Electrogas - and Electroslag Welding 7. 8. Pressure Welding Resistance Spot Welding, Resistance Projection Welding and Resistance Seam Welding 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Electron Beam Welding Laser Beam Welding Surfacing and Shape Welding Thermal Cutting Special Processes Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures Welding Robots Sensors Literature 101 115 129 146 160 175 187 200 208 218 73 85 43 56 Page 1 3 13 26

0. Introduction


0. Introduction


Welding fabrication processes are classified in accordance with the German Standards DIN 8580 and DIN 8595 in main group 4 “Joining”, group 4.6 “Joining by Welding”, Figure 0.1.

1 Casting

2 Forming

3 Cutting

4 Joining

5 Coating

Changing of materials properties

4.1 Joining by composition

4.2 Joining by filling

4.3 Joining by pressing

4.4 Joining by casting

4.5 Joining by forming

4.6 Joining by welding

4.7 Joining by soldering

4.8 Joining by adhesive bonding

4.6.1 Pressure welding

4.6.2 Fusion welding

Production Processes acc. to DIN 8580

Figure 0.1

Welding: permanent, positive joining method. The course of the strain lines is almost ideal. Welded joints show therefore higher strength properties than the joint types depicted in Figure 0.2. This is of advantage, especially in the case of dynamic stress, as the notch effects are lower.
Adhesive bonding Riveting Screwing




© ISF 2002

Connection Types

Figure 0.2

0. Introduction


Figures 0.3 and 0.4 show the further subdivision of the different welding methods according to DIN 1910.

Production processes 4 Joining
4.6 Joining by welding

4.6.1 Pressure welding

4.6.2 Fusion welding Welding by solid bodies Welding by liquids Welding by gas Welding by electrical gas discharge Welding by motion Welding by electric current

Heated tool welding

Flow welding

Gas pressure-/ roll-/ forge-/ diffusion welding

Arc pressure welding

Cold pressure-/ shock-/ friction-/ ultrasonic welding

Resistance pressure welding
© ISF 2002


Joining by Welding acc. to DIN 1910 Pressure Welding

Figure 0.3

Production processes 4 Joining
4.6 Joining by welding

4.6.1 Pressure welding

4.6.2 Fusion welding Welding by liquids Welding by gas Welding by electrical gas discharge Welding by beam Welding by electric current

Cast welding

Gas welding

Arc welding

Beam welding

Resistance welding


Joining by Welding acc. to DIN 1910 Fusion Welding

Figure 0.4

1. Gas Welding


1. Gas Welding

3 Although the oxy-acetylene process
3 4 5 8

has been introduced long time ago it is still applied for its flexibility and mo6

bility. Equipment for oxyacetylene welding consists of just a few elements, the energy necessary for welding can be transported in cylinders, Figure 1.1.

7 1
2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 oxygen cylinder with pressure reducer acetylene cylinder with pressure reducer oxygen hose acetylene hose welding torch welding rod workpiece welding nozzle welding flame 9


Figure 1.1
density in normal state [kg/m ]

Process energy is obtained from the exothermal chemical reaction between oxygen and a combustible gas, Figure 1.2. Suitable combustible gases are C2H2, lighting gas, H2, C3H8 and natural gas; here C3H8 has the highest calorific value. The highest flame intensity from point of view of calorific value and flame propagation speed is, however, obtained with C2H2.

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0

2.0 1.29 air 1.17


1.43 oxygen
© ISF 2002


ignition temperature [OC] 600 400 200 0
flame temperature with O2 flame efficiency with O 2 flame velocity with O2 43 1350
10.3 8.5 370 330


645 oxygen propane
natural gas



490 335


3200 2850 2770 0


KW k




Figure 1.2

24 l of C2H2 at 0. Figure 1. For gas exchange (storage and drawing of quantities up to 700 l/h) a larger surface is necessary. br-er1-04. to sludge pit br-er1-03. Gas consumption during welding can be observed from the weight reduction of the gas cylinder.1 MPa).4. grille sludge commercial quantities can be stored when C2H2 is dissolved in acetone (1 l of acetone dissolves approx.cdr © ISF 2002 Acetylene Generator Figure 1.e.2 MPa.3. gas exit feed wheel C2H2 tends to decompose already at a pressure of 0.4 . Carbide is obtained from the reaction of lime and carbon in the arc furnace.cdr acetone acetylene porous mass N acetylene cylinder acetone quantity : acetylene quantity : cylinder pressure : ~13 l 6000 l 15 bar filling quantity : up to 700 l/h © ISF 2002 Storage of Acetylene Figure 1. Figure 1.8 MPa. with a filling pressure of 1. i.3 Acetone disintegrates at a pressure of more than 1. Gas Welding 4 C2H2 is produced in acetylene gas loading funnel generators by the exothermal transmaterial lock formation of calcium carbide with water.5 MPa the storage of 6m³ of C2H2 is possible in a standard cylinder (40 l). therefore the gas cylinders are filled with a porous mass (diatomite). Nonetheless..1.

storage in a liquid state and cold gasification is more profitable. Gas Welding Oxygen gaseous cooling nitrogen air bundle oxygen 5 is by profrac- duced cylinder tional distillation of liquid air and stored in cylinders with a filling pressure of up to 20 MPa. manometer foot ring Q=pV safety valve liquid vaporizer filling connection still liquid br-er1- The standard cylinder (40 l) contains.cdr user gaseous Storage of Oxygen Figure 1.cdr compressor separation supply © ISF 2002 consumption.6 . at a filling pressure of 15 MPa.6. Principle of Oxygen Extraction Figure 1. Gas consump- 50 l oxygen cylinder protective cap cylinder valve take-off connection gaseous N p = cylinder pressure : 200 bar V = volume of cylinder : 50 l Q = volume of oxygen : 10 000 l content control tion can be calculated from the pressure difference by means of the general gas equation. Moreover. For higher oxygen liquid air oxygen pipeline liquid tank car nitrogen vaporized cleaning br-er1-05. 6m³ of O2 (pressureless state). cylinders with contents of 10 or 20 l (15 MPa) as well as 50 l at 20 MPa are common. Figure 1. Figure 1.

8 and 1. cylinder pressure working pressure br-er1-08. The cylinder valves are also of show a thread right-hand union nut. Figure 1. Gas Welding 6 In order to prevent mistakes.1. actual condition blue different designs.cdr nitrogen carbon-dioxide © ISF 2002 with a circumferential groove. yellow helium brown red valves are equipped with screw clamp retentions. Oxygen cylinder connections DIN EN 1089 white blue (grey) actual condition grey DIN EN 1089 brown grey Acetylene cylinder oxygen techn.7 Gas Cylinder-Identification according to DIN EN 1089 Pressure regulators reduce the cylinder pressure to the requested working pressure. Figure 1. the gas cylinders are colour-coded. Cylinder valves for other acetylene grey dark green grey hydrogen grey vivid green grey combustible gases have a left-hand argon darkgreen black darkgreen argon-carbon-dioxide mixture grey grey thread-connection br-er1-07.cdr © ISF 2002 Single Pressure Reducing Valve during Gas Discharge Operation Figure 1.9. Figures 1.7 shows a survey of the present colour code and the future colour code which is in accordance with DIN EN 1089.8 .

10. the mem- Figure 1. at higher cylinder pressures normally two-stage pressure regulators are discharge pressure locking pressure used. The requested pressure is set by the adjusting screw. .10 plate thicknesses. If the pressure increases on the low pressure side. Shut Down onto brane.g. Gas Welding 7 At a low cylinder pressure (e.cdr © ISF 2002 the throttle the closes increased pressure Single Pressure Reducing Valve.9 The injector-type welding torch injector or blowpipe coupling nut mixer nozzle oxygen valve hose connection for oxygen A6x1/4" right torch consists of a body with valves mixer tube and welding chamber with welding nozzle. single-stage regulators are applied.cdr injector pressure nozzle suction nozzle welding nozzle fuel gas valve hose connection for fuel gas A9 x R3/8” left flame intensity can be adjusted for torch body © ISF 2002 Welding Torch welding different Figure 1. valve br-er1-09. welding the welding torch head br-er1-10. Figure 1. acetylene cylinder) and low pressure fluctuations. By the selection of suitable chambers.1.

outer flame: complete reaction: 2C2H2 + 5O2 -> 4CO2 + 2H2O .12: 0.3 MPa).11. acetylene oxygen acetylene welding torch head injector nozzle coupling nut pressure nozzle torch body br-er1-11. C2H2 is therefore available with a very low pressure of 0.05 MPa compared with O2 (0.02 up to 0. Figure 1. The high outlet speed of the escaping O2 generates a negative pressure in the acetylene gas line. dark core: 1. Figure 1.2 up to 0. Gas Welding 8 The special form of the mixing chamber guarantees highest possible safety against flashback. welding zone: 3. in consequence C2H2 is sucked and drawn-in.1.cdr © ISF 2002 Injector-Area of Torch Figure 1.11 A neutral flame adjustment allows the differentiation of three zones of a chemical reaction. brightly shining centre cone: escaping gas mixture acetylene decomposition C2H2 -> 2C+H2 1st stage of combustion 2C + H2 + O2 (cylinder) -> 2CO + H2 2nd stage of combustion 4CO + 2H2 + 3O2 (air) -> 4CO2 + 2H2O 2.

13.cdr Effects of the Welding Flame Depending on the Ratio of Mixture Figure 1. At a neutral flame adjustment the mixture ratio is O2:C2H2 = 1:1. By reason of the higher flame temperature. Figure 1. Gas Welding 9 welding flame combustion welding nozzle centre cone welding zone 2-5 outer flame 3200°C 2500°C 1800°C 1100°C 400°C br-er1-12. there is the risk of oxidizing (flame cutting). Area of application: brass excess of acetylene normal (neutral) excess of oxygen effects in welding of steel sparking foaming spattering reducing oxidizing © ISF 2002 The excess acetylene causes the carburising of steel materials.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 1. Area of application: cast iron consequences: carburizing hardening br-er1-13.12 welding flame ratio of mixture By changing the mixture ratio of the volumes O2:C2H2 the weld pool can greatly be influenced.1.13 . an excess oxygen flame might allow faster welding of steel. however.

Gas Welding 10 By changing the gas mixture outlet speed the flame can be adjusted to the heat requirements of the welding job. but remains calm otherwise. The wire circles.14 Depending on the plate thickness are the working methods “leftward welding” and “rightward welding” applied.cdr (130 to 160 m/s) for the 4 mm plate.the bath and the melting weld-rod are permanently protected from the air .15.14. Advantages: . for example.the molten pool and the weld keyhole are easy to observe . The welding direction itself is of no importance. a 3 mm plate. the gas outlet speed is lower (80 to 100 m/s) for the 2 mm plate. for example when welding plates (thickness: 2 to 4 mm) with the weldsoft flame welding flame balanced (neutral) flame nozzle size: for plate thickness of 2-4 mm discharging velocity and weld heat-input rate: low 2 ing chamber size 3: “2 to 4 mm”. Advantages: easy to handle on thin plates welding-rod flame welding bead Rightward welding ist applied to a plate thickness of 3mm upwards.low gas consumption weld-rod flame © ISF 2002 ment of the torch (s = 3 mm). In leftward welding the flame is pointed at the open gap and “wets” the molten pool. the heat input to the molten pool can be well controlled by a slight movebr-er1-15e.good root fusion . with a hard flame it is higher hard flame br-er1-14. The weld-rod dips into the molten pool from time to time. the torch remains calm.narrow welding seam .cdr Leftward welding is applied to a plate thickness of up to 3 mm.15 . Using a soft flame. © ISF 2002 Effects of the Welding Flame Depending on the Discharge Velocity Figure 1. A decisive factor for the designation of the working method is the sequence of flame and welding rod as well as the manipulation of flame and welding rod. Figure 1.1. applied to discharging velocity and weld heat-input rate: middle 3 moderate flame discharging velocity and weld head-input rate: high 4 at. Figure 1. The torch swings a little. Flame Welding Figure 1. The gas mixture outlet speed is 100 to 130 m/s when using a medium or normal flame.

3.0 11 plate thickness range s [mm] from to 1. 1.17 .0 1-2 V . Gas Welding In rightward welding the flame is directed onto the molten pool.0 8. Figures 1.5 gap preparations ~ ~ s+1 denotation symbol r= s flange weld 1. The addition of pure oxygen is unsuitable (explosion hazard!).0 lap seam 1. a weld keyhole is formed (s = 3 mm). Figure 1.0 4.1.0 plain butt weld plate thickness and weld shape.16 butt-welded seams in gravity position When working in tanks and confined spaces.17 and 1.19. Figure 1. s f PA gravity fillet welds PB PF PG PC horizontal fillet welds vertical fillet and butt welds vertical-upwelding position vertical-down position horizontal on vertical wall PE overhead position PD br-er1-17.cdr 1. the gases produced during welding and lack of oxygen ((1. but this does not apply to any other 1.5 mm without filler material. the welder (and all other persons present!) have to be protected against the welding heat.weld 1.0 1-2 corner weld By the specific heat input of the different welding methods all welding positions can be carried out using the oxyacetylene welding method.18 br-er1-16.16.cdr horizontal overhead position © ISF 2002 Welding Positions I Figure 1.0 8.) O2 per 2 % (vol.5 % (vol.0 fillet weld © ISF 2002 Gap Shapes for Gas Welding Figure 1.0 12. Flanged welds and plain butt welds can be applied to a plate thickness of approx.0 8.) C2H2 are taken out from the ambient atmosphere)).

Much experience is needed to carry out flame straightening processes.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er1-20. electric current protective measures / safety precautions 1.20. explosive mixtures.20 . then belt butt weld 3 to 5 heat sources close to the weld-seam double fillet weld 1. During cooling.19 Figure 1. fumes. Gas Welding 12 A special type of autogene method is flame-straightening. br-er1-18. Figure 1. This process causes the appearance of a PG PD PE heated zone. after welding: Removing the equipment from the tank first warm up both lateral plates. ventilation 3.cdr © ISF 2002 Welding Positions II Figure 1. where specific locally applied flame heating allows for PA PB shape correction of workpieces. second person for safety reasons 4. extraction unit. requirement for a permission to enter 2. The basic principle of flame straightening PC PF depends on locally applied heating in connection with prevention of expansion. shrinking forces are generated in the heated zone and lead to the desired shape correction. illumination and electric machines: max 42volt 5.18 Safety in welding and cutting inside of tanks and narrow rooms Flame straightening welded parts Hazards through gas.3 or 5 heat sources br-er1-19e.cdr © ISF 2002 Gas Welding in Tanks and Narrow Rooms Flame Straightening Figure 1.1.

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding 2003 .

Conductivity of the arc plasma is improved by a) ease of ignition b) increase of arc stability 2.1 describes the burn-off of a covered stick electrode. The stick electrode consists of a core wire with a mineral covering. covering has taken on the functions which are described in Figure 2. solidifies on the weld pool. Droplets of the liquefied core wire mix with the molten base material forming weld metal while the molten covering is forming slag which.cdr weld pool from the detrimental influences of the surrounding atmosphere. Constitution of gas shielding atmosphere of a) organic components b) carbides 4. due to its lower density. The slag layer and gases which are generated inside the arc protect the metal during transfer and also the c ISF 2002 br-er2-01.2 .1 Covered stick electrodes have re1. The welding arc between the electrode and the workpiece melts core wire and covering.2. Manual Metal Arc Welding 13 Figure 2.cdr © ISF 2002 Task of Electrode Coating Figure 2. br-er2-02. Desoxidation and alloying of the weld metal 5. to a) influence the transferred metal droplet b) shield the droplet and the weld pool against atmosphere c) form weld bead 3. Weld Point Figure 2.2. Additional input of metallic particles placed the initially applied metal arc and carbon arc The electrodes. Constitution of slag.

decrease ionization easy to ionize.cdr Stick Electrode Fabrication 1 Figure 2.4.5 mm Ø 4 mm 3.3 For the stick electrode manufacturing mixed ground and screened covering materials are used as protection for the core wire which has been drawn to finished diameter and subsequently cut to size.2. Figure 2. shielding gas emitter and slag formation to increase slag viscosity of basic electrodes.25 mm weighing and mixing inspection wet mixer inspection © ISF 2002 br-er2-04.4 .Fe3O4 calcareous spar -CaCO3 fluorspar . raw material storage for flux production raw wire storage jaw crusher descaling magnetic separation cone crusher for pulverisation sieving to further treatment like milling.3.cdr effect on the welding characteristics to raise current-carrying capacity to increase slag viscosity.SiO2 rutile -TiO2 magnetite .fluorspar K2O Al2O3 6SiO2 ferro-manganese / ferro-silicon cellulose kaolin Al2O3 2SiO2 2H2O potassium water glass K2SiO3 / Na2SiO3 br-er2-03. cleaning and weighing sieving system drawing plate wire drawing machine and cutting system 2 3 1 inspection to the pressing plant electrode compound example of a three-stage wire drawing machine Ø 6 mm Ø 5. Manual Metal Arc Welding 14 The covering of the stick electrode consists of a multitude of components which are mainly mineral. Figure 2.CaF2 calcareous. good re-striking to refine transfer of droplets through the arc to reduce arc voltage. sieving. to improve arc stability deoxidant shielding gas emitter lubricant bonding agent © ISF 2002 Influence of the Coating Constituents on Welding Characteristics Figure 2. coating raw material quartz .

br-er2-06. Manual Metal Arc Welding 15 the pressing plant inspection electrode compound core wire magazine electrodepress compound packing inspection inspection TO DELIVERY nozzleconveying wire wire pressing belt feeder magazine head drying stove inspection inspection inspection br-er10-33e. The defect-free electrodes then pass through a drying oven and are.5. after a final inspection.cdr Production of Stick Electrodes Figure 2. pressing mass core rod guide pressing cylinder core rod coating pressing nozzle pressing cylinder Figure 2. Figure 2. automatically packed.cdr © ISF 2002 Stick Electrode Fabrication 2 Figure 2.6 .2.5 The core wires are coated with the covering material which contains binding agents in electrode extrusion presses.6 shows how the moist extruded covering is deposited onto the core wire inside an electrode extrusion press.

sized to fine droplets toughness value: good basic typ fluorspar CaF2 45 CaCO3 40 calcite SiO2 10 quartz 5 Fe . Figure 2.PG high good very good rutile type R ~/+ good PA.PG very low moderate moderate low burn-out losses hygroscopic predrying!! © ISF 2002 high burn-out losses universal application Characteristics of Different Coating Types Figure 2.PE.7 The melting characteristics of the different coverings and the slag properties result in further properties.PB.cdr cellulosic type C ~/+ very good PG. cellulosic type cellulose 40 rutile TiO2 20 quartz SiO2 25 Fe .PF. according to their covering compositions.PB. PE.Mn 20 potassium water glass slag solidification time: long droplet transfer : fine droplets to sprinkle toughness value: normal rutile type rutile TiO2 45 magnetite Fe3O4 10 SiO2 quartz 20 CaCO3 10 calcite Fe .sized droplets toughness value: good br-er2-07. with concern to burn-off characteristics and achievable weld metal toughness these types show fundamental differences. PE. PE.(PG) low good very good basic type B =/+ good PA.(PA.8 .PC. these determine the areas of application.2.Mn 15 potassium water glass slag solidification time: medium droplet transfer : medium.Mn 15 potassium water glass almost no slag droplet transfer : medium.cdr acid type magnetite Fe3O4 50 SiO2 20 quartz CaCO3 10 calcite Fe .PC.sized to big droplets toughness value: very good © ISF 2002 Characteristic Features of Different Coating Types Figure 2. Figure 2.PF. intensive fume formation acid type A ~/+ moderate PA. little slag.PF) low moderate good spatter. PC.PB. Manual Metal Arc Welding 16 Stick electrodes are. coating type symbol current type/polarity gap bridging ability welding positions sensitivity of cold cracking weld appearance slag detachability characteristic features br-er2-08. categorized into four different types.Mn potassium water glass slag solidification time: short droplet transfer : medium.8.PF.7.PC.PB.

cdr © ISF 2002 2.9 The complete designation for filler DIN EN 499 .E 46 3 1Ni B 5 4 H5 nition occurs frequently. Manual Metal Arc Welding 17 The dependence on temperature of the slag’s electrical conductivity determines the reignition behaviour of a stick electrode. cludes Stanin- details– partly as encoded abbreviation – hydrogen content < 5 cm /100 g welding deposit butt weld: gravity position fillet weld: gravity position suitable for direct and alternating current recovery between 125% and 160% basic thick-coated electrode chemical composition 1. The identification letter for the Figure 2.9. materials.E 46 3 1Ni B br-er2-10.2.4% Mn and approx.tungsten inert gas welding . electrodes h ac co igh id s n d .10 Designation Example for Stick Electrodes welding process is first: E T S - manual electrode welding flux cored arc welding submerged arc welding G W - gas metal arc welding .te l a uc mp g to e r r a tu re hig bas h.cdr © ISF 2002 ence in the Conductivity of Slags production of tack welds where reig- Figure 2.ic s co tem lag nd pe uc ra to tur r e are given prefertemperature br-er2-09. rutile Therefore. The electrical conductivity for a rutile stick electrode lies. 1% Ni o minimum impact 47 J in -30 C 2 minimum weld metal deposit yield strength: 460 N/mm distinguishing letter for manual electrode stick welding 3 which are relevant for welding. above the threshreignition threshold old value which is necessary for reignition.10. following European dardisation. Figure The mandatory part of the standard designation is: EN 499 . Figure 2. also at conductivity g slag ntainin o c le ti high ru r nducto semico room temperature.

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding


The identification numbers give information about yield point, tensile strength and elongation of the weld metal where the tenfold of the identification number is the minimum yield point in N/mm², Figure 2.11.

key number

minimum yield strength N/mm2 355 380 420 460 500

tensile strength N/mm2 440-570 470-600 500-640 530-680 560-720

minimum elongation*) % 22 20 20 20 18

35 38 42 46 50 *) L0 = 5 D0


© ISF 2002

Characteristic Key Numbers of Yield Strength, Tensile Strength and Elongation

Figure 2.11

The identification figures for the minimum impact energy value of 47 J – a parameter for the weld metal toughness – are shown in Figure 2.12.

characteristic figure Z A 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

minimum impact energy 47 J [ C] no demands +20 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80


The minimum value of the impact energy allocated to the characteristic figures is the average value of three ISO-V-Specimen, the lowest value of whitch amounts to 32 Joule.

Characteristic Key Numbers for Impact Energy

Figure 2.12

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding The

19 chemical of


the weld metal is shown by the alloy symbol, 2.13. Figure


© ISF 2002

Alloy Symbols for Weld Metals Minimum Yield Strength up to 500 N/mm2

Figure 2.13

The properties of a stick electrode are characterised by the covering thickness and the covering type. Both details are determined by the identification letter for the electrode covering, Figure 2.14.
A B C R RR RA RB RC acid coating basic coating cellulose coating rutile coated (medium thick) rutile coated (thick) rutile acid coating rutile basic coating rutile cellulose coating key letter type of coating


© ISF 2002

Figure 2.14

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding Figure 2.15 ex-


plains the additional identification figure for electrode recovery and applicable type The of current.


identification figure determines the application ties for possibilidifferent Figure 2.15 12345all positions all positions, except vertical down position flat position butt weld, flat position fillet weld, horizontal-, vertical up position flat position butt and fillet weld as 3; and recommended for vertical down position
br-er2-15.cdr © ISF 2002

welding positions:

Additional Characteristic Numbers for Deposition Efficiency and Current Type

The last detail of the European Standard designation determines the maximum hydrogen content of the weld metal in cm³ per 100 g weld metal. Welding amperage current and

core wire diameter of the stick

electrode are determined thickness workpiece by of to the the be

welded. Fixed stick electrode
br-er2-16.cdr © ISF 2002

lengths to

are each


Size and Welding Current of Stick Electrodes


Figure 2.16

Figure 2.16.

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding Figure 2.17 shows
electrode holder


the process principle of manual
- (+) power source = or ~ + (-) arc stick electrode

metal arc welding. Polarity and type of current depend on the trode known applied types. elecAll

work piece
br-er2-17.cdr © ISF 2002

sources with a descending characteristic curve can be used. Figure 2.17

Principle Set-up of MMAW Process

Since in manual metal arc welding the arc length cannot always be kept constant, a steeply descending power
power source characteristic U
A2 A1

source is used. Different arc lengths lead therefore to just minimally altered weld current intensities, Figure 2.18. Penetration remains basically unal-

2 1




21 characteristic of the arc


© ISF 2002

Figure 2.18

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding

22 Simple welding transformers are
arc welding converter

used for a.c. welding. For d.c. welding mainly converters, rectifiers and series regulator transistorised power sources (inverters) are applied. Con-


verters are specifically suitable for site welding and are mains-

independent when an internal combustion engine is used. The advanrectifier

tages of inverters are their small size and low weight, however, a more complicated electronic design is necinverter type

essary, Figure 2.19.


© ISF 2002

Figure 2.19
45 RA73

Figure 2.20 shows the standard welding parameters of different stick electrode diameters and stick electrode
medium weld voltage

V 40 RR73



The rate of deposition of a stick electrode is, besides the used current intensity, dependent on the so-called “electrode recovery”, Figure 2.21. This describes the mass of deposited weld metal / mass of core wire ratio in percent. Electrode recovery can reach values of up to 220% with metal


RR12 RA12 B53

= = = =

3,25 4 5 6







medium weld current
br-er2-20.cdr © ISF 2002

covering components in high-efficiency electrodes. Figure 2.20

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding


A survey of the material spectrum which is suitable for manual metal arc welding is given in Figure 2.22. The survey comprises almost all metals known for technical applications and also explains the wide application range of the method.
eff ic ien cy

kg/h 6
de po s it ion



burn-off rate at 100% duty cycle



de po s it io n

ef fic





d te oa c ick

16 0%


constructional steels shipbuilding steels high-strength constructional steels boiler and pressure vessel steels austenitic steels creep resistant steels austenitic-ferritic steels (duplex) scale resistant steels wear resistant steels hydrogen resistant steels high-speed steels cast steels combinations of materials (ferritic/ austenitic) cast iron with lamella graphite cast iron with globular graphite pure nickel Ni-Cu-alloys Ni-Cr-Fe-alloys Ni-Cr-Mo-alloys electrical grade copper (ETP copper) bronzes (CuSn, CuAl) gunmetal (CuSnZnPb) Cu-Ni-alloys pure aluminium AlMg-alloys AlSi -alloys
© ISF 2002

22 0%



th in-

ed at co

cast iron: nickel:


= RR12 - 5 mm RR73 - 5 mm 400 A 500





200 300 welding amperage

a = A- and R- coated electrodes, recovery 105% b = basic-coated electrodes, recovery <125% c = high-performance electrodes
br-er2-21.cdr © ISF 2002


Figure 2.21

Figure 2.22 In d.c. welding, the concentration of the magnetic arc-blow

producing forces can lead to the deflection of the arc from power supply point on the side of the workpiece, Figure 2.23. The mabr-er2-23e.cdr

Arc Blow Effect through Concentration of Magnetic Fields



does not occur at the intended point.

Figure 2.23

2. Manual Metal Arc Welding

24 Arc deflection may also occur at magnetizable mass accumulations

inwards at the edges

although, in that case, in the direction of the respective mass, Figure 2.24.

close to current-connection

Figures 2.25 and 2.26 show how by various measures the magnetic arc blow can be compensated or even

close to large workpiece masses


The positioning of the electrodes in
in gaps towards the weld

opposite direction brings about the correct placement of the weld metal. Numerous strong tacks close the


© ISF 2002

magnetic flux inside the workpiece. By additional, opposite placed steel

Arc Blow Effect on Steel Parts

masses as well as by skilful transfer Figure 2.24

tilting of electrode

through additional blocks of steel great number of tacks

through relocating the currentconnection (rarely used) the welding sequence


through using a welding transformer alternating current (not applicable for all types of electrodes)


© ISF 2002


© ISF 2002

Figure 2.25

Figure 2.26

in damp working conditions Water content of the coating 1.28 Water Content of the Coating after Storage and Baking . Figure 2.cdr © ISF 2002 tibility.74 0. particularly those with a basic.1 0 30 br-er2-28.0 % 0.0 the water absorption of a stick electrode may vary strongly during stor- 1.cdr basic-coated electrode (having been stored at 18 .39 0. is used minimises the influence of the magnetic arc blow.3 0.2 0. rutile or cellulosic cover have to be baked before welding to keep the water content of the cover during welding below the permissible values in order to avoid hydrogen-induced cracks.20°C for one year) 0. Figure 2.c.28. Manual Metal Arc Welding 25 of the power supply point the various reasons for arc deflection can be eliminated. Baking is carried out in special ovens. The baking temperature and time are specified by the manufacturer.7 0. The absorbed humidity leads during subsequent weld- 0 0 1 10 Tage 100 ing frequently to an increased hydrogen content in the weld metal and.0 age.5 0.8 0. increases cold cracking suscep- Time of storage br-er2-27. Figure 2.27 Stick electrodes.27.9 0.6 0. thus. Water content of the coating 3.0 Depending on the electrode covering.5 storage and baking 40 50 60 70 % 80 © ISF 2002 and only just before welding are electrodes from taken out electrically heated receptacles. The fast magnetic reversal 4.4 0.0 % 20°C / 70% RF when a.28 AWS A5. 2. Figure 2.2.

Submerged Arc Welding 2003 .3.

3. The arc burns in a cavity filled with ionised gases and vapours where the droplets from the flux hopper electrode contact piece continuously- fed wire electrode are transferred into the weld pool.cdr © ISF 2002 stall a flux excess pickup behind the torch. pending on the degree of automation it is possible to inbr-er3-02e.1. Figure 3. Figure 3.1 Main components of a submerged arc welding unit are: the wire electrode reel. Unfused flux can be extracted from behind the welding head and subsequently recycled. Submerged Figure 3. the wire feed motor equipped with grooved wire feed rolls which are suitable for the demanded wire diameters. br-er3-01e.cdr Process Principle of Submerged Arc Welding Figure 3. Flux supply is carried out via a hose from the flux container to the feeding hopper mounted torch which on is the DeAC or DC current supply wire straightener wire feed rolls flux supply indicators power source wire reel welding machine holder head. a wire straigthener as well as a torch head for current transmission.2. Submerged Arc Welding 26 In submerged arc welding a mineral weld flux layer protects the welding point and the freezing weld from the influence of the surrounding atmosphere.2 Assembly of a SA Welding Equipment .

Submerged Arc Welding 27 arc welding can be operated using alloy type Mn commercial wire electrodes S1 S2 S3 S4 S2Mo S3Mo S4Mo S2Ni1 S2Ni2 S2NiMo1 S3NiMo1 S3NiV1 S1NiCrMo2.5 0.5 2.10 Mn = 1.6 0.5 0.50 S2 1.10 Si = 0.5 1.5 main alloying elements Mn Ni Mo Cr V 0.0 1.5 0.-no.11 Si = 0.5 1. Non-ageing. Connected to this. power source where the electrode is normally connected to the positive terminal.0 2.3 tant steels in DIN pr EN 12070 (previously DIN 8575) and for stainless and heat resistant steels in DIN pr EN 12072 (previously DIN 8556-10). Fine-grain structural steels up to StE 420.12 Mn = 1.12 Si = 0.00 C = 0. For high-quality welds with medium wall-thicknesses.0 1.00 Mo = 0. Fine-grain structural steels up to StE 420. no tendency to porosity of unkilled steels. structural steel engineering. Standardisation for welding filler materials for unalloyed steels as well as for fine-grain structural steels is contained in DIN EN 756.0 2.5425 S2Ni1 S2Ni2 S3NiMo1 For quenched and tempered fine-grain structural steels.5 0.10 Si = 0.5 boiler and tank construction.3.00 C = 0. Suitable for normalising and/or re-quenching and tempering. Working temperatures of up 500 °C. For welding low-temperature fine-grain structural steels.5 1.5 0.0 1. power source or a d. Especially suitable for welding of pipe steels. Welding advance is provided by the welding machine or by workpiece movement.00 Mo = 0.00 Ni = 2. Non-ageing.0 2.00 Ni = 1.09 Mn = 0.5035 C = 0.0 1.cdr strength and nickel for toughness. shipbuilding.20 C = 0. Suitable for higher-strength fine-grain structural steels.12 Mn = 1.8 0.0 1.8 0. in: pipe production.c.5034 DIN EN 756 Reference analysis mat.4.10 Si = 0. Especially suitable for low-temperature welds.0 1.10 Si = 0. S3 1.4 .0 1.0 1. boiler and tank construction.3.0 1. most important alloying elements are manganese for strength.5%.08 1.5064 S2Si 1. Fine-grain structural steels up to StE 380. sructural steel engineering. weight % S1 C = 0.50 C = 0. approx.6 0. shipbuilding For higher welding joint quality requirements.5 0. for creep resis- br-er3-03e.cdr Figure 3.50 C = 0. Figure 3.30 Mn = 1.5 1. Figure 3.00 Properties and application For lower welding joint quality requirements.5 2. molybdenum for high-temperature S2Mo 1. pipe production.5 S2NiCrMo1 S3NiCrMo2.20 C = 0.15 Mn = 1.15 0. Figure 3. MnMo Ni NiMo NiV NiCrMo Identification of wire electrodes for submerged arc welding is based on From a diameter of 3 mm upwards all wire electrodes have to be marked with the following symbols: S1 Si Mo S6: I : _ : IIIIII Example: S2Si: II _ S3Mo: III © ISF 2002 the average Mn-content and is carried out in steps of 0.15 Mn = 1.09 Si = 0.15 Mn = 1. For welding in boiler and tank construction and pipeline production with creep-resistant steels. © ISF 2002 br-er3-04e.0 1.0 1. The proportions of additional alloying elements are dependent on the materials to be welded and on the mechanical-technological demands which emerge from the prevailing operating conditions.6 0.50 Ni = 1.0351 Si = 0.5 either an a.5 0.

The fragments or grains are subsequently ground and screened – thus bringing about the desired grain size.S2Mo of wire electrodes for submerged arc welding is stan- DIN main no....5. S2Ni1Mo. S4Mo. S3Ni1. with regard of their future composition. Figure 3.3. compressed air is additionally blown into the water tank resulting in finely blistered grains with low bulk weight.6 br-er3-06e. S3Ni1Mo. S2Ni2. S1Si. S2Ni3. S2Si2. weighed and subsequently lime quarz rutile bauxite magnesite fused in a cupola or electric furnace.5. electrical furnace granulation tub coal-burning stove As a third variant. S1Mo. Symbols of the chemical composition: S0.5Mo br-er3-05e.5 During manufacture of fused welding fluxes the individual mineral constituents are. In the dry granulation process.5. S2Si. S3Ni1.. S2Ni1.. S2Ni1..cdr foaming cylindrical crusher screen air drying oven balance © ISF 2002 . Submerged Arc Welding 28 The identification W i r e e l e c t r o d e DIN EN 756 . Figure 3.6. S1. During water granulation the melt hardens to form small grains with a diameter of tapping raw material molten metal air coke roasting kiln silos balance coke approximately 5 mm. Figure 3. S3Si.S4. the melt is poured stresses break the crust into large fragments. S4Si. dardised in DIN EN 756.cdr Identification of a Wire Electrode in Accordance with DIN EN 756 Figure 3.

a lower bulk weight (lower consumption) which allows the use of components which are reacting among assessment : -. . Agglomerated fluxes have.7 Properties Fused fluxes 1) The fused welding fluxes are characterised by high homogeneity. + good. good storing properties and high abrasion resistance. Water evaporation in the drying cooling pipe oven hardens the grains./++ -/+ -/++ -/++ +/++ +/++ +/++ +/++ +/++ 2) 3.cdr Figure 3. Figure 3.8 . Submerged Arc Welding 29 During manufacture of agglomer- rutile Mn . sintering furnace silos ball mill mixer balance After weighing and with the aid of a suitable binding agent (waterglass) a pre-stage granulate is produced in the mixer. Figure Agglomerated 1) fluxes uniformity of grain size distribution grain strength homogeneity susceptibility to moisture storing properties resistance to dirt current carrying capacity slag removability high-speed welding properties multiple-wire weldability flux consumption 1) 2) +/++ +/++ +/++ +/++ +/++ --/+ +/++ -/+ +/++ -/++ -/+ -/++ -/++ -.moderate.cdr © ISF 2002 nealing furnace the remaining water is subsequently removed at temperatures of between 500°C and 900°C. low sensitivity to moisture. Figure 3. In the anbalance br-er3-07e.3. gas dish granulator drying oven Manufacture of the granulate is finished on a rotary dish granulator where the individual grains are rolled heat treatment furnace screen up to their desired size and consolidate.8. The technological properties of the welded joint can be improved by the addition of temperature-sensitive deoxidation and alloying constituents to the flux.ore fluorspar magnesite alloys ated weld fluxes the raw materials are very finely ground. in general. ++ very good core agglomerated flux © ISF 2002 br-er3-08e.7.bad. An important advantage of the agglomerated fluxes is the relatively low manufacturing temperature. depending on the type of flux.

due to the higher Mn pickup.unsusceptible to pores and undercuts . on the other hand the lower current carrying capacity of these fluxes has to ZS RS AR be accepted.suitable for a. 20% max. 40% min.low silicon pickup . classified into nine groups. 50% max.single and multi wire welding .average manganese and silicon pickup . . aluminate-silicate aluminate-fluoride-basic fluoride-basic br-er3-09e. 15% min. 15% min. 55% min. 20% min.current carrying capacity decreases with increaseing basicity . 40% min.c.unsuitable for thick parts . Submerged Arc Welding 30 themselves during MS CS ZS RS AR AB MnO + SiO2 CaO CaO + MgO + SiO2 CaO + MgO ZrO2 + SiO2 + MnO ZrO2 TiO2 + SiO2 TiO2 Al2O3 + TiO2 Al2O3 + CaO + MgO Al2O3 CaF2 Al2O3 + SiO 2 + ZrO2 CaF2 + MgO ZrO2 Al2O3 + CaF2 CaO + MgO + CaF2 + Mo SiO2 CaF2 other compositions AS AF FB Z min. 30% min.application fields: thin-walled tanks. A high Si pickup leads to a high current currying capacity up to 2500 A and a deep penetration. A low Si pickup has low cracking tendency and liability to rust. The calcium silicate fluxes are recognized by their effective silicon pickup. 20% min.3. The composition of the individual flux groups is to be considered as in principle.cdr Figure 3. and d. good mechanical br-er3-10ae.suitable for welding by the pass/ capping method of thick parts with low requirements basic types .high current carrying capacity/ high weld speed . Figure 3.15% min. Aluminate-basic fluxes have.c. 50% max.restricted toughness values of the weld metal . However.suitable for multiple pass welding . the higher susceptibility to moisture during storage andprocessing has to be taken intoconsideration. 45% min. in accordance with their mineralogical constituents.restricted toughness values . 5% min. as fluxes which belong to the same group may differ substantially with regards to their MS .suitable for single and multi wire welding .9.highest current carrying capacity of all fluxes .high-speed welding of single-pass welds . fillet welds for structural steel construction and shipbuilding © ISF 2002 welding or weld metal properties. 22% min.10a .high manganese and silicon pickup .9 The SA welding fluxes are.typical: welding by the pass/ capping pass method .high silicon pickup . 50% min. 40% min. In addition to the groups mentioned above there is also the Z-group which allows free compositions of the flux. 70% min.suitable for high-speed welding and fillet welds CS acidic types . 15% manganese-silicate calcium-silicate zirconium-silicate rutile-silicate aluminate-rutilel aluminate-basic the melting process.high manganese pickup/ high silicon pickup .cdr Different Welding Flux Types According to DIN EN 760 Figure 3.

c.however. Submerged Arc Welding 31 properties.all other compositions © ISF 2002 electrodes. a low cracking tendency can be obtained.11 shows the identification of a welding flux according to DIN EN 760 by the example of a fused calcium silicate flux.10a and 3.3% (6).good weld appearance and slag removability .suitable for welding stainless steels and nickel-base alloys .9) flux class 1-3 (table 1) br-er3-11e. flux/SA welding method of manufacture F fused A agglomerated M mechanically mixed flux hydrogen content (table 4) type of current metallurgical behaviour (table 2) 10 ml/100 g metal.manganese burnoff possible .applicable for multilayer welding or welding by the pass/ capping pass method .cdr Figure 3. flux type (figure 3. . general structural steels.highest toughness values right down to very low temperatures .mainly neutral metallurgical behavior .g.cdr Identification of a Welding Flux According to DIN EN 760 Figure 3.11 . power source. can be used. pressure vessels. as.c. Si and other constituents . or a. as. while the manganese pickup is expected to be 0. With the application of wire AB .c.good toughness values in welding by the pass/ capping pass method . Figures 3. The hydrogen content in the clean weld metal is lower than the weld DIN main no.application field: high-tensile fine-grain structural steeels .c. in principle.application field:unalloyed and low alloyed structural steels .c. . This type of flux is suitable for the welding of joints as well as for overlap welds. The flux can Z br-er3-10be.3.1 – 0. S2 or S2Mo.suitable for a. AF FB Figure 3. a.c. The silicon pickup is 0. Either d.mainly neutral metallurgical behaviour .application field: high-tensile fine grain structural steels. AS Fluoride-basic fluxes are characterised by good weld metal impact values and high cracking insensitivity.medium manganese pickup . weldability allows w e l d i n g f l u x D I N EN 760-SF CS 1 67 AC H10 also for d.recommended for multi layer welds for high toughness requirements . e.10b show typical properties and application areas for the different flux some degree suitable for d.10b be used for SA welding of unalloyed and low-alloy steels. as S1. and d.3 – 0.recommended for multi layer welds .and offshore components . as well as for welding hightensile and creep resistant steels. nuclear. manganese burnoff possible .good weldability .limited current carrying capacity and welding speed .5% (7).neutral behaviour as regards Mn.c.

Cr.5 0.7 0. The flux classes also characterise the metallurgical material behaviour.12 Figure 3.13 shows the identification of a wire-flux combination and the resultant weld metal.5 up to 0. Figure 3.5 up to 0.3 up to 0. Mo for the flux class 1 2 3 metallurgial behaviour identification proportion flux in all-weld metal figure % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 over 0.cdr shows a minimum yield point of 460 N/mm² (46) and a mini- chemical composition of the wire electrode type of flux (figure 3. Submerged Arc Welding 32 The flux classes 1-3 (table 1) explain the suitability of a flux for welding certain material groups.10) mum metal impact value of 47 J at – 30°C (3). It is a case of a combination for multipass SA welding where the weld metal wire-flux combination D I N E N 7 5 6 . In table 2 defines the identification figure table 2 table 1 unalloyed and low-alloyed steel general structural steel high-tensile & creep resistant steels stainless and heat resistant steels Cr.1 up to 0.1 up to 0. The flux type is aluminate- impact energy (table 3) basic (AB) and is used with a wire of Identification of a Wire-Flux Combination According to DIN EN 756 the quality S2.7 0.3 0 up to 0.cdr Parameters for Flux Identification According to DIN EN 760 Figure 3.3 0.13 .& CrNi steels welding of joints hardfacing pickup of elements as C. br-er3-12e. 5 10 15 weld metal.3 up to 0. wire electrode and/or wire-flux combination for submerged arc welding strength and fracture strain (table1 and 2) br-er 3-13e.7 over 0.5 0. for welding of joints and for overlap welding.7 pickup or burn-off behaviour of the respective ment.1 0. Figure 3.12.3. Table ele4 burnoff pickup or burnoff pickup table 4 identification H5 H10 H15 shows the gradation of the diffusible content hydrogen in the hydrogen content ml/100g all-weld metal max.S 4 6 3 AB S2 standard no.

15.14 The diagram of the characteristics for 3 different welding fluxes assists. Figure 3. Submerged Arc Welding 33 The tables for the identification of the tensile properties as well as of the impact energy are combined in Figure 3. in direct dependence on the weld parameters table 3 Identification for the impact energy of clean all-weld metal or of welding by the pass/ capping pass method welded joints identification temp. in base metal slag dilution welding data welding flux droplet reaction welding filler metal welding data dependence of the used wire elec- trodes.cdr © ISF 2002 metal leads to various strong weld pool reactions. The different combinations of filler material and welding flux cause.15 Metallurgical Reactions During Submerged Arc Welding . The chemical composition of the weld table 1 identification Identification for strength properties of multipass weld joints minimum yield point n/mm2 tensile strength minimum fracture strain N/mm2 % metal and the structural constitution are dependent on the different metallurgical reactions during the welding process as well as on the used materials. a different melting behaviour and also different chemical reactions. The welding flux 35 38 42 46 50 355 380 420 460 500 440 up to 570 470 up to 600 500 up to 640 530 up to 680 560 up to 720 22 20 20 20 18 table 2 identification 2T 3T 4T 5T Identification for strength properties of welding by the pass/ capping pass method welded joints minimum base metal yield strength N/mm2 275 355 420 500 minimum tensile strength N/mm2 370 470 520 600 influences the slag viscosity. this being dependent on the weld parameters. For example: A welding flux with Figure 3.3. to determine the pickup and weld pool reaction welding data burn-off of the behaviour element br-er 3-15e.16. Figure 3.14.cdr weld metal manganese. Figure 3. for minimum impact energy 47J °C Z no demands A +20 0 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (current. voltage). The dilution with the base -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 br-er3-14e. the pool motion and the bead surface.

Silicon pickup increases with the increased voltage. the welding current also has practically no influence on the location of the neutral point.0% Mn in wire S6 tral point where neither pickup nor burn-off occur. has a neu1. As the welding voltage. Figure 3. also directly dependent on the welding amperage and welding voltage. pickup/ burnoff rX in weight % % Mn wire weld flux LW 280 current intensity 580 A welding speed 55 cm/min neutral point Inversely proportional to the voltage is the rising characteristic as regards manganese in dependence on the welding current. By the example of the selected flux a higher welding voltage causes a more steeply descending manganese characteristic at a constant neutral point. The influence of current and voltage on the carbon content is. negligible. Mn-burnoff br-er 3-16e.0% S4 S5 3. besides the filler material and the welding flux.18. Submerged Arc Welding 34 the mean charac- Mn-pickup teristic and when a wire electrode S3 is used.17 .cdr Manganese-Pickup and Manganese-Burnoff During Submerged Arc Welding Figure 3.16 The pickup and burn-off behaviour is. Figure 3.0% S1 S2 S3 2.3. Higher currents cause the characteristic curve to flatten.17. Silicon pickup decreases with increasing current intensity. as a rule.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 3. % Si wire % C wire br-er3-17e.

neutral point In this example.6% ∆Mn and 1.25% MnSZ. the two points are positioned at % C wire 0. Dependent on the manganese content of the used filler material. Figure 3.20.cdr © ISF 2002 tents can be recognized by the reflection with respect to the characteristic line Figure 3. exactly the same as described above. Thier example: I = 580 A U = 29 V MnSZ1 = 0.2% Mn-burnoff with a wire containing 1.69 % Mn The structure of the characteristic line for the determination of the silicon pickup content. In this case.75%Mn). the pickup or burn-off con- br-er3-18e. to Prof.38% Mn-pickup with a wire containing 0. br-er3-19e. flux diagramm LW 280. is.3. with the aid of the auxiliary straight line % Si wire and the neutral point curve (MnNP).19 . 0.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 3. Figure 3. manganese wire electrode 4 mm Ø acc.5%Mn.48 % Mn MnSZ2 = 1.18 (0.19. in principle. Submerged Arc Welding 35 The Mn-content of the weld metal can be weld flux LW 280 arc voltage 29 V welding speed 55 cm/min determined by means of a welding flux diagram. As silicon has only pickup properties and therefore no neutral point exists. the second auxiliary straight line must be considered for the determination of the second characteristic line point. the two points on the axis which determine the flux characteristic are defined for the parameters 600A pickup/ burnoff rX in weight % % Mn wire 450 A welding current and 29V welding voltage.

Another variation of heavy-plate welded preparation geometry weld buildup and joints is the so-called “steep single-V butt weld”. This technique.cdr manual metal arc welding SA SA SA SA SA SA manual metal arc welding manual metal arc welding SA SA SA SA Welding Procedure Sheets for Single-V Butt Welds. to Prof. Thier example: tion and also no support of the weld pool is made.20 weld quality.16 % Si auxiliary straight line When welding very thick plates which are accessible from both sides.22. Before the opposite side is welded.21 br-er 3-21e. the root pass must be welded using low energy input. although exact weld preparation and correct selection of the welding parameters lead to a high Figure 3. the double-U butt weld may be applied. the root must be milled out (gouging/sanding). requires the application of special narrow-gap torches. however. I = 580 A U = 29 V SiSZ = 0.cdr © ISF 2002 and is.23. Figure 3.3.21. Single-Y Butt Welds with Broad Root Faces and Double-V Butt Welds The geometry during slag detachment and . Figure 3. as milling is necessary. Figure 3. Submerged Arc Welding 36 Weld preparations for multipass fabrication are dependent on the thickness of the plates to be welded. If no root is planned during weld preparaflux diagramm LW 280. Figure 3. The very steep edges keep the welding volume at a very low level. silicon wire electrode 4 mm Ø acc. more expensive. This type of weld cannot be produced by flame cutting auxiliary straight line br-er3-20e.

voltage and speed. be- SA welding lower SA welding oscillated br-er3-23e.24. slag re- Welding Procedure Sheet for Double-U Butt Welds Figure 3. Submerged Arc Welding 37 also during rework- preparation geometry weld buildup ing weld-related defects may cause side 1 manual metal arc welding turning and sanding manual metal arc welding SA SA problems.3.23 .cdr welding fluxes facilitate moval. high demands are made on torch manipulation process and control.a decrease of the penetration depth. also to narrower beads.on both sides of an optimum . Figure 3. Welding Procedure Sheet for Square-Edge Welds Figure 3. Here. turn SA SA turn side 2 SA SA turn SA SA Special narrow-gap © ISF 2002 br-er3-22e. The increased welding voltage leads to a longer arc which also causes the bead to be wider. the weld pool running ahead of the welding arc acts as a buffer between arc and base metal. The change in welding speed causes . which leads to reinforced beads and a deeper penetration. per the unit GMA welding GMA welding energy length which sides decreases leads. A higher welding current causes higher deposition rates and energy input.22 The most important welding parameters as regards weld bead formation are welding current. At lower weld speeds.cdr © ISF 2002 penetration. At high speeds. The weld width remains roughly constant.

the specific consumption of agglomerated fluxes is direction of welding lower than that of fused fluxes.8 0.0 1.2 0 A) flat weld .cdr © ISF 2002 br-er3-25e.26).2 1.26 .8 1.4 1.cdr © ISF 2002 length (the principle is shown in Figure 3.2 0 400 B) fillet weld fused composition fluxes agglomerated fluxes 500 600 700 welding speed (v) br-er3-24e. Due to geometrical shape.25 Weld flux consumption is dependent on the selected weld type. Because of their lower bulk weight. the flux consumption of a fillet weld is significantly lower than that of a butt weld.25.8 0.2 1.cdr 800 900 1000 1100 current intensity (A) © ISF 2002 Figure 3.0 0. 3 1 2 Two different control L1 concepts allow the L2 regulation of the arc L3 br-er3-26e.6 0.4 0.24 Figure 3. Submerged Arc Welding 38 constant: w tp plate thickness: wire electrode: flux: penetration depth tp in mm welding current (I) constant: I w tp weld width b in mm 2.4 2.4 1.0 0.6 0.3.6 1. Figure 3.4 0.I square butt joint fused composition fluxes consumption kg flux / kg wire agglomerated fluxes 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 current intensity (A) arc voltage (U) consumption kg flux/ kg wire w te constant: I 1.6 1.2 2. The applica- Control of the Arc Length tion of the appropriate control system is Figure 3.

I Figure 3. ceramic backing bar backing flux The reaction of the internal regulation to process disturbance is very fast. As a regulated quantity. the initial arc length can be regulated at an almost constant deposition rate. a strong current rise at a low voltage I´ internal self regulation ( ∆ I-regulation) br-er3-27e.cdr Figure 3. In this case.28 . this voltage drop reduces the wire feed speed.27. it is. the internal regulation effects. This process is self regulating and does not require any machine expenditure. the shortening of the arc caused by some process disturbance. depending on the weld preparation. entails a strong U U0 US ∆U IS I A A´ ∆I I © ISF 2002 voltage drop at a low current rise. flux copper backing In submerged arc welding of butt joints. necessary to support the br-er3-28e.27 drop (slightly descending characteristic). when the arc is reduced. Thus. U U0 US A ∆U A´ ∆I IS IK external regulation ( ∆ U-regulation) I I´ The external regulation of the arc length by the control of the wire feed speed requires a power source with a steeply descending characteristic. At a constant wire feed speed the initial arc length is independently regulated by the increased burn-off rate which again is a consequence of the high current. Submerged Arc Welding 39 dependent on the available power source characteristics. In contrast.3.cdr Examples of Weld Pool Backups Figure 3.

In twin wire . Figure parallel twin wire tandem. the best weld shapes may be obtained with an adjusted an- α1 = 0° α2 α3 gular position of the torch. also applicable to internal tube welds. twin wire 3. Figure 3. This is normally done with either a ceramic or copper backing with a flux layer or by a backing flux. Dependent on the shape of the backing bar.28. the molten bath runs ahead and produces a narrow weld with a medium-sized ridge. where up to 6 wires are used. each welding torch br-er3-30e. direct formation of the underside seam can be achieved.3. Figure 3.30 Process Variations of Submerged-Arc Welding source.cdr © ISF 2002 is operated from a separate power Figure 3.29. In multiwire welding. 0° 30° the inclination angle of the electrode has a direct influence onto the formation of the weld bead. If the advance is too low. The t1 t2 inclusion br-er3-29e. the other way round. For external as well as for internal tube welds. too high b1 b2 b3 an advance causes the flowback of t3 the molten bath and a wide seam with a formed trough in the centre.29 To increase the single wire tandem efficiency of submerged arc welding.30. Submerged Arc Welding 40 liquid weld pool with a backing.cdr © ISF 2002 processes described here for external tube welds are. different process variations are applied. When welding circumferential tubes. Figure 3.

31 In submerged arc welding with iron powder addition can the deposition rate be substantially increased at constant electrical parameters.16 ~ 80° ~ 15 18 ~ ~ 75° 12 © ISF 2002 . Figure 3. Figure 3. Submerged Arc Welding 41 welding.cdr Process Variations of Submerged-Arc Welding dem. two wire electrodes are connected in one torch and supplied iron powder/ chopped wire cold wire from one power source. Figure 3.3. the wires can be hot wire strip arranged © ISF 2002 in a parallel or in a tanbr-er3-31e. WH 2. geometrical coordination of the individual weld heads and the selected weld parameters also have substantial influence on the weld result. WH ~ 3. where the electrode distances and positions have to be appropriately optimised.32 four-wire welding br-er3-32e. the mentioned process = variations can be combined over wide ranges. The increased deposition rate is realised by either the addition of a currentless wire (cold wire) or of a preheated filler wire (hot wire).16 2. WH 2.32. The use of a rectangular strip instead of a wire electrode allows a higher current carrying capacity and opens the SA method also for the wide application range of surfacing. WH 3.cdr three-wire. hot wire welding 15 10 10 35 12. WH ~ 65° 12. three-wire welding = 35 1. Current type.. Dependent on the application.. WH HW = 1. polarity. WH ~ ~ However. Figure 3..31. WH ~ 65° 12.16 tandem welding 1.

c. current intensity 12 kg/h weld metal 9 6 ∅5.3. Submerged Arc Welding 42 The description of these individual process variations of submerged arc 100 kg/h welding shows that this method can be applied sensibly and economically single wire+ metal powder single wire+ hot wire double wire three-wire tandem single wire 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 A 3500 four-wire deposition rate 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 over a very wide operating range.0 mm voltage = 30 V speed = 40 cm/min wire protrusion = 10d length ∅3.0 mm ∅ 4.) and also sensible phase (+) _ _( ) + arc _ + _ displacements between the individual welding Figure 3.33 When more than one wire is used in order to obtain a high deposition rate.c. arc interactions occur due to magnetic arc blow.34. Due to large molten pools and flux application positional welding is not possible.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 3. selection of the the (_) + (_) + elektrode + _ + ~ current type (d.0 mm 3~ ~ 0 300 400 500 600 A 800 current intensity br-er3-33e. Therefore. Magnetic Interaction of Arcs at SA Tandem Welding .33.34 workpiece br-er3-34e. Figure 3.cdr © ISF 2002 torches are very important. or a. It is a high-efficiency welding process with a deposition rate of up to 100 kg/h. Figure 3.

TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 2003 .4.

1 The potential curve of the ideal arc. to DIN ISO 857 Figure 4.Tungsten plasma gas welding welding with TIG electrode Tungsten hydrogen welding plasma arc welding. as shown in Figure 4.consumable tungsten electhe in Gas-shielded metal arc welding GMAW Metal inert-gas welding MIG Metal active gas welding MAG CO2 welding plasma metal arc welding Mixed gas welding Gas-shielded tungsten arc welding trode and or.2 . Figure 4. A similarly drop high oc- US 10 0 voltage 10 br-er4-02e. Classification of Gas-Shielded Arc Welding acc. In all processes mentioned in Figure mm. between the tungsten electrode Plasma arc Plasma arc Plasma welding with arc welding welding with semi-transferred non-transferred with transferred arc arc arc © ISF 2002 and a live copper electrode inside br-er4-01e. Arc Potential Curve over a length of 0. Figure 4.2. 3600°C) L: arc column (4500-20000°C) l: arc length arc potential curve (example) of 10-4 mm. He) are used as shielding gases. the arc burns between a Gas-shielded arc welding non. Exclusively inert gases (Ar.5 © ISF 2002 however. workpiece narrow-gap gas-shielded arc welding electrogas welding Tungsten inert.cdr the torch. 0.cdr -4 1 2 3 4 mm 5 l curs in the anodedrop region.cathode.arc 3. can be divided into three characteristic sectors: 1.drop region 2.4. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 43 TIG welding and plasma welding belong to the group of the gas-shielded tungsten arc welding processes. here. anode-drop region l In the cathode- drop region almost K L + A 50% voltage of the total drop oc- curs over a length U 20 V A: anode spot (up to 4000°C) K: cathode spot (approx.

UA and UK have different values. depending on the selected shielding gas. There is no discernible expansion of the cath- V UARC 20 anode UA = 6. . Main energy conversion occurs accordingly in the anode-drop and cathode-drop re- UARC 10 anode UA = 3.4 arc length necessarily be higher.5 V length is comparatively low.5 V 1 2 X ARC 3 4 mm 6 cathode 5 gion. Figure 4.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 4. Figure 4. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 44 The voltage drop on the remaining arc 20 Argon 60 A V UK = 6. As the ionisation potential of helium in comparison with argon is higher. arc voltage must arc voltage V 20 he lium 25 4 mm 2 15 4 2 n argo 10 0 50 100 150 200 250 A 350 weld current br-er4-04e.5 V 0 40 Helium 60 A UK = 6.3 The electrical characteristics of the arc differ. Figure 4.1 V 0 1 2 3 4 mm 6 © ISF 2002 10 cathode XARC br-er4--03e.cdr ode-drop and anode-drop region .4.3 shows the potential distribution by the example of a real TIG arc under the influence of different shielding gases. the potential curve in the arc is not exactly linear.4.

I2 melting of wire Figure 4.cdr x x x x x x 2 x x x x x x x x x Figure 4.cdr © ISF 2002 Temperature Distribution in a TIG Arc (at I=100 A) Figure 4. Figure 4.6. 4 6 mm 4 8 thermal conductivity [W/m K] fusion heat [kJ/kg] specific heat [kJ/kg K] © ISF 2002 . Losses result from the arc raradiation P = U . R.5.4.I welding direction diation and heat dissipation in the workpiece and also from the heat conversion in the tungsten electrode.6 x x x 6 2 br-er4-06e.5 In TIG welding just approximately 30% of the input electrical energy may be used for melting the base metal. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding The TIG cathode 10 000 K 9 000 K 8 000 K 45 temperature distribution of a TIG arc is shown in 2 mm x mm x 4 x x 8 4 3 2 1 0 1 anode spot weld pool br-er4-05e.

8 .8 explains by an example the code for a TIG welding wire.cdr © ISF 2002 Designation of a Tungsten Innert Gas Welding Wire to EN 1668 Figure 4.7 describes the process principle of TIG welding.9. 46 Figure 4. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding Figure 4. as stipulated in the drafts of the European Standardisations.4.7 A table with the chemical compositions of the filler materials is shown in Figure 4. W 46 3 W2 chemical composition table rods and wires for tig-welding minimum impact energy value 47 J at -30°C minimum weld metal yield point: 460 N/mm2 identification letter for TIG-welding identification of filler rod as an individual product: W2 br-er4-08e.cdr © isf 2002 Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) Figure 4. tungsten electrode electric contact shielding gas shielding gas nozzle welding power source filler metal weld workpiece arc br-er4-07e.

TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 47 According to Figure 4. Principle Structure of a TIG Welding Installation Figure 4. Figure 4.9 The central part of the torch for TIG welding is the tungsten electrode which is held in a collet inside the torch body.10.cdr © ISF 2002 and ionisation Chemical composition of filler rods and wires for TIG-welding causes between electrode and workpiece. For arc ignition a highhigh frequency voltage is superimposed br-er4-09e.cdr torches + O = ~ duty © ISF 2002 cycles selector switch water-cooled. Figure 4.11. Manually operated for filter capacitor high-frequency choke coil torches welding TIG _ O which are used for high amperages as ~ St high voltage impulse generator well as machine for long are rectifier transformer SC: scattering core for adjusting the characteristic curve br-er4-10e.10 . The hose package contains the supply lines for shielding gas and welding current. The shielding gas nozzle is more often than not made of L1 L2 L3 N PE mains ceramic. a conventional TIG welding installation consists of a transformer. current alternating must be used. a set of rectifiers and a torch. However.4. for welding of aluminium. For most applications an electrode with a negative polarity is used.

The voltage reignition of the arc by voltage impulses non-contact A.cdr decreasing increasing i © isf 2002 Construction of a Water-Cooled Torch for TIG Welding Figure 4.13. TIG arc after a voltage zero cross- + - + - over requires ionitime sation of the electrode-workpiece gap by highhigh pulses. frequent br-er4-13e. Figure 4. Figure 4.12 In order to keep the influence of torch distance variations on the current intensity and thus on the penetration depth as low as possible.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er4-12e.11 Figure 4.4.12.cdr © ISF 2002 Reignition of the Tungsten A.13 . reignition of the a. power sources used for TIG welding always have a steeply drooping characteristic.C.c. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 48 longer arc shorter arc R and U drop R and U rise torch cap with seal handle of the torch control switch control cable I drops I rises arc length short long electrode collet collet case tungsten electrode gas nozzle voltage torch body with cooling device shielding gas supply cooling water supply cooling water return with welding current cable increasing U decreasing current intensity br-er4-11e. Arc Through Voltage Impulses voltage Figure 4.C.

due to the lower melting temperature substantially lower than during the negative phase on the tungsten electrode.c. During the negative phase on the work surface the emission is. as a positive polarity would cause thermal overload of the electrode. a “cleaning effect” takes place which is caused by the impact of the positive charged ions from the shielding gas atmosphere on the negative charged work surface. consequently. With a positive polarity.C. TIG Welding enced. electrode stress The thermal and the + time 0 + + . this has a disturbing side-effect. these materials are welded with alternating current. However. However.4.14. As a consequence. Figure 4.cdr © isf 2002 cleaning effect may be freely influ- Influence of the Half-Wave Components during A. metals as. aluminium and magnesium. component which results in equal half-wave components. A filter capacitor in the welding current circuit filters out the d. cannot be welded with a negative polarity electrode. the current flow are dependent on the temperature of the cathode. however. The electron emission and. With modern transistorised power sources which use without filter capacitor current a current a alternating current + + time 0 + + - electrode polarity time - balanced half-wave components with filter capacitor (square wave) for a faster zero crossover. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 49 When argon is used as a shielding gas.time + - and height of the phase components adjustable. for example. which besides having low melting points and also simultaneously forming tight and hard-to-melt-off oxide skins.time + cleaning effect heat load of the electrode weld seam width stronger increasing smaller br-er4-14e. a positively connected electrode leads to lower welding current flows than this would be the case with a negatively connected electrode. is duration electronic controled power source 0 + + + lower - time + + . thus destroying the oxide skin due to their large cross-section. Figure 4.14 .

flanged weld. welding (higher thermal load by positive half-waves). welding (alternating current) 10°).titanium .plain butt weld.16.cdr © ISF 2002 Electrode Shapes for TIG Welding Figure 4. fillet weld .orbital welding .5.4. materials: .15 shows that the thermal electrode load can be recognized from the shape of the electrode tip.16 . from the economical point of view this applies especially to plate thickness of less than 5 mm.aluminium and aluminium alloys .0 mm weld types: . TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 50 Figure 4. V-type welds.The tip of a thermally overloaded electrode is hemispherical and leads to a stronger spread of the arc and thus to overloaded electrode influence of the electrode shape on penetration profile wider welds with lower penetration. especially high-alloy steel .15 All fusion weldable materials can be joined using the TIG process.0.steels.C.cdr © ISF 2002 Applications of TIG Welding Figure 4. br-er4-15e. Figure 4.copper and copper alloys .root welding br-er4-16e.all positions . electrode for D. welding (direct current) electrode for A.nickel and nickel alloys .5 . The method is. While the normal-load negative connected electrode end has the shape of a pointed cone (point angle approx.C. predestined for welding root passes without backing support. a flattened electrode tip is the result from a.tantalum workpiece thickness: .tube to tube sheet welding .circonium . moreover.surfacing application examples: .c.

In contact tube shielding gas tungsten electrode shielding gas nozzle plasma arc with arc welding transferred burns the arc beplasma gas nozzle plasma gas filler material surface weld non-transferred arc workpiece welding power source Ignition device tween the tungsten electrode (-pole) and the workpiece (+ pole) and is called the “transferred arc”.19.pole) and the plasma gas nozzle (+ pole) and is called the “non-transferred” arc. Figure 4. welding Orbital installa- orbital movement 0 welding current 360 0 tions are equipped with process operational controls determine appropriate parame- rise of current br-er4-17e.. The welding torch moves orbitrally around the pipe. preflow of the shielding gas postflow of the shielding gas movement in switch-on position Moreover.cdr preheating pulsing current decay overlap © ISF 2002 which the Flow Chart of TIG Orbital Welding process ters. the pipe is welded in the positions flat. Figure br-er4-18e. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 51 For circumferential welding of fixed pipes. the TIG orbital welding method is applied. vertical-up and also interpass welding is applied. overhead.17 In plasma arc welding burns the arc between the tungsten electrode (.cdr © isf 2002 Plasma Arc Welding with Non-Transferred Arc 4.18 .e. Figure 4.17. vertical down.18. a de- fect-free weld bead overlap must be shielding gas achieved. The plasma gas constricts the Figure 4.4. i. Figure 4. The non-transferred arc is mainly used for metal-spraying and for the welding of metal-foil strips.

workpiece © ISF 2002 Plasma Arc Welding with Semi-Transferred Arc Figure 4. Figure 4.cdr © isf 2002 transferred mainly used Plasma Arc Welding with Transferred Arc welding of joints.4. besides the water-cooled welding torch.cdr tungsten electrode penetration. a gas supply for plasma gas (Ar) and shielding gas (ArH2-mixture. This process variant is used for microplasma welding. Figure 4. the gas supply is. for example.20 The plasma welding equipment includes. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 52 arc and leads to a more Ignition device welding power source contact tube shielding gas nozzle shielding gas plasma gas nozzle plasma gas tungsten electrode concentrated heat input than in TIG welding and allows thus the exploitation of the “keyhole effect”.21.21. Figure 4. in comparison with TIG welding.19 Plasma arc welding with semi-transferred arc is a combination of the two methods mentioned above. to a more concentrated heat input and thus to deeper contact tube shielding gas nozzle shielding gas conveying gas and welding filler (powder) plasma gas plasma gas nozzle surface weld non-transferred arc transferred arc br-er4-20e. as. at work- piece edges. Ar/He mixture or Ar). plasma-arc powder surfacing and weld-joining of aluminium. in most cases. An arc that has been genignition device erated in this way welding power source burns more stable and is not easy to deflect. Plasma arc work piece filler material seam welding arc with is for transferred arc br-er4-19e.20 . separated. Figure 4. The copper anode and the additional focusing gas flow constrict the plasma arc which leads.

23. Figure 4.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 4.cdr © ISF 2002 Arc Shapes in Microplasma Welding with Different Shielding Gases desired cylindrical arc shape.4.22 The TIG arc is cone shaped or bell shaped. use of a mixture of argon with hydrogen results in the often br-er4-23e.23 . a decisive influence onto the arc The arc length configuration. The plasma arc.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er4-22e. respectively. 50% helium argon plasma gas: argon its thermal conductivity.22.5% hydrogen helium 50% argon. in comparison. The shielding gas used in plasma arc welding exerts. burns highly concentrated with almost parallel flanks. Figure 4. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 53 br-er4-21e.21 Figure 4. and has an aperture angle of 45°. due to Arc shapes of shielding gases: argon with 6. Figure 4.

br-er4-25e. Behind the plasma jet as result of the surface tension and the vapour pressure in weld surface the keyhole. The plasma jet penetrates the material.24.cdr © ISF 2002 Microplasma Welding of a Diaphragm Disk Made of CrNi Figure 4. root br-er4-24e.25 .05 and 50 A.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 4. Figure 4. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 54 In plasma arc welding of plates thicker plasma torch than 2.24 Very thin sheets and metal-foils can be welded using microplasma welding with amperages between 0.4. welding direction forming a weld keyhole. the liquid metal flows back together and the weld bead is keyhole created.5mm the so-called “keyhole effect” is utilised. During welding the plasma jet with the keyhole weld (seam) moves along the joint edges.

26 show these application examples: The circumferential weld in a diaphragm disk with a wall thickness of 0.25 and 4.26 .cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 4.4. br-er4-26e.15mm and the joining of fine metal grids made of Cr-Ni steel. TIG Welding and Plasma Arc Welding 55 Figures 4.

5. Gas– Shielded Metal Arc Welding 2003 .

as the positive pole is strongly heated than the negative pole.1. consumable electrode br-er5-01e.cdr non consumable electrode © ISF 2002 Classification of Gas-Shielded Arc Welding Processes Figure 5.1 In contrast to TIG welding.cdr wire feed unit water cooling shielding gas control device control switch cooling water control rectifier transformer welding power source © ISF 2002 quently rectified. the electrogas and the narrow gap welding and also the gasshielded plasma tungsten inert-gas welding (TIG) plasma jet welding (WPS) tungsten plasma welding (WP) plasma arc welding (WPL) hydrogen tungsten arc welding (WHG) plasma jet plasma arc welding (WPSL) gas mixture gas metalarc CO2 metal-arc welding welding (GMMA) (MAGC) metal arc welding. thus improving the melting characteristics of the feed wire. there are gas-shielded arc welding (SG) gas-shielded metal-arc welding (GMAW) metal inert gas welding (MIG) electrogas welding (MSGG) Narrow-gap gasshielded arc welding (MSGE) metal active gas welding (MAG) plasma gas metal arc welding (MSGP) two more process tungsten gasshielded welding variants. where the electrode is normally negative in order to avoid the melting of the tungsten electrode. Besides. this effect is exploited in MIG welding. Figure 5. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 56 The difference between gas-shielded metal arc welding (GMA) and the gas tungsten arc welding process is the consumable electrode.2 shows the principle of a GMA welding installation. Figure 5. a combination of both plasma welding and MIG welding. Essentially the process is classified as metal inert gas welding (MIG) and metal active gas welding (MAG).5.2 . The welding power source is assembled using the following assembly groups: The transformer converts the mains voltage to low voltage which is subsebr-er5-02e. GMA Welding Installation Figure 5.

current and cooling water.3 machine torch has no handle and its shape is straight or swan-necked. 20 or 30m 5 to 10m with a separate wire feed housing is the most frequently the industry. The shielding gas nozzle is shaped to ensure a steady gas flow in the arc space. The hose package contains the wire core and also supply lines for shielding gas.4 . A Types of Welding Installations Figure 5. The current is transferred to the wire electrode over the contact tube.cdr © ISF 2002 Manual Gas-Shielded Arc Welding Torch Figure 5.3.5.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 5. 1 torch handle 2 torch neck 3 torch trigger 4 hose package 5 shielding gas nozzle 6 contact tube 7 contact tube fixture 8 insulator 9 wire core 10 wire guide tube 11 wire electrode 12 shielding gas supply 13 welding current supply br-er5-04e. the latter for contact tube cooling. used variant in br-er5-03e. where the universal device 10. The process control ensures that once set welding data are adhered to. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 57 Apart from the torch cooling and the shielding gas control. the process compact device universal device 5.4 shows in detail a manually operated inert-gas shielded torch with the common swan-neck shape. thus protecting arc and molten pool against the atmosphere. mini-spool device push-pull device A selection of common welding installation variants is depicted in Figure 5. 10 or 20m 3 to 5m 3 to 5m control is the most important installation component.

The wire is pulled off a wire reel and fed into the hose package. The voltage drops slowly while the arc shortens. Electrode and workpiece br-er5-06e. Here. which shows different grooves depending on the used material.cdr Wire Drives Figure 5.cdr Wire-Drive”. as shown in Figure 5. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 58 A so-called “Two-Wire-Drive” wire 1 4 2 2 feed system is of the most simple design. material is molten 1 2 3 1 wire guide tube 2 roller holding device 3 drive rollers © ISF 2002 and accumulates at the electrode end. planetary drive 1 3 4 3 1 2 2 1 wire guide tube 2 drive rollers 3 counter pressure rollers 4 wire guide tube 3 direction of rotation Figure 5. The counterpressure roller generates the frictional force which is needed for wire 5 1 wire reel 2 wire guide tube 6 3 wire transport roll 4 counter pressure roll feeding. is driven by an electric motor. During the burning phase of the arc.5 4-roller drive the risk of wheel slip. where the wire is fed in axial direction by the motor. The wire transport F 4 4 3 roller.7 depicts the metal transfer in the short arc range. the second pair of rollers guarantees higher feeding reliability by reducing Wire Feed System Figure 5. Another design among the wire feed drive systems is the planetary drive.5.6. Figure 5.6 . A rectilinear rotation-free wire feed motion is the outcome of the motor rotation and the angular offset of the drive rollers which are firmly connected to the motor shaft.5. More complicated but following the same operation principle is the “Four© ISF 2002 5 wire feed roll with a V-groove for steel electrodes 6 wire feed roll with a rounded groove for aluminium br-er5-05e.

7 welding. Figure 5. The limitation of the rate of the current rise during the short-circuit phase with a choke leads to a pointed burn-off process which is smoother and clearly shows less spatter formation. The narrowing liquid root and the rising current lead welding voltage to a very high current time density that welding current causes a sudden evaporation of the remaining root.13 and 5. The shortarc technique is br-er5-07e. Short-circuits with Choke Effect very strong spatter formation are Figure 5. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 59 make contact and a short-circuit occurs. Figures 5.8 . In the short-circuit phase is the liquid electrode material drawn as result of surface tension into the molten pool.9.8 In shielding gases with a high CO2 welding current welding current proportion a long arc is formed in the upper power range. time 1 ms 1 mm The arc is reignited.5.cdr choke effect medium © ISF 2002 ures 5.14. Material time time transfer is unde- fined and occurs as illustrated in Figlow br-er5-08e.cdr particularly suitable Short-Circuiting Arc Metal Transfer for and out-of-position root passes Figure 5.

2 mm) Connections tween be- welding Figure 5. Ø1. high For its M21 M23 V welding voltage deposition 25 rate the spray arc 20 mixed circuiting arc short arc contact tube distance: approx. 18% CO2 M23: 92% Ar.cdr time © ISF 2002 Long Arc Spray Arc Figure 5.5 7. a spray arc forms in the upper power range. 19 mm 250 8. Figure 5.cdr is used for welding spray arc 15 filler and cover contact tube distance: approx. 8% O2 long arc spray-like material transfer. 60 welding current welding current time time welding voltage welding voltage time br-er5-09e. 200 welding current 4.5 © ISF 2002 passes in the flat position. 15 mm 150 3.5.0 wire feed Welding Parameters in Dependence on the Shielding Gas Mixture (SG 2.5 br-er5-11e. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding caused by the formation of very large droplets at the electrode end.5 5.11 .0 A m/min 300 10.10 If the inert gas content of the shielding gas exceeds 80%. The spray arc is characterised by a non-shortcircuiting 35 and C1 shielding gas composition: C1: CO2 M21: 82% Ar.10.9 Figure 5.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er5-10e.

When argon pure carbon dioxide is applied. With the CO2 nitrogen decreasing argon proportion the amperage has to be increased in order to remain in the spray arc range.cdr © ISF 2002 rate.11. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 61 parameters. Application of CO2 and helium leads. that with the temperature argon 82%Ar+18%CO2 CO2 helium increasing CO2 content the welding voltage must also be increased in order to achieve the same deposition br-er2-12e.cdr current-carrying arc core temperature r r argon carbon dioxide Fa F Fr Fr F Fa carbon dioxide © ISF 2002 A recombination (endothermic break of the linkage in the arc space – exoFigure 5. the so-called “argon finger-type penetration”. Figure 5.5. Weld reinforcement is strongly pronounced. to a wide and deep penetration. When helium the shielding gas M23 is used.13 . Figure 5.12 the shielding gases has a considerable influence on the arc configuration and weld geometry. The different thermal conductivity of Figure 5. Caused by the low thermal conductivity of the argon the arc core becomes very hot – this results in a deep penetration in the weld centre. the spray arc cannot be produced.12. due to the better thermal conductivity of these shielding gases. the spray arc may already be produced thermal conductivity hydrogen with an amperage of 260 A. shielding gas and arc type are shown in Figure 5. moreover.11 shows. argon br-er5-13e.

acceleration due to gravity electromagnetic force FL (pinch effect) wire electrode Besides the pinch effect.14 until gravity has overcome that force component and material transfer in the form of very coarse drops appear. the inertia and the gravitational force. The pointed shape of the arc attachbr-er5-14e. the molten metal is pushed up Figure 5..5. This socalled “pinch effect” causes a metal transfer in small drops. the current-carrying arc core is wider and envelops the wire electrode end. are active inside the arc space. other surface tension S viscosity droplets necking down forces.cdr © ISF 2002 Forces in Arc Space Figure 5. plasma flow induced work piece br-er5-15e. inertia electrostatic forces backlash forces fr of the evaporating material suction forces.e. shown in Figure 5. This generates electromagnetic forces which argon carbon dioxide current-carrying arc core bring about the detachment of the liquid electrode material. i. Figure 5.15.15 . Figure 5. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 62 thermal reaction 2CO + O2 ->2CO2 in the workpiece proximity) intensifies wire elektrodes this effect when CO2 is used. In argon. however these forces are of less importance.14.cdr © ISF 2002 ment in carbon dioxide produces a reverse-direction force component.13.

5. to spray arc welding.0 mm to the spray arc the drop frequency rate increases erratically deposition rate 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 conventional GMA Ø 0. also a high-rating power source and a precisely controlled wire feed system for high wire feed speeds are necessary.16. a rotating arc occurs after an undefined transition zone. Figure 5.17 .17 depicts the deposition rates over the wire feed speed. High-efficiency MAG welding has been applied since the beginning of the nineties. when this process is used. Apart from a multicomponent gas with a helium proportion. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 63 If the welding voltage and the wire feed speed are further increased.8 mm while the drop volume the decreases same at degree.16 Figure 5.2 mm the transi- tion from the short high performance GMA welding Ø 1. During 25 kg/h Ø 1. is twice the size as. in comparison.cdr © ISF 2002 Rotating Arc Figure 5. as achievable with modern high-efficiency MAG welding processes.cdr © ISF 2002 “critical Deposition Rate range” moves up to higher power ranges Figure 5. the deposition rate. br-er5-16e. this current wire feed speed br-er5-17e. 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 m/min With an increasing CO2-content.

hardly achievable thereafter.background time tG or frequency f with f = 1 / ( tG + tP). 300 number of droplets 1/s 200 critical current range 100 100 300 35 10 cm 200 -4 3 UEff V arc voltage 25 20 15 10 5 Um drop volume 0 0 tP 200 400 A 600 0 500 A 400 welding current 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 © ISF 2002 br-er5-19e. supercritical pulsed current. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 64 and is. Figure 5.impulse time tP .pulse voltage UP .18. Figure 5. subcritical background current and a high.20 .5. the arc length is ionised and wire electrode backround current intensity and work surface are preheated. This effect facilitates the pulsed-arc welding technique. br-er5-20e.cdr Pulsed Arc Figure 5.18 Figure 5. During the background phase which corresponds with the welding current pulsed current intensity Non-short-circuiting metal tranfer range short arc range. resp. a change-over occurs between a low.19 In pulsed-arc welding. Figure 5.background current IG .wire feed speed vD IEff Im time Ikrit tG IG Im 5 10 15 time 20 ms 30 © ISF 2002 br-er5-18e.cdr Setting parameters: . During the time pulsed material phase is the molten and. . with inert gas constituents of lower than 80%. as in spray arc welding.cdr © isf 2002 superseded magnetic by Pulsed Metal Transfer the forces.20.

cdr 20 high-efficiency short arc 10 short arc welding with a 200 300 welding current 400 A Quelle: Linde. ISF2002 600 process Setting Range or Welding Parameters in Dependence on Arc Type rotating arc.21 filler metal: SG2 -1. voltage Figure 5. Figure 5.2 mm wire type: SG 2 optimal setting lower limit upper limit spray arc By a sensible selection of welding parameters.cdr © ISF 2002 transfer way. The formula for mean current is: Im = 1T idt T∫ 0 1T 2 i dt T∫ 0 for energy per unit length of weld is: Ieff = 50 working range welding current / arc voltage 45 40 35 voltage [v] 30 transition arc 25 short arc 20 15 10 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 welding current 275 300 325 350 375 400 shielding gas: 82%Ar.5 process in the field 50 V 30 high-efficiency spray arc transition zones spray arc rotating arc of conventional GMA welding. 18%CO2 wire diameter: 1.19 shows an example of pulsed arc real current path and voltage time curve.22 shows the extended setting range for the high-efficiency MAGM 100 br-er5-22e.22 .2 mm shielding gas: Ar/He/CO2/O2-65/26. GMA the welding technique allows a selection of different arc types which are by distinguished their metal br-er5-21e.5/8/0. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 65 Figure 5.5.21 shows the setting range for a good welding Parameter Setting Range in GMA Welding Figure 5. Figure 5.

banked weld bead. Figure 5. however. in the case of fillet welds. it is not used for the Figure 5. low-alloy. generally undercuts. high-alloy high-alloy steel unalloyed. i. The arc length within the working range is linearly dependent on the set welding voltage. (not mentioned in the figure). PE.cdr © ISF 2002 Wire Feed Speed again is of considerable importance for the deposition rate.24 .5. I AL AM AK U arc length: long medium short AK high short high high On the other hand.. high-alloy long arc short arc aluminium (s < 1. operating point: wire feed speed: arc length: welding current: deposition efficiency: AL low long low low AM medium medium medium medium vD. all components. The steel unalloyed.25. A short arc produces a narrow. The weld seam shape is considerably influenced by the arc length. low-alloy applications fillet welds or inner passes and cover passes of butt welds at medium-thick or thick components in position PA.cdr © ISF 2002 Applications of Different Arc Types arc.5 mm) pulsed arc aluminium copper plications of the different arc types are depicted in Figure 5. steel low-alloy. A long arc produces a wide flat weld seam and. a low wire feed speed leads to a low deposition Figure 5.23. PB welding of root layers in position PA - seam type. This weld appearance: br-er5-24e.e. all positions positions inner passes and cover passes of fillet or butt welds in position PC. PD. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 66 Some typical ap- arc types spray arc welding methods MAGC MAGM MIG aluminium copper steel unalloyed. This has influence on the current over the internal adjustment with a slightly dropping power source characteristic. the arc length is inversely proportional to the wire feed speed. low-alloy steel unalloyed. positions workpiece thickness fillet welds or butt welds fillet welds or inner at thin sheets. PG (out-of-position) root layer welds only conditionally possible rotating arc. low-alloy fillet welds or inner passes and cover passes of butt welds at medium-thick or thick components in position PA. Figure 5. PB steel unalloyed. PF. lowalloy.24.23 welding of copper and aluminium. is applied in just the same way as the spray br-er5-23e. all positions passes and cover passes of thin and root layers of butt welds medium-thick at medium-thick or thick components.

the current intensity is dependent on the contact tube distance.25 the wire diameter should be considered.2 mm diameter 82% Ar + 18% CO2 29 V 8. At a constant weld speed and a high wire feed speed a deep penetration can be obtained. However. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 67 rate. This results in process instability. vD.cdr flat smooth weld surface with good gap bridging. the result is flat penetration and U AL AM AK arc length: long medium short low base metal fusion. Figure 5.27. When welding with the torch pointed in forward direction of the weld.26 . When welding with the torch pointed in reversing direction of the weld.5. ten to twelve times the size of Welding Voltage Figure 5. as a thumb rule. the weld process is more stable and the penetration deeper. a part of the weld pool is moved in front of the arc.26. the wire stickout is longer and is therefore characterised by a higher ohmic resis- weld appearance fillet weld tance which leads to a decreased current intensity. lk1 lk2 lk3 The torch position has considerable contact tube-to-work distance lk influence on weld formation and welding process. For the adjustment of br-er5-25e. as Contact Tube-to-Work Distance Figure 5. I operating point: welding voltage: arc length: AL high long AM medium medium AK low short At equal arc lengths. With a weld appearance butt weld large contact tube distance.cdr © ISF 2002 the contact tube distance. it ha s the advantage of a 30 mm 20 3 2 operating rule: lk = 10 to 12 dD 1 10 0 200 250 300 A 350 1.8 m/min 58 cm/min © ISF 2002 current wire electrode: shielding gas: arc voltage: wire feed speed: welding speed: br-er5-26e. Figure 5.

In d.28 Fields of Application of Different Shielding Gases plifies a low-level to a high level input signal. control systems stator packages. lorries analogue sources possible. switch boxes braces.6 transistors the design of transistor industrial sections 88% Ar + 12% O2 82% Ar + 18% CO2 application examples autoclaves.5% H2 99% Ar + 1% O2 or 97% Ar + 3% O2 97.27 With the develop- effect. frames. good bad average average average average average bad The welding current may be produced good low by different welding power sources. The operating principle of a transistor analogue br-er5-28e.5. excavators (crawlers) shelves (chains). fuel rods. advance direction although the weld bead surface is irregular and banked.28 shows a selection of different application areas for the GMA technique and the appropriate shieldpenetration: gap bridging: arc stability: shallow average deep ing gases.c. locomotives. also equipped with a three-phase . as conventional power sources. bracings.5% Ar + 2. vehicles. Figure 5. launch platforms. shock absorbers. side parts. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 68 base metal fusion by the arc is better. rollers vessels. vessels. railings. engine bonnets attachments to flame nozzles.6 Argon 4. 83% Ar + 15% He + 2% CO2 90% Ar + 5% O2 + 5% CO2 80% Ar + 5% O2 + 15% CO2 92% Ar + 8% O2 92% Ar + 8% CO2 forming gas (N2-H2-mixture) Ar/He-mixture Ar + 5% H2 or 7. stands. exhausts cranes. possibly distortion-free. bridges. cages beams. welding the transformer must be spatter formation: strong weld width: wide narrow equipped with downstream rectifier weld appearance: smooth rippled assemblies. sliders. stock boxes mud guards. window frames. mixers. tops. control devices rocket. craneways harvester-threshers. containers.cdr © ISF 2002 power source follows the principle of an audio frequency amplifier which amFigure 5. An additional ripple-filter choke suppresses the residual ripple of the rectified current and has also a process-stabilising br-er5-27e. dump bodies reactors. tractors. ploughs waggons. trucks radiators. transformer boxes passenger cars. Figure 5.5% CO2 ment of efficient shielding gases Argon 4.cdr © ISF 2002 Torch Position Figure 5. cylinders panelling. flanges. conveyor roads. satellites valves. tanks. blast pipes. gates.8 Helium 4. bends spherical holders.29. The transistor power source is. pipe lines stanchions. power became Figure 5. narrows. grids stainless steel pipes.29.

75 – 95%. The efficiency factor is between 50 and 75%. The secondary voltage is rectified by silicon diodes into full wave operation. As the transistor unit has only a switching function. a transformer and a rectifier. the average voltage at the output of the transistor stage may be varied. the stray power is lower than that three-phase transformer mains supply fully-controlled three-phase bridge rectifier energy store transistor power section welding current of analogue sources. with generally only one secondary tap. The power section operates exclusively as an amplifier for the signals coming from the control. of the pulse duty factor.e. the consequent separation of the power section (transformer and rectifier) and electronic control took place.29 . in general. A secondary clocked transistor power source features just as the analogue power sources. Along with the development of transistor analogue power sources. 20 kHz. Analogue those of analogue power sources. which are of a limited amplitude. The reaction times uist of current pickup these clocked u1 . By varying the on-off period. whereas the welding current shows to be strongly smoothed during the high pulse frequencies caused by inductivities. in the switching frequency of. The difference between source voltage and welding voltage reduces at the transistor cascade and produces a comparatively high stray power which. This disadvantage is. Electronically Controlled. in general. The transistor unit functions as an on-off switch. however. makes water-cooling necessary. The output stage may also be carried out by clocked cycle.cdr © isf 2002 GMA Welding Power Source.30. . Figure 5. Figure 5. i.5.. The analogue or digital control sets the reference values and also controls the welding process. The welding voltage is steplessly adjustable until no-load voltage is reached. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 69 transformer. accepted as those power sources are characterised by very short reaction times (30 to 50 µs). un iist units are within of 300 – 500 µs reference input values signal processor (analog-to-digital) clearly longer than br-er5-29e. The arc voltage achieves small ripples. The efficiency factor is approx. smoothed by capacitors and fed to the arc through a transistor cascade.

. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 70 Series regulator power sources. Uist U1 . Electronically Controlled. that is to say.cdr © ISF 2002 GMA Welding Power Source. The advantage of inverter power sources is their low weight. smoothed and converted into a medium frequency alternating voltage (approx.31 . Electronically Controlled. compared with a 50 Hz trans- 3-phase bridge rectifier energy store transistor switch protective reactor welding current former. The alternating voltage is then transformer reduced to welding voltage levels and fed into the welding process through a secondary rectifier. has.31. Primary Chopped.30 GMA Welding Power Source. Un Iist reference input values signal processor (analog-to-digital) current pickup br-er5-31e. Figure 5.cdr reference input values signal processor (analog-to-digital) current pickup © ISF 2002 its weight is just 10% of that of a 50 Hz transformer. its size may accordingly smaller and be br-er5-30e. consideraUist U1 . Un Iist bly lower magnetic losses. Secondary Chopped Reaction time and efficiency factor mains supply filter 3-phase bridge rectifier energy storage transistor inverter medium frequency transformer rectifier welding current are comparable to the corresponding values of switchingtype power sources. Inverter Figure 5. The alternating voltage coming from the mains (50 Hz) is initially rectified.5. Figure 5. where the alternating voltage also shows switching frequency related ripples. differ widely from the afore-mentioned welding machines. the so-called “inverter power sources”. . 25-50 kHz) with the help of controllable transistor and thyristor switches. A transformer that voltage transforms with fre3-phase transformer mains supply quency of 20 kHz.

cdr and therefore not Rating Plate dangerous to the welder. The S in capital letter (former K) in manufacturer rotary current welding rectifier insulations class F cooling type the middle shows F ~ type welding MIG/MAG _ VDE 0542 production number protective IP21 system switchgear number DIN 40 050 that power range power capacity in dependence of current flow power supply the power source is suitable for welding operations ardous under haz- U0 15 . Here the performance capability and the properties of the power source are listed. and max.220A/25V X 60% ED 100% ED 170 A I2 220 A 23 V U2 25 V I1 26 A I1 I1 I1 15 A A A 17 A 10 A A A situations. Figure 5. Figure 5.33 depicts common cross© ISF 2002 br-er5-33e.6 kVA (DB) cos j 0. i. no-load voltage br-er5-32e.32..38 V input 3~50Hz 6.72 S U1 220 V U1 380 V U1 U1 V V 35A/13V . Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 71 All welding power sources are fitted with a rating plate.5. They consist of a a b c metallic tube and a flux core filling.33 . Figure 5. seamless flux-cored wire electrode form-enclosed flux-cored wire electrode Figure 5.32 Besides the familiar solid wires also filler wires are used for gas-shielded metal arc welding.cdr Cross-Sections of Flux-Cored Wire Electrodes sectional shapes.e. the secondary no-load voltage is lower than 48 Volt © ISF 2002 min.

rapidly soldifying slag basic filling: metal powder rutile.M2: mixed gas M2 according to DIN EN 439 br-er5-34e. slowly soldifying slag rutile base. Gas-Shielded Metal Arc Welding 72 Filler wires contain arc stabilisators. guarantee very good mechanical properties.34 . *) S: single pass welding .34 shows a list of the different types of filler wire. An important distinctive criteria is the type of the filling. chapter Figure 5. slag-forming and also alloying elements which support a stable welding process. slowly soldifying slag other types customary application* S and M S and M S and M S and M S S and M S and M very similar to that shielding gas ** C and M2 C and M2 C and M2 C and M2 without without without of the electrode covering in manual electrode (see welding 2).M: multi pass welding **) C: CO2 . slowly soldifying slag fluoride basic.5.cdr © ISF 2002 Type Symbols of Flux-Cored Wire Electrodes According to DIN EN 12535 Figure 5. more often than not. help to protect the solidifying weld from the atmosphere and. The influence of the filling is symbol R P B M V W Y S slag characteristics rutile base.or fluoride-basic fluoride basic.

Narrow Gap Welding.6.and Electroslag Welding 2003 . Electrogas .

multipass technique where the weld build-up is a constant 1 or 2 beads per pass . however. 3R/L) process with oscillating wire electrode (1R/L) process with twin electrode (1R/L. Electrogas.1 The numerous variations of narrow gap welding are. a further development of the conventional welding technologies. there is no universal agreement about the definition of the term “Narrow Gap Welding” although the term is actually self-explanatory.2R/L. In the international technical literature.1 are frequently connected with the definition for narrow gap welding.2 .3R/L) process with cold wire addition (1R/L.and Electroslag Welding 73 Up to this day. 2R/L) MIG/MAGprocesses (1R/L. The other are widely and are detail process with stripshaped filler and fusing feed processes more vertical up position all welding positions spread explainedin Survey of Narrow Gap Welding Techniques Based on Conventional Technologies in the following. the process characteristics mentioned in the upper part of Figure 6. Figure 6. espacially for the control of the weld head and the wire feed device .higher apparatus expenditure. The small preparation angle has the function to compensate the distortion of the joining members .repair possibilities more difficult and disadvantages of the narrow gap welding method can be clearly answered. longitudinally positioned strip electrode process with hot wire addition (1R/L. 2R/L) als. Narrow Gap Welding. 2R/L.cdr of high- gas-shielded metal arc narrow gap welding tungsten innert gas-shielded narrow gap welding alloy as well as non-ferrous met- process with linearly oscillating filler wire electrogas process with linearly oscillating wire electrode electrogas process with bent.increased risk of imperfections at large wall thicknesses due to more difficult accessibility during process control .excellent quality values of the weld metal and the HAZ due to low heat input . In spite of these Process characteristics: .cdr © ISF 2002 Narrow Gap Welding Figure 6. 2R/L) process with lengthwise positioned strip electrode (2R/L) flat position br-er6-02e. gas and/ or powder due to the narrow gaps .2 shows a classification with emphasis on several important process characteristics. br-er6-01e. This method is. in general. Narrow gap TIG welding with cold or hot wire addition is mainly applied as an orbital process method or for the joining submerged arc electroslag narrow narrow gap welding gap welding process with straightened wire electrode (1R/L. almost parallel weld edges.narrow. Figure 6.profitable through low consumption quantities of filler material. hardly applied in the practice.6.usually very small heat affected zone (HAZ) caused by low energy input “definition all about difficulties” questions the valid universally advantages Advantages: .decreased tendency to shrink Disadvantages .

10 .cdr 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 6 12 . side wall fusion is achieved by the turning of the contact tube.mechanical oscillator for wire deformation 3 . other methods require a weld build-up with at least two layers per pass.3.14 1 . Electrogas. In contrast. oscillator tions with defined dwell periods of oscillation and oscillation frequencies can be realised . a systematic subdivision GMA narrow gap welding no wire-deformation long-wire method (1 B/P.4 Principle of GMA Narrow Gap Welding 8 . when the corrugated method with wire me1 . Figure 6.wire feed nozzle and shielding gas tube 6 .contact tip chanical oscillator is Figure 6. 2 B/ rollers 3 .wire guide tube and shielding gas tube 6 . In accorA dance with this.independent of the filler wire tip br-er 6-04e.and Electroslag Welding 74 In Figure 6.6. Narrow Gap Welding.wire reel 2 .wire reel 2 . 2 B/P) twin-wire method (1 B/P) tandem-wire method (1 B/P. Overlaps in the structure result from the application of methods where a single or several additional wires are C used. 2 B/P) thick-wire method (1 B/P. the fundamental distinguishing feature of the methods is whether the process is carried out D B with or without wire deformation.wire mechanism for wire guidance 4 . Figure 6. the contact tip angles are set in degrees of between 3° and 15° towards the torch axis. While most methods are suitable for single layer per pass welding.3 In the following. 3 B/P) twisted wire method (1 B/P) rotation method (1 B/P) coiled-wire method (1 B/P) corrugated wire method with mechanical oscillator (1 B/P) corrugated wire method with oscillating rollers (1 B/P) corrugated wire method with contour roll (1 R/L) zigzag wire method (1 B/P) wire loop method (1 B/P) explanation: B/ P: Bead/ Pass br-er6-03e. With an electronic stepper motor control.inert gas shroud 5 .drive rollers 4 . arbitrary transversearc oscillating mocorrugated wire method with mech. A A: method without forced arc movement B: method with rotating arc movement C: method with oscillating arc movement D: method with two or more filler wires © ISF 2002 further subdivision is made in accordance with the different types of arc movement.cdr GMA narrow gap welding wire-deformation of the various GMA narrow gap technologies is shown.4. some of the GMA narrow gap technologies are explained: Using the turning tube method.inert gas shroud 5 .

drive rollers 4 .cdr 1 . A highly regular weld build-up and an almost straight fusion line with an extremely narrow heat affected zone can be noticed.14 sidewall penetration depth. The deformation is obtained by a continuously swinging oscillator which is fixed above the wire feed rollers.and Electroslag Welding 75 applied. Electrogas. wavy deformation of the plate thickness: gap preparation: 300 mm square-butt rollers 3 .wire reel 2 . also. very narrow gaps with widths from 9 to 12 mm with plate thicknesses of up to 300 mm can be welded. 70 passes. As the contact tube remains stationary.wire reel 2 .contact piece weave-bead Principle of GMA Narrow Gap Welding Figure 6. Thanks to the correct setting of the oscillation parameters and the precise. A further advantage of the tech- 1 .wire guiding tube br-er 6-06e.5 shows the macro section of a GMA narrow gap welded joint with plates (thickness: 300 mm) which has been produced by the mechanical oscillator method in approx. over the wire feed speed.wire mechanism for wire deformation 3 .2 mm elctrode diameter: amperage: 260 A pulse frequency: 120 HZ arc voltage: 30 V welding speed: 22 cm/min -1 wire oscillation: 80 min oscillation width: 4 mm shielding gas: 80% Ar/ 20% Co2 primery gas flow: 25 l/min secondary gas flow: 50 l/min number of passes: approx. br-er6-05e.6.12 spite of the low .wire feed nozzle and shielding gas supply 5 .cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 6. centred torch manipulation no 2 3 4 5 rotation method 1 spiral wire method 1 2 3 4 sidewall fusion defects occurred. arc oscillation is produced by the plastic.6 9 . 9 mm flame cut 1. 70 wire electrode. Amplitude and frequency of the wave motion can be varied over the total amplitude of oscillation and the speed of the mechanical oscillator or.5 Figure 6.shielding gas nozzle 6 . in 6 5 13 . Narrow Gap Welding.inert gas shroud 5 .mechanism for nozzle rotation 4 .

two parallel switched elec- 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 trodes are transported by a common wire feed unit. This happens before it enters the rotating 3 roll wire feed device.inert gas shroud 5 . where a reliable sidewall fusion is obtained either by the wire deflection through constant deformation (tandem wire method) or by forced wire deflection with the contact tip (twin-wire method).wire reel 2 .2 mm solid wire is being spiralwise deformed. When the wave wire method is used. 1 .0 mm in the gap – adequate enough to weld plates with thicknesses of up to 200 mm at gap widths between 9 and 12 mm with a good sidewall fusion.cdr 9 .12 1 . When the tandem technique is applied.6.2 mm are rollers 4 .drive rollers 3 .wire feed nozzle and shielding gas supply 5 .deflection rollers 3 . The effect of this is such that after leaving the contact piece the deformed wire creates a spiral diameter of 2. Electrogas.7 . these electrodes are transported to the two weld heads which are arranged inside the gap in tandem and which are indeFigure pendently selectable.wire reel 2 . When tandem method 1 350 the twin- twin-wire method 1 wire method is applied. When the rotation method is applied.and Electroslag Welding 76 nique is the high crystal restructuring rate in the weld metal and in the basemetal adjacent to the fusion line – an advantage that gains good toughness properties.wire feed nozzle and contact tip br-er 6-07e. the 1. In both cases. Figure 6. two wire electrodes with thicknesses between 0.8 and 1.6. adjusted common in a sword- Principle of GMA Narrow Gap Welding type torch at an incline towards the Figure 6.2 mm) from a contact tube nozzle which is rotating with frequencies between 100 and 150 Hz. the arc movement is produced by an eccentrically protruding wire electrode (1.5 to 3.7 explains two GMA narrow gap welding methods which are operated without forced arc movement.shielding gas nozzle 6 . subsequently. Two narrow-gap welding variations with a rotating arc movement are shown in Figure 6. Narrow Gap Welding.18 and.inert gas shroud 4 .contact tips 15 . With a turning speed of 120 to 150 revs per minute the welding wire is deformed.

and Electroslag Welding 77 strip electrode SO stick out α s weld edges at small spaces behind each other (approx.9 s s .8.cdr w towards the edge in order to avoid Submerged Arc Narrow Gap Welding collisions.6. the method with a lengthwise po- h f w twin-wire electrode sitioned strip electrode as well as the twin-wire method are explained in vw s vw a H z s h w p weld speed electrode deflection stick out distance torch . depending on the number of passes per layer. Electrogas. Solid wire as well as 8 s cored-strip electrodes with widths between 10 and 25 mm are used. Figure 6. Narrow Gap Welding. The gap width is.7 DIN EN 29692) br-er6-09e. where the strip electrode is deflected at an angle of approx.8 10° 7° fillet weld and slag removal the oppo8 site fillet is made.cdr 3 narrow gap weld GMA-NG weld preparation (not standardised) Comparison of the Weld Groove Shape Figure 6.7. Dependent on the electrode di- 3 s double-U butt weld GMA-DU weld preparation (Indexno.6 mm) where one electrode is deflected towards one weld edge and the other towards the bottom of the groove or towards the opposite weld edge. SA twin-wire welding is. so x a In place of the SA narrow gap welding methods.2.flank gap width bead height bead width penetration depth more detail. SA narrow gap welding with strip electrode is carried out in the multipass layer technique. mentioned in Figure 6. Either a single pass layer or a two pass layer technique are applied. 2. carried out using two elec6 double-U butt weld SA-DU weld preparation (8UP DIN 8551) 8° 16 square-edge butt weld SA-SE weld preparation (3UP DIN 8551) 10 trodes (1. between 20 and 25 mm. 8 mm) and mol- s a x α h w gap width electrode deflection distance of strip tip to flank twisting angle bead hight bead width ten.2 to 1. in general. After completing the first Figure 6. 5° H z a h p br-er6-08e.

20 mm electrodes: only 1 (flux-cored wire.4) position: vertical (width deviations of up to 45°) plate thickness: 6 . compared to the SA square edge weld. narrow gap welding. Figure 6.12 m/h shielding gas: unalloyed and lowalloy steels CO2 or mixed gas (Ar 60% and 40% Co 2 ) highalloy steels: argon or helium br-er6-11e.650 A voltage: 28 .6.3. For example. significant differences in the weld crosssectional dimensions occur which may lead to substantial saving of mabr-er6-10e_sw. The inner diameter of the pressure vessel is more than weld pool Cu-shoe weld advance weld metal water 5. lowalloy and highalloy steels gap width: 8 . Narrow Gap Welding.6 .cdr © ISF 2002 terial and energy during welding.10. DIN 1910 T. The weld depth at the joint was 670 mm. so it had been necesFigure 6. mainly used.000 tons.45 V weld speed: 2 .11 Electrogas Welding .and Electroslag Welding 78 ameter and also on the type of welding powder.000 mm.000 mm with wall thicknesses of 400 mm and with a height weight of is designation: gas-shielded metal arc welding (GMAW acc. The total 3. electrode shielding gas arc + workpiece wire guide The practical application of SA narrow gap welding for the production of a flanged calotte joint for a reactor pressure vessel cover is depicted in Figure 6. 66% up to 75% of the weld metal weight are saved.2 mm amperage: 350 .9 shows a comparison of groove shapes in relation to plate thickness for SA welding (DIN 8551 part 4) with those for GMA welding (EN 29692) and the unstandardised. is the gap width between 12 and 13 mm. Depending on the plate thickness.30 mm square-butt joint or V weld seam 30 mm double-V weld seam materials: unalloyed. Electrogas. when welding thicknesses of 120 mm to 200 mm with the narrow Figure 6.10 gap welding technique. for slag formation between copper shoe and weld surface) Ø 1.cdr 40.

For a more wide-spread application of electrogas welding. Figure 6. Run-up plate 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. copper shoe 7. filler metal 4.0 . Suitable power sources are rectifiers with a slightly dropping static characteristic. In relation with the ascending rate of the weld pool volume. weld seam 9.cdr Electroslag Welding . Figure 6. The shrinkholes forming at the weld end are transferred onto the run-off plate. Long-time exposure to temperatures of more than 1500°C and low crystallisation rates are responsible for this.5 . By the increase of the welding speed. the welding nozzle and the copper shoes are pulled upwards. lowalloy and highalloy steels 1 or more solid or cored wires Ø 2. water cooling 8.11. the dwell times of weld-adjacent regions above critical temperatures and thus the brittleness effects are significantly reduced. is melted by a shielded arc. If possible.6. base metal 2. slag pool 5.2 mm plate thickness range per electrode: fixed 30 .50 mm br-er6-12e. the process has to be started on a run-up plate which closes the bottom end of the groove.000 mm) 24 . as the toughness of the heat affected zone with the complex coarse grain formation does not meet sophisticated demands. are groove edges fused.12 designation: position: plate thickness: gap width: materials: electrodes: resistance fusion welding vertical (and deviation of up to 45°) 30 mm (up to 2.2 m/h slag hight: 30 . the High-Speed Electrogas Welding 6.52 V welding speed: 0. In this process. In order to avoid poor fusion at the beginning of the welding. The same applies to the weld metal. metal pool Method has been developed in the ISF.3. Electrogas welding (EG) is characterised by a vertical groove which is bound by two water-cooled copper shoes. the gap crosssection is reduced and additional metal powder is added to increase the deposition rate. Narrow Gap Welding. In the groove. welding boom 3. The electrode has a positive polarity. Electrogas. The application of electrogas welding for low-alloyed steels is – more often than not limited. any interruptions of the welding process should be avoided.and Electroslag Welding 79 sary to select a gap width of at least 35 mm and to work in the three pass layer technique. a filler wire electrode which is fed through a copper nozzle.28 mm unalloyed.50 mm oscillated: up to 150 mm amperage: 550 .800 A per electrode voltage: 35 . During this process.

The Joule effect. Electrogas. Process Phases During ES Welding Figure 6. the lower ignition parameters (current and voltage) are. The temperature of the slag bath must always exceed the melting temperature of the metal.13. The welding current is fed over one or more endless wire electrodes which melt in the highly heated slag bath. slag slag molten pool weld metal start of welding br-er6-13e. When the desired slag bath level is reached. Heating and melting of the groove faces occurs in a slag bath. incluignition with arc powder fusion sion of unmolten powder) and at the end of the welding (shrinkholes. . by water-cooled copper shoes which are. during the so-called “Data-Increase-Phase”. in the so-called “ignition phase”. The solidifying slag bath is located on the run-off plate which is subsequently removed.13 The electroslag welding process can be divided into four process phases. the switch-off phase is initiated in the run-off plate. run-up and run-off plates are used. the process phase.cdr welding end of welding © ISF 2002 inclusions). in general. Figure 6. sideways retained by the groove faces and.12 shows the process principle of Electroslag Welding. The subsequent actual welding process starts. moved progressively upwards. At the beginning of the welding process.and Electroslag Welding 80 Figure 6. with the complete welding unit. Molten pool and slag bath which both form the weld pool are. Narrow Gap Welding. At the end of the weld. To avoid the inevitable welding defects at the ~ powder beginning of the welding process (insufficient slag penetration. The arc is extinguished as the electrical conductivity of the arc length exceeds that of the conductive slag. produced when the current is transferred through the conducting bath. This occurs on the run-up plate. and in relation with the welding speed.6. raised to the values of the stationary welding process. keeps the slag bath temperature constant. the arc is ignited for a short period and liquefies the non-conductive welding flux powder into conductive slag.

cdr Possibilities to Improve Weld Seam Properties Figure 6.4 mm strip electrodes: 60 x 0. The length of the sheathed steel tube.and Electroslag Welding 81 The electroslag welding with consumable feed wire (channel-slot welding) proved to be very useful for shorter welds. Cr.cdr Electroslag Welding with Fusing Wire Feed Nozzle conventional processes. Si. double-V butt joints.15 . Ni.14 technological measures post weld heat treatment decrease of peak temperature and dwell times at high temperatures increase of welding speed reduction of energy per unit length continuous normalisation furnace normalisation increase of deposit rate application of several wire electrodes. Cu. this welding process is rightly placed under the group of narrow gap weld- addition of suitable alloy and micro-alloy elements (nucleus formation) reduction of S-.500 mm) and the steel tube melts during welding in the ascending slag bath. corresponds with the weld seam length (mainly shorter than 2.15 mm welding powder: slag formation with high electrical conductivity area preparation. The copper sliding shoes are replaced by fixed Cu cooling bars and the welding nozzle by a steel tube.5 mm plate electrodes: 80 x60 up to 10 x 120 mm fusing feed nozzle: Ø 10 . welding can be carried out with one single or with several wire and strip electrodes. Mo.14. Ti ing techniques.5 . and a strip shaped filler material with a consumable guide Figure 6. Electrogas. N2 and O2 . Zr. Narrow Gap Welding. Also curved seams can be welded with a bent consumable electrode. in general. multi-pass technique metallurgical measures increase of purity application of suitable base and filler metals piece is used. H2-. Dependent on the plate thickness.contents and other unfavourable trace elements C-content limits Mn. Nb. V. metal powder addition decrease of groove volume V. As the groove width can be significantly when with fusing feed nozzle workpiece cable workpiece run-up plate copper shoes workpiece reduced comparing copper shoes br-er 6-14e. lowalloy and highalloy steels welding consumables: wire electrodes: Ø 2. A feature of this process variation is the handiness of the welding device and the easier welding drive motor welding cable run-off plate workpiece = ~ workpiece wire or strip electrode Electroslag fusing nozzle process (channel welding) position: vertical plate thickness: 15 mm materials: unalloyed.6. Likewise in electrogas welding. P-. Figure 6. the electroslag welding br-er 6-15e.

Figure 6. possibilities to improve the weld properties.16. Due to the low cooling rate good degassing and thus almost porefree hardening of the slag bath is possible. Narrow Gap Welding. By reason of the residual heat in the workpiece the necessary perature can tembe reached in a short br-er 6-16e.6.15. postheating torch 10.16 In order to circumvent an expensive postheat weld treatment which is often unrealistic for use on-site. In the heat affected zones toughness values are determined which correspond with those of the unaffected base metal. Disadvantageous. filler wire 2. The specially designed torches follow the temperature °C 1. however. Plate preparation is. side plate 11. as in conventional elec- . however. The weld preparation is a double-V butt weld with a gap of approx. Figure 6. the weld cross-section is reduced and. as in contrast to the conventional technique. the weld speed is increased. The welding temperature in the weld region drops below the Ar1temperature and is subsequently heated to the normalising temperature (>Ac3). by application of a twin-wire electrode in tandem arrangement and addition of metal powder. Figure 6. The slag bath and the molten pool of the first layer are retained by a sliding shoe. so the carried along sliding shoe seals the slag and the metal bath. distance plate 9. 15 mm.low heating and cooling rate. Similar to electrogas welding.17. Electrogas. To avoid postweld heat treatment the electroslag welding process with local continuous normalisation has been developed for plate thicknesses of up to approx. There are. 60 mm. weld seam 8. water cooling 6. copper shoes 3.and Electroslag Welding 82 process is also characterised by a large molten pool with a – simultaneously .cdr ES Welding with Local Continuous Normalisation time. the electroslag high-speed welding process with multilayer technique has been developed. slag pool 4. is the formation of a coarse-grain structure. slag layer 7. metal pool 5. Figure 6. heat treated zone copper 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 shoes the weld 2 2000 1500 7 8 9 11 900 500 10 950 along seam.

with one wire electrode without metal powder addition.and Electroslag Welding 83 troslag welding. gap width: approx. 10 br-er6-17e. For larger plate thicknesses (70 to 100 mm). are used. Figure 6. exclusively done by flame cutting. When welding the first pass with a double-V-groove preparation (root width: 20 to 30 mm. 15 mm) two sliding shoes which are adjusted to the weld groove are used. the three passes layer technique has been developed.cdr ES-welding in 2 passes with sliding shoe © ISF 2002 Figure 6. Electrogas. The single as well as the parallel wire electrodes are fed with different metal powder quantities which as outcome permit a welding speed 5 times higher than the 11 1 2 3 4 9 5 6 7 8 4 1 magnetic screening 2 metal powder supply 3 three-wire electrode 4 water cooling 5 copper shoe (water cooled) 6 slag pool 7 molten pool 8 solidified slag 9 welding powder supply 10 weld seam 11 first pass 12 second pass © ISF 2002 10 speed of the single layer conventional technique and also leads to strong increase of toughness in all zones of the welded joint.cdr ES-welding of the outer passes .17 12 When welding the outer passes flat Cu shoes are again used.6. the advantage of easier weld preparation can be main1 2 3 4 9 5 6 7 8 4 1 magnetic screening 2 metal powder addition 3 tandem electrode 4 water cooling 5 copper shoe (water cooled) 6 slag pool 7 molten pool 8 solidified slag 9 welding powder addition 10 weld seam tained. Narrow Gap Welding. Figure 6. one electrode is positioned close to the root and on the plate outer sides two electrodes in parallel arrangement are fed into the bath. Thus.18 br-er6-18e.18. arranged in a triangular formation. The first layer is welded using the conventional technique. Three wire electrodes. Thus.

The electroslag welding process is limited by the possible crack formation in the centre of the weld metal. Electrogas.6. several twin-wire electrodes with metal powder addition have to be used to reach deposition rates of approx.and Electroslag Welding 84 If wall thicknesses of more than 100 mm are to be welded. Narrow Gap Welding. . Reasons for this are the concentration of elements such as sulphur and phosphor in the weld centre as well as too fast a cooling of the molten pool in the proximity of the weld seam edges. 200 kg/h.

7. Pressure Welding 2003 .

torch positioning 3.2 . Pressure Welding 85 Figure 7. Figure 7. both joining members are butt-welded by the application of axial force when a flash edge forms.cdr Open Square and Closed Square Gas Pressure Welding and of pipes in the building trade. heating 2.cdr projection welding roll seam welding pressure butt welding flash butt welding closed gas welding. As the process is operated mainsindependently and initial state: gap closed initial state: gap opened (for special cases) the process equipment weight is low in also gas flame torch in the open gap stationary mobile and easy to handle. heating 2.7. pressure welding fusion welding In friction welding gas pressure welding a distincgas pressure welding resistance pressure welding tion is made between square open and square pressure Fig- induction pressure welding conductive pressure welding resistance spot welding br-er7-01e. therefore the welds are of low toughness values. The long preheating time leads to the formation of a coarse-grained structure in the joining area. welding by rapid pressing areas of gas pressure welding are the welding of reinforcement steels completed weld seam working cycles: 1. Figure 7. to DIN 1910 ure 7. welding by pressing br-er7-02e.1 shows a survey of the pressure welding processes for joining of metals in accordance with welding DIN 1910. the workpiece closed gap ring-shaped burner (sectional view) pressure main application 1. Classification of Welding Processes acc.1 Both methods use efficient gas torches to bring the workpiece ends up to the welding temperature. When the welding temperature is reached.2.

because of the tendency towards oxidation and good Figure 7. the input of the necessary welding heat is produced by resistance heating. the highest heat generation is obtained. In order to guarantee the uniform heating of the abutting before upset force has been applied upset force faces.cdr develops during pressure upset butt welding.cdr a = flashing length b = upset loss Schematic Structure of a Flash Butt Welding Equipment conductivity. The welding of aluminium and copper material is.3. Suitable for welding are unalloyed and low-alloy steels.4 primary side secondary side copper shoe welding transformer br-er7-04e. The current circuit is closed over the abutting surfaces of the two joining members where. the joining surfaces must be free from contaminations and from Figure 7. they must be conformable in their cross-sectional sizes and shapes with each other and they must have water-cooled clamping chucks (Cu electrodes) parallel faces. Pressure Welding 86 In pressure butt welding. by the increased interface resistance. After the welding temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the weld metal – is reached.3 Process Principle of Pressure Butt Welding fixed clamping chuck a+b b 2 a mobile clamping chuck clamping force steel chuck oxides.7. This produces a thick flash-free upset seam which is typical for this method. Figure 7. possi- . bulging at the end of the weld _ ~ As no molten metal br-er7-03e. upset pressure is applied and the current circuit is opened. The necessary axial force is applied by copper clamping jaws which also receive the current supply.

the heating also develops very fast. starting from the contact points. welding can be carried out without the use of shielding gas. .cdr © ISF 2002 strongly pressed together. During the welding process. smaller cross-sections with surfaces of up to 100 mm² are welded. Along with the occurrence of material loss. the metal vapour is generating a shielding gas atmosphere. sharp and. Figure 7.5. New contact bridges are created again and again. that is to say. The constant creation and destruction of the contact bridges causes the abutting faces to “burn”. For the most part. A flash butt welding equipment is. irregular weld edge is produced during the upsetting progress. in contrast to friction welding. Areas of applications are chain manufacturing and also extensions of wires in a wire drawing shop. which. partly. through a high axial force. a narrow. with heavy spray-type ejection. The metal is liquified and. in its principal structure.5 are progressively advanced towards each other until they make contact at several points and the current circuit is over these contact bridges closed. This way.7. Pressure Welding 87 ble only up to a point. When the entire abutting face is uniformly fused. if necessary. At the same time. the parts are progressively advanced towards each other again. similar to the pressure butt welding device. in flash butt welding only “fusing contact” is made during the heating phase. the workpiece ends Figure 7. the two workpiece ends are. Figure 7. The metal vapour pressure causes the liquified metal to be thrown out of the gap.4. with the exception of pipe welds. can be easy mechanically removed while the weld is still warm. abruptly pressed together and the welding current is switched off. As the local current density at these points is high. While in pressure upset butt welding the joining members are always br-er7-05e. evaporated.

on the other hand. the advantage of hot flash butt welding is that. Moreover. During hot flash butt welding a preheating operation precedes the actual flashing process. is the flashing process is initialised automatically and the following process is similar to cold flash butt welding. a fundamental distinction is made between two different working techniques. This is of importance. A smooth and clean surface is not necessary with hot flash butt welding. can the toughness properties be considerably increased. Pressure Welding 88 In flash butt welding. Upset Travel.6 Flashing Travel. Upset Force and Welding Current in Timely Order The welding area of the structure of a flash butt weld shows a zone which is reduced in carbon and other alloying elements.7.6. all flash butt welded joints have a pronounced coarse grain zone. The preceding resistance heating is carried out by “reversing”.7. In contrast to cold flash butt welding. on one hand. an additional flashing process (a short flashing period with preheating flashing flashing amperage time time low speed and high br-er7-06e. a smaller temperature drop and with that a lower cooling rate in the workpiece can be obtained. by the changing short-circuiting and pressing of the joining surfaces and by the mechanical separation in the reversed motion.. By one or several current impulses the weld . Figure 7.e. whereby the toughness properties of the welded joint are lower than of the base metal. especially with steels which because of their chemical composition have a tendency to harden. Figure 7. The cooling rate may also be reduced by conductive reheating inside the machine. i. When the joint ends are sufficiently heated. By the impact normalizing effect in the machine successive to the actual welding process. sections of 20 times the size can be welded with the same machine efficiency and.cdr hot flash welding cold flash welding energy) may be carried out first. Figure 7. If the abutting faces differ greatly from the desired upset force upset travel flashing travel plane-parallelism.

Steels. The method is used n for large-scale manufacture and with components of equal dimensions.1 mm 10 mm material: C60 E only very low residual stresses occur. shrinkage in flash butt welding is so insignificant that 0. aluminium. The weldable cross-sections may reach dimensions of up to 120.cdr © ISF 2002 for joining is produced by mechanical friction.cdr steels with a higher carbon content. The friction is. Friction welding is a pressure welding method where the necessary heat br-er7-08e. It is.8 . therefore. as a rule.7 Secondary Structure Along a Flash Butt Weld Profiles of all kind are butt welded with this method. wheel rims and shafts. Areas of application are the welding of n F1 friction force rails.000 mm². Supported heat affected zone by the axial force. nickel and copper alloys can be welded economically with the flash butt welding process.7. Figure 7. posweld coarse grain zone fine grain zone soft-annealing zone base metal sible to weld also br-er7-07e. the manufacture of car axles. generated by a relative motion between a Figure 7. the welding of chain links and also the manufacture of tools and endless strips for pipe F2 upset force production. Pressure Welding 89 temperatures are increased by up to approximately 50° over the austeniting temperature of the metal.

Pressure Welding 90 rotating and a stationary workpiece while axial force is being applied at the same time. Figure 7. the relative motion is discontinued and the friction force is increased to upsetting force. and polygonal cross- clutch The most common variant of friction welding is friction welding with a continuous drive and friction welding with a flywheel drive.7.10 br-er7-10e.cdr conventional friction welding driving motor flywheel clamping tool clamping tool workpiece pressure element for axial pressure flywheel friction welding © ISF 2002 . lip-shaped bead is produced which may be removed in the welding machine by an additional accessory unit. the clamped-on part to be joined is kept at a constant nominal speed by a drive. also possible to accurately join rectangular sections. It is. br-er7-09e_sw.10. nowabrake clamping tool workpiece clamping tool pressure element for axial pressure days.cdr Figure 7. In friction welding with continuous drive. while the workpiece in the sliding chuck is pressed with a defined friction force.9 shows all phases of the Phases of Friction Welding Process friction welding process.9 tion-symmetrical parts. After the joint surfaces are adequately heated. An even. The bead is often considered as the first quality criterion. Figure 7. The nominal speed is maintained until the demanded temFigure 7.8. In most cases this method is used for rota- Figure 7.

which again is a consequence of the increased plasticity .. been intro- conventional friction welding br-er7-11e. Pressure Welding 91 perature profile has been achieved. at the start of the frictional contact.11 depicts the variation in time of the most important process parameters in friction welding with continuous drive and flywheel friction welding. oscillation friction welding and friction However.7. extremely short welding times may be realised.5s friction welding time 0.. the friction force is raised to upsetting force after the rotation movement has been discontinued.. process surfacing. Recently.... axial pressure 20.125..0.280 Nmm -2 Nmm -2 new developments in the field of friction stud welding – torque studs on plates – have duced. with a defined axial force.. The second maximum is generated during the braking phase which precedes the spindle standstill. Then the motor is declutched and the relative motion is neutralised by external braking. these variants number of revolutions friction welding time 1..and of the lowered deformation resistance.100 Nmm time 40. 5400 min -1 900..2s 1800. The temperature drop in the joining zone is ex- . Welding is finished when the total kinetic energy ... the inertia mass is raised to nominal speed.280 -2 40.stored in the flywheel – has been consumed by the friction processes.1.. During flywheel friction welding. The occuring moments’ maxima may be interpreted as follows: The first maximum. The method is used when. the drive motor is declutched and the stationary workpiece is. In general. This is the so-called self-breaking effect of the system. pressed against the rotating workpiece.11 Figure 7. The second maximum is explained by the increased deformation resistance at dropping temperatures. The torque decreases as a result of the risen temperature . based on metallurgical processes.. is explained by the formation of local fusion zones and their shearing off in the lower temperature range..cdr flywheel friction welding Comparison of the Welding Processes for Conventional and Flywheel Friction Welding Figure 7.. Further process variants are radial friction welding.100s braking 0. orbital friction welding. 5400min -1 are until today still in the experimental stage.

Figure 7. the spindle and also in the clamping chuck.cdr © ISF 2002 other selection of the braking and mo- Combined Friction Welding upsetting ments. Here. the torque range may a) b) be accurately predetermined by the microcontroller of P P c) d) the braking initiator P P P P which prevents the slip-through of the e) f) workpieces in the clamping chuck.7. Pressure Welding 92 plained by the lowered energy input – due to the rotation-speed decrease – and also by the augmented radial displacement of the highly heated material into the weld upset. The use of this process variant allows the welding structures to influence each other in a positive way when many welding tasks are to be carried out. the process variation bined “comfriction allows friction force welding” the free and independent from each reduction time br-er7-12e. © ISF 2002 P P P br-er7-13e. may be totally or partially converted by selfbreaking. the breaking phase matches the breaking phase in flywheel welding.cdr Types of Friction Welding Processes The universal friction welding ma- Figure 7. Moreover.13 . In friction welding number of revolutions upset force with a continuous drive. the rotation-energy which has been stored in the drive motor. Fig. 7.12.12 In this case.

15 shows a survey of possible material combinations.13. a)round stock with round stock before welding after welding 4. b) friction welding with rotation and translational motion of one workpiece facing a stationary other workpiece.cdr d © ISF 2002 A simple saw cut is. Figure 7. pipe with plate.14 Joint Types Obtained by Friction Welding The method of heat generation causes a comparatively low joining temperature – lower than the melting temperature of the metals.3 6.. chamfered 1. This is the main reason why friction welding is the suitable method for metals and material combinations which are difficult to weld. round material with plate g/d » 0. Basically. c) rotation and translation of two workpieces against a stationary intermediate piece. Pressure Welding 93 chine is in its structure similar to a turning lathe. Cu/Al or Al/steel) which cannot be joined using other welding processes otherwise only with increased expenditure. angular equal and of 7. the machine structure must be considerably more rigid.75D dimensions.6D surfaces 2.0. without preparation 8.14. also find applications when both workpieces have to rotate in opposite direction to each other. in connection with this. the low relative speeds demand the necessary heat quantity.25. For example. for many applications. round material with plate. a)round stock with round stock (different cross-sections. for the transmission of the high axial forces. shown in Figure 7.75d d should be smooth. Figure 7. It is also possible to weld material combinations (e. however. round stock with pipe D 0. br-er7-14e. bevelled) 3. A survey of possible joint shapes achievable with friction welding is given in Figure 7. Many . if possible. Depending on the combination of materials can this provision facilitate the joining task considerably. partially machined) b) round stock with round stock (different cross-sections. The remaining variations..g. The specimen preparation of the joining members should. abutting The 1. pipe with plate g d d » 0.2° 5. when a low diameter and. without preparation (1/6)d d=0..7. be carried out in a way that the heat input and the heat dissipation is equal for both members. pipe with pipe before welding after welding D d b) round stock with round stock. there are three types of friction welding: a) friction welding with a rotating workpiece and a translational motion of the other workpiece. sufficient.

unalloyed silver niobium nickel alloys nickel molybdenum brass magnesium copper cobalt hard metal. however. can in most cases joints with good mechano-technological properties be obtained.16.cdr structures on parallels with a 5 mm distance from the sample axis high strength and toughness ties. the quantity and distribution of cirkon tungsten vanadium titanium tantalum stellite free cutting steel cast steel steel. even when welding titanium). softening of hardened or pre- aluminium aluminium alloys aluminium. 4. By the adjustment of the welding paFigure 7. sintered cast iron (GGG. proper- heat affected zone transition heat affected zone .16 . Pressure Welding 94 combinations have.7. sintered lead cast iron (GGG. inert gas shielding can be dispensed with. Metallurgical reasons which may reduce the friction weldability are: 1. formation of low-melting or intermetallic phases. alloyed steel.15 rameters in respect toweld joints.cdr © ISF 2002 a cooling rate. high alloyed steel. alloyed steel. embrittlement by gas absorption (as a rule. the costly. sintered aluminium alloys aluminium non-metal inclusions. austentic steel. unalloyed steel. An extremely grained (forge finestructure structure) metal: S235JR 10 mm develops in the joining zone region. 2. p = 30 N/mm2 t =6s 2 tSt = 250 N/mm n = 1500 U/min This structure which 1 mm is typical of a friction-welded joint is characterised by base metal br-er7-16e. not yet been tested on their suitability to friction welding. high alloyed steel. 3. austentic cast steel free cutting steel stellite tantalum titanium vanadium tungsten cirkon friction weldable restricted friction weldable not friction weldable not tested cipitataly-hardened and materials 5. GT) hard metal. sintered cobalt copper magnesium brass molybdenum nickel nickel alloys niobium silver steel. hardening caused by too high br-er7-15e.weld metal weld metal 10 µm Secondary Structure Along a Friction Weld Figure 7. The secondary structure along the friction-welded joint is depicted in Figure 7. GT) lead aluminium.

7. rotational speed. lip-shaped upset is produced. Pressure Welding 95 Figure 7. and time are governed by the desired value/actual value compariflash butt welding son. This allows an indirect quality control. Figure 7.17 Nevertheless.17 shows a comparison between a flash butt-welded and a frictionwelded cardan shaft. With the machines that are presently used in Germany. Friction welding machines are fully mechanized and may well be integrated into production lines. br-er7-17e. The two welds are distinguished by the size of their heat affected zone and the development of the weld upset. Besides. these machines are also always applied when metals and material combinations which are difficult to weld have to be joined in a reliable and costeffective way. the weld flash formation in flash butt welding is narrower and sharper and also considerably more irregular. . A further complement to the retension of parameters is the torque control. Loading and unloading equipment. The machines may furthermore be equipped with parameter supervisory systems. the maximum weldable diameter is at present approximately 900 mm. turning attachments for the preparation of the abutting surfaces and for upset removal and also storage units for complete welding programs make these machines well adaptable to automation. however this method is costly and it cannot be used for all applications because of its structural dimen- friction welding sions. pressure. the heat affected zone during friction welding is substantially smaller than during flash butt welding. 6 mm. the wall thicknesses are approx. During welding are parameters: welding path.cdr © ISF 2002 Friction welding machines are mainly used in the series production and industrial mass production. it is possible to weld massive workpieces in the diameter range of 0. While in friction welding a regular.6 up to 250 mm For steel pipes.

18 to 7. 16MnCr5/ 42Cr4 5 bimetal valve. not an universally valid statement as for each component a profitability evaluation must be carried out Figure 7.19 Figures 7. Pressure Welding 96 1 2 3 1.2 joint ring material combination: Cf53/ Ck45 br-er7-18e_sw. X45CrSi9-3/ NiCr20 TiAl © ISF 2002 br-er7-19e_sw. Figure 7.20 show a selection of examples for the application of friction welding.cdr 4 3 loading device 4 unloading grippers 1 cardan shaft.18 Figure 7. flattening test specimen 4 crown wheel.20 . 20% of the production costs.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 7.7. respectively.21 shows a comparison of the cost expenditure for the manufacture of a cardan shaft.cdr © ISF 2002 It shows that the application of the friction welding method may save approx.5 Mg 1 2 cardan shaft. retracted tube 3 cardan shaft. 1 pump shaft 2 shaft C22E/ E295 3 press cylinder S185/9S 20K 4 hydraulic cylinder S235J3G2/ C60E or S235JR/ C15 5 cylinder case S235JR/ S355J2G3 6 piston rod 42Cr4 7 connecting rod 100Cr6/ S235JR 8 stud S235J2G3/ X5CrNi18-10 9 knotter hook 15CrNi6 br-er7-20e_sw. however. This comparison is. AIZn 4. carried out by forging and by friction welding.

Advantages and disadvantages of friction welding in comparison with the competitive flash butt welding advantages: .more choice in the selection of weldable materials and material combinations disadvantages: . extremely good reproducibility within a wide parameter range .torque-safe clamping necessary .hot forming causes permanent recovery and recrystallisation processes in the welding area thus forming a very fine-grained structure with good toughness and strength properties (forged structure) .cdr © ISF 2002 The combined action of this magnetic field and the arc’s own magnetic field Figure 7. Figure 7. Cost Comparison of Forging/ Friction Welding in a Case of a Cardan Shaft Figure 7. The weldable wall thickness range is between 0.7 and 5 mm. is an arc pressure welding method for the joining of closed structural tubular capital investment for the machine br-er7-22e.7.14.better control of heat input . Pressure Welding 97 separately. This is achieved by a magnet coil system that produces a magnetic field.low phase seperation phenomena in the bond zone . considerable savings can be made if the matter of the joining technology by “friction welding” could be circulated to a wider audience of design and production engineers. Figure 7.50 4. “Magnetarc Welding”.high expenditure requested because of high manufacturing tolerances .low heat influence on joining members .25 3. upset removal € € € € 7.clean and well controllable bulging . The comparison is just to show that.22 .23.75 parison with the competitive method of flash € 20.cdr butt welding.forged material costs shaft Ø30 und 40 mm 2x friction welds incl.susceptibility to non-metal inclusions . In “Magnetarc Welding” an arc burns between the joining surfaces and is rotated by external magnetic forces.frequently shorter welding times .friction-welded piece flange.machine-determined smaller maximum weldable cross-sections .low susceptibility to defects. the weldable diameter range between 5 and 300 mm. in many applications.21 Pressure welding with magnetically impelled arc.22 shows friction welds Ø30 mm 160 mm in brief the imporØ40 mm tant and advantages disadvan- tages of friction 940 mm welding in comforged piece motor shaft € 20.

As reason is the symmetric heat input.cdr wards the stabilisation of the arc. This has a positive effect. in general. completion of welding a) both workpieces are broght into contact again and upset b) welding current and magnetic field are switched off br-er7-23e.the arc ignites weld from the surrounding atmos- 3. the subsequent upsetting of the liquid phase and the cooling off under pressure.7. The welding operation takes place under shielding gas (mainly CO2). After an adequate heating operation. starting position a) both workpieces are brought into contact b) welding current and magnetic field are switched on The shielding gas’ function is not the protection of the 2. relatively low.23 motion behaviour and the regularity of the weld bead are therefore improved. materials free cutting steel steel. the two workpiece members are pressed and fused together. unalloyed malleable © ISF 2002 The prerequisite for the application of a material in “Magnetarc Welding” is its steel. starting of welding a) both workpieces are seperated until a defined gap width is reached (retracting movement) . Figure 7. lowalloyed free cutting steel cast steel malleable suitable for magnetic arc welding not tested welds is. The cracking sensitivity of the br-er7-24e. The reproducibility of Diagrammatic Representation of Magnetic Arc Welding the arc ignition and Figure 7. lowalloyed steel.24 cast steel . 1.cdr steel. unalloyed electrical conductivity and melting behaviour. Pressure Welding 98 effects a tangential force to act upon the arc. A regular weld upset develops which is normally not removed. heating a) the arc rotates b) the joint surfaces are melting phere but rather a contribution to- 4. The rotation of the arc heats and melts the joint surfaces.24 gives a survey of the material combinations which are nowadays already weldable under industrial conditions. particulary Figure 7.

The resulting friction heat softens the base metal. The joining faces of the workpieces must be free from contamination. Pressure Welding 99 when steels with a high carbon content or machining steels are welded. normally a simple saw cut is a sufficient preparation of the abutting surfaces. In friction-stir welding a cylindrical. To obtain a defect-free weld.25 Figures 7.25 and 7. Applications for Magnetic Arc Welding Figure 7. mandrel-like tool carries out rotating self-movements between two plates which are knocked and clamped onto a fixed backing.cdr © ISF 2002 .27 shows a summary of the most important advantages and disadvantages of this method in comparison with the competitive methods of friction welding and flash butt welding. the prefabrication have tolerances to be ad- justed accordingly.cdr © ISF 2002 friction welding.7.26 br-er7-26e_sw. such as rust or scale. Figure 7. This applies also to br-er7-25e_sw. If special demands are put on the dimensional accuracy of the joints. although Figure 7.26 show several application examples of pressure welding with magnetically impelled arc.

lower energy demands .cdr Figure 7. The plastified material is displaced by the Advantages and disadvantages of magnetic arc welding in comparison with flash butt welding and/ or friction welding mandrel and transported behind the tool where a longitudinal seam devel- advantages: . © ISF 2002 br-er7-27e.cdr Friction-Stir Welding Figure 7.28 .suitable for small wall thicknesses only (maximum wall thickness: 4 .no restrictions to the free clamping length .better dimensional accuracy in joining especially for small wall thicknesses .no spatter formation disadvantages: .27 workpiece tool collar fixed backing contoured pin br-er7-28e.welding parameters must be kept within narrow limits .in comparison with friction welding less moving parts (only axial movement of one joining member during upsetting) . Welding fumes do not develop and the addition of filler metal or shielding gases is not required.only magnetizing steels are weldable without any difficulties ops. Pressure Welding 100 the melting point is not reached. The advantages of this method which is mainly used for welding of aluminium alloys is the low thermal stress of the component which allows joining with a minimum of distortion and shrinkage.7.smaller and more regular welding edge .5 mm) .material savings through lower loss of length .

Resistance Projection Welding and Resistance Seam Welding 2003 . Resistance Spot Welding.8.

Figure 8. the heating occurs at the welding point as a consequence of Joule resistance heating caused by current flow through an electrical conductor. In the case of resistance pressure welding. The heat input rate fusion welding pressure welding Qinput is generated by resistance heating in a currentcarrying conductor. Resistance Spot-. Resistance Projection. Figure 8.2 .2. Qeff is com- Figure 8.cdr © ISF 2002 Classification of Welding According to DIN 1910 tity Qeff is instrumental in the formation of the weld nugget. Figure 8. How- cold pressure welding resistance pressure welding friction welding induction pressure welding Conduction pressure welding resistance spot welding projection welding roller seam welding resistance butt welding flash butt welding ever.cdr 4 loaded area 5 projection from thermal radiation. Current supply is carried out through spherical or flat electrodes. only the effective heat quan- br-er8-01e. the plates to be welded in overlap.3.1 shows an extract from the classification of the welding methods according to DIN 1910 with a detailed account of the conductive resistance pressure welding.1 spot welding l workpieces overlap l electrode l weld nugget roller seam welding l workpiece usually in general overlap l driven roller electrode l spot rows (stitch weld.8. two driven roller electrodes are applied. The heat loss the arises heat 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 from dissipation into the 4 1 1 1 5 electrodes and the plates and also 1 electrode force 2 elektrodes 3 production part br-er8-02e. In roller seam welding.and Resistance Seam Welding 101 Figure 8. roller spots) projection welding l workpieces with elevations (concentration of electicity) l workpieces overlap l pad electrode l several joints in a single weld l weld nugget joint posed of the input heat minus the dissipation heat. In spot and projection welding. The plates to be welding welded are mainly overlapped. respectively.

cdr Figure 8.Q1l t=tS creases the heat Fel input Q4 rate by 105%.cdr the heat rate to Figure 8. The time progression of the resistance is shown in Figure 8. The contact resistance is composed of the interface resistances between the electrode and the plate (electrode/plate) and between the plates (plate/plate). The reduction of the electrode force down to 90% inelectrode force effective heat total heat input current (time dependence) heat losses losses into the electrodes losses into the sheet metal losses by heat radiation total resistance material resistance contact resistance Qeff = Qinput . the reduction of the welding Q4 Q2 Q3 Qeff Q3 current 90% down to Q4 Q2 Q4 decreases Qinput = C t=0 I (t) R(t) dt Fel 2 the heat rate to 80% and a welding time reduction to 90% decreases Q1 = Q2 + Q3 + Q4 R(t) = Rmaterial(t) + Rc (t) br-er8-03e.and Resistance Seam Welding 102 The resistance during resistance heating is composed of the contact resistances on the two plates and of their material resistance. the larger are the conductive theoretical contact area 100% metallic conduction contact mOhm crossat the sections proportion at room temperature total resistance contact points and smaller the resistances.3 92%.4. The higher this force is set.4 . The resistance height is greatly dependent on the applied electrode force. br-er8-04e. a3 is highly extended A1: area out-of-contact A2: contact area with high resistance A3: contact area completely conductive effect a rapid reduction of interface resistances. sum of contact resistances which are rapidly increasing at the start of welding. The con- resistance low electrode force high resistance high electrode force low resistance proportion after first milliseconds welding time periods sum of material resistance tact surfaces. Resistance Projection. Resistance Spot-.8. 5 10 welding time surface resistance is collapsed.

5 shows diagrammatically the different resistances during the spot welding process with acting electrode force.and Resistance Seam Welding 103 With the formation of the weld nugget the interface resistances between the plates disappear.5 in the plates. The diagram shows the temperature distribution in the electrodes and cooling tube Figure 8. The maximum temperature is reached in the centre of the weld nugget and 6-8 cooling drill-hole slope 10 .cdr base.8. but without welding current. br-er8-06e. Resistance Spot-. The coolant is normally water. Weld nugget formation must therefore start in the joining zone because of the existing high contact resistance there.6 . electrode force resistance rate Figure 8.cdr © ISF 2002 °C Electrode Cooling Figure 8. Resistance Projection. Figure 8. the cooling R [µOhm] water is transported to the electrode br-er8-05e.20 2-5 decreases strongly in the electrode direction. In the cooling tube. During the progress of the weld the material resistance increases from a low value (surrounding temperatures) to a maximum value above the melting temperature.6 shows directly cooled electrodes for resis_ ~ R1 R3 R6 R7 R4 R5 R2 R3 R6 R5 R7 R4 0 100 200 tance welding.

Formation of the weld nugget in the joining zone of both workpieces.holding time of workpiece during cooling of molten metal . br-er8-08e. the set-up time sequence tpre. An example shows the macrosection of a weld nugget after the welding time has ended.8.7: 1 ->2 Lowering of the top electrode 2->3 Application of the adjusted electrode force Set-up time tpre. the switching-on of the welding current and the sequence of the weldFel Iw electrode force Fel set-up time .preventing resting of electrode on workpiece under electricle voltage welding current Iw time t tpre tw th top electrode postweld-holding time . In the top the simplest possible welding program sequence is shown: The application of the electrode force. sequence 3->4 Switching-on of the adjusted welding current for the period of the welding time tw.cdr © ISF 2002 workpiece lower electrode weld nugget insufficiently melted weld nugget br-er8-07e.cdr totally melted weld nugget © ISF 2002 Time Sequence of Resistance Spot Welding Functions of Pre.setting-up of reproducible resistance before welding .compressing the workpiece .9. 5->6 Switching-off the force generating system and lifting the electrodes off the workpiece. Resistance Projection.electrode resting after bounce . Figure 8.8.prevention of lifting the electrode under voltage The postweld-holding time has influence on the weld point hardening within certain of electrode force to preset value . Resistance Spot-. Dependent on the welding task different force and current programs can be set in the welding machines.7 Figure 8. Figure 8.and Resistance Seam Welding 104 Sequence of a resistance spot welding process. The functions of the set-up time and the post-weld holding time are listed in Figure 8. 4->5 Maintaining the electrode force for the period of the set post-weld holding time th.8 .prevention of pore formation in the welding nugget .and Postwelding Figure 8.

10 shows the principle structure of a resistance spot welding machine.8. the sequence of the postwelding current electrode force Fel 5 Iw tpre = pre-weld time tw = welding time th = holding time tpres = pressure time weld holding time th and the switchingoff of the force generating system. for in1 stance. The main components are: the machine frame. In addition.initial force 2 . 7 5 8 1 electrode force cylinder 2 pneumatic equipment 3 machine tool frame 4 welding transformer 5 power control unit 6 current conductor 7 lower arm 8 foot switch 9 top arm 10 electrical power supply cable 11 water cooled electrode holder 12 electrode br-er8-10e. welding is carried out using an adjustable current rise (7) and current decay time 1 .ascending current 8 . Resistance Spot-. The diagram below depicts a more sophisticated current program. welding is carried out with a variable electrode force (2) and with preheating (4) and post-heating current (6). 11 12 4 9 10 6 2 3 Figure 8.cdr Course of Force and Current the process can be influenced by adjustment.10 . welding current electrode force 1 2 5 7 4 6 3 Iw 8 Fel br-er8-09e. welding current electrode force Fel 5 7 Iw 8 Merely in the welding current range.descending current time (8). This principle design applies to spot. the electrode path.preheating current 5 . Differences are to be found merely in the type of electrode fittings and in the electrode shapes. the welding current or the welding pressure force 4 . The diagram in the centre is almost identi- tpre tw tpres th time cal to the one just described.and Resistance Seam Welding 105 ing time tw. the welding transformer with secondary lines. Resistance Projection. the electrode pressure system and the control system.welding current 6 .welding pressure force 3 .9 A controlled variable may be.postheating current 7 . the resistance progress.cdr © ISF 2002 Schematic Assembly of Spot Welding Machine Figure 8. Dependent on the control system. projection and roller seam welding machines. Figure 8.

16 welding time [s] welding time [s] © ISF 2002 Current Types .00 0.04 0.14 0.04 0. of the transformers. plastics).12 ~ one-sided duplex spot welding with conductive base one-sided multi-spot welding with conductive base © ISF 2002 Variants of Spot Welding medium frequency direct current 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.06 0.12 shows the current types which are normally used for resistance welding. extreme + two-sided two-shear spot welding (stack welding) ~ one-sided single-spot welding with contact electrode ~ peak loads do not occur current.c. These are distinguished by the number of plates to be welded and by the arrangement of the electrodes or. however.10 0.02 0.06 0.09 0.10 0.12 0.02 0.cdr [kA] machines Hz primary current supply.14 0.00 0.11 depicts the possible process variations of resistance spot welding.11 0.00 0. respectively. for example. It has to be noted that with a corresponding arrangement also plates can be welded where one of the two plates has a non-conductive surface (as. Alternating current has the simplest structure (Figure 8.16 0.13 0. In relation to the average current values. supply unit.12 0. Resistance Projection. supply unit more and.8. however. Figure 8. Resistance Spot-.cdr + + The structural design of a d. Figur 8.11 alternating current 20 complicated [kA] 10 5 0 0. two-sided single-shear single-spot welding ~ with that.16 welding time [s] welding time [s] impulse capacitor current 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0.14 0. expensive 15 current current than an a.10 0. increased electrode These wear.02 0. As welding conventional "conventional" direct current 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0. with direct + + two-sided duplex spot welding br-er8-11e.08 0.c. unavoidable are.06 0.04 br-er8-12e. peak ~ ~ ~ loads occur and.12 0.00 0.04 0.07 0. the disadvantages of current zeros and weld nugget cooling.and Resistance Seam Welding 106 Figure 8.08 0. more is.13) and is most price effective.02 0.08 0. the welding current can be controlled only in 20 ms current operate with a 50 current [kA] Figur 8.16 -5 -10 -15 -20 [kA] therefore.

cdr period and a more precise control of the welding current is posFigure 8.8. materials with good conductivity can be welded and also multiple-projection welds can be carried out. Depending on the shape and type of electrode.14 electrode holders br-er8-14e. The rectified primary current is stored in capacitors and. They are wearing parts and. Resistance Projection. a finer setting of the current-on br-er8-13e. the difficult regulation of the welding current. the impulse capacitor resistance welding technique is applied. respectively.and Resistance Seam Welding 107 units single-phase alternating current static-inverter direct current (1 period). apart from the high equipment costs. In order to realise higher currents and shorter welding times. Electrode Caps and Holders . solid electrodes or electrode Figure 8. converted to high welding currents. Because of the high energy density. The advantages of this technique are low heat input and high reproducibility. therefore.cdr © ISF 2002 Electrodes. the medium- 3-phase direct current capacitor impulse discharge frequency tech- nique is used.13 sible. Resistance Spot-. When the inverterdirect current technique or. electrode caps form E form F form G form A electrodes form B form C form D Electrodes for spot resistance welding have the property of transferring the electrode force and the welding current. easily replaceable. through a high-voltage transformer. A disadvantage of this method is.

good electrical conductivity . Moreover.8. the conductivity.16 . Figure 8. the electrode alloying tendency.and Resistance Seam Welding 108 caps. Resistance Projection. In the ideal case. Key terials are used. Figure 8. Already during the design phase of the components to be welded. The W75 Cu W78 Cu WC70 Cu Mo W W65 Ag Cu . Resistance Spot-. the admissible MAC values Figure 8. the tempering resistance. finally.cdr Electrode Materials ment. 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 4 2 3 4 Key ISO 5182 Group Type No. different alloyed electrode ma- ISO 5182 Group Type 1 2 A 3 No. must be either remachined or requirements . and.15 poor good must be strictly adhered to during remachining or dressing of the electrodes.ETP Cu Cdl Cu Crl Cu Crl Zr Cu CO2 Be Cu Ni2 Si Cu Ni1 P Cu Be2 Co Ni Cu Ag6 CuAl10NiFe5Ni5 10 11 12 B 13 14 15 added alloying elements influence the red hardness. br-er8-16e.high high-temperature strength .little tendency to alloying with workpiece material . the machinability of the electrode material. the welding point is accessible from the top and from below.14 depicts various types of electrodes.high temperature stability .15. electrode caps and holders.easy options in machining recycled.high softening temperature .cdr © ISF 2002 Accessibility for Spot Welding Electrode Figure 8. importance must be attached to a good accessibility of the welding point. When beryllium is used as an alloying ele- br-er8-15e. Dependent upon the electrode application. the electrode force which is imperative to the process must be applied in a way that no damage is done to the workpiece. the fusion temperature.good thermal conductivity .16. Figure 8.

weld spatter formation may occur. Figure 8. the electrode working surface must be flat.18 .17. as a rule. the process variation. the shunt current leads to undesired fusing contacts and. a so-called “shunt current/effect” may be noticed. In the example. does not contribute to the formation of the Contact Area for Spot Welding Electrodes Figure 8.18.and Resistance Seam Welding 109 poor good In order to avoid the displacement of the electrodes. current path copper spot welding A shunt connection current If unsuitable welding parameters have been set. Dependent on the joining job. Resistance Spot-. also to damages to the plate surface.8.19. shown in Figure 8. Resistance Projection. Also during the design phase space must be provided for an adequately large clearing zone around the working point. The reasons for this kind of process disturbance are. because of the lacking electrode force at this point.cdr Shunting Figure 8. Figure 8.17 weld nugget. This br-er8-17e. for br-er8-18e. or the resistance welding method. Liquid molten metal forms on the plate surface or in indirect welding one side roller seam welding the joining zone.cdr © ISF 2002 current component. under certain circumstances it might even prevent a reliable welding process. in order to guarantee the unimpeded electrode approach to the working point.

number of plates.8. 1 Reason here is high welding current. fig. mains voltage variations. plate welding current changes shunt connection wear of electrodes wear of cable mains voltage fluctuation secondary electrical impedance quality. 2) fig. Non-uniform conditions by alterations to components are: different plate thicknesses. (fig. too low an electrode force Welding spatter: Discharge of molten material between two steel sheets or from the surface of steel sheets. plate bouncing. faces. Welding current changes are caused by: shunt. tances. 2 Figure 8.and Resistance Seam Welding 110 example. modification of the unit br-er8-20e. secondary porosity in the joint caused by welding spatter br-er8-19e.19 Different welding conditions are caused by welding machine wear. too high an energy input with regard to the plate thickness or too small an edge distance of the welding point. Resistance Projection. Welding Spatter Figure 8.20 welding equipment . cable wear.20 shows a list of a large number of possible disturbances in resistance spot welding.cdr Figure 8.cdr discharge of molten material at the joint plane impedance.Qlosses Qeff wear force changes are caused sure by: pres- plate diversion heat fluctuations plate thickness quality of plates number of plates plate surface edge distance and -changes. Resistance Spot-. different heat dissipation. electrode wear. with regard to the set welding current or welding time. plate edge surdisalteration to force alteration of pressure Electrode Qeff = Qinput . 1) or too-small edge distance (fig.

The differences between both methods are illustrated in Figure 8. The values which are indicated in the table are valid only when the stated element is the sole alloying constituent of the steel material.60 0.and Resistance Seam Welding 111 The resistance spot welding method allows welding of a large number of materials weldability satisfactory maximum content [%] iron gold cobalt copper magnesium very good satisfactory very good poor good C C + Cr C + Mo C+V C + Mn C + Ni Si Cu P+S C+Cr+Mo+V tantalum titanium tungsten very good very good satisfactory molybdenum satisfactory nickel platinum silver very good very good very good 0.00 0.70 0. Resistance Spot-. The term “electrode life” stands for the number of welds that can be carried out with one pair of follow-up distance before welding after welding electrodes without further rework and without exceeding elektrode the tolerances for quality criteria of the br-er8-22e.22 shows a comparison between resistance spot and resistance projection welding.cdr influence of alloying elements (steel materials) Figure 8.10 1.35 0. The alloying elements which are used for steels have a varying influence on the suitability for resistance spot welding.40 3.40 1.60 0. aluminium weldable materials br-er8-21e.25 0. A list of the various materials is shown in Figure 8.40 0.10 0.60 0.00 0.60 0.22 .40 1. The fun- Weldable Materials damental difference between the two methods lies in the definition of the Figure 8.60 1.cdr projection weld. The short life of the electrodes used for resistance spot welding is explained by the higher thermal load and the larger pressing area caused by the smaller electrode contact areas.00 1.23. Resistance Projection.21.60 alloying elements good weldability sufficient weldability materials.21 current transition point.60 4.50 0.8. Figure 8.

longitudinal projection br-er8-25e.25 the production of embossed projections in different shapes is shown. These are annular. Resistance Projection.cdr © ISF 2002 In Figure 8. The survey is shown in Figure 8. solid projections and natural projections.and Resistance Seam Welding 112 spot welding elektrodes: diameter tip face electrode life up to 20 mm convex less projection welding embossed projection shape solid projection shape struck machined cut pushed natural projection shape > 20 mm flat longer pressed mould pressed place where the nugget originates elektrodes projections circular longitudinal annular circular longitudinal annular interrupted annular spot contact line contact number of welding nuggets one several Circular follow-up distance small big weld nut crossed wires problems: current distribution force distribution no no yes yes Longitudinal cut wire-plate Annular br-er8-23e. The welding projections are.8. adapted to embossed projection ring projection the used plate thickness and may.cdr pushed bolt-pipe Differences Between Resistance Spot and Projection Welding Customary Projection Shapes Figure 8. circular or longitudi- d1 mould plate mould plate counter-die d1 nal projections. Resistance Spot-. The shape is embossed onto the Production of Embossed Projection Shapes Figure 8. according to their size.23 Figure 8.24 die plate plate die Depending on the demands on the joint strength or on the projection rigidity.24. therefore. appear as different types in the die l mould plate b plate workpiece: embossed projections.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er8-24e.25 . different projection shapes are applied.

Resistance Spot-. as shown by the example in Figure Figure 8.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er8-27e. Due to different current paths .26 Figure 8.cdr force distribution of a C-frame projection press welder with non-parallel positioning tables © ISF 2002 Problem of Current Distribution During Projection Welding Problems of Force Distribution During Projection Welding Figure 8.cdr © ISF 2002 after welding bution.when using direct current . A varying force distribr-er8-28e. welding nuggets with differing are probefore welding qualities duced when no preventive remedies are taken. Figure 8. alternating current distribution intensity of current increases from the center to the outer area caused by current displacement force distribution of a C-frame projection press welder during bending of machine tool frame direct current distribution intensity of current decreases from the center to the outer area caused by the longer current path br-er8-26e. dies and.and Resistance Seam Welding 113 plate surface by appropriate die plates.and a current displacement .when lap joint lap joint with wire electrode lap joint with foil squash seam weld butt weld with foil using alternating current -.28 Roller Seam Welding .26. counter dies. if necessary.8.27 Various problems occur in projection welding caused by the welding of several joints in a single working cycle. Resistance Projection.

28 several examples of interrupted-current roller seam weld application using projection welding are depicted. the shapes are of the embossed type.and Resistance Seam Welding 114 8.27. but with the application of roller elec- continuous D. current also produces seal welds.30 show several overlap seal weld process variations of roller seam welding. also leads to differing qualities of the produced weld nuggets. In this example. spot welds or seal welds with overlapping nuggets are weld probr-er8-30e_sw.29 be produced again current flow is initiated.cdr © ISF 2002 duced.8.30 .c. At Weld Types for Roller Seam Welding Figure 8. The application of d.cdr © ISF 2002 trodes.29 and 8. Seam welding is actually a continuous spot welding process.C. Resistance Projection. Application Examples of Projection Welding Figure 8. Resistance Spot-. In Figure 8. Figures 8. Dependent on the electrode feed rate and on the the points where a welding spot is to welding current frequency. seal weld br-er8-29e. In contrast to resistance spot welding the electrodes remain in contact and turn continuously after the first weld spot has been produced.

9. Electron Beam Welding 2003 .

by filament current . regulates the electron flow. the so-called “Wehnelt cylinder”. The heating of the tungsten cathode may be carried out directly . which is positioned between anode and cathode.1. Electron Beam Welding 115 The application of highly accelerated electrons as a tool for material processing in the fusion. The electrons are accelerated by high voltage between the cathode and the pierced anode. Dependent on the height of the cut-off voltage beFigure 9. this materials could not have been joined by any industrially applied high-production beam forming and guidance viewing optics focussing coil defelction coil joining method. These components may also have separate vacuum systems. A modulating indirectly . Schematic Representation of an Electron Beam Welding Machine Figure 9. by coiled filaments. drilling and welding process high voltage supply and also for surface treatment has been known since the Fifties.2 br-er9-02e_f. beam manipulation chamber door br-er9-01e. for example. the electron beam welding process has been developed from the laboratory stage for particular applications.cdr © ISF 2002 and forming and working chamber. In this cases. workpiece workpiece handling working chamber The electron beam welding machine to vacuum pump is made up of three main components: beam generation.1 A tungsten cathode which has been heated under vacuum emits electrons by thermal emission. Figure 9. Ever beam generation cathode control elektrode anode adjustment coil valve to vacuum pump stigmator since.cdr power supply evacuation system for gun control cabinet EB-gun chamber evacuation system valve working chamber workpiece receiving platform workpiece handling control desk control panel © ISF 2002 All-Purpose EBW Machine and Equipment .9.

is a barrier field which may pass only a certain quantity of electrons. the electrostatic focussing of the electron beam. here. The core piece of the electron beam welding machine is the electron beam gun where the electron beam is generated under high vacuum. For workpiece removal.2. This happens during an electron excess in front of the cathode where it culminates in form of an electron cloud. carried out under medium or high vacuum. loose power density and efficiency. the welding process is.cdr © ISF 2002 motors. besides the beam current adjustment. As it would. A shut-off valve which is positioned between electron gun and working chamber serves to maintain the gun vacuum while the working chamber is flooded.9. The tightly focussed electron beam diverges rapidly under atmospheric pressure caused by scattering and ionisation development with air. obtains the power density which is necessary for welding only after having passed the adjacent alignment and focussing system. Figure 9. The electron beam which diverges after having passed the pierced anode. as a rule. A viewing optic or a video system allows the exact positioning of the electron beam onto the weld groove. Electron Beam Welding 116 tween the cathode and the modulating electrode. An additional stigmator coil may help to correct aberrations of the lenses. however. A deflection coil assists in maintaining the electron beam oscillating motion. the Wehnelt cylinder also effects. In universal machines. the back-scattered electrons x-ray workpiece manipulator assembly inside the vacuum convection x thermal radiation secondary electrons chamber is a slide with working table positioned over NCcontrolled stepper y heat conduction z br-er9-03e. The necessary vacuum is generated in separate vacuum pumps for working chamber and beam gun. Due to its particular shape which can be compared to a concave mirror as used in light optic. One or several electromagnetic focussing lenses bundle the beam onto the workpiece inside the vacuum chamber. the Energy Transformation Inside Workpiece slide is moved from Figure 9.3 .

evaporates.3. This finally leads to a metal vapour pour cavity cavity which which is is surrounded by a shell of fluid metal. not only converted into the heat necessary for welding. to some extent.4 Principle of Deep Penetration Welding machines are used. their penetration depth into the workpiece is very low. covering the entire weld surrounded by a shell of fluid metal. a part of the incident electrons (primary electrons) is subject to backscatter and by secondary processes the secondary electrons are emitted from the workpiece thus generating X-rays. which is schematically shown in Figure 9. The energy conversion in the workpiece. when br-er9-04e. This deep-weld effect allows nowadays depths penetration into steel a) b) c) d) materials of up to 300 mm. at the operational point. A distinction is made between electron beam machines with vertical and horizontal beam manipulation systems.cdr © ISF 2002 modern high vacuum-high voltage Figure 9. onto the workpiece surface stops the electrons. By a relative motion in the direction of the weld groove between workpiece and electron beam the cavity penetrates through the material.4. but for the most part . At the front side of the cavity new material is molten which. The impact of the electrons. but is also released by heat radiation and heat dissipation.9. Figure 9. just a few µm. Furthermore. Figure 9. covering the entire weld depth.5. The high energy density at the impact point causes the metal to evaporate thus allowing the following electrons a deeper penetration. which are tightly focussed into a corpuscular beam. indicates that the kinetic energy of the highly accelerated electrons is. Electron Beam Welding 117 the vacuum chamber onto the workpiece platform. The diameter of the cavity corresponds approximately with the beam diameter. Most of the kinetic energy is released in the form of heat.

5 molten backside of the vapour cavity to strong and irregular changes in shape (case II). by counteracting its hydrostatic pressure and the surface tension.9. The transient pressure and temperature conditions inside the cavity as well as their respective.cdr 9. dynamically changing geometry of the vapour cavity and motion of the molten metal groove melting pool welding direction keyhole molten zone vapour capillary electron beam groove front side with an unfavourable the selection welding of pametal F1 rameters. press the unevenly Model of Shrinkage Cavity Formation Figure 9. momentary diameters are subject to dynamic changes. Figure © ISF 2002 F1 : force resulting from vapour pressure F2 : force resulting from surface tension F3 : force resulting from hydrostatic pressure br-er9-05e. Pressure variations interfere β with the regular I II workpiece movement III flow at the cavity backside.6 . Under the influence of the resulting. In order to maintain the welding cavity open. the vapour pressure must press the molten metal round the vapour column against the cavity walls.cdr © ISF 2002 and. in the most unfavourable case. However. act upon the molten metal br-er9-06e. fume bubbles may solidified zone F2 F3 F1 be included which on cooling turn into shrinkholes.6. this equilibrium of forces is unstable. Electron Beam Welding 118 flows around the cavity and rapidly solidifies at the backside. The unstable pressure exposes the Condition in Capillary Figure 9.

A comparison with the submerged-arc and the gas metalarc welding processes illustrates the depth-to-width ratio which is obtain- Classification of EBW Machines Figure 9. The cavities are not root reinforcement unapproachable gap lower bead br-er9-07e. with that. by pressure: l high vacuum machine l fine vacuum machine l atmospheric machine (NV-EB welding) by accelerating voltage: l high voltage machine (UB=150 kV) l low voltage machine (UB=60 kV) Thick plate welding accentuates the process-specific advantage of the by machine concept: l conveyor machine l clock system l all-purpose EBW machine l local vacuum machine l mobile vacuum machine l micro and fine welding machine br-er9-20e. Electron Beam Welding distributed groove upper bead weld reinforcement fs ho m ea o gth ea fs m 119 molten end crater metal into different zones of the molten cavity backlen t g len width of seam weld penetration depth weld thickness side. in order to avoid the above-mentioned defects. The angle ß (case I) increases with the rising weld speed and this is defined as a turbulent process.cdr deep-weld effect and.9. Flaws such as a constantly open vapour cavity and subsequent continuous weld solidification could be avoided by selection of jobsuitable welding parameter combination and in particular of beam oscillation characteristics. they Basic Definitions collapse sporadi- cally and remain as Figure 9. Customary beam oscillation types are: circular. thus forming blind bead molten area Nahtdicke the so-called vapour pockets. double parabola or triangular functions.7 hollow spaces after solidification (case Ill). it has to be seen to a constantly of the molten metal. the possibility to join in a single working cycle with high weld speed and low heat input quantity.cdr root weld © ISF 2002 always filling with molten metal.8 . sine.

Electron beam welding of thick plates offers thereby decisive advantages.9. The latter exerts a considerable influence onto the obtainable welding results.10. Figure 9. 20 to 50. the high equipment costs and the size of the chamber. Figure 9. Figure 9. Compared with the gas-shielded narrow gap welding process. have been standardised for electron beam welding.11. in particular. there are also disadvantages which emerge from the process. Considering the above-mentioned advantages. < 5 x 10-4 mbar < 1 x 10 mbar -6 In accordance with DIN 32511 (terms for methods and equipment applied in electron and laser beam welding). the high profitability of this process is dominant. the high cooling rate. the achievable weld depth and the depth-to-width ratio of the weld . shown in Figure 9. Electron Beam Welding 120 able with the electron beam technology. These are. This process depends on highly energetic efficiency together with a sparing use of resources during fabrication.8.9. Figure 9. A corresponding quantification shows the advantage in regard of the applied filler metal and of the primary energy demand. Pointing to series production. With the increasing acceleration voltage. the production time can be reduced by the factor of approx. With modern equipment.cdr EB-Welding in High Vacuum Electron beam units are not only distinguished by their working vacuum quality or the unit concept but also by the acceleration voltage level. wall thicknesses of up to 300 mm with length-to-width ratios of up to 50 : 1 and consisting of low and high-alloy materials can be welded fast and precisely in one pass and without adding any filler metal.9 br-er9-09e_f. the specific designations.7. Numerous specific advantages speak in favour of the increased application of this high productivity process in the manufacturing practice. Figure 9.

9. Electron Beam Welding 121 geometry are also increasing. a separate complete lead covering of the unit is not necessary. while the low-voltage technology (max. 60 kV) is a good alternative for smaller units and weld thicknesses. Figure 9. naturally. the exponential increase of X-rays and.11 br-er9-11e_f. the vacuum (p = 10-5 mbar) for the insulation of the beam generation compartment and the prevention of cathode oxidation is imperative. A collision of the electrodes with the residual gas molecules and the scattering of the electron beam which is connected to this is. however.cdr < 1x 10 mbar -4 ~ 10 mbar ~ 1 mbar -1 Atmospheric Welding (NV-EBW) . due Figure 9.cdr The design of the unit for the lowEB-Welding in Fine Vacuum voltage technique is simpler as. While during the beam generation. the < 1 x 10-6 mbar likewise increased sensitivity to flashover voltages. br-er9-10e_f. A disadvantage of the increasing accelerating voltage is. In correspondence with < 5 x 10 mbar -2 the size of the workpiece to be welded and the size of the chamber volume. high-voltage beam generators (150 200 kV) with powers of up to 200 kW are applied in industrial production.10 to the lower acceleration voltage. lowest in high vacuum. the possible working pressures inside the vacuum chamber vary between a high vacuum (p = 10-4 mbar) and atmospheric pressure. also.

12 called “medium-vacuum units” (p = 102 mbar) are applied. Areas of application are in the automotive industry (pistons.cdr © ISF 2002 Disadvantages of EBW Figure 9. The reasons for the application of a high vacuum unit are.1 mm bis 300 mm) extremely narrow seams (t:b = 50:1) low overall heat input => low distortion => welding of completely processed components high welding speed possible no shielding gas required high process and plant efficiency material dependence.12. for instance. Figure 9. at atmosphere r r r X-ray formation limited sheet thickness (max. Figure 9. the reduction of cycle times. the so- Figure 9. reduced requirements to the weld geometry.9.13. Electron Beam Welding 122 The beam diameter is minimal in high vacuum and the beam power density in vacuum r r r thin and thick plate welding (0. r r r r at atmosphere r r r very high welding velocity good gap bridging no problems with reflection during energy entry into workpiece br-er9-12e. This is mainly be- in vacuum r r r r r r r electrical conductivity of materials is required high cooling rates => hardening => cracks high precision of seam preparation beam may be deflected by magnetism X-ray formation size of workpiece limited by chamber size high investment cause of economic considerations. gauge heads. among others. gear parts) and also in the metal-working industry (fittings. The application of the electron beam welding process also entails advantages as far as the structural design of the components is concerned.cdr © ISF 2002 Advantages of EBW With a low risk of oxidation and reduced demands on the welds. special demands on the weld (narrow. 10 mm) high investment Under extreme demands on the welding time. accumulators). often the only welding method is maximum in high vacuum. torque converters. out-of-vacuum welding r small working distance br-er9-13e. deep welds with a minimum energy input) or the choice of the materials to be welded (materials with a high oxygen affinity). valves. as.13 . distortion and in case of full material compatibility with air or shielding gas.

Just immediately before the welding starts. therefore. Clock system machines.15. Figure 9. several workpieces can be welded in subsequence during an evacuation cycle. Figure 9. characterised by short evacuation times.9. travelling beam Figure 9.16. in most cases. presently existing working chamber has a volume of 265 m³. pinion cages. Electron Beam Welding 123 units are applied. Their advantages are the continuous welding time and/or short cycle times. Universal machines are characterised by their simply designed working chamber.14. A further distinction criterion is the adjustment of the vacuum chambers to the different joining tasks. br-er9-14e_f. bimetal strips) and in the automotive industry (converters.cdr EBW Clock System Machine . in contrast. Here.15 br-er9-15e_f. The largest. are equipped with several small vacuum chambers which are adapted to the workpiece shape and they are. socket joints and module holders).Conventional Plant vertically or horizontally positioned and. is the beam gun coupled to the vacuum chamber which has been evacuated during the preceding evacuation Figure 9.cdr Figure 9. Areas of application are in the metalworking industry (precision tubes.14 generators. They are equipped with Machine Concept .

at the same time. In the main chamber of these units is a gradually raising pressure system as partial vacsemi-finished material uum pre and post activated. Conveyor machines allow the continuous production of welded joints. with the use of suitable sealing. to serve as a vacuum lock.cdr mobile and local vacuum are characterEBW Conveyor Machine ised by shorter evacuation times with a simultaneous maintenance of the vac- Figure 9. In this case. while. is the vacuum produced only in the welding area.17 . bimetal semi finished products such as saw blades or thermostatic bimetals.17. for example. electron beam welding may be carried out with components which.9. ves- butt weld T-joint/ fillet weld a) b) T-joint butt welded lap weld br-er9-17e. can not be loaded into a stationary vacuum chamber (e. Systems which are operating with a endproduct br-er9-16e_f. In the “local vacuum systems”. the next vacuum chamber may be flooded and charged/loaded.g. due to their sizes. a sufficient sealing between workpiece and vacuum chamber is more difficult. In “mobile vacuum systems” welding is carried out in a small vacuum chamber which is restricted to the welding area but is travelling along the welded seam.16 uum by decreasing the pumping volume. Electron Beam Welding 124 cycle. as. With these types of machine design. Figure 9.cdr © ISF 2002 Seam Appearance for EB-Welding in Vacuum Figure 9.

Depending on the control systems of the working table and similar to conventional welding are different welding positions possible. while the beam remains stationary and is directed onto the workpiece in the horizontal or the vertical position.9.18. as a transverse shrinkage sets in at the beginning of the weld and may lead to a considerable increase of the gap width in the opposite groove area. the T-joint with a plain butt weld should.7 kg/h 64·10 kJ 3 23 kg 5 kg/h 128·10 kJ 3 54 kg 13 kg/h 293·10 kJ 3 66 kg 9 kg/h 377·10 kJ 3 27 min 4 h 35 min 4 h 11 min 7 h 20 min Comparison of EB. components for particle accelerators and nuclear fusion plants).18 sized parts (press fit) should be selected during weld preparation. In general the workpiece is moved during electron beam welding. As the beam spread is large under atmosphere. Figure 9. Figure 9.cdr © ISF 2002 tring allowance for centralising tasks and machining is made. For the execution of axial welds. GMAW and SAWNarrow Gap and Conventional SAW .19 br-er9-19e.000 V 896 mm 1 2 UP (conventional) UP (narrow gap) 650 A 30 V 2 MSG (narrow gap) 260 A 30 V 2098 mm 35 UP (conventional) 510 A 28 V 4905 mm 81 2 150 5966 mm 143 2 filler metal melting efficiency energy input welding time 0 7. slightly over- Seam Appearence at Atmospheric Welding (NV-EBW) Figure 9. The weld type preferred in electron beam welding is the plain butt weld. Figure 9. Electron Beam Welding 125 sel skins. be chosen only when the demands on the strength of the joints are low.cdr © ISF 2002 EBW MSG UP (narrow gap)(narrow gap) EBW welding current welding voltage groove area number of passes 0. Frequently. odd seam formations have to be considered during Non-Vacuum Electron Beam Welding. however. also cenbr-er9-18e. In some cases also T-welds may be carried out.27 A 150.19.

An evaluation program creates a perspective view of the power density distribution in the beam and also a two-dimensional representation of EBW Fields of Application lines with the same power density. which.cdr diverted over a precision resistor.development of beam generation systems. The electron beam is linearly scanned at a high speed by means of a point probe.20. the electrons flowing through the diaphragm are picked up by a Faraday shield and industrial areas: l automotive industries l aircraft and space industries l mechanical engineering l tool construction l nuclear power industries l power plants l fine mechanics and electrical industries l job shop material: l almost all steels l aluminium and its alloys l magnesium alloys l copper and its alloys l titanium l tungsten l gold l material combinations (e.g. The objective of many tests is therefore the exact measurement of the beam and the investigation of the effects of different beam geometries on the welding result. bronze-steel) l ceramics (electrically conductive) br-er9-20e. the beam is line scanned over the slit sensor (60 lines). When the electron beam is deflected through the aperture diaphragm located inside the sensor.tests on the interactions between beam and substance . In order to receive an overall picture of the power density distribution inside the electron beam. Figure 9. Electron Beam Welding 126 In order to receive uniform and reproducible results with electron beam welding. Cu-steel.9. The time progression of the signal. a microprocessor-controlled measuring system has been developed in the ISF.applicability of welding parameters to other welding machines . For the exact measurement of the electron beam. corresponds with the intensity distribution of the electron beam in the scanning path. intercepted at the resistor. with a diameter of 20 µm is much smaller than the beam diameter in the focus.20 . an exact knowledge about the beam geometry is necessary and a prerequisite for: . Figure 9.

It can track of the beam measurement field be seen clearly that the cathode had not been heated up sufficiently. Therefore. Figure 9. Density: 26.456 kW/mm2 2 Ref.21 The electron signals are used for the automatic seam tracking. which may lead to impaired welding results.. the electrons are sucked off directly from the cathode surface during saturation and unsaturated slit sensor beams.cdr sity is rotationally symmetrical and in Two Principles of Electron Beam Measuring accordance with the Gaussian distribution curve. In the ideal case. A computer may determine the position of the groove relative to the beam by the signals from the reflected electrons.22 br-er9-22e_f.cdr FILENAME: R I N G S T R Accel. Electron Beam Welding 127 An example for a measured electron hole sensor hole with aperture diaphragm Faraday cup (20 µm) cross section of the beam beam is shown in Figure 9. Figure 9. Density: 26. These may be either primary or secondary electrons or passing-through current or the developing X-rays. the developed power denbeam deflection br-er9-21e.e.9. develop. the electron beam is scanned transversely to the groove. there are always enough elec- voltage trons which can be sucked off. During the slit with Faraday cup cross section of the beam space charge mode of a generator. i. the electron cloud is sufficiently large. voltage: 150 kV Beam current: 600 mA Prefocus current: 700 mA Main focus current: 1500 mA Cath. This kind of seam tracking system may be used either on-line or off-line. In correspondence with the deflection the beam is guided by electromagnetic deflection coils or by moving the working table.456 kW/mm © ISF 2002 Energy Concentration and Development in Electron Beam . When backscattered primary electrons are used.21. heat current: 500 mm Max.

9.22. Figure 9. electron beam welding is also particularly suited for the joining of large cross-sections. Besides the fine and micro welding carried out by the electronics industry where in particular the low heat input and the precisely programmable control is of importance. . Electron Beam Welding 128 The broad variation range of the weldable materials and also material thicknesses offer this joining method a large range of application.

Laser Beam Welding 2003 .10.

CO2 and solid state lasers have been used for production metal working. Figure 10. Al- though the principle of the stimulated emission and the quantum- mechanical fundamentals have already been postulated by Einstein in the beginning of the 20th century. Prokhorov and Basov for their works in the field of masers construction of the first Nd:YAG solid state lasers and CO2 gas lasers 1966 established laser emission on organic dyes since increased application of CO2 and solid state laser 1970 technologies in industry 1975 first applications of laser beam cutting in sheet fabrication industry 1983 introduction into the market of 1-kW-CO2 lasers 1984 first applications of laser beam welding in industrial serial production br-er10-01e. Laser Beam Welding 129 The term laser is the abbreviation for 1917 postulate of stimulated emission by Einstein 1950 work out of physical basics and realisation of a maser (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) by Towens. The following years had Figure 10. the first laser .a ruby laser . The number of the annual sales of laser beam sources has constantly increased in the 9 3 10 € 2 1. Figure 1 0.5 course of the last few 10. Prokhorov.1 been characterised by a fast devel- opment of the laser technology. Basov 1954 construction of the first maser 1960 construction of the first ruby laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) 1961 manufacturing of the first HeNe lasers and Nd: glass lasers 1962 development of the first semiconductor lasers 1964 nobel price for Towens.5 0 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 The application arbr-er10-02e.10.1..2.2 .was not implemented until 1960 in the Hughes Research Laboratories.cdr . years.Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation”. Until then numerous tests on materials had to be carried out in order to gain a more History of the Laser precise knowledge about the atomic structure. The laser is the further development of the maser (m=microwave).cdr Japan and South East Asia North America West Europe eas for the laser beam sources sold Figure 10. increasingly since the Eighties when the first high-performance lasers were available. Already since the beginning of the Seventies and.

br-er10-04e.guided by cutting 44.8% others 9.4 .3% micro electronics 5. As the divergence is only 1/10 mrad.makes the use of the laser also more attracbr-er10-03e. Laser Beam Welding 130 in 1994 are shown in Figure 10. Figure 10.5 shows the characteristic properties of the laser beam. The availability of more efficient laser drilling 1.cdr Figure 10.10.3% welding 18. By reason of the induced or stimu40 kW 20 10 laser power 5 4 3 2 1 diode laser 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 0 Nd:YAG CO2 lated emission the radiation is coherent and mono- chromatic. long transmission paths without significant beam divergences are possible. Figure 10.5% beam sources opens up new application possibili- ties and .3.4% financial con- siderations . The main application areas of the laser in the field of production metal working are joining and cutting jobs.4.3 Figure 10.7% inscribe 20.cdr tive.

cdr E1 exited state ground state 0.6 Laser Principle . flash lamps). ions) is excited to a higher energy level (“pumping”) by energy input (electrical gas discharge. the energy is released in the form of a light quantum (photon). the socalled “laserFigure 10.46" E2 light bulb Laser induced emission emission particle higher energy level is hit by a photon. in comparison with the energy source lower one. in fluorescent tubes) is a laser beam generated by induced when with a a 0. In order to maintain the ratio of the desired induced emission I spontaneous emission as high as possible. the laser-active medium (gas molecules.g. active laser medium laser beam partially reflecting mirror R < 100% © ISF 2002 Figure 10.10. During retreat to a lower level.5 resonator energy source the upper energy level must be constantly overfully reflecting mirror R = 100% br-er10-06e. The wave length depends on the energy difference between both excited states and is thus a characteristic for the respective laser-active medium.9 4" polychromatic (multiple wave length) monochromatic coherent (in phase) incoherent (not in phase) large divergence small divergence © ISF 2002 phase) as the excitCharacteristics of Laser Beams ing photon (“coherence”). While the spontaneous emission is non-directional and in coherent (e. (fredirection. Laser Beam Welding 131 Inside the resonator. Figure 10.6. br-er10-05e. A distinction is made between spontaneous and induced transition. The resulting photon has the same properties quency.cdr crowded.

As result. approximately 5 . In the field of production metal working.8 .6 µm with a N2-C02-He gas mixture. The industrial standard powers for CO2 lasers are.290 eV eV transmission of vibration energy where the energy 0.6 2 thrust of second type 002 transition without emission CO2 laser. CO2 molecules a radiation laser gas: CO2: 5 l/h He: 100 l/h N2 : 45 l/h gas circulation pump br-er10-08e. transfer their laser beam vibrational energy to the carbon dioxide.3 0.cdr 0 000 N2 CO2 excitation of nitrogen molecules Energy Diagram of CO2 Laser Figure 10.cdr vakuum pump emit with a wavelength of 10.4 resonator is filled 0. the development of diode lasers is so far advanced that their sporadic use in the field of material processing is also possible.1 thrust of first type 1 ∆E = 0. Figure 10.2 0. lasers with powers of up to 40 kW are available. with thrusts of the secradio frequency high voltage exitaion ond type. 0.20 kW. nowadays. and particularly in welding. During cooling water cooling water the transition to the laser gas lower energy level.002 eV 001 LASER λ = 10. At present. a stationary light wave is formed between the mirrors of the resonator (one of which is semi-reflecting) causing parts of the excited laser-active medium to emit light. Laser Beam Welding 132 inversion”.6 µm. In the field of solid state lasers average output powers of up to 4 kW are nowadays obtainable.288 eV 0. especially CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers are applied for their high power outputs.7 which again.10.7. In the case of the 0. The helium atoms. pumping is carried out over the vibrational © ISF 2002 100 discharge through thrust with helium 0 br-er10-07e. fi- Figure 10.

9 high. σΘσ molecules 0<K<1 causes electrode burn-off. the beam quality. in comparison other tems. is worse. with d. Laser Beam Welding 133 nally.c. however. This is achieved by means of the constant gas mixture circulation and cooling by heat exchangers. 0Θ0= dF Θ F =c.10 . the f2.57" d0 electrodes are positioned inside the ΘF dF unfocussed beam focussed beam resonator. The interaction between the electrode material and the gas 2λ 1 K= π d.cdr cooling water relatively Figure 10.σΘσ= d. laser systems are classified into longitudinal-flow and transverse-flow laser systems. In addition to the wear of the elec- . The high dissipation component is the heat which must be discharged from the resonator.10. lead the CO2 Cooling water laser gas: CO2: 11 l/h He: 142 l/h N2: 130 l/h molecules back to their energy level. In dependence of the type of gas transport.cdr © ISF 2002 Laser Beam Qualitiy trodes.9.-excited systems (high voltage).8 and 10. is. Figures 10. turning mirrors gas circulation pump laser beam The efficiency of up mirror (partially reflecting) to 15%. br-er10-10e. With transverse-flow laser systems of a compact design can the multiple folding ability of the beam reach higher output powers than those achievable with longitudinal-flow systems. the burn-off Figure 10. In d. which is achievable with gas discharge CO2 high performend mirror laser gas ance lasers. laser with sys- br-er10-09e.

High electrode lives and high achievable pulse frequencies characterise kind of this resonator partially reflecting mirror absorber shutter beam divergence mirror excitation end mirror principle. the quality of a laser beam is. The intensity distribution in the case of the ideal beam is described by TEM modes (transversal electronic-magnetic). In the Gaussian or basic mode TEM00 is the peak energy in the centre of the beam weakening towards its periphery. In diffusion-cooled CO2 beam transmission tube LASER systems beams of a high quality are generated in a work piece beam creation focussing system minimum of space.-excited systems the electrodes are positioned outside the gas discharge tube where the electrical energy is capacitively coupled.cdr © ISF 2002 distance of field a divergence CO2 Laser Beam Welding Station beam in the basic mode to that of a Figure 10. in accordance with DIN EN 11146. The Figure factor 10.cdr work piece manipulator ever necessary.1).11 The intensity distribution is not constant across the laser beam. In practice. describes the ratio of the br-er10-12e_f. In high-frequency a. Moreover.10.c..10. Figure 10. gas exchange is hardly br-er10-11e.. similar to the Gaussian normal distribution. Parts of the gas mixture must be therefore exchanged permanently. distinguished by the nonbeam (or dimensional quality factor propagation factor) K (0.12 . Laser Beam Welding 134 also entails a contamination of the laser gas.

The low divergence allows long transmission paths. with the help of the focussing optics. due to absorption.10.11 and 10. At the processing station is the beam. In the case of the CO2 flash lamps laser rod laser. Laser Beam Welding 135 real beam and is reflective 90°-mirror optic α therefore a measure of a beam focus strength.14 .13. different sources compared br-er10-13e. especially end mirror (r = 100%) with high powers or br-er10-14e.13 The CO2 laser beam is guided from the resonator over a beam reflection mirror system to one or several processing stations. The relative motion between beam and workpiece may be realised in different ways: moving workpiece.cdr © ISF 2002 contaminations. By means of the beam quality factor. Figure 10.cdr © ISF 2002 beam may be objec- tively and quantiFocussing Optics taively. beam focussing is normally carried out with mirlaser beam ror optics. Lenses may partially reflecting mirror (R < 100%) heat up. Figure 10.12. Figures 10. As Principle Layout of Solid State Laser the heat may be dis- Figure 10. fixed optics moving (“flying”) optics moving workpiece and moving optics (two handling facilities). formed according to the working task.

15 Nd:YAG Laser Beam Welding Station necessary complex mirror systems may cause losses.15. In the meantime. Some types of optical fibres allow. In the case of solid state laser. whereas the CO2 laser application is restricted. also diode-pumped solid state lasers have been introduced to the market. The excitation is. The achieved efficiency is below 4%.cdr © ISF 2002 application. the normally cylindrical rod serves only the purpose to pick up the laser-active ions (in the case of the Nd:YAG laser with yttriumaluminium-garnet crystals dosed with Nd3+ ions).14.10. Figure 10. which for the optimal utilisation of the excitation energy are arranged as a double ellipsoid. as its Figure 10. with fibre diameters of ≤ 1 mm bending radii br-er10-16e_f. there is a risk of deformation (alteration of the focal length) or destruction through thermal overloading. The possibility to guide the solid-state laser beam over flexible fibre optics makes these systems destined for the robot br-er10-15e_f. Laser Beam Welding 136 sipated only over the holders. for the most part. Diode Laser With optical Figure 10. carried out using flash or arc lamps.16 .cdr © ISF 2002 radiation Figure of up to 100 mm. 10. the rod is positioned in their common focal point.

Figure 10. for example.30 Nd:YAGlaser CO2laser with a fixed splitting proportion) simulta- 0.5 0.cdr 10 acting time -4 -2 10 s 10 only 10% of the impinging Figure 10.10. Energy input into the workpiece is carried out over the absorption of the laser beam. ma rten sitic 105 steel 10 4 which is exposed har den ing 0 103 10 -8 to wave lengths of 10.3 0.17 The semiconductor or diode lasers are characterised by their mechanical robustness.10 of this type of beam 0.05 Mo projection impaired is the beam 0 br-er10-17e.6 µm reflects 10 -6 br-er10-18e.16.15 Fe 0.25 neous welding at 0. apart from the surface quality.2 0.1 0.8 1 wave lenght λ 2 4 5 8 10 µm 20 quality on account of multiple reflection. with beam splitters (mostly 0. The disadvantage Cu Al Ag Stahl 0. In material processing they are therefore particularly suitable for welding thin sheets.20 absorption A several processing stations is possible. high efficiency and compact design. The absorption coefficient is. Figure 10.cdr 0. also dependent on the wave length 1010 en 106 erg y shock hardening 4 and the material. High performance diode lasers allow the welding of metals.18 radia- . de ns ity W/cm 2 The problem is that [J /c m ²] 10 power density 8 10 a large part of the radiation is re- 10 7 10 glaz e 0 2 drilling 10 6 10 remelting coating welding cutting flected and that. although no deep penetration effect is achieved. Laser Beam Welding 137 switches a multiple utilisation of the solid state laser source is possible.

20 .17.cdr 10 laser intesity I 6 W/cm 2 7 10 © ISF 2002 Reflection and Penetration Depth in Dependence on Intensity Figure 10.19 . optics. As copper is a highly reflective metal with also a good heat conductivity. beam manipulation. Intensity heat conducting welding deep penetration welding metal vapour blowing away laser-induced plasma soldified weld metal keyhole (vapour-/ plasma cavity) molten pool soldified weld metal adjust- ment at the working surface by the laser beam laser beam focal position with a simultaneous of the molten pool variation working speed make the laser a flexible and contactless tool.10. mm 2 1 0 5 10 When metals are welded with a lowintensity laser beam (I ≤ 105 W/cm2). 4 Steel materials with treated surfaces reflect the laser beam to a degree of up to 95%. Figures 10. The methods of welding and cutting de- Figure 10. resonator. At the same time. Laser Beam Welding 138 tion.18.cdr © ISF 2002 ure Principle of Laser Beam Welding 10. Figure 10. Figbr-er10-19e. highest accuracy and quality demands are set on all machine components (handling. which means the distance between focussing optics and workpiece surface must be maintained reflection R penetration depth t 100 % 60 40 20 0 within close tolerances. it is frequently used as mirror material.19 mand high intensities in the focal point. just the workpiece surfaces and/or edges are melted and thus thermalbr-er10-20e.22.10.). etc.

an almost complete energy input into the workpiece can be obtained.1 10 5 A=1 10 -10 the workpiece surface).cdr deep penetration welding © ISF 2002 heated to such a Figure 10. A vapour cavity forms and allows the laser beam to penetrate deep into the material (energy input deep beyond A = 0. this effect is 10 -2 10 -8 10 -6 s radiation time t br-er10-21e. Above the threshold intensity value (I ≤ 106 W/cm2) a phase transition occurs and laser-induced plasma develops. The W/cm 2 10 laser intensity I 8 plasma. The residual material vaporises and condenses either on the cavity side walls or flows off in an ionised form. whose absorption characteristics depend on the beam intensity plasma shielding 107 working zone plasma threshold 10 6 and the vapour density. Laser Beam Welding 139 conduction welding with a low deep- 1010 steel rF = 100 µm λ = 10. With suitable parameter selection. pendence in of dethe Transformation of electromagnetic energy into thermal energy within nm range at the surface of the work piece by stimulation of atoms to resonant oscillations "normal" absorption: "abormal" absorption: electron density in the plasma and of the radiated beam intensity. absorbs an increased quantity of radiation.21 rounded by the largest part of the mol- ten metal. However.22 Interaction Between Laser Beam and Material .6 µm penetration effect is possible. may plasma from − depandent on laser beam intensity: I < 10 W/cm² − dependent on wave length 6 − dependent on laser intesity: − heating up to temperature of evaporation and formation of a metal vapour plasma − almost complete energy entry through absorption by plasma: A > 90% − formation of a vapour cavity I ≥ 106 W/cm² detach − dependent on temperature − dependent on material − absorption at solid or liquid surface: A < 30% the workpiece surface and screen off the working zone. The cavity which is moved though the joining zone and is prevented to close due to the vapour pressure is sur- Calculated Intensity Threshold for Producing a Laser-Induced Plasma Figure 10. The plasma is − formation of a molten bath with low − penetration depth heat conducting welding br-er10-22e.10.cdr © ISF 2002 called the “deep penetration effect”.

fusion energy br-er10-23e.welding at positions difficult to access .high welding speed . Cu difficult to weld .cdr Figure 10. Figure 10.24 Advantages and Disadvantages of Laser Beam Welding .little distortion . in laser beam welding. another ca. This is the reason why. Only a part of the beam energy from the resonator is used up for the actual work piece ca.10.well suitable to automatic function br-er10-24e. among others.danger of increased hardness .24 shows the most important Scheme of Energy Flow advantages and disadvantages of the laser beam welding method.5% 85-95% diagnostics beam transmission focussing system which again decreases the energy input.power losses at optical devices .5-12. Nd:YAG: < 5%) © ISF 2002 advantages .exact positioning required .atmosphere welding possible disadvantages process . Figure 10.high power density . since also the formation of “shielding gas plasmas” is possible beam energy 0-2. 30% 10-15% recombination conductance into the workpiece.5% 2.low efficency (CO2-Laser: < 20%. Laser Beam Welding 140 high degree that only a fraction of the beam radiation reaches the workpiece. gases are applied for plasma control.23.laser radiation protection required . Further relevant influential installation .short cycle times . The gases’ ionisation potential should be as high as possible.different materials weldable .non-contact tool . 40% heat convection heat conduction metal vapour plasma part is lost by reflection or transmission (beam penetration through the vapour cavity). 5% reflection welding process.minimum thermal stress .danger of cracks .23 Penetration depths in dependence of the beam power and welding speed which are work piece .cdr factors are.high reflection at metallic surfaces .25.operation at several stations possible .completely processed components .expensive beam transmission and forming .expensive edge preparation . 10% transmission ca.Al.installation availability > 90% . Another part is absorbed by the optics in the beam manipulation system.small beam diameter .restricted penetration depth ( 25 mm) achievable in laser beam welding are depicted in Figure 10. Other parts flow over thermal ca. the material Figure 10.high investment cost .

to significantly increased hardness values in comparison with other methods. Laser Beam Welding 141 (thermal conductivity). when transforming steel materials are used. These are a sign for the in- creased strength at a lower toughness and they are particularly critical in of br-er10-26e.6 1.0 welding speed 15 X 5 CrNi 18 10 CO2-laser (axial flow) penetration depth by laser beam application. the design of 28 mm 0.cdr 1 kW 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 m/min 9 welding speed Penetration Depths Figure 10. Figure 10. penetration depth 20 16 12 10 kW laser power: 15 kW 8 4 8 kW 6 kW 4 kW 1. welding Figure butt weld fillet weld at overlap joint 10.26 shows several joint shapes which are typical for car body production and which can be welded 0 0 0.10.25 The high cooling rate during laser beam welding leads. mm 5 4 kW laser power: 2 kW 6 kW 0 br-er10-25e.27.5 kW Figure 10. the focal position and the applied optics (focal length.8 m/min 3.2% C-steel CO2-laser (cross flow) the resonator (beam quality).26 . focus diameter).cdr lap weld at overlap joint flanged weld at overlap joint circumstances dynamic loads.2 1.

27 Caused by the high cooling rate and. weld submerged arc weld submerged arc weld br-er10-27e_f.10. Figure 10.28 . However. sagged welds or concave root surfaces are possible weld defects. 10. lack of 0 distance from the weld centre 12 fusion.cdr Figure 10.1 x plate thickness) low-alloy steels up to high quality tita- gap beam mispositioning nium and nickel based alloys. due to the Figure 10. too low a weld speed may also cause pore formation when the molten metal picks up gases from the root side.29.4 WMA MAZ MAZ the beam and an exact weld prepa- hardness ration. The high carbon con(a ≤ 0.1 x plate thickness) tent of the trans© ISF 2002 br-er10-28e. laser beam weld as result. in particular. in connection with this.28. Laser Beam Welding 142 The small beam diameter demands the very precise manipulation and positioning of the workpiece or of 500 HV 0.cdr forming steel mateWelding Defects rials is. thick plates (very deep welds) or while carrying out welding-in works (insufficient degassing over the root). The materials that edge preparation misalignment may be welded with the laser reach from unalloyed and (e ≤ 0. pore formation may occur during laser beam welding of. the insufficient degassing of the molten metal. MAZ MAZ Figure Otherwise.

9 m/min vw = 1. Figures 10. vw = 0.22% may be stipulated as the limiting reference value. V-shaped groove geometries .influence on the mechanic-technological properties of the weld and fusion zone (e. Highly reactive materials demand.“filling” of non-ideal.5 m/min © ISF 2002 material: P460N (StE460). due to larger molten pools . s = 20 mm. . Laser Beam Welding 143 high cooling rate.g.10.7 m/min br-er10-29e. toughness. corrosion. The sole application of working gases is. strength. sufficient gas shielding beyond the solidification of the weld seam.a realisation of a defined weld reinforcement on the beam entry and beam exit side. One is laser beam welding with filler wire. to be considered a critical influential factor where contents of C > 0. wear resistance) over the metallurgical composition of the filler wire .31 which offers the following advantages: . also during laser beam welding. edge preparation and beam misalignment. P = 15 kw Porosity Figure 10. for example.reduction of the demands on the accuracy of the weld preparation in regard to edge misalignment.30 and 10.cdr vw = 0.29 The application of laser beam welding may be extended by process variants. not adequate. Aluminium and copper properties cause problems during energy input and process stability. as a rule.

8 mm Possibility of metallurgical influence material combination: weld zone weld zone 10CrMo9-10/ X6CrNiTi18-10 PL = 5. .2 mm br-er10-31e.5 mm wire: SG-Ni Cr21 Fe18 Mo vw = 1. respectively. Therefore.0 kW gap: 0 mm vw = 1. welding direction filler wire gas laser beam laser beam filler wire gas plasma plasma weld metal work piece weld metal work piece molten pool keyhole molten pool keyhole forward wire feeding br-er10-30e.cdr backward wire feeding Figure 10.3 kW VW = 3 m/min ES = 166 J/min s = 4 mm with filler wire filler wire: Sg2 dw = 0. Laser Beam Welding 144 The exact positioning of the filler wire is a prerequisite for a high weld quality and a sufficient dilution of the molten pool through which filler wire of different composition as the base can reach right to the root.weld quality as surance .10. Figure 10.5 mm PL = 8.beam positioning and joint tracking.31 .32.30 without filler wire increase of gap bridging ability material: S380N (StE 380) gap: 0.0 m/min dw = 1. The sensor systems are to take over the tasks of .6 m/min gap: 0.cdr Figure 10. the use of sensor systems is indispensable for industrial application.process control.

skins) . Figure KB 4620/9 20:1 10/92 KB 4620/6 20:1 10/92 KB 4620/4 20:1 10/92 KB 4620/0 20:1 10/92 KB 4620/41 20:1 10/92 KB 4620/38 20:1 10/92 Probe MS1-6C Probe MS1-5A Probe MS1-4C Probe MS1-3A Probe MS1-2B Probe MS1-1C 0. This is due to their more variable beam manipulation possibilities when comparing with CO2 lasers. Laser Beam Welding 145 The present state-of-the-art is the further development of systems for industrial applications which until now have been tested in the laboratory.pipe production .artificial hip joints .6 mm KB 4620/12 20:1 10/92 KB 4620/17 20:1 10/92 KB 4621/15 20:1 10/92 KB 4621/12 20:1 10/92 KB 4621/9 20:1 10/92 KB 4621/7 20:1 10/92 10.10.seal welds at housings .2 mm 0.1 mm 0.4 mm 0.engine components (tappet housings.33 shows some typical application Probe OS1-6A Probe OS1-5C Probe OS1-4C Probe OS1-3B Probe OS1-2B Probe OS1-1B without sensing device.32 aerospace industry automotive industry . diesel engine precombustion chambers) electronic industry medical industry .body-making (bottom plates. planet gears) .5 mm 0.PCBs . Welding by means of solid state lasers has.engine components . mainly been applied by manufacturers from the fields of precision mechanics and microelectronics.cdr © ISF 2002 Practical Application Fields Figure 10.accumulator cases .transformer plates .vehicle superstructures .heart pacemaker cases . Ever since solid state lasers with higher powers are available on the market.CRTs plant and apparatus engineering . Figure 10.measurement probes br-er10-33e. wire speed vD = 4 m/min constant br-er10-32e. in the past.instrument cases steel industry .cdr 1 mm examples for laser beam welding.tins .gear parts (cog-wheels. they are applied in the car industry to an ever increasing degree. fill factor 120 % by their ancillary industry for welding rotationsymmetrical massproduced parts or sheets. The CO2 laser is mostly used by the car industry and with sensing device.33 .3 mm 0.continuous metal strips .

Surfacing and Shape Welding 2003 .11.

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding

146 DIN 1910 (“Welding”) classifies the

base metal/ surfacing metal

welding according

process to its

similar l for repair welding

dissimilar l hardfacing (wear protection) l cladding (corrosion prevention) l buffering (production of an appropriate-to-the-type-of-duty joint of dissimilar materials)

applications: welding of joints and surfacing. According to DIN 1910 surfacing is the

coating of a workbr-er11-01e.cdr

piece by means of welding. Figure 11.1 Dependent on the

applied filler material a further classification may be made: deposition repair welding and surfacing for the production of a composite material with certain functions. Surfacing carried out with wear-resistant materials in preference to the base metal material is called hardfacing; but when mainly chemically stable filler materials are used, the method is called cladding. In the case of buffering, surfacing layers are produced which allow the appropriate-to-the-type-of-duty joining of dissimilar materials and/or of materials with differing properties, Figure 11.1.

wear caused by very high impact and compressive stress wear by friction (metal against metal) during high impact and compression stress strong sanding or grinding wear very strong wear caused by grinding during low impact stress cold forming tools hot forming tools cavitation wear parts (plastics industry) corrosion temperature stresses


m m

A buffering, for instance, is an intermem

diate layer made from a relatively tough material between two layers with strongly differing thermal expansion coefficients. Figure 11.2 shows different kinds of stresses which demand the surfacing of components. Furthermore surfacing may be used for primary forming as well as for joining by primary forming.

m m m m m

Components Kinds of Stress

Figure 11.2

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding

147 In case of surfacing - as for all fabrication processes - certain limiting con-

component (material)

ditions have to be observed. For example, hard and wear-resistant weld filler metals cannot be drawn into solid wires. Here, another form has to be

stress compatibility


selected (filler wire, continuously cast
manufacturing conditions availability

rods, powder). Process materials, as for example SA welding flux demand a certain welding position which in terms limits the method of welding.

coating material (filler)


surfacing method

The coating material must be selected with view to the type of duty and,


moreover, must be compatible with
Boundary Conditions in Surfacing

the base metal, Figure 11.3.

Figure 11.3 For all surfacing tasks a large product line of welding filler metals is available. In dependence on the welding method as well as on the selected materials, filler metals in the form of wires, filler wires, strips, cored strips, rods or powder are applied, Figure 11.4. The filler/base metal dilution is rather important, as the desired high-quality properties of the surfacing layer deteriorate with the increasing degree of dilution.
corrosion prevention q ferritic to martensitic chromium steel alloys q soft martensitic chromium-nickel steel alloys q austenitic-ferritic chromium-nickel steel alloys q austenitic chromium-nickel steel alloys wearing protection (armouring) hard facing on q cobalt base q nickel base q iron base

A weld parameter optimisation has the

objective to optimise the degree of dilution in order to guarantee a sufficient Figure 11.4

Materials for Surfacing

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding


adherence of the layer with the minimum metal dissimilation. A planimetric determination of the surfacing and penetration areas will roughly assess the proportion of filler to base metal. When the analysis of base and filler metal is known, a more precise calculation is possible by the determination of the content of a certain element in the surfacing layer as well as in the base
Definition of Dilution
AD = AD= FP FP + FB x 100% base metal surface built up by welding FB

penetration area FP

(X-contentsurfacing layer - X-contentFM ) [% in weight] (X-contentbase metal - X-contentFM ) [% in weight]
AD: dilution

x 100%

FM: weld filler metal

© ISF 2002

metal, Figure 11.5. Figure 11.5 Figure 11.6 shows record charts of an electron beam microprobe analysis for the elements nickel and chromium. It is
30 Cr percentages by mass % 20

evident that - after passing a narrow transition zone between base metal and layer — the analysis inside the


layer is quasi constant.

0 0 100 200 distance 30 Ni percentages by mass % 20 300


As depicted in Figure 11.7 almost all

arc welding methods are not only suitable for joining but also for surfacing.

In the case of the strip-electrode submerged-arc surfacing process normally strips (widths: 20 - 120mm)



are used. These strips allow high clad0 100 200 distance 300 µm 500

ding rates. Solid wire electrodes as well as flux-cored strip electrodes are used. The flux-cored strip electrodes contain

Microprobe Analyses

Figure 11.6

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding


certain alloying elements. The strip is continuously fed into the process via feed rollers. Current contact is normally carried out via copper contact jaws which in some cases are protected against wear by
metal-arc welding - stick electrode - filler wire arc welding with self-shielded cored wire electrode - filler wire inert gas-shielded arc welding - MIG / MAG - MIG cold wire - filler wire TIG welding - TIG cold wire submerged arc welding - wire electrode - strip electrode

hard metal inserts. The slag-forming

flux is supplied onto the workpiece in

electroslag welding - wire electrode

front of the strip
arc spraying plasma welding - plasma powder - plasma hot wire plasma spraying

electrode by means of a flux support. The non-molten flux can be extracted
- powder - wire

and returned to the flux circuit. Figure 11.7

Should the slag developed on top of the welding bead not detach itself, it will have to be removed mechanically in order to avoid slag inclusions during overwelding. The arc wanders along the lower edge of the strip. Thus the strip is melted consistently, Figure 11.8.

power source drive rolls

filler metal


flux support

flux application slag surfacing bead base metal


Figure 11.8

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding


Figure 11.9 shows the cladding of a roll barrel. The coating is deposited helically while the workpiece is rotating. The weld head is moved axially over the workpiece.


Figure 11.9

The macro-section and possible weld defects of a strip-electrode submerged-arc surfacing process are depicted in Figure 11.10.

coarse grain zone

lack of fusion

mirco slag inclusions

sagged weld

base metal

crack formation in these areas of the coarse grain zone




Figure 11.10

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding


Electroslag surfacing using a strip electrode is similar to strip-electrode SA surfacing, Figure 11.11. The difference is that the weld filler metal is not melted in the arc but in liquefied welding flux — the liquid slag – as a result of Joule resistance heating. The slag is held by a slight inclination of the

plate and the flux mound to prevent it from running off.
molten pool

TIG weld surfacing is a suitable surfacing


for small and complicated Figure 11.11 contours

and/or low quantities (e.g. repair

work) with normally relatively low deposition rates. The process principle has already been shown when the TIG joint welding process was explained, Figure 11.12. The arc is
arc rod/ wire-shaped filler metal shielding gas nozzle

burning between a gas-backed nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the workpiece. The arc melts the base metal and the wire or rod-shaped weld filler metal which is fed either continuously or intermittently. Thus a fusion welded joint develops between base metal and surfacing bead.
base metal (+ / ~) tungsten electrode (- / ~) surfacing bead

In the case of MIG/MAG surfacing processes the arc burns between a consumable wire electrode and the


© ISF 2002

Process Principle of TIG Weld Surfacing

Figure 11.12

11. Surfacing and Shape Welding workpiece. method
contact tube shielding gas shielding gas nozzle wire feed device

152 This allows deposition


rates. Filler as well as solid wires are

weld filler metal arc

+ -

power source



wire a

shielding gas surfacing bead



positive, while the workpiece

to has

be a


feed direction

surfaced negative


Figure 11.13. Figure 11.13

A further development of the TIG welding process is plasma welding. While the TIG arc develops freely, the plasma welding arc is mechanically and thermally constricted by a water-cooled copper nozzle. Thus the arc obtains a higher energy density.

In the case of plasma arc powder surfacing this constricting nozzle has a positive, the tungsten electrode has a negative polarity, Figure 11.14. Through a pilot arc power supply a non-transferred arc (pilot arc) develops inside the torch. A second, separate power source feeds the transferred arc between electrode and workpiece. The non-transferred arc ionises the centrally gas fed (inert plasma gases,
tungsten electrode filler metal

plasma gas


as, e.g., Ar or He) thus causing a

conveying gas power sources shielding gas pilot arc welding arc surfacing bead

plasma jet of high energy to emerge from This the nozzle. jet




serves to produce and to stabilise the

Figure 11.14

the region between surfacing and base metal.e. The surfacing filler metal powder added by a feeding gas flow is melted in the plasma jet. Ar and He and/or Ar-/He mixtures. the shielding gas. i.16 . Figure 11. The surfacing bead ~ workpiece weld filler metal in the form of two parallel wires is weld pool br-er11-16e. shielding gas tungsten electrode arc plasma gas plasma power source In plasma arc hot wire surfacing the base metal is = wires from spool melted by an oscillating plasma torch. The fusion line. Surfacing and Shape Welding 153 arc striking ability of the transferred arc gap. protects section A ZW the surfacing bead and the adjacent high-temperature zone from the surrounding influence.15 shows a cross-section of armour plating of a car exhaust valve seat. is shown enlarged on the right side of Figure 11.15 The method is applied for surfacing small and medium-sized parts (car exhaust valves.cdr GW gases. Figure 11. as. A third gas flow. The applied gases are mainly inert br-er11-15e.15 (blow-up).16. It shows hardfacing with cobalt which is high-temperature and hot gas corrosion resistant. extruder spirals). for example.cdr hot wire power source added to the base metal quite indeFigure 11..11. The partly liquefied weld filler metal meets the by transferred arc molten base metal and forms the surfacing bead. Figure 11.

Surfacing and Shape Welding 154 pendently. in addition. constricted by flow. similar to friction welding br-er11-17e.18 . in principle.cdr Process Principle Electron Beam Surface Welding movement heat develops and Figure 11.cdr for the production of joints which due to Figure 11. besides the arc-welding methods. The two wires are fed in a V-formation at an angle of approx. Figure 11. The powder filler metal is added to the laser beam via a powder nozzle and the powlaser beam shielding gas nozzle powder nozzle direction of the oscillation powder flow surfacing bead shielding gas der gas flow is.17 the different materials are difficult to produce with fusion electron beam surface layer base material metal foil metal foil feeding workpiece welding. The arc between the tips of the two parallel wires is generated through the application of a separate power source.18. the beam welding methods laser beam and electron beam welding may also be applied. 20 mm is oscillating (oscillation width between 20 to 50 mm). 30° and melt in the high-temperature region in the trailing zone of the plasma torch.11.17 shows the process principle of laser surfacing. The plasma arc with a length of approx. shielding gas Friction surfacing Werkstück is. 11. Figure The filler metal is “advanced” over the workpiece with high pressure and rotation. By the pressure and the relative frictional © ISF 1998 feed direction ka11-18. For surfacing purposes.

is the low filler/base metal dilution. Another criterion for the selection of a surfacing method is the deposition rate. for example. this with regard to profitability. In the case of cladding large surfaces a method with a high deposition rate is chosen.19. This method is not applied frequently and is mainly used for materials which show strong differences in their melting and oxidation behaviours. The most important methods of thermal spraying are: plasma arc spraying. Surfacing and Shape Welding 155 puts the weld filler end into a pasty condition. The kinetic energy for Figure 11. There is no fusion of base and filler metal but rather adhesive binding and mechanical interlocking of the spray deposit with the base material. Plastics may be sprayed as well. These mechanisms are effective only when the workpiece surface is coarse (pre-treatment by sandblasting) and free of oxides. In thermal spraying the filler metal is melted inside the torch and then. These methods are applied where high-quality filler metals are welded. The advance motion causes an adherent. discharged onto the unfused but preheated workpiece surface. The filler and base materials are metallic and non-metallic. base metal br-er11-18e. force filler metal rotation advance In powder flame spraying an oxyacetylene flame provides the heating surfacing layer bulge source where the centrally fed filler metal is melted.cdr Figure 11. with a high kinetic energy. “spreaded” layer on the base metal. flame spraying and arc spraying.11. The utilisation of filler metals in thermal spraying is relatively low. A specific method.dependent on the welding method.19 . A comparison of the different surfacing methods shows that the application fields are limited .

Surfacing and Shape Welding 156 the acceleration and atomisation of the filler metal is produced by compressed gas (air). especially a better charac- fusing wire tip spray deposit toughness teristic. melted. Figure 11. 50 100 l/min).20.21 .cdr compressed air spraying jet non-binding sprayed particles (loss in spraying) gas mixture mechanotechnological material properties. In the case of shape welding.11. The reason Figure 11. steel shapes with larger dimensions and higher weights are produced from molten weld metal only.21. compressed air spraying material workpiece In contrast to powder flame spraying. In comparison to cast parts this method about more brings essentially favourable adjustable wire feed device spraying wire br-er11-20e. This arc ionises the plasma gas (argon. The plasma emerges from the torch with a high kinetic and thermal energy and carries the side-fed powder along with it which then meets the workpiece surface in a semi-fluid state with the necessary kinetic energy. Figure 11.20 In plasma arc spraying an internal. high-energy arc is ignited between the tungsten cathode and the anode.cdr flame cone spray deposit omised and accelerated in direction of the substrate. is for flame spraying a wire filler metal fed mechanically into the centre cone. at- fuel gas-oxygen mixture br-er11-19e. Figure 11.

for certain applications.23 . primary forming (casting) forming or joining. a sensible logical nomical technoand ecoFigure 11. br-er11-22e. cooling water plasma gas cooling water tungsten cathode arc © ISF 2002 jet of particles Therefore. Also in contrast with the shapes produced by forging. Surfacing and Shape Welding 157 for this lies mainly in the high purity and the homogeneity of the steel which is helped by the repeated melting process and the resulting slag reactions.22. forming (forging) shape welding Figure 11. high forging very copper anode individual weights may not be produced as forged parts.cdr welding is.Integration Figure 11. the workpieces produced by shape welding show quality advantages. due to the lack of expensive equipment. especially in the isotropy and the regularity of their toughness and strength properties as far as larger workpiece thicknesses are conpowder injector back frame isolation ring gas middle distributor frame anode carrier cerned.cdr joining (welding) © ISF 2002 Shape Welding . Figure 11.22 Plasma Powder Spraying Unit alternative to the methods of primary forming. These properties are also put down to the favourable fine-grained structure formation which is achieved by the repeated subsequent thermal treatment with the multi-pass technique.11. shape br-er11-21e.23 shows an early application which is related to the field of arts. In Europe.

Cylindrical joist turntable containers are probr-er11-26e.25 The higher tooling costs in forging make the shape welding method less expensive.26 . This comparison is.cdr duced with the “BaumkuchenmeFigure 11.25 shows the principal procedure for the production of typical phase 7 phase 6 phase 4 phase 2 traction mechanism phase 5 phase 3 phase 1 shape-welded parts. higher. where the tooling costs per part are accordingly Figure 11. this applies to parts with certain increasing complexity. large boiler shell rings. Surfacing and Shape Welding 158 Baumkuchenmethode + several weld heads possible + no interruption during weld head failure . Figure 11. however. pipe bends. flanges Töpfermethode + free rotationally-symmetrical shapes + several weld heads possible + weld head manipulation not necessary + each head capable to weld a specific layer + small diameters possible .core made of foreign material necessary applications: shafts. related to relatively low numbers of pieces.24 Figure 11.cdr © ISF 2002 Shape Welded Goblet (1936) Shape Welding Procedures Figure welding efficiency applications: welding-on of connection pieces br-er11-23e.number of weld heads limited when smaller diameters are welded applications: spherical caps. braces Klammeraffe + transportable unit .11.component movement must correspond with the contour .cdr br-er11-25e.24.

welding of the half-torus 2.28. seperating/ halving 5. mechanical treatment 4. In the case of electron beam surfac€/kg forged products ing the filler metal is added to the shape-welded products spherical caps process in the form of a film. The Klammeraffe method Figure 11.27 serves the purpose to weld external connection pieces onto pipes. testing movement in multiple passes into a tube which has the function of a traction mechanism (for the most part mechanically removed later). . Figures 11. On the traction mechanism a rotationally symmetrical part with a semicircle cross-section is br-er11-27e.28 pipe bends 11. ti tes ng Elbows are mainly manufactured with the Töpfer method. Figure boiler shell rings shafts braces complexity of the parts br-er11-24e. This brings about the possibility to produce seamless containers with bottom and flange in one working cycle. A portable unit which is connected with the pipe welds the connection pipe in a similar manner to the Töpfer method.27. Surfacing and Shape Welding 159 thode” method: the filler metal is welded by submerged-arc with helical 1.11. folding 6. stress relief annealing 3.cdr produced which is later separated and Production of a Pipe Bend by Shape Welding welded to an elbow. welding togehter 7.cdr Figure 11. stress relief annealing 8.26 and 11.

12. Thermal Cutting 2003 .

The different enFlame cutting The material is mainly oxidised.the products are blown out by an oxygen jet. shipbuilding and process technology for the production Classification of thermal cutting processes .degree of mechanisation . Sublimation cutting The material is mainly evaporated.2 shows the classification according to the physics of the cutting process: .12.physics of the cutting process .gas. Figure 12.3: . Figure 12. ergy carriers for the thermal cutting are depicted in Figure 12.1.type of energy source . The thermal cutting processes are classified into different categories br-er12-01e.fusion cutting – the material is mainly fused . Thermal Cutting 160 Thermal cutting processes are applied in different fields of mechanical engineering. It is transported out of the cutting groove by the created expansion or by additional gas.1 Figure 12.2 .sublimation cutting – the material is mainly evaporat The gas jet and/or evaporation expansion is in all processes responsible for the ejection of molten material or emerging reaction products such as slag. electrical gas discharge and . Fusion cutting The material is mainly fused and blown out by a high-speed gas jet.beams.arrangement of water bath of components and for the preparation of welding edges.cdr Classification of Processes by the Physics of Cutting Electron beams for thermal cutting Figure 12. to DIN 2310-6 according to DIN 2310. br-er12-02e.flame cutting – the material is mainly oxidised (burnt) .cdr Classification of Thermal Cutting Processes acc.

metal powder flame cutting . oxygen cutting l metal powder flame cutting l metal powder fusion cutting However.4 depicts the different methods of thermal cutting with gas according to DIN 8580.flame cutting .cdr thermal cutting by: .cdr l Thermal Cutting Processes Using Gas .metal powder fusion cutting . they produce.plasma .ion beam -flame cleaning Classification of Thermal Cutting Processes acc. this process is suited for l flame planing l l oxygen-lance cutting flame gouging scarfing l flame cleaning automation and is. These are: .3 In flame cutting (principle is depicted in Figure 12. During the process the ignition temperature is maintained on the plate top side by the heating flame and below the plate top thermal cutting processes using gas: side by thermal and l conduction convection.electrical gas discharge . to DIN 2310-6 Figure 1. Figure 12.6.laser beam (light) .sparks . shows a commerFigure 1.beams . Thermal Cutting 161 are listed in the DIN-Standard.electron beam . Figure 12. only very small boreholes.flame gouging or scarfing br-er12-03e.gas . Cutting is impossible.flame planing -oxygen-lance cutting . however. also easy to apply on site.12.arc .4 br-er12-04e.5) the material is brought to the ignition temperature by a heating flame and is then burnt in the oxygen stream.

cdr head or in the nozzle block-type nozze (gas mixing nozzle). By means of different nozzle shapes the process may be adapted to varying materials and plate thicknesses. A further development of the heavy-duty nozzle is the oxygenshrouded nozzle which allows even faster and more economic cutting of plates within thickness cutting oxygen heating oxygen gas fuel mixing chamber certain ranges. the cutting attachment.5 The high-speed cutting nozzle (cutting-oxygen pressure 8 bar) allows higher cutting speeds with increased cutting-oxygen pressure.cdr workpiece Principle of Oxygen Cutting torches which are fixed to guide carriages. the torch manual cutting equipment as a cutting and welding torch combination gas mixing nozzle br-er12-06e. Thermal Cutting 162 cial torch which combines a welding with a cutting torch.12.6 . in special cases also outside the torch – in front Cutting Torch and Nozzle Shapes Figure 12. Figure 12. Gas mixing is either carried out in the torch handle. The heavy-duty cutting nozzle (cutting-oxygen pressure 11 bar) is mainly applied for economic cutting with flamecutting machines. Hand-held or torches cutting oxygen heating oxygen gas fuel machine-type are heating flame torches equipped with different cutting nozzles: Standard or block-type nozzles (cutting-oxygen pressure 5 bar) are used for hand-held torches and for cutting jet br-er12-05e.

cause an increased Figure 12. formation of a cylindrical geometry over a extensive length and protection against nitrogen of the surrounding air Steel materials with a C-content of up to approx.preheating of cutting oxygen .8 . In flame cutting. As the design of cutting torches is not yet subject to standardisation. Figure 12. 0. Thermal Cutting 163 of the nozzle.. as these would produce difficult cutting surfaces.cdr cut lengt h ngth end of the cut edge. flame-cutting 1. Moreover.stabilisation of the cutting oxygen jet. In accordance. The selection of a heating and cutting nozzle nozzle-to-work distance torch cutting jet kerf width torch kerf start or nozzles important and depends mainly on the cutting thickness.45% may be flame-cut without preheating.8.substitution of losses due to heat conduction in order to maintain a positive heat balance . with a C-content of approx.6% is with be- br-er12-08e. the thermal conductivity of the material must be low enough to constantly maintain the ignition temperature. many types and systems exist on the market. the desired cut thickness cutting quality. Figure 12.9 The heating flame has to perform the following tasks: . only steel or titanium materials fulfill the conditions for oxygen cutting.rapid heating of the material (about 1200°C) .7 gives a survey of the definitions of Flame Cutting Terms Figure 12. the material must neither melt during the oxidation nor form high-melting oxides.7 flame-cutting.12. Figure 12. and/or the geometry of the cutting cutting le br-er12-07e.cdr carried Function of the Flame During Flame Cutting out preheating.

this would be the first violation to the basic requirement in flame cutting. Some elements high-melting alloying form ox- ides which impair the slag expulsion and influence the thermal conductiv- br-er12-09e. hardening cracks on the cutting The material has to fulfill the following requirements: . Thermal Cutting 164 C-content demands more heat. That means: from a certain carbon content upwards. the melting temperature is lowered. Figure 12.the melting temperature of the oxides has to be lower than the melting temperature of the material itself .11.the individual alloying elements rve n cu o i t i ign Liquidus Solidus solid may show recipro1000 cate effects (reinforcing/weakening).9 The iron-carbon equilibrium diagram illustrates the carbon content-temperature interrelation.0 carbon content [%] content limits of the alloying constituFigure 12. Steel compositions may influence flame cuttability substan1500 temperature [°C] steel cast iron liquid pasty solid tially .e.cdr Conditions of Flame Cutting ity.cdr 2. i.45% and should the material not have been subject to prior heat treatment. As the carbon content increases.12. Figure 12.the ignition temperature has to be permanently maintained. the sum of the supplied energy and heat losses due to heat conduction has to result in a positive heat balance surface are regarded as likely.10 Ignition Temperature in the Iron-Carbon-Equilibrium Diagram .. so a very high degree of hardness is to be expected. Figure 12. The br-er12-10e. i.10. Should the carbon content exceed 0. e.the ignition temperature has to be lower than the melting temperature . Carbon accumulates at the cutting surface. the ignition temperature is higher than the melting temperature.

Thermal Cutting ents are therefore only reference values for the evaluation of the flame cuttability of steels.2 % Ni.11 already alloy with conbr-er12-11e.the double V butt weld and the double V butt weld with root face.12. Figure 12. Cr and C Flame Cutting Suitability in Dependance of Alloy-Elements By an arrangement of one or several nozzles already during the cutting phase a weld preparation may be carried out and certain welding grooves be produced.5 % with max.cdr double-V butt weld double-V butt weld with root face Slag adhesion or chains of molten Figure 12. . as the cutting quality is substantially deteriorating.3 % C up to 0.3 % C up to 1. 0. . 0.7 % not suitable for cutting molybdenum: up to 0.2 %C up to 13 % and 1. It has to be considered that. as a rule lower tents.8 % C up to 7. flame cutting-related de- fects may lead to increased dressing weld work.cdr 165 Maximum allowable contents of alloy-elements: carbon: silicon: manganese: chromium: tungsten: nickel: copper: up to 1. .8 %. 0. with higher proportions of W.6 % up to 2. br-er12-12e.the square butt weld. 0.the single V butt weld with root face. Figure 12.0 % and/or up to 35 % with min.the single V butt weld.12 Weld-Groove Preparation by Oxygen Cutting .12 shows torch arrangements for . particularly in cases where flame cutting is applied for weld square butt weld single-V butt weld single-V butt weld with rootface preparations.5 % up to 10 % and 5 % Cr.

12. the iron powder oxidises very fast and adds further energy to the process. In the flame. br-er12-13e.13 defects flame cutting. in addition to the cutting oxygen. Figure 12.cdr Figure Possible Flame Cutting Defects 12.13 gives a survey of possible in Figure 12. Thermal Cutting 166 globules have to be removed edge defect: edge rounding chain of fused globules edge overhang cratering: sporadic craterings connected craterings cratering areas adherent slag: slag adhearing to bottom cut edge in order to guarantee process safety and part accuracy for the cut face defects: kerf constriction or extension angular deviation step at lower edge of the cut excessive depth of cutting grooves cracks: face cracks cracks below the cut face subsequent processes. iron powder is blown into the cutting gap.14 shows a diagrammatic repre- powder dispenser sentation of a metal powder cutting br-er12-14e. Here.14 Metal Powder Flame Cutting . Figure 12. Through the additional energy input the high-melting oxygen water seperator compressed air acetylene oxides of the highalloy materials are molten. In order to improve the flame-cutting capacity and/or cutting of materials which are normally not to be flame-cut the powder flame cutting process may be applied.cdr arrangement.

15 Figure 12.with non-transferred arc .with transferred arc -with secondary gas flow -with water injection carbon electrode compressed air cutting oxygen = electrode coating tube arc jet. Thermal Cutting Figure 12.cdr grooved out or fillets for welding may be produced later. Figure 12. Both gas-heat oxygen mixture gouging oxygen methods are suited for the weld preparation.12.15 shows the principle of flame gouging scarfing 167 flame gouging and scarfing. Flame Gouging and Scarfing Figure 12.cdr Thermal Cutting Processes by Electrical Gas Discharge plate to a thickness of approx. The nozzle forms the plasma jet only in a restricted way and limits thus the cutting ability of br-er2-16e.16 . 150 mm. root passes may be br-er12-15e.16 shows the methods of thermal cutting processes by electrical gas discharge: plasma cutting with non-transferred arc plasma cutting with transferred arc plasma cutting with transferred arc and secondary gas flow plasma cutting with transferred arc and water injection arc air gouging (represented diagrammatically) arc oxygen cutting (represented diagrammatically) In plasma cutting Thermal cutting processes by electrical gas discharge: the entire workpiece must be heated to plasma cutting arc air gouging arc oxygen cutting the melting temperature by the plasma . This way. material is removed but not gas-heat oxygen mixture scarfing oxygen cut.

and Figure 12. In water-induced cutting plasma water bath workpiece br-er12-18e. nozzle workpiece br-er12-17e. In dry plasma cutting where Ar/H2.18 .17 Plasma Cutting In order to cool and to reduce the emissions. With the plasma cutting process. These process-specific disadvantages may be significantly reduced or limited to just one side of the plate (high quality or scrap side).12. respectively.cdr but only with limited ability. N2. Characteristic for the plasma cut are the cone-shaped formation of the kerf and the rounded edges in the plasma jet entry zone which were caused by the hot gas shield that envelops the plasma jet. dust. may be separated by the emerging plasma flame. all electrically conductive plasma gas cooling water electrode HF R + power source materials may be separated.cdr (plasma arc cutting in water or under Water Injection Plasma Cutting water) gases. Figure 12. conductive Nonmateri- als. harmful substances always develop which not plasma gas electrode only have to be sucked off very carefully but which water curtain cutting water swirl chamber nozzle cone of water also must be disposed of. also the noise.17.18. by the inclination of the torch and/or water addition. plasma torches may be surrounded by additional gas or water curtains which also serve as arc constriction. or similar materials. or air are used. Figure 12. Thermal Cutting 168 Figure 12.

12.cdr underwater plasma cutting Types of Water Bath Plasma Cutting selection plasma forming secondary gas nozzle gases depends on the requirements of the cutting process. Plasma forming workpiece media are argon. compressed air and even pure oxygen may be applied as plasma gas – therefore.20 Plasma Cutting With Secondary Gas Flow . A further. The secondary gas shields the plasma jet and increases the transition resistance at the nozzle front.20 shows a torch which is equipped with an additional gas supply. air. br-er12-20e. the burning of unalloyed steel may be used for increased capacity and quality. of The the plasma gas electrode plasma cutting with workpiece on water surface br-er12-19e. held back by the water. oxygen or water. Figure 12. Figure 12. nitrogen.18. Careful disposal of the residues inevitable. for the most part. in flame cutting.19 Figure 12. The so-called “double and/or parasite arcs” are avoided and nozzle life is increased. positive effect is the cooling of the cutting surface. is here cutting with water bath water injection plasma cutting with water curtain Figure 12.cdr helium.19 gives a survey of the different cutting methods using a water bath. Thanks to new electrode materials. Figure 12. Thermal Cutting 169 the UV radiation are. the socalled secondary gas. hydrogen.

s < 8 mm: N2 s > 8 mm: Ar/H2 4 40 A.laser beam sublimation cutting Figure laser beam cutting process: Figure 12.22. 1 – 10 mm the application of 40 A-compressed air units is recommended. but with lower cutting speeds.12. 3 – 12 mm (400 A. Figure 12. WIPC).22 Thermal Cutting With Beams - laser beam combustion cutting. Variations of the br-er12-22e. Figure 12. Thermal Cutting 170 The advantage of the use of oxygen as plasma gas is in the achievable cutting speeds within the plate thickness range of approx. In the steel plate thickness range of approx.21 different shows cutting Figure 12. In comcutting speed [m/min] parison with 400 A WIPC systems.27.cdr machine type and plasma medium 1 WIPC.21 10 plate thickness [mm] 15 20 speeds for different units and plasma gases. . 400 A.cdr . Cutting Speeds of Different Plasma Cutting Equipment for Steel Plates In the thermal cutting with processes beams only Thermal cutting processes by laser beam the laser is used as the jet generator for cutting. N2 3 200 A. 12.26 laser beam sublimation cutting.laser beam fusion cutting . Figure 12.laser beam combustion cutting . Figure 12. 400 A.25 laser beam fusion cutting. O2 2 WIPC. compressed air these allow vertical and significantly cutting narrower kerfs. 8 1 6 2 4 2 3 4 5 br-er12-21e.

Besides. it is possible to achieve very good bur-free cutting qualities for stainless steels (thickness of up to approx. Thermal Cutting 171 The process sequence in laser beam combustion cutting is comparable to oxygen cutting. Due to the concentrated energy input almost all metals in the plate thickness range of up to approx. Very narrow and parallel cutting kerfs are characteristic for laser beam cutting of structural steels. 8 mm) and for structural steels (thickness of up to 12 mm). The material is heated to the ignition temperature and subsequently burnt in the oxygen stream. Figure 12. In laser beam 60 boiling point Tb evaporating heating-up . either oxygen (additional energy cutting oxygen laser focus thin layer of cristallised molten metal workpiece lens contribution for oxidising materials) or an inactive cutting gas may be applied depending on the cutting job.cdr slag jet the very high beam powers (pulsed/superpulse d mode of operation) allow a direct evaporation of the material (sublimaabsorption factor Laser Beam Cutting Figure 12.cdr 20 r) G-lase (Nd:YA 6 µm er) s a λ = 1.24 melting tion). In laser beam cutting. br-er12-23e.23. In addition. 2 mm may be cut.0 -l (CO 2 .12.06 µm λ = 10 melting point Tm temperature beam of more than 90 % on the workpiece surface de- Qualitative Temperature Dependency on Absorption Ability Figure 12.23 80 combustion ting and cutlaser 40 beam sublimation cutting the reflexion of the laser br-er12-24e.

high cutting speed.cdr material and blow it out with an inert gas.steel aluminium alloys. Ar criteria: . In laser beam fusion cutting remains the reflexion on the molten material.the laser beam melts the entire plate thickness (optimum focus point 1/3 below plate surface) .N2. Ar. as the reflexion loss remains constant.the laser beam is focused on the workpiece surface and the material burns in the oxygen jet starting from the heated surface materials: .high reflection losses (>90%) materials: . used When laser the melting point of the material has been reached. at more than 90%! Figure 12. focussing. He criterions: . characteristics melting drag lines br-er12-26e. cut faces with oxide skin br-er12-25e. glasses.25 During laser beam combustion cutting of structural steel high cutting speeds are achieved due to the exothermal energy input and the low laser beam powers. polymers cutting gas: .). Figure 12. above a beam power of approx. Figure 12.24 shows the absorption factor of the laser light in dependence on the temperature. N2.25.12. Thermal Cutting 172 creases unevenly when the process starts.26 . This factor mainly depends on the wave length of laser cutting (with oxygen jet) . In the above-mentioned case (dependent on beam quality. however.3 kW. spontaneous evaporation of the material takes place and allows sublimation cutting. etc. Important ence for influ- quantities the cutting Characteristics of the Laser Beam Cutting Processes II speed and quality in laser beam cut- Figure 12.O2. Significantly higher laser powers are necessary to fuse the laser fusion cutting: . the absorption increases evenly factor unand Characteristics of the Laser Beam Cutting Processes I reaches values of more than 80%. titanium alloys cutting gas: .cdr the light. 3.cutting speed is only 10-15% in comparison to cutting with oxygen jet.metals.

the position of the focus point in relation to the plate surface and the formation of the cutting gas flow. A pulse (in- Characteristics of the Laser Beam Cutting Processes III creased excitation) allows significantly higher pulse efficiencies to be se- Figure 12. smooth cut edges. In such a case the beam power might be reduced in the continuous wave (CW) operating mode.28 .cdr Fields of Application of Cutting Processes Figure 12.metals.12. Better suited is the switching of the laser to pulse mode (stanlaser evaporation cutting: . Laser beam cutting of contours. He (lens protection) criteria: .27 laser 600 W 1500 W 600 W 1500 W 1500 W plasma 50 A 5 kW 250 A 25 kW 500 A 150 kW oxy-flame Stahl Cr-NiStahl 1 10 lected than those steel Cr-Ni-steel aluminium steel Cr-Ni-steel aluminium achieved with CW. br-er12-28e. Ar. A prerequisite for a high intensity in the focus is the high beam quality (Gaussian intensity distribution in the beam) with a high beam power and suitable focussing optics.N2.cdr dard equipment of HF-excited lasers) where pulse height can right be up selected to the height of the continuous super equipment wave. polymer cutting gas: . With a decreasing beam efficiency decreases the cuttable plate thickness as well.spontaneous evaporation of the material starting from 105 W/cm2 with high absorption rate and deep-penetration effect . wood.low cutting speed. requires adaptation of the beam power in order to avoid heat accumulation and burning of the material. especially of pointed corners and narrow root faces.metallic vapour is pressed from the cavity by own vapour pressure and by a supporting gas flow materials: . minimum heat input br-er12-27e. Thermal Cutting 173 ting are the focus intensity. Further fields of application for the pulse pulse and super operation mode are punching 100 plate thickness [mm] 1000 and laser beam sublimation cutting. ceramic. paper.

Figure 12. The addition of iron powder allows the flame cutting of 1 oxygen cutting (Vadura 1210-A) 0.cdr 1 10 plate thickness [mm] 100 cosity). high heat conductivity and large temperature difCO2-laser (1500 W) 10 cuttig speeds [m/min] plasma cutting (WIPC.12. Thermal Cutting 174 Laser beam cutting of aluminium plates thicker than appx.Steal increasing Figure 12. in comparison to laser beam cutting. however. plate thickness [mm] br-er12-30e. Flame cutting is used for 5 4 laser cutting plasma flame cutting with 3 torches plates 3 2 1 5 10 15 20 > 3 mm.cdr significantly lower. Plasma cutting of plates > 3 mm allows higher cutting speeds. For the plate thickness range of up to 12 mm (steel plate).28 shows a comparison of the different plate thicknesses which were cut using different processes. laser beam cutting is the approved precision cutting process.1 stainless steels (energy input and improvement of the molten-metal visbr-er12-29e. however. in comparison to 25 30 35 40 plasma cutting.30 thickness the dif- . the cutting quality. the cutting speeds are. is 6 costs [DM/m cut length] total costs machine costs significantly lower. 2 mm does not produce bur-free results due to a high reflexion property. 300-600 A) ferences between Al and Al2O3.29 Cutting Speeds of Thermal Cutting Processes does not meet high standards. Figure 12. With an plate Thermal Cutting Costs . The cutting quality.

000.30 and 12.50 65.50 laser beam cutting equipment might be a deterrent to €/h 65.50 1. 1600h/year. to VDI 3258 flame cutting (6-8 torches) investment total (replacement value) calculation for a 6-yearaccounting depreciation maintenance costs energy costs production cost unit rate costs/1 operating hour plasma cutting (plasma 300A) laser beam cutting (laser 1500W) length and the costs per operating The high hour.29 shows the cutting speeds of some thermal cutting processes.00 130. utilisation time 1280h/year br-er12-31e.00 2. Figure 12.31 show a comparison of the costs of flame cutting.000.00 10.00 2.00 220.00 ment costs for a €/h €/h €/h 23. plasma arc and laser beam cutting – the costs per m/cutting extract from a costing acc.00 75.31 . Figures 12. Figure 12.00 29. Apart from technological aspects.00 exploit cutting the high 1 shift.50 3.cdr qualities Cost Comparison of Cutting Processes obtainable with this process. financial considerations as well determine the application of a certain cutting method. Thermal Cutting 175 ference in the cutting speed is reduced. Plates with a thickness of more than 40 mm may be cut even faster using the flame cutting process.000.12. 80% availability.00 500. invest- € 170.00 4.

Special Processes 2003 .13.

Figure 13.1 depicts different stud shapes. a distinction is basically made between three process variations. also studs with pointed tips or with corrugated shanks are used. One of them is stud welding. depicts the three variations – the differences lie in the kind of arc ignition and in the cycle of motions during the welding process. Figure 13.2. Figure 13. Special Processes 175 Apart from the welding processes explained earlier there is also a multitude of special welding processes.1 In arc stud welding. Depending on the application. the studs are equipped with either internal or external screw threads. Figure 13.13.2 .

3 In drawn-arc stud welding the stud is first mounted onto the plate. When base stud plate and are fused. Figure 13. After the solidification of the liquid weld pool the ceramic ferrule is knocked off. Special Processes 176 The switching arrangement of an arc stud welding unit is shown in Figure 13.4 .13. Besides a power source which produces high currents for a short-time. Figure 13.4. the stud is dipped into the molten weld pool while the ceramic ferrule is forming the weld. Figure 13.3. The arc is ignited by lifting the stud and melts the entire stud diameter in a short time. a control as well as a lifting device are necessary.

7 depicts different of Figure 13. Studs with diameters of up to 22 mm can be used. Aluminium studs. see Fig- ure 13.6. The arc stud welding process allows to join different materials.13. the stud is positioned onto the partly molten workpiece. Special Processes 177 Figure 13. Problematic are the different melting points and the heat dissipation of the individual materials. When the stud base is molten.5 arrangements current contact points and cable runs and illustrates the developing arc deflection (B. Welding currents of more than 1000 A are necessary. Figure 13.6 counter- . may not be welded onto steel.5 illustrates tip ignition stud welding. A. Figure 13. for example. The lifting of the stud is dispensed with. The tip melts away immediately after touching the plate and allows the arc to be ignited.C. The relatively high welding currents in the arc stud welding process cause the somewhat troublesome sideeffects of the arc blow. D and F show possible measures.E).

Through the skin effect the current flows only conditionally at the surface.13. Therefore no thorough fusion of thick-wall pipes may be achieved.8 Figure 13.8.9. Only the high-frequency technique allows a safe current transfer in spite of the scale or oxide layers.9 .7 Figure 13. as shown in Figure 13. as shown in Figure 13. Figure 13. or via rollers. Special Processes 178 In high-frequency welding of pipes the energy input into the workpiece may be carried out via sliding contacts.

Figure 13. Varying magnetic fields produce eddy currents inside the workpiece. the right side: the useless current path which does not contribute to the fusion of the Figure 13.11. . A distinction is made between coil inductors (left) and line inductors (right). which again cause resistance heating in the slotted tube. Only the current part which reaches the joining zone and causes to fill the gap may be utilised. ure 13.11 edges. Figure 13.12 Figillus- trates two current paths. 179 In induction welding – a process which is used frequently nowadays – the energy input is received contactless.10.13.10 Also in case of induction welding flows the current flows only close to the surface areas of the pipe. Special Processes Only welding of small wall thicknesses is profitable – as the weld speed must be greatly reduced with increasing wall thicknesses. Figure 13. On the left side: current the useful on path.

13. the effective depth for ferritic steels increases. Special Processes Figure 13. As soon as the Curie temperature point is reached. pendence in on dethe 180 frequency.13 shows the effective depth during the inductive heating for different materials.12 Figure 13.13 Figure 13. Figure 13.14 .

Figure 13.16 the shows as- process sembly. Figure 13.14. Special Processes 181 The application of the induction welding method allows high speeds than of welding more 100m/min. Aluminothermic fusion welding or cast mainly Figure 13. A crucible is filled with a mixture consisting of aluminium powder and iron oxide. Figure 13.15 joining welding used is for railway tracks on site.15. of After the the melt has cooled. the mould is knocked off. An exothermal reaction is initiated by an igniter – the aluminium oxidises and the iron oxide is reduced to iron.16 . Figure 13.13. The molten iron flows into a ceramic mould which matches the contour track.

19 shows the critical cladding speeds for different material combinations. . unal- loyed steel/alloyed steel. transitions in the joining area. Special Processes Explosion welding or explosion cladding is fre- 182 quently used for joining dissimilar materials. Figures 13. lack of fusion is the result. the development of the waves in the joining zone is erratic. per/aluminium steel/aluminium.18. If the welding speed is too low. The materials Figure 13.13. If the welding speed is exceeded.18 The determined cladding speed must be strictly adhered to during the welding process. as. Figure 13. and Figure 13.17 copor which are to be joined are pressed together shock Wavy develop by a wave. for example.17 13.

like ultrasonic welding. right up to several days) joining is achieved by diffusion processes. The advantage of this costly welding method lies in the possibility of joining dissimilar materials without taking the risk of structural transformation due to the Figure 13.13.19 Figure 13. is welding in the solid state. After a certain time (minutes. Diffusion welding. The surfaces which are to be joined are cleaned. Special Processes 183 Figure 13.21 .20 Figure 13. polished and then joined in a vacuum with pressure and temperature.20 shows a diagrammatic representation of a diffusion welding unit.

23 ised.. e. In cold pressure welding .21 several material tions.22 ate layers. copper and vanadium had been used as intermediate layers. as. Figshows possible combina- 184 ure 13.e. Through transposition processes as well as through forces adhesion can joining of similar and dissimilar materials be realFigure 13. i. very thin layers may be realised.22 shows the structure of a joint where nickel.13. . may be obtained by several intermediFigure 13.g. As the diffusion of the individual components takes place only in the region close to the surface. Special Processes heat input. The joining of two extremely different contrast to diffusion welding . to the atomic distance.23. The joint surfaces are moved very close towards each other. Figure 13. Figure 13.a deformation is produced by the high contact pressure in the bonding plane. austenite and a zirconium alloy.

25 shows possible material for combinations ultrasonic ing.25 bonding and wedge . Figure 13. where one part small amplitudes (up to 50 µm) relative to the other is moved with with ultrasonic frequency. weld- Further microwelding processes are methods which are also called heated element methods.24 frequency range of 20 up to 60 Hz. The process principle is shown in Figure 13. The ultrasonics which have been produced by a magnetostrictive transducer and transmitted by a sonotrode lie in the Figure 13. The surface layers of overlap arranged plates are destroyed by applying mechanical vibrator energy. The joining members are welded under pressure.24. welding as. for nailhead Figure 13.13. At this instance are joining surfaces deformed by very short localised warming up and point- interspersed connected. the vibratory vector is in the joining zone. example. Special Processes 185 Ultrasonic welding is used as a microwelding method. As far as metals are concerned. in contrast to ultrasonic welding of plastics.

Figure 13. By a reducing hydrogen flame its end is molten to a globule. Figure 13.26. the wire which emerges from the feeding nozzle may have diameters from 12 to 100 µm. The wire is cut with a cutting tool.13.29.28 de- picts this type of weld. as. These methods are applied in the electronics industry for joining very fine wires. A further method related to welding is soldering. In wedge bonding a wire is positioned onto the contact point via a feeding nozzle. The nozzle then presses this globule onto the part aimed at and shapes it into a nail head. Figure 13. for example.27 . Figure 13.27. gold wires from microchips with aluminium strip conductors. The process of principle is soldering briefly explained in Figure 13. The welding wedge is lowered and the wire with is the welded aluminium thin foil. Figure 13. Special Processes 186 bonding.26 In nailhead bonding.

30.28 Figure 13.30 . Figure 13. This process is frequently subject to automation. up to 1100°C. up to 1200°C) are used. For hightemperature sol- dering solders with high melting points (melting tempera- ture is approx. There are two basic distinctions: soft soldering (melting temperature of the solder is approx. Special Processes 187 The individual soldering methods are classified into different mechanisms depending on the type of heating.29 Figure 13.13. up to 450°C) and brazing (melting temperature of the brazing solder is approx. Figure 13.

14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 2003 .

part 1.2. the transport of parts to the welding point. Figure 14. many factories are compelled to rationalise their manufacturing methods Designation examples gas-shielded arc welding TIG GMAW movement/ working cycles torch-/ workpiece control filler wire feeding workpiece handling by fully partially and manual welding m manually manually manually mechanised proc- production partially mechanised welding t fully mechanised welding v automatic welding a br-er14-01e. shows manual welding. The filler metal (the consumable elecbr-er14-02e.cdr © ISF 2002 trode) is also fed manually to the welding point. Figure 14.2 Manual Welding (Manual Electrode Welding) . Distinctions are made with regard to the type of torch control and to filler addition and to the type of process sequence.. Figure 14.g. automation aspects are conse- Figure 14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 188 As the production costs of the metal-working industry are nowadays mainly determined by the costs of labour.cdr esses.1 quently taken into account. in this case: manual electrode welding. The levels of mechanisation in welding are stipulated in DIN 1910. In the field manually mechanically manually of welding engia mechanically mechanically manually neering where consistently mechanically mechanically mechanically good quality with a maximum productivity is a must. as. e.1 explains the four levels of mechanisation. The control of the electrode and/or the arc is carried out manu-ally.14.

5 shows an example of automatic welding (assembly line in the car industry). metal-arc the arc manipulation is carried out manually.cdr manu- ally in accordance Fully Mechanised Welding (Gas-Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) with the direction of the moving ma- Figure 14.cdr cally by means of a wire feed motor. the filler metal addition. Wire feeding is realised by means of wire feed units. however. In fully mechanised welding.4. the workpieces are mechanically positioned at the welding point and. Figure 14. automatically trans-ported to the next working station. In automatic welding. pieces The workbe must positioned br-er14-04e. an automatic equipment mechanism carries out the welding advance and thus the torch control.3. besides the process sequences described above. Figure14. is executed mechanibr-er14-03e. e.3 Partially Mechanised Welding (Gas-Shielded Metal-Arc Welding) Figure 14.g. .14. after welding.4 chine support. gas- shielded welding. Figure 14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures In partially 189 mechanised welding.

Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 190 Apart from the actual welding de- vice. Figure 14. may be significantly more complex.6 simple jig tackfor welding pipe clamping. br-er14-06e.cdr devices which Automatic Welding (Assembly Line) available facilitate or make Figure 14. Before welding.6 shows assembly line welding robot machine carrier linear travelling mechanism track-mounted welding robots spindle / sliding head turntable turn-/ tilt table dollies assembly devices a survey of the most important assisting devices. however. . Figure 14. the parts are normally aligned and then tack-welded.cdr Figure 14.5 the welding process at all possible. Thus a defined position of any weld seam is reproducible. This allows to clamp pipes with different diameters. the welding source. there is a variety of auxiliary br-er14-05e. that is. This type of device allows to fix complex parts at several points.7 depicts a Figure 14. The lower part of the device has the shape of a prism.14. the power filler metal feeding unit and the simple torch control units. Devices.8 shows an example of an assembly equipment used in car body manufacturing.

Figure 1 portal with 2 industrial robots IR 400.cdr Simple Tack Welding Jig for Welding Circumferential Welds sible and suit several tank diameters. Figure bottom: the roller spacing may be varied by a scissor-like arrange- br-er14-08e. Figure 14. The equipment should be as versatile as posbr-er14-07e.8 ment.14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 191 In apparatus engineering and tank construction it is often necessary to rotate the components. Figure middle: the rollers automatically adapt to the tank diameter. e.9 shows Figure 14.cdr Figure 17. ..10. when welding circumferential seams. equipped with tool change system 2 resting transformer welding tongs 3 depot of welding tongs 4 clamping tool 5 copper back-up bar for car roof welding 6 transformer welding tongs for car roof welding 7 driverless transport system 8 component support frame 9 swivelled support for component support frames 10 resting transformer welding tongs for car boot top: the rollers are adjustable. Figure 14. This provides also an effortless movement of heavy components.g. In general.7 three types of turning rolls which fulfil the demands. dollies are motor-driven.

. e.9 Figure 14. 135° are possible while the turn-table can be turned by 365°. Those types of turn-tables are designed for working parts with br-er14-11e.10 A work piece positioner.11 up to several hundred tons.14.cdr set of rollers 2 br-er14-10e. a turn-tilt-table.11 shows a diagrammatic representation of a turntilt-table. is part of the standard equipment of a robot working station.cdr weights of just a few kilograms right Figure 14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 192 set of rollers 1 br-er14-09e.cdr Turning Rolls Turning Rolls Figure 14. Rotations table top rotational axis gear segment table support tilting axis support around the tilting axis of approx. Figure 14.g.

cdr Turn-Tilt-Table With Hydraulic Adjustment Figure 14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 193 A turn-tilt table with hydraulic adjustment of the tilting and vertical motion as well as chucking grooves for the part fixture is depicted ure 14. remains approx.13 . single-column turn-tilt-table table top table support tilting axis support rotational axis orbital turn-tilt-table table top table support tilting axis support rotational axis br-er14-13e.are gaining importance.12 In robot technology the types of turn-tilt-tables . Positioners with orbital design have a decisive advantage because the component.13 . when turning around the tilting axis. equally distant to the welding robot. in Fig- shown in Figure 14.12.cdr © ISF 2002 Turn-Tilt-Tables Figure 14.14.

14 – the double column turn-tilt-table and the spindle and sliding holder turn-tilt-table. This machine allows the welding of flanges to a pipe.14 table tops spindle holder sliding holder bed way br-er14-15e.16 shows a pipe-flange-welding machine.15 In the field of welding. special units are designed for special tasks.14.cdr © ISF 2002 Spindle / Sliding Holder Turntable Figure 14. Those types of positioners are used for special component geometries and allow welding of any seam in the flat and in the horizontal position. Figure 14. tilting axis rotational axis table top support table support br-er14-14e. The weld head has to be guided to follow the seam contour. . Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 194 Other types of workpiece positioners are shown in Figure 14.cdr © ISF 2002 Double-Column Turn-Tilt-Table Figure 14.

cdr Figure 14. br-er14-17e. Figure 14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 195 br-er14-16e.16 Plain plates or rounded tanks are clamped by means of longitudinal jigs for the welding of a longitudinal seam.14. Figure 14.18. The design and the gripping power are very dependent of the thickness of the plates to be welded. This device is designed for the application .cdr Figure 14.17 A simple example of a special welding machine is the tractor travelling carriage for submerged-arc welding.17.

cdr Tractor for Submerged-Arc Welding To increase levels of mechanisation of welding processes robots are fre- Figure 14.cdr tions of translatory and rotary axes. . Figure 14. besides the supply of the filler metal. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 196 on-site and provides. Apart from the translatory and rotary principal axes they are often also equipped with additional axes to allow precise positioning. Figure 14.19 shows different types of machine supports for welding and cutting. br-er14-18e. also the welding speed as well as the feeding and suction of the welding flux. machine supports may be used.19 br-er14-19e.14.18 quently applied. a boom pillar travelling mechanism main piloting system case cross piloting system case b c Robots are handling devices which are equipped with more than three userd programmable axes. For the guidance of a welding head and/or welding device.20 describes kine- e auxiliary piloting system case auxiliary piloting system case matic chains which can be realised by different combinaFigure 14.

br-er14-21e.cdr © ISF 2002 Kinematic Chains Figure 14. The wire feed unit and the spool carriers for the wire electrodes are often fixed on the robot. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 197 designation cartesian robot cylinder coordinated robot spherical coordinated robot horizontal knuckle arm robot vertical knuckle arm robot arrangement x R z y z C B C A R C z C D B kinematic schedule operating space br-er14-20e.14.21 . The robot depicted here is a hinged-arm robot with six axes.20 The most common design of a trackmounted welding robot is shown in Figure 14. This allows a compact welding design.cdr Robot Motions Figure 14. The axes are divided into three principal and three additional axes or hand axes.21.

In the unrestricted operating range the component may be reached with the torch in any position. Figure 14. These axes may either turn to certain defined positions or be guided by the robot control and moved synchronically with the internal axes.22 shows the operating range of a robot.23 . The complexity and versatility of the axis positions increases number with of the axes which participate in the movement. br-er14-23e.22 For the completion of a robot welding station workpiece positioners are necessary. Figure 14.cdr device shortened thus allowing a compact design.cdr Figure 14.14. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 198 Varying lever lengths permit the design of robots with different operating ranges.23 shows positioner devices where also several axes may be combined. Figure 14. The restricted operating range allows the torch to reach the component only certain In a the sus- positions. case of pended ment fixing the arrangerobot is br-er14-22e.

cdr Figure 14.24. Mechanisation and Welding Fixtures 199 Movement by means of a linear travelling mechanism increases the operating range of the robot. where there is a possibility to move to fixed end positions or to stay in a synchronised motion with the other movement axes. Figure 14.24 . br-er14-24e.14. This may be done in ease of stationary as well as suspended arrangement.

15. Welding Robots 2003 .

To extend their range. A further extension of the working range can be Figure 15. Welding Robots 200 Increased quality requirements for products and the trend to automate production processes along with increased profitability result in the use of industrial robots in modern manufac- turing. Normally. It is equipped with a welding torch and carries out welding jobs. The definition says that an industrial robot for gas welding is an universal movement automaton with more than three axes which are user-programmable and may be sensor-controlled. they have six user-programmable axes. Since robots have been in in- introduced dustry in the 70s. so they can access any point within the working range at any orientation of the welding torch.1 welding. working robots may be installed in overhead position.1 – 15. and seam Figure 15.2.2 achieved by . Figures 15.15. Core of a modern robot welding cell are one or more seam welding robots of swan neck type. their quently most fields freof application ranged from installation jobs up to spot welding.

Welding Robots 201 installation of the robot onto a linear carriage with Cartesian axes. positioner.4 . Figure 15.3. while the robot is welding Figure 15.4. safety equipment. Communication with external systems is possible by a host or master computer. To turn the workpiece in the welding-favourable downhand position and to ensure accessibility to any joints.3 on the other side. and external sensors. Figure 15. It provides and processes all information for robot mechanics. welding unit. The robot program transforms information into signals for control of robotand posi- tioner-mechanics as well power as welding source. Such 'external' axes are also user-programmable. The operator feeds and removes the welded workpiece on one side. workpiece positioners are used as external axes which are steered by the robot control. Figure 15.15. Multistation cycle tables are often used to increase profitability of the complete system installation. The robot control is the centre of an industrial robot system for arc welding.

Examples of such assemblies.6 .5 shows the internal structure of such a control. and peripheral units via digital Figure 15. the axes computers. The host controls and coordinates the actions of the components based on the operating system and the robot program. semblies sponsible these are unit asrefor communication with the welding power source. two interconnected control loops per axis are available which control speed and position of each axis.g. Figure 15. Figure 15. Individual assemblies which are designed for special jobs and equipped with an own micro-processor are linked with the host computer via the system bus. the manual programming (PHG). To control the drive motors. Welding Robots 202 Modern industrial robot controls are build as multi-processor controls due to the multitude of parallel calculations and control functions. external sensors. which are mostly installed on individual printed boards.5 Further assemblies control the display screen.15. are e. They are responsible for calculation of movement and for control of power units of the individual axes.

with the help of the manual programming unit. Figure 15.6. track parameters must be entered. welding parameter sets. Programming of welding robots can be carried out in different ways which are distinguished in On-Line (programming at the robot) and Off-Line (programming out of the robot cell). During sensor supported Teach-In programming. some robot controls can be connected via internet with telediagnosis systems of the robot manufacturer to support service personnel during troubleshooting and commissioning. Then the accurate path is picked-up by sensors and autocalcu- matically lated in the robot steering Afterwards movement control. the path progress through some typical points is only roughly indicated. A common technique to program a robot is the Teach-In procedure. Figure 15. Welding Robots 203 and analogue in.and outputs and field bus systems. This procedure is preferably used for painting jobs. In addition. the pro- gram is supplemented by additional information about e.g. Or they complete the data transmission with external control systems. During Teach-In programming.7 . To reduce downtimes in the case of malfunction. like e. type of movement and speed or welding parameter sets. The robot is manually guided along the later track with decoupled drives during PlayBack programming.g. the welding torch is moved to notable points of the groove to be welded which are stored with information about position and orientation. The path of the track is recorded and transformed into a corresponding robot control program.15.

The recording of the position of points is carried out in the same way as with Teach-In programming: moving into position and recording. Figure 15. inclination.8. for applies positioning.7. Macro-programming is also regarded as a mixed method which shortens programming time at the robot.9 repeated . parame- Using a collection (can be created online or offline) of such macros. Welding Robots 204 Textual programming belongs to mixed procedures. Macros are structured processing sequences which are created online to fulfil working functions and which can be repeated for further similar working functions. the programming time can be shortened for workpieces with often Figure 15. Geometry macros contain information about torch guidance to produce certain joints or joint sections. relative position of beads to root and welding ters.8 welding are in macros.15. Welding technol- ogy parameters for individual situations summarised welding This torch torch Figure 15. The sequence program in form of a text file is created on an external computer and is then transmitted to the robot steering control. Figure 15.

15. All axes are controlled in such . steel construction when welding stiffeners and head plates Using offline programming practice. During textual programming.10 In the case of knowledge-based offline programming. the 3-dimensional point coordinates and torch orientations are entered into an external computer in a manufacturer-specific program language. In most cases. each instruction must be entered individually. This avoids unproductive stoppages and allows for economicviable. for determination of job-specific welding parameters. The graphical offline programming uses CAD data for modelling the complete robot working cell and parts to be welded. e. e. Figure 15. Modern robot controls provide the programmer with some functions for movement control and for modification of program sequence. checking and adapting the program must be carried out by the operator. the operator is supported by integrated expert systems when it comes to creation of robot welding programs. to check for collisions between torch and workpiece. Welding Robots 205 welding jobs.g. Planning of the path is carried out with CAD functions directly at the workpiece which is displayed on a screen. the programming work is shifted out from the producing robot cell. PTP movement (point to point) serves to move the robot in the space. However.10. limited number of pieces to be reduced. a calibration between model and physical robot working cell is required. the programming systems provide a graphical simulation of the movement. e. For the following transformation of the program into the robot control. To achieve a complete program sequence.g.g.9. Figure 15. Figure 15.

Figure 15.g. e. Figure 15. Thereby the actual path of the torch depends on kinematics of the robot and on current position of the axes.11 Circles and graduated circles are entered by means of circle interpolation programs. Speed of the torch is user- programmable and. continuous Path). is used for accurate movement along a straight line. A linear interpolation (CP procedure.11. can be superimposed an oscillation. by To control the program run. con- .12. Figure 15.15. TCP) is moved along a straight tween line two bepropoints. movement to weld start point or welding. if required. Welding Robots 206 a way that they reach their set-point at the same time. grammed adapting torch angle and torch inclination between the two points. The active point of the tool 'arc' (ToolCentre-Point. commands are available for: reFigure 15. Then the orientation of the torch can be adapted through turning the knuckle axis or 6th axis of the robot and the value of spill-weld at the end of the seam can be indicated.12 peated loops.

Welding Robots 207 ditional and unconditional program jumps. waiting periods. 15. The software of modern seam welding robots contains – as special functions – 3dimansional transfor-mations and mirroring of programs and partial programs. Figure 15. processing sensor data and com- mands for communication with other robot controls op- (Master/Slave eration) as well as with external computers. waiting for inputs. and working with sub-programs.13 Figure .15.13. palletising functions.

16. Sensors 2003 .

1 (avoidance of tracking misalignment). and proess disturbances. To record process irregularities and path deviations. Scopes of duty of the sensors is finding the weld start point and seam tracking.16. collisions) coravoiding and should be as small Figure 16. In addition.1. process parameters can be adapted online and offline. a fully mechanised welding plant requires sensors providing control signals which are then used in accordance with implemented rules.2 . recognising ners. detect in advance (finding the start point of the seam. Sensors 208 The welding process is exposed to disturbances like misalignment of workpiece. The manual welder notices them by eyesight and corrects them manually according to strategies learned and gained by experience. inaccurate preparation. Using corresponding control elements. machine and device tolerances. the control loop is closed for the welding process. with the help of information joint about geometry. Figure 16. The ideal sensor for a robot application should measure the welding point Figure 16.

Such scanning systems show a long distance between sensor and torch. or similar devices may be used as sensors. Tactile sensors can recognise 3dimensional offsets of the workpiece.16. balls. and arc based sensor systems with mechanical adjustment. arc Figure 16. Only grooves with large dimensions and relatively straight seam path can be scanned with these systems. Figure 16. engineermost The frequently used systems in practice are tactile. Figshows sensor welding ure 16. does not yet exist.2 different principles used in welding ing. optical. Figure 16.3 shows some examples of different groove geometries.3 With tactile scanning systems. therefore one must select a sensor which is suitable for the individual job.4 . rollers. the application range is limited. Pins. The ideal sensor which combines all three requirements. the simplest type of scanning is a mechanical sensor. Sensors 209 as possible (no restriction in accessibility).

the magnetic field weakens. Figure 16. a current flows. the position of the welding groove. In the undisturbed case. Due to their function principle. The simplest type is a ring coil. these currents are phase-shifted by 180° and neutralise each other. Inductive sensors are graded as non-contact measurement systems. As soon as the torch touches the workpiece. When the coil approaches the workpiece surface. which is then taken by the robot control as a signal for obtaining the level to be scanned. In this case. welding Using distance also a groove can be scanned.6 shows a principle arrangement. they can be applied for metallic and electrically conductive materials. the gas nozzle of the torch serves as a sensor. Sensors 210 Through scanning of three levels the 3-dimensional point of intersection can be calculated and the robot program for correcting the deviation can be shifted accordingly thus finding the start point of the weld. If alternating current flows though the coil.16. which is charged with electrical tension.5 shows the distancedependent electrical signal. Such simple sensors are used to recognise the workpiece position. Figure 16. Figure 16. several sensors. Figure 16. the angle between sensor and workpiece surface and the distance can be recorded. If the sensor is moved crosswise to the groove.4. magnetical asymmetries will occur in the scanning area. .5 With multi-coil arrangements in one sensor. which . A transmitter coil generates an magnetically alternating field which induces alternating currents in the two receiver coils.a magnetic field is generated close to the workpiece.

if the coils are positioned exactly above the centre of the groove. A mathematical process transforms such signals into distance values. At the moment. Radar sensors form a so called radar baton. A signal for side control of the torch is determined by measurement and Figure 16.6 shows the sensor signal.7 mm diameter for this application.16. the characteristic values of the weld groove can be determined with a resolution in the range of 1/10 mm.6 Arc sensors evaluate the continuous change welding of the current with a change of the contact tip-towork distance. To record the position and the depth of the groove. Figure 16.7 . The radar sensor in Figure 16. which is focussed onto a measurement spot of about 0. which represents the relative movement along the workpiece.6 uses Doppler's effect to generate a signal. Figure 16. Here the phase difference between transmitter signal and receiving signal is evaluated. the sensor must be continuously moved along the seam. The output signal will be zero. Figure 16. Sensors 211 will show in the presented signal shape.7.

In this way. it provides a frequently used combination for seam finding and seam tracking during robot welding. A comparison between actual welding current and programmed rated current provides a signal for distance control of the welding torch. which is carried out by a rotor movement with an oscillation frequency up to 5 Hz. there are numerous possibili-ties. a divergence of the arc or the use of a second arc is required. The second method is mainly used with submerged arc welding.16. . Figure 16. Sensors 212 subtraction of the currents on the flanks of a groove. The signal recording is continuous during the movement. A disadvantage is the size of the electromagnets and the limited accessibility to the workpiece. To realise this principle. Together with the tactile torch gas nozzle sensor. Figure 16. The arc sensor principle is limited to groove shapes with clear flanks. The most frequently used method is a mechanical oscillation of the welding torch. The advantage of this method is a high divergence frequency of about 15 Hz. information about orientation of the torch and groove width is also provided. To let this sensor method work.8 is evalu- Magnetic fields can diverge only the arc itself.8 shows some variants of signal recording. The last variant of an arc sensor incorporates a mechanical rotation of the welding wire. In this case. Both wires are aligned crossways to welding and the direction difference of the two currents ated. the divergence frequency of the arc can reach up to 30 Hz.

Sensors 213 Optical sensors can be used for a great number of jobs. The amount of backreflection of the laser beam power is measured. must be moved along the groove. Among other things. E. and for identification of groove profile. optical sensors can also be used for measuring geometrical values. It is practical to equip the sensor with additional axes. . which are positioned in front of the torch as a leading element. However. reflected during welding. for seam tracking. Another problem is the tremendous effort to introduce the control-technical integration into the robot control. Without additional axes.9 depth. The procedure is based on the line-up between the degree of reflection and shaft relation (penetration depth/focus position) of the capillary.16. Figure 16. Geometry-measuring optical sensors are normally external systems. The two last mentioned functions provide the possibility to use the information for filling rate control and/or quality control. with laser beam welding.9. Such information may be used for finding the start point of a seam.g. information must be exchanged in real time. torch and sensor. this is carried out through the relaser recording flected radiation with simple sensors for control of penetration Figure 16. Changes of penetration depth due to modified laser power or a shifted focus position can be identified by the signal of reflected laser power and can be used for control of the penetration depth. a robot would be limited in its accessibility to the workpiece and in its working range. The easiest method is the recognition radiation which is of the intensity. which due to multi-reflection is not absorbed by the workpiece. because both.

Sensors 214 Most of geometry-measuring sensors use the triangulation principle or a variant of this measurement procedure. Figure 16. A light spot is projected onto the workpiece surface and displayed to a line-type receiver element under a certain angle. this principle is complemen-ted by an oscillating axis in parallel to the groove axis. .11 procedure. With distance changes emerge corresponding positions on the receiver element. The measurement of a sequence of distances along a line becomes possible and provides a 2-dimensional re- cord and evaluation of the groove contours. Figure 16. Sensors as part of the light-section also Figure 16. the laser scanner and the light-section procedure are based on the triangulation measurement principle.10.10 Both. Figure 16. The triangulation measurement procedure provides information about the distance to the workpiece surface. With the laser scanner.16. Sensors which use this triangulation principle are applied for recognition of workpiece position and for offline seam finding.11.

12 Another measurement optical prin- ciple uses. Sensors 215 provide information about the 2-dimensional position of the groove. Figure 16. similar to human sight. Both. scanning systems and sensors based on the light section procedure. the stereo procedure to record information the Two optics the weld geometry across groove.12. Using sensors. provide additional information about the path of the seam and the orientation of the sensor related to the workpiece surface. can be used for recognition of the welded seam to make automised an quality control of the outer weld characteris- tics possible. information about the groove profile is provided by taking a picture scene. in succession taken. which generate their information through a projection of several light lines.13 .16. In contrast to scanning. Figure 16. it is pssible to obtain additional 3-dimensional information through evaluation of more. As a function of this system. while the camera moves over the grooves. Systems. one or more light lines are projected onto the workpiece surface and displayed to a CCD matrix under a certain angle. independent photograph interesting Figure 16.

Based on the corresponding image points in both picture scenes. which occurs with butt welds due to different reflection intensity between workpiece surface and gap. Sensors 216 groove area and displays them onto two image converter elements (CCD-lines or CCD-matrix).14 depicts such a system for use with laser beam welding. The welding process is monitored by a CCD camera through a filter system. which uses CCD lines as image converter elements. Geometry data contain information which is used online for control of the welding Among penetration process. the 3dimensional position of object points is evaluated. others. molten pool Figure 16. An optical filter allows to observe the weld pool surface without disturbing effects of the plasma in the near infrared spectrum. Optical sensors may also be used for geometrical recognition of the weld pool. The width of the groove is taken from the width of the signal drop. to adapt process parame-ters in the case of possible deviations. Figure 16. depth and focus position can be controlled. The system also provides the recognition of protrusionwelded joints and welding defects like e.14 ejections. Both.13 shows the measurement principle.16. The grey scale drop in the signal is ideally used as corresponding image area. the lateral position of the groove and the distance to the sensor can be determined by evaluating the centre positions of both signal drops. and idealised signals for generating information. Figure 16. Picture data are transferred to an image processing computer which measures the geometry of the weld pool.g. .

Figure 16. Figure 16. to carry out a seam tracking and a monitoring of the welded seam.15 .16.15. Sensors 217 During electron beam welding. the beam is in combination with a detector used for both. The area-type scanning provides the possibility observing welded seam for the or the focus position. Backscattered electrons are recognised by a special detector and converted into grey values. the beam can be diverged as well as bent. these signals can be used for seam tracking by scanning an edge which is parallel to the groove. The line or area surface scanning by the spotted electron beam provides a progressive series of greys across the scanned line or area. For this. During electron beam welding.

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F. G. F. 1990. Tips für den Werkstoffpraktiker zum Gasschweißen und Flammlöten Praktiker 32.. S. 1980. Düsseldorf 1983 Eichhorn. H. F. S. K. Pyrasch und J.und Elektroschlackeschweißens von Kehlnähten DVS-Berichte Bd. F. Engindeniz. 573-579 Ellis. Düsseldorf 1987 Dynamit Nobel Sprengplattierte Verbundwerkstoffe Eichhorn. 1985 Eichhorn.2ff Fischer. D. S. 1984. Langenbahn Spritzerfreies MAGM-Impulslichtbogenschweißen Schweißen und Schneiden 37. Nies Entwicklung eines Unterpulver-Engspaltschweißkopfes für Bandelektroden DVS-Berichte Bd. D. S. Remmel Leistungssteigerung des Elektroschlackeschweißverfahrens bei Verbindungen an niedriglegierten Stählen im Blechdickenbereich von 100 bis 250 mm Schweißen und Schneiden 37. F. E. Remmel Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Elektrogas. H. 130-135 Eichhorn. J. Engspaltschweißen fügt dicke Bleche . 51-55 Literature Eichhorn.J. Schweißtechnische Fertigungsverfahren.W. 1.und Schneidtechnologien VDI-Verlag GmbH. Teil 1: WIG-.. S. Luscell Stand und Entwicklungstendenzen der Programmierung von Robotern zum Bahnschweißen Schweißen und Schneiden 42. Bd. W. Okt. 100. 90. Heft 2.221 DVS-Verlag GmbH. 42-44 Gröger. 1990 ESAB Firmenprospekt Eversheim. S. 1985. Submerged-Arc Welding – An Update Welding and Metal Fabrication. P. Plasmaschweißen DVS-Schweißtechnische Praxis Band 11 Grix. Heft 2. Baum Der Schutzgasschweißer. u. Blasig u. Schweiß. Heft 11. u. 1985. u. H.

W. P. 431-438 Hoult. 1984.. Pyrasch u. 1979 ISO 5821. 1989. 13. u. J. Resistance spot welding electrode caps. Juni 1989 Industrial Laser Review 1988 International Institute of Welding The Physics of Welding Pergamon Press. S. Ehningen 1987 HAANE Firmenprospekt Hase. Heft 10. Reibschweißen von Metallen Expert-Verlag. 28-33 Grünauer. 1989.222 VDI-Nachrichten Nr. Materials for resistance welding elektrodes and ancillary equipment. 1979 Kessel. D. Groten. C. P. Neuartige Erkenntnisse bei der Materialbearbeitung mit gepulsten Nd:YAG Hochleistungslasern im Kilowatt-Bereich Laser-Praxis. Wietrzniok Neue Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet des Schutzgas-Engspaltschweißens DVS-Bericht 127. H. 1978 ISO 5184. H. 1984. H. S. P. A. Stand der Entwicklung und Anwendung Technica 38. Nr. Essen 1980 Hirschherg. E. Girardet. 1960. S. A. 39. Staight resistance spot welding electrodes. G. Literature . Hochfrequenz-Widerstandsschweißen mit Kontaktelektroden Schweißen und Schneiden 12. S. S. Thermisches Schneiden. 112-119 Gröger. Heft 13. 67-73 Hörmann. Koivula Metall-Schutzgasschweißen – Verfahrensvarianten des Engspaltschweißens Industrie-Anzeiger 106. u. Reitze Lehrbuch des Gasschweißers und verwandte Autogenverfahren Verlag W. Frankfurt 1986 ISO 5182. 32 Gröger.

u. Electron – Beam Welding Published for the Welding Institute by McGraw-Hill. 40 DVS-Verlag GmbH. Maßnahmen zur Rationalisierung der Fertigung DVS-Verlag GmbH. Der Gasschweißer Schweißtechnische Praxis Bd. W. Düsseldorf 1991 Meleka. H. Erhöhung des Mechanisierungsgrades beim maschinellen Lichtbogenschweißen durch Schweißkopf positionierung und Fugengeometrieerfassung Dissertation RWTH Aachen. Düsseldorf Marfels. R. A. Heft 9. Handbuch der Schweißverfahren. Teil 1: Lichtbogenschweißverfahren DVS-Fachbuchreihe Bd. DVS-Verlag GmbH. Düsseldorf 1982 Marfels.H. 1989 Marfels. 123. DVS-Verlag GmbH. A.J. G. Düsseldorf 1984 Literature King.76. F. 1977 Kosfeld.I.R. Der Lichtbogenschweißer Schweißtechnische Praxis Bd. Düsseldorf 1989 Matzner. Schneider Vorrichtungen in der Schweißtechnik. M. Einfluß der Sauerstoffreinheit auf die Schneidgeschwindigkeit und die Schneidkosten beim Laserstrahlbrennschneiden DVS Berichte Bd. 1971 .II. S. DVS-Verlag GmbH. W. 743-744 Killing. 1987. W.223 Wirtschaftliches Schneiden von Baustahlblechen mit Luft-Plasma von 10A bis 70A Metallhandwerk und Technik. Qualitätssteigerung beim spritzerarmen MAGM-Impulslichtbogenschweißen durch Regelung der Prozeßgrößen – Schweißtechnische Forschungsberichte Bd. Schweißverfahren DVS-Bericht Band 105 KUKA Firmenprospekt Laser Focus Annual Economic Survey – 1989 Mair.

L. Gatlinburg. May 1982 Meyer. Laserstrahltechnologien in der Schweißtechnik Fachbuchreihe Schweißtechnik. Bd. u. Bödecker Festkörperlaser im kW-Betrieb Industrie Anzeiger 51/1988 Müller. Fachkunde des Widerstandsschweißens Girardet-Verlag. Wolff Handbuch des Unterpulverschweißens Fachbuchreihe Schweißtechnik Bd. E. Werkstoffe zum Korrosionsschutz DVS-Bericht Band 105 Rasche. Rosenthal u.I.. F. H. F.W. Krebs UP-Formschweißen mit Bandelektrode Oerlikon-Schweißmitteilungen März 1988 N. USA. G. V. D. Fraser Laser welding of structural alloys Proceedings of International Conference on Welding Technology for Energy Applications.63 Neff. A. Winter u.M. P.A.N. Moon u.. 86. u. Messer-Griesheim Literature Metzbower. DVS-Verlag GmbH. Essen 1969 Plasma-Technik AG Plasma Spraying Technique Wohlen (Schweiz) 1974 Rabensteiner. . S. Ornig Neue Verfahren zum Schweißplattieren dickwandiger Stahlbleche und -behälter Schweißtechnik Berlin 7/74 Nies.E. H. K. T. – Das neue MAG-Hochleistungs-Schweißverfahren Firmenprospekt.. 1989 Ortmann. Scherl. L.W. Tn.224 N. R. C. Werkstoffe zum Verschleißschutz DVS-Bericht Band 105 Pfeifer. P.N. H.

55-58 Ruckdeschel. Klaus Laser: Grundlagen. u. Industrielle Anwendungen von Festkörperlasern Laser und Optoelektronik. Aug.225 Neuere Entwicklungen beim Plasmaschneiden Trennen und Fügen. K. Berlin 1985 Schiller. Elektronenstrahltechnologie Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. Der Schweißlichtbogen – ein technologisches Werkzeug VEB Verlag Technik. P. W. Thornton High Deposition Rate Submerged-Arc Welding Welding Review. Heft 15. Ding Effect Of Plasma Spraywelding Technology On Dilution Wuhan (China) 1985 Tradowsky. Kamprath-Reihe Technik Literature . S. Handbuch der Schweißtechnik. P. 1989 Tong S. Ludewig Hochleistungs-Festkörperlaser Laser und Optoelektronik. 1989 Seiler. u. Plasmaheißdraht-Auftragschweißen – Ein neues Plattierungsverfahren DVS-Bericht Band 23/1972 Ruge. 2/1988 Schellhase. 2/1988 Schultz. C. H. 1977 Schmidt. 1985. J. M. S.E. Stuttgart. Elektronenstrahlschweißen DVS-Verlag. Basisanwendungen.S. Verfahren und Fertigung Springer-Verlag. H. Düsseldorf. Z. 96 (1988) 7-8 SOUDOMETAL Firmenprospekt Taylor D. II. u. Schweißen mit YAG-Laser Feinwerktechnik & Messtechnik. Bd. et al. Technik. Berlin Heidelberg New York 1980 Schäfer.

W. Recent Trends in Low Current Airplasma Cutting Welding International 55. 35-43 . H. S.226 Vogel-Uerlag Würzburg 1988 Literature Wahl. 1987. Auftragschweißen – Standzeitverlängerung durch gezielten Werkstoffeinsatz und optimale Schweißverfahren Schweißen und Schneiden 6/79 Yamamoto.

U. Dilthey 2005 . –Ing. Dr.ISF – Welding and Joining Institute RWTH – Aachen University Lecture Notes Welding Technology 2 Welding Metallurgy Prof.

10. 3. 2.Table of Contents Chapter 1. 9. Subject Weldability of Metals TTT . 6.Diagrams Residual Stresses Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels Welding High Alloy Steels Welding of Cast Materials Welding of Aluminium Welding Defects Testing of Welded Joints Page 3 8 21 31 44 70 89 96 108 126 . 7. 8. 4. 5.

1. Weldability of Metals

1. Weldability of Metals DIN 8580 and DIN 8595 classify welding into production technique main group 4 "Joining“, group 3.6 "Joining by welding“, Figure 1.1.


Figure 1.1

Weldability of a component is determined by three outer features according to DIN 8528, Part 1. This also indicates whether a given joining job can be done by welding, Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2

1. Weldability of Metals

5 Material influence on weldability, i.e. welding suitability, can be detailed for a better understanding in three subdefinitions, Figure 1.3.

The chemical composition of a material and also its metallurgical properties are mainly set during its production, Figure 1.4. They have a very strong influence on the physical characteristics of the material. Process steps on steel manufacturing, shown in Figure 1.4, are the essential steps on the way to a processible and usable material. During manufacture, the requested chemical composition (e.g. by alloying) and metallurgical properties (e.g. type of teeming) of the steel are obtained. Figure 1.4

Another modification of the material beha viour takes place during subsequent treatment, where the raw material is rolled to processible semi-finished goods, e.g. like strips, plates, bars, profiles, etc.. With the rolling process, materialtypical transformation processes, hardening and precipitation processes are used to adjust an optimised material characteristics Figure 1.3

(see chapter 2).

1. Weldability of Metals


A survey from quality point of view about the influence of the most important alloy elements to some mechanical and metallurgical properties is shown in Figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5

Figure 1.6 depicts the decisive importance of the carbon content to suitability of fusion welding of mild steels. A guide number of flawless fusion weldability is a carbon content of C < 0,22 %. with higher C contents, there is a danger of hardening, and welding becomes only possible by observing special precautions (e.g. pre- and post-weld heat treatment). Figure 1.6

1. Weldability of Metals


In addition to material beha viour, weldability is also essentially determined through the design of a component. The influence of the design is designated as welding safety, Figure 1.7.

Figure 1.7

The influence of the manufacturing process to weldability is called welding possibility, Figure 1.8. For example, a preand post-weld heat

treatment is not always possible, or grinding the weld surface before welding the

subsequent pass cannot be carried out (na rrow gap welding). Figure 1.8

2. TTT - Diagrams

2. TTT – Diagrams


An essential feature of low alloyed ferrous materials is the crystallographic transformation of the body-centred cubic lattice which is stable at room temperature (α-iron, ferritic structure) to the facecentred cubic lattice (γ-iron, austenitic structure), Figure 2.1. The temperature, where this transformation occurs, is not constant but depends on factors like alloy content, crystalline structure, tensional status, heating and cooling rate, dwell times, etc.. In order to be able to understand the basic processes it is necessary to have a look at the basic processes occuring in an idealized binary system. Figure 2.2 shows the state of a binary system with complete solubility in the liquid and solid state. If the melting of the L1 alloy is cooling down, the first crystals of the composition c1 are formed with reaching the temperature T1. These crystals are depicted as mixed crystal α, since they consist of a compound of the components A (80%) and of B (20%). Further, a melting with the composition c0 is present at the temperature T1. With dropping temperature, the remaining melt is enriched with component B,
Temperature T TsA T1 T2 1 2 5 So L1 S L1

α -Iron body-centered

γ -Iron face-centered

Lattice constant 0.286 nm at room temperature

Lattice constant 0.364 nm at 900 ° C

Figure 2.1

3 4 Li TsB Temperature T

following the course of line Li (liquidus line, up to point 4). In parallel, always new and B richer α-mixed crystals are forming along the connection line So (solidus line, points 1, 2, 5). The dis-

α - ss



A (Ni)






Concentration c

B (Cu)

Time t

Figure 2.2

Transformation behaviour of carbon containing iron in the equilibrium condition is described by the stable phase diagram iron-graphite (Fe-C). On account of the eutectic reaction. If an alloy of the composition L2 solidifies. the temperature of the alloy remains constant up to the completed transformation (critical point) (Figure 2. This means that the melt at a constant temperature Te dissociates in A and B.3. there is a metastable phase diagram iron cementite (Fe-Fe3C). In addition to the stable system Fe-C which is specific for an equilibrium-close cooling. . The two liquidus lines Li cut in point e which is also designated as the eutectic point.2).). Figure 2. a purely eutectic structure results. If an alloy of free composition solidifies according to Figure 2.cdr c1 ce Concentration c B Time t You can find further information on transformation behaviour in relevant specialist literature. carbon precipitates as graphite in accord with the stable system Fe-C. no mixed crystal will be formed of A and B. So Te S+B 3 4 A+E E B+E A br-eI-02-03. The alloy L1 will consist of a compound of alloy A and eutectic alloy E in the solid state.3 The definite use of the principles occurs in the iron-iron carbide diagram. This is the temperature (Te) of the eutectic transformation: S → A+B (T = Te = const.2. TTT – Diagrams 10 tribution of the components A and B in the solidified structure is homogeneous since concentration differences of the precipitated mixed crystals are balanced by diffusion processes. Eutectic L1 TsA S 2’ 1 TsB Li Li L2 L1 L2 structures a are normally fine-grained and show characteristic between the orientation Temperature T 2 S+A constituents.3 If two components are completely insoluble in the solid state. the eutectic line must be cut. The isotherm Te is the eutectic line. The other basic case of complete solubility of two components in the liquid state and of complete insolubility in the solid state shows Figure 2. During a slow cooling.

carbon precipitates as cementite in agreement with the metastable system (Fe-Fe3C). Figure 2. 1392 ° C: A4.solid solution melt melt + graphite and graphite during heat treatment of carbon rich alloys.4. However. solid sol.67 mass%. Important transition points of the commercially more important metastable phase diagram are: - 1536 ° C: solidification temperature (melting point) δ-iron. Per definition. 911 ° C: A3. In accordance with the carbon content of Fe3C.2. the stable system is shown by a dashed.point (perlite point). the character r = refroidissement is additionally used. 723 ° C: A1. Fe3C (cementite) melt + austenite Temperature ° C austenite melt + cementite austenite + graphite austenite + cementite austenite + ferrite ferrite perlite ferrite + graphite ferrite + cementite stable equilibrium metastable equilibrium br-eI-02-04.iron. it is fundamentally valid that the formation of cementite is encouraged with increasing cooling rate and decreasing carbon content.iron. By definition. cementite and graphite can be present in steel together or the cementite can decompose to iron δ− melt + δ . In a double diagram.chauffage. the metastable by a solid line. If the transition points are determined by cooling curves.arrêt (stop point) and distinguished by subjacent indexes. According to convention. TTT – Diagrams 11 while during accelerated cooling. cementite is formed at a molar content of 25%.4 The metastable phase diagram is limited by the formation of cementite with a carbon content of 6. the transition points of pure iron are marked with the character A . with carbon containing iron: - ledeburite .cdr Mass % of Carbon Stable and Metastable Iron-Carbon-Diagram Figure 2. what corresponds to technical conditions. δ −+γ− solid sol. iron carbide is designated as a structure constituent with cementite although its stoichiometric composition is identical (Fe3C). The strict stoichiometry of the formed carbide phase can be read off at the top X-coordinate of the molar carbon content.point non-magnetic α.point γ. The solid solutions in the phase fields are designated by Greek characters. Heat-up curves get the supplement c .

Below 723° C. If an alloy solidifies with less than 0. the eutectic phase called Ledeburite precipitates from cementite with 6.and δ-phases are cubic body-centered (CBC lattice) and γ-phase is cubic facecentered (CFC lattice). Alloys with less than 4.3 mass% C coming from primary austenite and Ledeburite are called hypereutectic. the most important terms and transformations should be explained more closely as a case of the metastable system.51% C) and δ-ferrite (0. α. with more than 4. With a temperature of 1147° C and a carbon concentration of 4.67% C and saturated γ-solid solutions with 2. a peritectic one in point I. and an eutectoidic transformation in point S. Figure 2. which consists of α-solid solution and cementite. The most important distinguished feature of the three described phases is their lattice structure. As mentioned before. In accordance with the peritectic transformation at 1493° C.8% (hypoeutectoidic alloys). The transformation of the γ-solid solution takes place at lower temperatures. a low-carbon α-iron (pre-eutectoidic ferrite) and a fine-lamellar solid solution (perlite) precipitate with falling temperature.3 mass%. . The transformation mechanisms explained in the previous sections can be found in the binary system iron-iron carbide almost without exception. Especially iron cast materials solidify due to their increased silicon contents according to the stable system.2.8% (hypereutectoidic alloys) secondary cementite and perlite are formed out of austenite.3 mass% C coming from primary austenite and Ledeburite are called hypoeutectic.1. From γ-iron with C-contents below 0. tertiary cementite precipitates out of the α-iron because of falling carbon solubility. There is an eutectic transformation in point C. The binary system iron-graphite can be stabilized by an addition of silicon so that a precipitation of graphite also occurs with increased solidification velocity. melt (0. With carbon contents above 0. In the following.06% C.10% C) decompose to a γ-solid solution (austenite). TTT – Diagrams 12 The corners of the phase fields are designated by continuous roman capital letters. the system iron-iron carbide is a more important phase diagram for technical use and also for welding techniques. a δ-solid solution is formed below the solidus line A-B (δ-ferrite).51 mass percent of carbon.

The indices b br-eI-02-05. an about 100 times higher carbon solubility of austenite (max. diffusion speed in γ-iron is always at least 100 times slower than in α-iron because of the tighter packing of the γ-lattice. TTT – Diagrams 13 Different carbon solubility of solid solutions also results from lattice structures. Figure 2. i. Although the cubic face-centred lattice of austenite has a higher packing density than the cubic body-centred lattice. Unalloyed steels used in industry are multi-component systems of iron and carbon with alloying elements as manganese.e. Hence. In contrast to the binary system Fe-C. carbon is embedded between the iron atoms. 2. chromium. Figure 2. During precipitation. 0.02% C for α-iron) is the result. For the transformation of non.5 shows a schematic cut through the three phase system Fe-M-C.cdr and e mean the beginning Description of the Terms Ac1b.2. is the three phase system Ac3 Fe-M-C characterised by a temperature interval in the Ac1e three-phase field α + γ + M3C. α-iron forms in the solid phase through an eutectoidic transformation of austenite (γ → α + Fe3C). Ac3 and the end of transformation. However. this types of solid solutions are also named interstitial solid solution.5 . nickel and silicon.06% C) in comparison with the ferritic phase (max.and δ-iron show the same lattice structure and properties. the void is bigger to disperse the carbon atom. The three above mentioned phases dissolve carbon interstitially. The beginning of the transformation of α + M3C to γ is marked by Aclb. there is also a difference between these phases.and low-alloyed steels. Principally the equilibrium diagram Fe-C applies also to such multi-component systems. While γ-iron develops of a direct decomposition of the melt (S → δ). Therefore. although this δ-phase has a special importance for weldability of high alloyed steels. mixed carbides of the general composition M3C develop. is the transformation of δferrite of lower importance. the end by Acle. Although α. Ac1e.

However. the border to a homogeneous austenite is passed. the concentration differences are balanced by diffusion.6 during isothermal austenitizing shows Figure ASTM4. 800° C. where a temperature change is not carried out close to the equilibrium. During sufficiently long annealing times.6. representation of the transformation processes TTA Diagram for Isothermal Austenitization Figure 2.cdr © ISF 2002 austenite grain size (to ASTM and/or in µm) can here simultaneously be observed with longer annealing times. TTT – Diagrams 14 The described equilibrium diagrams apply only to low heating and cooling rates. higher heating and cooling rates are present during welding. s but A at different heating br-eI-02-06. low carbon containing austenite is formed in areas.7 . The struc° C ture transformations during heating and cooling are described by transformation diagrams. and carbon-rich austenite is formed in areas during transformation.2.g. Inhomogeneous austenite means both. where carbon was present before transformation. consequently other structure types develop in the heat affected zone (HAZ) and in the weld metal. where ferrite was present before transformation.cdr and/or cooling rates. A growing of the 20µm 20µm Temperature Time br-er02-07. Figure 2. L=7µm 2. L=80µm ASTM11. This figure must be read exclusively along the time axis! It can be recognised that several transformations during isothermal austenitizing occur with e.

a time pattern was added to the pattern of the heating curves. This diagram must only be read along the sloping lines of the same heating rate.9 shows the different Ac1e Ac1b Ac3 time-temperature subsequent cooling passes during austenitizing and down.8 shows the relation between the TTA and the Fe-C diagram.7. TTT – Diagrams 15 The influence of heating rate on austenitizing is shown in Figure 2.cdr quenching out of the area Heating and Cooling Behaviour With Several Heat Treatments of the austenite is carried out into the area of the me- Figure 2. Figure 2. both with different grain size classes to ASTM.cdr Dependence Between TTA-Diagram and the Fe-M-C System During cooling down.9 . : During continuous a Figure 2. To elucidate the grain coarsening during austenitizing. two microstructure photographs are shown. 2. : During isothermal control a temperature br-eI-02-09. br-eI-02-08.8 Ac3 temperature continuous Ac1e control cooling is carried out with a constant cooling rate out of the area of the homogene- Ac1b isothermal ous and stable austenite down to room temperature. Figure 2. It's obvious that the Fe-C diagram is only valid for infinite long dwell times and that the TTA diagram applies only for one individual alloy. two different ways of heat control can be distinguished: 1. The heating period is composed of a continuous and an isothermal section.2. For better readability.

The lines which limit the area to the right mark the completion of the formation of the respective structure. resulting in formation of bainitic and martensitic structures with hardness and strength values which are much higher than those of ferrite and perlite. but an increased toughness. the corresponding share of martensite is spontanically formed. followed by an isothermal holding until all transformation processes are completed. Diffusion is impeded under lower temperature.10 shows the time-temperature diagram of a isothermal transformation of the mild steel Ck 45. the completion of the ferrite formation is not determined.10 rite.2. marked with an A. The lines which limit the area to the left mark the beginning of the formation of the respective structure. Such structures have a lower hardness and strength. which are diffusion controlled. Read such diagrams only along the time-axis! Below the Ac1b line in this figure. : During isothermal temperature control a quenching out of the area of the austenite is carried out into the area of the metastable austenite (and/or into the area of martensite). perlite. Transformations to ferrite and perlite. P. Figure 2. but the start of the perlite formation. The proportion of the formed martensite does not depend on time. The right . The areas marked with F. as diffusion is easier. B. 16 2. During quenching to holding temperature. Because the ferrite formation is followed by the perlite formation. take place with elevated temperatures. The present rest austenite transforms to Bainite with sufficient holding time. Bainite and martensite are formed. und M represent areas where ferFigure 2. TTT – Diagrams the area of the homogeneous and stable austenite down to room temperature. After transformation will be cooled down to room temperature. there is the area of the metastable austenite.

at the end of each curve.12 this carbon content. TTT – Diagrams 17 detail of the figure shows the present structure components after completed transformation and the resulting hardness at room temperature. a pre- . there is the hardness value of the structure at room temperature.13. A completely transformation Figure 2. The hypereutectoid steel C 100 behaves completely different. The lines. In addition. Figure 2.11 depicts the graphic representation of the TTT diagram. which are limiting the individual areas. the amount of the formed structure is indicated in per cent. also depict the beginning and the end of the respective transformation. The diagram must be read along the drawn cooling passes.2. Figure 2. Here you can see that all transformation processes are strongly postponed in relation to the mild steel. Figure 2. With Figure 2.5 seconds. Close to the cooling curves. compared with 0. the completely diffusion controlled transformation processes of the perlite area are postponed to clearly longer times. This is the TTT diagram for continuous cooling of the steel Ck 15.4 seconds of Ck 15.12 shows the TTT diagram of an alloyed steel containing approximately the same content of carbon as the steel Ck 15.11 marte nsitic is carried out up to a cooling time of about 1. which is more important for welding techniques.

3).2.11 "austeniti zing temperature“ means the temperature. provided that the cooling rate is sufficiently high.9 to 2. the steel gains the highest hardness and strength.13 called critical cooling rate . Don’t mix up this temperature with the AC3 temperature. The slowest cooling rate where such a transformation happens.14 Figure 2.15 . it embrittles. but loses its toughness. The term of the figures 2. is Figure 2. In addition you can see that only martensite is formed from the austenite. With this type of transformation. Figure 2. TTT – Diagrams 18 eutectoid ferrite formation cannot still be carried out (see also Figure 2. where the workpiece transforms to an auste nitic microstructure in the course of a heat treatment. a formation of any other microstructure is completely depressed. where above it there is only pure auste nite.

Due to the higher hardening temperature. The influence of an increased austenitizing temperature on transformation beha viour shows Figure 2. the "noses" in the TTT diagram are shifted to longer times.15. the maximum Bainite Figure 2.16 with higher austenitizing temperature the start of Bainite formation together with the drop of the martensite proportion is clearly shifted to longer times. As a result.6 and 2. . the grain size of the austenite is higher (see Figure 2. TTT – Diagrams 19 Figure 2. This grain growth leads to an extension of the diffusion lengths which must be passed during the transformation.17 proportion is increased from about 45 to 75%.2. You can see that Figure 2.7).14 shows schematically how the TTT diagram is modified by the chemical composition of the steel. As Bainite formation is not so much impeded by the coarse austenite grain as with the completely diffusion controlled processes of ferrite and perlite formation. The lower part of the figure shows the proportion of formed martensite and Bainite depending on cooling time.

18 . the welding technique uses special diagrams. higher austenitizing temperatures (basically between 950° and 1350°C) and shorter a usteniti zing times. You find two examples in Figures 2. the so called Welding -TTT-diagrams. They are recorded following the welding temperature cycle with both. Figure 2.2.17. Figure 2. TTT – Diagrams 20 Due to the strong influence of the austenitizing temperature to the transformation behaviour of steel.16 and 2.18 proves that the iron-carbon diagram was developed as an equilibrium diagram for infinite long cooling time and that a TTT diagram applies always only for one alloy.

3. Residual Stresses .

fatigue strain thermal e.g. case hardening. It is rather based on the three-dimensional extension of the stress conditions.cdr © ISF 2002 out residual stresses of the 1 type.1 less residual stresses. In a propressure pressure tension duced workpiece. partial-plastic deformation of notched bars or close to inclusions. grinding disk Figure 3. 2. and 3. production-. H-diffusion under electro-chemical corrosion separating residual stresses due to machining joining residual stresses due to welding plating layer residual stresses grain causing stresses of the 2 nd changing material characteristics induction hardening..2 stresses in a transition-free .3. bring br-eI-03-02e. Such a workpiece shows in service more or weld br-eI-03-01e.2 details the causes of origin. Based on this definition.cdr © ISF 2002 Various Reasons of Residual Stress Development Figure 3. superimpose within a forming deforming residual stresses due to inhomogenuous deformationanisotropy relevant material production wear e. grid defects mechanical e. which build-up around dislocations and other lattice imperfections (σIII). and wearcaused residual stresses are overlaying in such a way that a certain condition of residual stresses is created.. polyphase systems.3 defines residual stresses of 1. thermal residual stresses around several grains.4 shows a typical distribution of residual stresses. and it will never be stress-free! Figure 3. Residual Stresses 22 The emergence of residual stresses can be of very different nature. The formation of Development of Residual Stresses residual Figure 3.1. thermal residual stresses due to operational temperatur fields chemical e. FigAnalysis of Residual Stress Development ure 3. nitriding type and if spreading st e. Residual stresses. This grading is independent from the origin of the residual stresses.g. material. non-metallic inclusions. see three tension examples in Figure 3.g.g. type.g.

Not before 100 seconds have elapsed is the temperature across the cylinder's cross section again tension s General Definition of the Term ‘Residual Stresses’ s III s II + Residual stresses of the I. and 3.4 1000 °C 900 1000 °C 750 0s 10 s 5s 1s 800 2 3 Temperature 15 s 700 600 500 20 s 1 35 mm diameter water cooling 25 s Figure 3.3. When interfering with this equilibrium. type are in an equilibrium across a sufficient number of grains. Internal forces related to residual stresses of I. type are almost homogenuous across larger material areas (several grains). macroscopic dimension changes may develop. type are in an equilibrium with view to any cross-sectional plane throughout the complete body.5 figure). At the beginning of cooling.cdr © ISF 2002 Definition of Residual Stresses Definition of Residual Stresses of I.5 Radius 7 10. the cylinder edge starts shrinking faster than the core (upper 500 250 1 edge 2 50 % radius 3 core MS 35 s 400 300 200 45 s 53 s 0 -2 10 68 s 10-1 10-0 101 102 Cooling time 103 s 104 100 280 s 0 17. the edge of the cylinder cools down faster than the core. x 0 Residual stresses of the III.5. Internal forces and torques related to residual stresses of the III. type. type are almost homogenuous across small material areas (one grain or grain area). the internal torques related to the residual stresses with reference to each axis disappear.5 © ISF 2002 mm 17.5 7 3. type are in an equilibrium across small areas (sufficiently large part of a grain). Figure 3.. grain boundaries sE = s I + sII sI sII sIII br-er03-04e.5 0 3. type are inhomogenuous across smallest material areas (some atomic distances).6. sI x 0 - y Residual stresses of the II. Residual Stresses 23 steel cylinder is shown in Figures 3.3 homogeneous.cdr 14 10.. Internal forces and torques related to residual stresses of the II. Type Figure 3. During water quenching of the homogeneous heated cylinder.5 shows the T-tcurve of three different measurement points in the cylinder. When interfering with this equilibrium. Temperature Figure 3. and III.5 br-eI-03-05e.6 shows the results of quenching on the stress condition in the cylinder. When interfering with force and torque equilibrium of bodies under residual stresses of the I.5 Temperature in a Cylinder During Water Cooling . macroscopic dimension changes do not develop. The left part of Figure 3. Through the stabilising effect of the cylinder core.cdr + sIII < < < = residual stresses between several grains = residual stresses in a single grain = residual stresses in a point © ISF 2002 br-er03-03e. In addition. macroscopic dimension changes always develop. II.

Residual Stresses 24 tensile stress builds up at the edge areas while the core is exposed to pressure stress. When cooling is completed.3. the cooling of the rod starts. Along the line D-E the rod is plastically deformed due to the influence of the counter members beeing in tension. At the point E the system has cooled down to its initial temperature. the plastically stretched edge now supports the unstressed core.6 Figure 3.cdr © ISF 2002 Volume Changes During Cooling Residual Stress Development by Warming the Central Rod Figure 3. so that pressurestresses are present in the edge areas and tensile residual stresses in the core. because pressure stresses have exceeded the yielding point. Along the line B-C the rod is plastically deformed. edge and core are on the same temperature level. then stress increase in the centre rod will be in parallel . the inner rod is exposed to pressure stress (line A-B).7 with the 3-rod model. This point represents the remaining residual stress condition of this construction. tension pressure 300 N/mm² E D tension 200 Stresses in the central rod Volume differences between edge and core at start of cooling 100 tension pressure 0 A tension Compensation of volume differences by plastic deformation and stresses at start of cooling -100 C pressure tension -200 B B' pressure -300 0 © ISF 2002 br-er03-06e. A warming of the middle rod causes at first an elastic expansion of the outer rods. At point C.7 These changes are principally shown once again in Figure 3. it is exposed to tensile stress due to shrinking. If heating is stopped before point C is reached and cooled down to the initial temperature. Resulting volume differences between core and edge are balanced by elastic and plastic deformations.cdr Compensation of volume differences by plastic deformation and stresses at end of cooling 200 400 °C 600 Temperature of the central rod br-er03-07e.

tensile stresses develop along and crosswise to the seam. Transition stresses: Transitions in the ferrite and perlite stage cause normally only residual stresses. This overlap of the different mechanisms makes a forecast of the remaining residual stress condition difficult. 2.6). because within this temperature range the yield strength of the steel is so low that generated stresses can be undone by plastic deformations.3. Starting with point B. In the case of a homogenous transition.. homogenuous transformation 4. the core shows tensile stresses in cold condition (see also Figure 3. In contrast. +s +y +s +y inhomogenuous transformation -x +x -x +x -s -y br-er03-08. the cfc lattice has a higher density. If the high-temperature limit of elasticity is exceeded due to buildup stress differences. Caused by expansion restriction of the colder areas at the edge of the weld and base material . Generally these mechanisms cannot be separated accurately from each other. the same residual stress condition is present as in a case of heating up to a temperature above 600°C. A transition of the austenite causes an increase in volume (transition cfc in cbc.cdr -s -y © ISF 2002 Stress Distributions and Superpositions Perpendicular to Welded Joint Figure 3. pressure stresses will be present at the weld surface after cooling. In this case. Shrinking stresses: these are stresses formed through uniform cooling of the seam. Overlap options of case 1. Quenching stresses -x +x +x -s -y show tensile stresses after cooling. additional volume increase through lattice deformation). This is not the case with transitions in the Bainite and martensite stage.8 divides the development of residual stresses in welded seams in three different mechanisms. Figure 3. If the transition of +x +y -x the edge areas happens earlier than the transition of the slower cooling core. thus the residual stress condition of a weld will represent an overlap of the cases as shown in the 3rd figure. Shrinking stresses +s +y 2. Residual Stresses 25 with the elastic areas. the weld will consequently unfold pressure stresses. Transformation stresses -x -y 1. and 3. the surface of the weld cools down faster than the core areas.8 . plastic deformations of the core area may be present similar to quenching (see above: quenching stresses). Quenching stresses: If cooling is not homogenous. the weld surface will 3.

9 shows the building-up of residual Seam Temperature distribution 1. cut C-C D D M M' 4. the weld metal shows tensile stresses. because molten metal cannot transmit forces at the weldpool.10 shows how much residual stresses are influenced by constraining effects of adjacent material. cut D-D DT = 0 through welding heat but are supported by residual stresses areas which are not so close to the seam. areas away from the joint tensile stress. Areas close to the joint expand C C 3. 2. 4. At the weldpool A A 2. the seam area is stress-free (cut A-A). the adjacent areas compression stresses.cdr © ISF 2002 Shrinking Stresses in a Firmly Clamped Plate . The resulting stress in the presented case is calculated according to Hooke: σ= ε·E Elongation ε is calculated as ∆ l/a (∆ l is the length change due to shrinking).cdr Formation of Residual Stresses Caused by Welding Heat sion stress. a = 100 mm a = 150 mm a = 200 mm a = 250 mm a = 300 mm s = 800 N/mm² s = 530 N/mm² s = 400 N/mm² s = 300 N/mm² s = 270 N/mm² br-er03-10e. there are no residual stresses. metal is liquid.3. With conFigure 3. This figure considers only shrinking residual stresses. 1 15 mm 3 15 mm material S235JR (St 37) 103 a a Figure 3. Thus. 3. areas close to the joint show compres© ISF 2002 br-er03-09e. a residual stress condition is recognised as shown in the lower right figure.7. At this point. 5.10 1. In cut D-D is the temperature completely balanced. Residual Stresses 26 Figure 3. In cut C-C the already solidified weld metal starts to shrink and is supported by Figure 3.9 areas close to the seam. cutt B-B tension weldpool B area of plastic deformations B the highest temperature of the welding cycle pressure can be found (cut B-B). Before application of welding heat. cut A-A x DT ~ 0 stress-free Stress distribution sX stresses crosswise to a welded seam in analogy to the 3-rod model of Figure 3.

. welding sample 300 x 10 x 30 (70.3. Effects of transition on cooling can be estimated from Figure 3.cdr 103 104 s 105 br-er03-11e. It is clear that a ferritic lattice has a higher volume than an austenitic lattice at the same temperature. A steel which transforms from austenite to one of the ferrite types increases its volume at the critical point.11 Figure 3.5 mm Longitudinal expansion Dl firm clamping fe ste nit ic ste rri tic ste el el force sensor thermo couples links to calculator au 800 1000 N °C 800 Temperature m tra ild ns ste fo el rm w at ith io n 600 14 elektrode Force 400 600 heat affected zone 200 400 force 0 200 Temperature [°C] temperature -200 0 -1 10 100 101 102 Time br-er03-12e.and length-changes of ferritic and austenitic steels are drawn.12. Thermo couples measure the T-t – curve at the weld seam. The lower picture shows the results of such a test. Residual Stresses 27 stant joint volume will shrinking and ∆ l always have the same value. sample welds are carried out in the test device outlined in Figure 3. Thus the elongation ε depends only on the value a. depth 4. the higher are the resulting stresses.cdr © ISF 2002 © ISF 2002 Longitudinal Expansion of Various Steels Force Measurement During Cooling of a Weld Figure 3. This sudden rise in volume can be up to 3% in the case of martensite formation.11. The smaller the a is chosen. a force sensor records the force which tries to bend the samples.140) groove angle 60°. The temperature behaviour at the fusionline as well as the force necessary to hold the sample over the time is plotted. Here curves of temperature.12 To record the effects of this behaviour on the stress condition of the weld.

The repeated increase of the force is based on further shrinking of the ferrite.13 Influence of Material Combination on Residual Stress Distribution in a Weld which part by transition in the heat affected 5°42' zone (HAZ). If an austenitic electrode is welded to a StE 70. These results can be used to determine the longitudinal residual stresses transversal to the joint. With these temperature it can be clearly determined in which part of br-eI-03-13e. transitions occur in the area of the heat affected zone which lead to a decrease of tensile stresses. br-er03-14e. as shown in Figure 3. the transition temperatures and/or temperature areas for the individual zones of the welded joint can be determined. is welded 2°8' 1°51' 140 % Angle change 100 80 60 40 20 f = 1° f = 3° f = 7° f = 13° a=5 a=7 a=9 a = 12. If a high-strength electrode which has a martensitic transition.14 . then there will be pressure residual stresses in the weld metal and tensile residual stresses in the HAZ. With the help of TTT diagrams of base material and welding consumable.3.cdr steel consumable electrode sample shape (V-groove. During welding of austenitic transition-free materials only tensile residual stresses are caused in the welded area according to Figure 3. which is caused by the transition of the austenite.8.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Welding Sequence on Angle Distortion Figure 3. Residual Stresses 28 In the temperature range above 600° C the force sensor registers a tensile force which is caused by the shrinking of the austenite.13. Between 600 and 400° C a large drop in force can be seen. 60°) type of welding position of the HAZ austenitic austenitic S690QL (StE 70) austenitic S690QL (StE 70) high-strength surface weld surface weld surface weld residual stress distribution sL pressure tension data and with the course of 0 © ISF 2002 the curve the force drop is caused by the transition of the welding consumable and in Figure 3.5 to a StE 70.

present rebr-eI-03-15e. The core is released from the force effects and stress-relieved.3.14 .to 2-times the borehole diameter. thus the results are limited residual stresses in the surface area of the workpiece. a crown milling cutter is 45° z t0.cdr © ISF 2002 Residual Stress Determination Using Ring Core Procedure ience of the core is measured. In both cases.cdr c b workpiece © ISF 2002 sidual stresses are released through partial material removal and the resulting deformations are then Figure 3. and conditionally destructive methods. The disadvantage here is that only surface elongations can be measured.16.21 used to mill a ring groove around a three-axes wire strain gauge. the bore depth is 1. the detection of the residual stress distribution Figure 3. the remaining residual stresses will be much lower than in case with firm clamping. the shrinking of the weld will cause an angular distortion of the workpieces.15 Residual Stress Determination Using Bore Hole Procedure measured by wire strain gauges. Figure 3. An essential advantage of the borehole method is the very small material removal. nona WSG section plan destructive.16 .58 a(sa) s1 (z) s2 (z) measurement point br-eI-03-16e. At the time when the resil- D1. Methods to determine residual stresses can be divided into destructive. the diameter of the borehole is only 1 to 5 mm.15 and 3. Residual Stresses 29 If parts to be welded are not fixed. Figures 3. The borehole and ring core method can be considered as conditionally destructive. wire expansion gauge b(sb) 45° c(ec) With the ring core method. If the workpieces can shrink unrestricted in this way.

3. causes thermal processes mechanical deformations surfacetreatment measurement destructive complete partial mechanically .18 shows a surcutting in layers assumption of stress distribution f f 0 x y z measured variable bending deflection f curves reduced curves residual stresses sy sz tzy vey of the completely destructive procedures of residual stress recognition. down pressure stresses tripleaxial independent of smple length sL.17 Figure 3.general application E .cdr © ISF 2002 Methods for Determination of Residual Stresses Figure 3.electrically non-destructive others breaking-up bending deflection ring groove drilling out turning off optical procedures bore hole ultra sonic ring core A E A E A A A A E A E A E A E A E x . sR cutting-in f tear f partial residual stress relief by Dsz drilling e45 eT eL length change eL circumference change eT sL sT sR slitting 0. Residual Stresses 30 across the depth is also possible. biaxial any uniaxial locally different linear. tensile residual stresses on top.46f uniaxial linear symmetrically with reference to rod axis tear f partial residual stress relief by Dsz br-eI-03-18e. because steep strain gradients in the HAZ may cause wrong measurements.18 optical procedures A E A E cam web . The table in Figure 3.further development desired br-eI-03-17e.ray A E A E A E magnetic E E A E E E E A . Both methods are limited in their suitability for measuring welding residual stresses. sT.17 shows a survey of measurement methods for residual stresses and what causes residual stresses to be picked-up when using one of the respective methods.cdr © ISF 2002 Destructive Methods for Determination of Residual Stresses Figure 3.

4. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding .

The temperature-field.1 Structural changes. and 8). heat capacity. So the coarse grain zone occurs in areas of intensely elevated austenitising temperature for example. ductility. 2. the formation of the different structure zones is shown in Figure 4.4. the chemical composition of the weld metal and adjacent base material are also influenced by the processes 3 to 6. which appears around the weld when different welding procedures are used. Figure 4. physical properties like heat extension.1. caused by the heat input (process 1. hardness peaks appear in these areas because of greatly reduced critical cooling rate and the coarse austenite Figure 4. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 32 When welding a workpiece. like melting temperature and interval.3. homogeneity. shear strength. Metallurgical properties are here characterized by e. Based on the binary system. depend greatly on the chemical composition of the material.2 shows the influence of the material properties on the welding process. is shown in Figure 4. 7.g. At the same time. heat extension etc. not only the weld itself.2 . The determining factors on the process presented in this Figure. but also the surrounding base material (HAZ) is influenced by the supplied heat quantity. In addition. structure and texture. Figure 4. influence directly the mechanical properties of the weld.

4 you can see how much the formation of the individual structure zones and the zones of unfavourable mechanical properties can be influenced. It is clearly visible that the carbon content (and also the content of other alloying elements) has a distinct influence on the level of annealing temperatures like e.6 shows areas in the Fe-C diagram of different heat treatment methods. where the worst toughness values are found. With the use of different procedures. Using a three pass technique. which are specifically optimised to achieve special quality. a HAZ of approximately 30 mm width is achieved. coarse-grain Figure 4. e. this post-weld heat treatment is of great importance. Figure 4. These effects can actively be used to the advantage of the material. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding grains. This zone of the weld is the area.4 . Applying an electroslag one pass weld of a 200 mm thick plate.3 calculated mechanical properties to one's choice or to remove negative effects of a welding. the HAZ is reduced to only 8 mm. corrosion resistance against a certain attacking medium. for example to adjust Figure 4.4. Particularly with high-strength fine grained steels and high-alloyed materials.5.g. 33 In Figure 4.g. the differences in the formation of heat affected zones become even clearer as shown in Figure 4.

fo r hardening processes (to be e xplained later).6 decreasing temperatures with increasing C-content.5 Figure 4. predictions about heating-up and cooling-down rates are not possible. Thus the individual heat treatment methods will be explained by their temperature-time- behaviour in the following. 34 It can also be seen that the start of martensite formation (MS-line) is shifted to continuously Figure 4. This is important e.g. Figure 4. As this diagram does not cover the time influence. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding heat treatment or normalising.7 .4. only constant stop- temperatures can be read.

hardening and tempering. Here a coarse grain is formed at a temperature far above A 3 with relatively short periods. and these single processes can be used individually or combined. mally. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 35 Figure 4.8. . In the case of hypereutectoid steels. This condition is the starting point for the following hardening and/or quenching and tempering treatment. The first way is to austenite at a temperature close above A3 for a couple of hours followed by a slow cooling process. the steel is heat treated approximately 30°C above Ac3 until homogeneous auste nite evolves. are TTT-diagrams always read continuously Figure 4.4. austenisation takes place above the A1 temperature. Mixed or isotherlike types The most important heat treatment methods can be divided into sections of annealing. hardness values.8 curves 3 to 6 are not a llowed for this purpose!). (Note: the curves explain running structure mechanisms.4 % C. You can learn from Figure 4. formation of ferrite and perlite. For this purpose. or microstructure distribution. chapter 2). normalised micro-structure). Heating-up should be fast to keep the austenite grain as fine as possible (see TTA-diagram. a coarse grain is unwelcome. In the case of welding. Figure 4. A coarse grain heat treatment is applied to create a grain size as large as possible to improve machining properties.7 shows in the detail to the right a T-t course of coarse grain heat treatment of an alloy containing 0.7 that there are two methods of coarse grain heat treatment. The normalising process is shown in Figure 4.8 shows schematically time-temperature behaviour in a TTT- diagram.9. line 1. The second method is very important to the welding process. To determine t8/5. It is used to achieve a homogeneous ferrite perlite structure. Then air cooling follows. although unavoidable as a consequence of the welding cycle. they must not be used as reading off examples. leading normally to a transformation in the ferrite condition (see Figure 4.

austenisation and homogenisation is carried out also at 30°C above AC3. To ensure a complete transformation to marte nsite.4.8). where perlite formation is suppressed.10 . This can be achieved in practice –for example.9 the Ms-temperature. Figure 4. Figure 4.through stopping a water quenc hing process at a certain temperature and continuing the cooling with a milder cooling medium (oil). Such quenching processes build-up very high thermal stresses which may destroy the workpiece during hardening. The cooling rate during quenching must be high enough to cool down from the auste nite zone directly into the martensite zone without any further phase transitions (curve 2 in Figure 4.8). Also in this case one must watch that the austenite grains remain as small as possible. a subsequent quenc hing follows until the temperature is far below Figure 4. With longer holding on at elevated temperature level.10. but due to a smaller temperature gradient thermal stresses remain on an uncritical level (curves 3 and 4 in Figure 4. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 36 To harden a material. transformations can also be carried through in the bainite area (curves 5 and 6). Thus there are variations of this process.

12 . Here we aim to adjust a soft and suitable micro-structure for machining. Hypereutectic steels have in addition to the lamellar structure of the perlite a austenite + ferrite 700 ferrite + perlite 500 A3 A1 oscillation annealing + / . strength and toughness. a break down of ° C 900 austenite + ferrite Temperature austenite hardening and tempering about 30° C above A3 A3 Temperature martensite takes place. For hypoeutectic steels. As this change causes a very fine microstructure. Ferrite and cementite are formed. while the lamellar structure of the perlite is resolved (in Figure 4. a part of the cementite bonded carbon dissolves during heat treating close below A1. to the right: after soft-annealing).4 br-eI-04-11.8 C-Content % Time Hardening and Tempering Figure 4. With these steels.12 marked by the circles.11 Figure 4. Soft Annealing Figure 4. the remaining cementite lamellas transform with time into balls.cdr 0. this heat treatment leads to very good mechanical properties like e.20 degrees around A 1 or 300 0. During this tempering process. Such a structure is characterised by mostly globular formed cementite particles.4.4 0. to the left: before. this spheroidizing of cementite is achieved by a heat treatment close below A1. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 37 Figure 4. A1 700 ferrite + perlite 500 quenching slow cooling 300 0.g. A hardening is followed by another heat treatment below Ac1. and the bigger ones grow at the expense of the smaller ones (a transformation is carried out beTemperature ° C 900 austenite time dependent on workpiece 10 to 20° C below A1 Temperature cause the surface area is strongly reduced → thermodynamically more favourable condition).cdr cementite network on the grain boundaries.8 C-Content % Time cementite br-eI-04-12.11 shows the quenching and tempering procedure.12 shows the procedure of soft-annealing.

This heat treatment is used to eliminate dislocations which were caused by welding. to improve the toughness of a workpiece. deforming. Stress-relieving works only if present dislocations are able to move. A stress-relieve heat treatment should not cause any other change to properties. transformation etc. plastic structure deformations must be executable in the micro-range.e.13 terial. A temperature the increase is commonly used method to make such deformations possible be- cause the yield strength limit decreases with increasing temperature. The repetition of this process leads to a stepwise spheroidizing of cementite and the frequent transformation avoids a grain coarsening. When the temperature drops below A1 again and is kept about 20°C below until the transformation is completed. i. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 38 Spheroidizing of cementite is achieved by making use of the transformation processes during oscillating around A1.14 .13 shows the principle of a stress-relieve heat treatment. A softannealed microstructure represents frequently the delivery condition of a maFigure 4. Figure 4.4. a re-precipitation of cementite on existing nuclei takes place. so that tempering steels Figure 4. When exceeding A1 a transformation of ferrite to auste nite takes place with a simultaneous solution of a certain amount of carbon according to the binary system Fe C.

14 shows a survey of heat treatments which are important to welding as well as their purposes. during. alFigure 4. Figure 4. A simple heating before welding without additional stopping time lowers the cooling rate according to curve 2. This is only limited by workpiece dimensions/shapes or arising costs. The fastest cooling is achieved with welding without preheating. as well as the Figure 4. analogous to Figure 4.15 shows principally the heat treatments in connection with welding. Figure 4. 39 Figure 4. with addition of a small share of bainite. mainly martensite is formed (curve 1.4. The most important section of the diagram is the kind of heat treatment which accom-panies the welding.16 . and after welding. Heat treatment processes are divided into: before. After welding. hardening).15 most any possible heat treatment can be carried out. The most important processes are e xplained in the follo wing. Normally a stress-relieving or normalizing heat treatment is applied before welding to adjust a proper material condition which for welding.16 represents the influence of different accompanying heat treatments during welding. given within a TTT-diagram. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding are heat treated below tempering temperature. The proportion of martensite is reduced in the forming structure.8.

18. welding starts. The temperature time course during welding with simple preheating is shown in Figure Figure 4.4. If the material is hold at a temperature above MS during welding (curve 3). the cooling of the workpiece starts. curve 4 and 5 ). After removal of the heat source. Another variant of welding with preheating is welding at Figure 4. To explain the temperature-time-behaviours used in the following. The plate is preheated in a period t V . however.17 shows a superposition of all individual influences on the materials as well as the resulting T-Tcourse in the HAZ. then the martensite formation will be completely suppressed (see Figure 4. cooling period tA starts. . A further air cooling is usually carried out. the cooling rate can also be reduced by cove ring with heat insulating materials. Figure 4.8. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 40 level of hardening. When t S is reached. As an example. During a welding time tS a drop of the working temperature TA occurs. The full line represents the resulting temperature-time-behaviour of the HAZ. welding with simple preheating is selected.18 constant working This is temperature.17 4. and its temperature peak overlays the cooling curve of the base material. When the welding is completed.

Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 41 achieved through further warming during welding to avoid a drop of the working temperature. The lower sketch shows a combination of pre. Such materials are heat treated immediately after welding at a temperature between 600 and 700°C.15). Figure 4.20 . see Figure 4.and postheat treatment. if they cool down directly from working temperature.20 shows the T-T course during welding with post-warming (subsequent heat treatment.4. the toughness properties of some steels can be greatly improved. a gas welding torch is normally used for a local preheating.19 is this case (dashed line. In this way. Such a treatment can be carried out very easy.19 (start of martensite formation) and is also held there after welding until a transformation of the austenitised areas has been completed. TA needs not to be above MS) as well as the special case of isothermal welding illustrated. The aim of isothermal welding is to cool down in accordance with curve 3 in Figure 4. Such a treatment is applied to steels which have such a strong tendency to hardening that a cracking in spite of a simple preheating before welding cannot be avoided. During isothermal welding. to suppress martensite formation.16 and in this way. so that a formation Figure 4. In Figure 4. the workpiece is heated up to a working temperature above MS Figure 4.

21. The solid line . Such treatments are used for transformationinert materials. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding of martensite is avoided and welding residual stresses are eliminated simultaneously.4. Subsequent passes were welded without cooling down to a certain temperature. As a result. the root pass is post-heat treated through the same effect. The second pass is welded under a preheat temperature which is already above martensite start temperature. A f a vourable effect of multi-pass welding is the warming of the HAZ of each previous pass above recrystallisation temperature with the corresponding crystallisaFigure 4. During welding of the last pass. 42 Aims of the modified stephardening welding should not be discussed here. The aim of the figure is to show how complicated a heat treatment can become for a material in combination with welding. Figure 4. Figure 4. The root pass was welded without preheating. working temperature increases with the number of passes. The heat which remains in the workpiece preheats the upper layers of the weld.21 represents the T-T course of a point in the HAZ in the first pass.22 shows temperaFigure 4.22 ture distribution during multipass welding. the preheat temperature has reached such a high level that the critical cooling rate will not be surpassed.

preheating to about 160°C . As a rule.23 shows a nomogram where working te mperature and minimum and maximum heat input for some steels can be interpreted. In addition. depending on carbon equivalent and wall thickness. Above this area.5 and 6 kJ/cm . Figure 4. area called be soaking must treated with a hydrogen relieve annealing. residual stress relieving between 530 and 600°C.4. welding of the next pass will not be carried out before the previous pass has cooled down to a certain temperature (keeping the interpass temperature).g.after welding. welding is not carried out to Figure 4. If e. The coarse grain zone with its unfavourable mechanical properties is only present in the HAZ of the last layer.minimum heat input between 5.22. Heat Treatment and its Function During Welding 43 tion effects in the HAZ. the following data can be found: . Figure 4. the water quenched and tempered fine grain structural steel S690QL of 40 mm wall thickness is welded. To achieve optimum mechanical values. the same welding conditions should be applied for all passes and prescribed t8/5 – times must be kept. Steels which are placed in the hatched area. a stress relieve annealing must be carried out. the workpiece will not heat up to excessively high temperatures. a post-weld heat treatment is not required. Below this area.maximum heat input about 22 kJ/cm .23 .

Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels .5.

alloyed special steels © ISF 2004 br-er05-01. Stainless steels are grades of steel with a mass fraction of chromium of at least 10.unalloyed special steels .2 % of carbon. 10020 (July 2000). Other alloyed steels are steel grades which do not comply with the definition of stainless steels and where one alloying element exceeds the limit value indicated in Figure 5.00)].cdr © ISF 2004 Boundary between unalloyed and alloyed steels Figure 5.80% and the 70%-rule does not apply. B Bi Cr La Co cobalt Cu copper lanthanides (rated individually) Mn manganese Mo molybdenum Nb niobium Ni nickel Pb lead Se selenium Si Te Ti V W silicon tellurium titanium vanadium tungsten Zr zirconium Others (with the exception of carbon. 2 0 S F I © 4 In the European Standard DIN EN Definition of the term “steel” Steel is a material with a mass fraction if iron which is higher than of every other element.5.2 .2. Figure 5. ist carbon content is. 2% is the common boundary between steel and cast iron [DIN EN 10020 (07. br-er05-02. the designations (main symbols) for the classification of steels are standardised. sulphur. stainless and other alloyed steels. moreover. in general.cdr Definition for the classification of steels Figure 5.unalloyed quality steels .2. alloyed steels chemical composition and the main quality classes. also other elements. lower than 2% and steel contains. but.alloyed quality steels . phosphorus.1 In accordance with the chemical composition the steel grades are classified into Al Determined element aluminium boron bismuth chromium limit value Mass fraction in % unalloyed. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 45 t o e D i f n e d f n s i B r g t a l e h S s g n u e t l i E r h a m e c d t l S ä h Z s a i n c m e u s n m e g t u z a n d e r c n h r i t o e t S s n l ä d h ä t i l h e r S g l e a n d e r ä t i l h e r S g l e r g t i h l u t Q a ä s i e c h r o g n u t l i e E e ä S s n l r d t ü p g h u a c H u g n i l e r s k a s t ä u e Q a l i d E h e h l e l r g it l s h d E e ä t b e r 0 d 5 c 1 . l l Classification in accordance with the main quality class: · unalloyed steels · stainless steels · other. A limited number of chromium steels might contain a carbon content which is higher than 2%. alloyed steels .5 % and a maximum of 1. the limit value us 1. The mass fractions of the individual elements in unalloyed steels do not achieve the limit values which are indicated in Figure 5. however.1 shows the definition of the term „steel“ and the classification of the steel grades in accordance with their Classification in accordance with the chemical composition: l unalloyed steels stainless steels other. nitrogen) (Each) a) If just the highest value has been determined for mangenese.

. particularly with regard to non-metal inclusions. to the toughness.2 % of carbon. stainless and other alloyed steels. In most cases these steels are intended for tempering and surface hardening. As regards unalloyed steels a distinction is made between unalloyed quality steels and unalloyed high-grade steels. as. They are further classified in accordance with the nickel content and the main characteristics: corrosion resistance. Regarding unalloyed quality steels. Those steels are generally not intended for tempering or surface hardening. to toughness. Stainless steels have a chromium mass fraction of at least 10. A more precise setting of the chemical composition and special diligence during the manufacturing and monitoring process guarantee better properties.5. The alloyed high-grade steels comprise steel grades which have improved properties through precise setting of their chemical composition and also through special manufacturing and control conditions. the steels are classified in accordance with their main characteristics and main application properties into unalloyed. heat resistance and creep resistance. prevailing demands apply. for example. Special demands are put on the alloyed quality steels. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 46 As far as the main quality classes are concerned. grain size and/or forming properties. Other alloyed steels are classified into alloyed quality steels and alloyed high-grade steels. for example. the grain size and/or the forming properties. Unalloyed high-grade steels are characterised by a higher degree of purity than unalloyed quality steels.5 % and maximally 1.

M660-50D © ISF 2004 l l l br-er05-03. S235JR. E360 B = Reinforcing steels e.g.g.3 .g. L360QB E = Engineering steels e.g.5.g.g. about the mechanical or physical properties or about the composition. Y1230H R = Steels for rails (or formed as rails) e. TH550. DD14. Y1770C. TS550 M = Magnetic steel sheet and strip e. The code designations of the steels are divided into two groups. R350GHT H = Cold rolled flat-rolled steels with higher-strength drawing quality e. The code designations of the first group refer to the application and to the mechanical or physical properties of the steels.cdr Classification of steels in accordance with their designated use Figure 5.3). B500A. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 47 The European Standard DIN EN 10027-1 (September 1992) stipulates the rules for the designation of the steels by means of code letters and identification numbers.g. The code designations of the second group refer to the chemical composition of the steels. B500B Y = Prestressing steels e. P265GH.g. P = Steels for pressure vessel construction e. E295. L360A. DC04 T = Black plate and tin plate and strips and also specially chromium-plated plate and strip e. P355M L = Steels for pipeline construction e. the steel grades of the first group are designated with different main symbols (Fig.g.g. H400LA D = Flat products made of soft steels for cold reforming e. S355J0 According to the utilization of the steel and also to the mechanical or physical properties. 5. l l l l l l l l S = Steels for structural steel engineering e. The code letters and identification numbers give information about the main application field.g. M400-50A.

Figure 5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 48 An example of the code designation structure with reference to the usage and the mechanical or physical properties for “steels in structural steel engineering“ is explained in Figure .

These additional symbols are stipulated in the ECISS-note IC 10 and depicted in Figures 5. Symbol1)2) +A + AR + AS + AZ + CE + Cu + IC + OC +S + SE +T + TE +Z + ZA + ZE + ZF + ZN 1 2 Coating hot dipped aluminium. for example +TA br-er-05-06.g. additional symbols are added to the code designation.5.cdr © ISF 2004 Symbols for the treatment condition Figure 5.5 Symbol ) ) +A + AC +C + Cnnn + CR + HC + LC +Q +S + ST +U 1 2 treatment condition softened annealed for the production of globular carbides work-hardened (e. the figure S may precede.6 . A distinction is made between symbols for special demands. for example +SA br-er-05-05. with diffused Fe) nickel-zinc coating (electrolytically) ) The symbols are separated from the preceding symbols by plus-signs (+) ) In order to avoid mix-ups with other symbols. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 49 For designating special features of the steel or the steel product.cdr © ISF 2004 Symbols for the coating type Figure 5. also a distinguishing mark for cold-rolled narrow strips) cold-rolled to a minimum tensile strength of nnn MPa/mm² cold-rolled thermoformed/cold formed slightly cold-drawn or slightly rerolled (skin passed) quenched or hardened treatment for capacity for cold shearing solution annealed untreated 1 2 ) The symbols are separated from the preceding symbols by plus-signs (+) ) In order to avoid mix-ups with other symbols.. by rolling and drawing). the figure T may precede. cladded by rolling coated with Al-Si alloy coated with Al-Tn alloy (>50% Al) electrolytically chromium-plated copper-coated inorganically coated organically coated hot-galvanised electrolytically galvanised upgraded by hot dipping with a lead-tin alloy electrolytically coated with a lead-tin alloy hot-galvised coated with Al-Zn alloy (>50% Zn) electrolytically galvanised diffusion-annealed zinc coatings (galvannealed.6. symbols for the type of coating and symbols for the treatment condition.5 and 5.

05 0.7 .21 £ 0.8 depicts the chemical composition and the mechanical parameters of different steel grades.1 / £ 0. The figure explains the influence of the chemical composition on the mechanical properties.05 0.1.5 . Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 50 Figure 5.40 0.040 0.1 .05 Cr / 0.030 £ 0. according to the new standard (DIN EN 10027-1).35 ³ 0.05 S 0.1.7 Steel Stahl S355J0 (St 52-3) S500N (StE500) P295NH (HIV) S355J2G1W (WTSt510-3) S355G3S (EH36) Steel Stahl C £ 0.35 Tensile strength Zugfestigkeit RmRm [N/mm²] yield point Re Streckgrenze eH H [N/mm²] elongation after fracture Bruchdehnung A A [%] 0°C S355J2G3 (St 52-3) S500N (StE500) P295NH (HIV) S355J2G1W (WTSt510-3) S355G3S (EH36) br-er-05-08.1.25 0.1 0.7 shows an example of the novel designation of a steel for structural steel engineering which had formerly been labelled St37-2.20 0.05 / / / V / 0.26 £ 0.22 / 0.20 / 0. designated as follows: S235 J 2 G3 Steel for structural steel engineering further property (RR = normalised) test temperature 20°C impact energy ³ 27 J S = steels for structural steel engineering P = steels for pressure vessel construction L = steels for pipeline construction E = engineering steels B = reinforcing steels br-er-05-07.50 0.035 £ 0.18 Si £ 0.5 £ 0.020 / / / Cu / 0.3 0. The steel St37-2 (DIN 17100) is.65 / Nb / 0.040 0.5.55 Mn £ 1.cdr © ISF 2002 ReH ³ 235 MPa/mm2 Steel designation in accordance with DIN EN 10027-1 Figure 5.30 / Ni / 1 / £ 0.035 £ 0.009 0.15 £ 0.30 / 0.12 / 0. .020 / / / Mo / 0.8 Figure 5.cdr impact energy AV Kerbschlagarbeit V [J] -20°C 510-680 610-780 460-550 510-610 400-490 355 500 285 355 355 20-22 16 >18 22 >22 27 31-47 27 21-39 49 (bei +20°C) 76 (bei -10°C) © ISF 2004 Chemical composition and mechanical parameters of different steel sorts Figure 5.6 £ 0.80 / Al / 0.035 £ 0.0.6 1 .02 0.60 P 0.5 / N £ 0.7 £ 0.

This oxide layer prevents further corrosion of the steel. This steel shows a relatively low strength but very good toughness values which are caused by the increased Mn content of 0. S355G3S belongs to the group of shipbuilding steels with properties similar to those of usual structural steels.5. A very fine-grained microstructure with improved tensile strength values is provided by the addition of carbide forming elements like Cr and Mo as well as by grain-refining elements like Nb and V.6%. S355J2G1W is a weather-resistant structural steel with mechanical properties similar to S355J2G2. Cu and Ni. formed oxide layers stick firmly to the workpiece surface. Due to special quality requirements of the classification companies (in this case: impact energy) these steels are summarised under a special group. . By adding Cr. Apart from a slightly increased Si content for desoxidisation it this an unalloyed steel. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 51 The steel S355J2G2 represents the basic type of structural steels which are nowadays commonly used. S500N is a typical fine-grained structural steel. The boiler steel P295NH is a heat-resistant steel which is applied up to a temperature of 400° C.

Si. The individual numbers stand Figure 5. Be.9): ● Unalloyed steels (except free-cutting steels) with a Mn content of < 1 % ● Unalloyed steels with a medium Mn content > 1 %. if. ordered according to the decreasing contents of the alloying br-er05-09. Ti. Mn.1 and rounded up to the next whole number. V.9 Codes according to the chemical composition for the medium content of the respective alloying element. N.10% Cr=9/4=2. unalloyed free-cutting steels and alloyed steels (except high-speed steels) with individual alloying element contents of less than 5 percent in weight ● Alloyed steels (except high-speed steels). Nb. P. S B Mo=10/10=1% factor 4 10 100 1000 Table 5. Ta.cdr C45 Carbon 0.1% Cr=18% Ni=10% High-speed steels HS 2-9-1-8 W=2% Mo=9% V=1% Co=8% © ISF 2004 elements and numbers. Pb. 5.25% element Cr. Zr C.5. the chemical symbols for the alloying elements. W Al. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 52 The steel grades are classified into four subgroups according to the chemical composition (Fig 5. Cu. Mo.9/Table 5. which in the sequence of the designating alloying elements give reference about their content. Ni. at least for one alloying element the content is ≥ 5 percent in weight ● High-speed steels The unalloyed steels with Mn conUnalloyed steels (Mo content < 1%) tents of < 1% are labelled with the code letter C and a number which complies with the hundredfold of the mean value which is stipulated for the carbon content. the content had been multiplied by the factor as indicated in Fig. Co.1 Alloyed steels (content of alloying element > 5%) X10CrNi18-10 Legiert C=10/100=0. .45% Carbon Unalloyed steels (Mn content > 1%) 10CrMo9-10 C=10/100=0. Unalloyed steels with a medium Mn content > 1 % are labelled with a number which also complies with a hundredfold of the mean value which is stipulated for the carbon content. Ce.

Steel group number (see Fig. High-speed steels are designated with the code letter HS and numbers which. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 53 The alloyed steels are labelled with the code letter X. a number which again complies with the hundredfold of the mean value of the range stipulated for the carbon content. ordered according to decreasing contents of the elements and numbers which in sequence of the designating alloying elements refer to their content. in the following sequence. the chemical symbols of the alloying elements. indicate the contents of elements:: tungsten (W). The structure of the material number is as follows: 1.. XX XX (XX) Sequential number The digits inside the brackets are intended for possible future demands. which is also called material number system. vanadium (V) and cobalt (Co). 5.5. molybdenum (Mo). The European Standard DIN EN 10027-2 (September 1992) specifies a numbering system for the designation of steel grades.10) Material main group number (1=steel) .

Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 54 Figure 5.5. Figure 5.10 specifies the material numbers for the material main group „steel“.10 .

Figure 5. the bigger the austen13 Energy-per-unit length in kJ/cm ite grains in the HAZ and the width 18 36 Austenite grain size index according to DIN 50601 11 9 9 12 of the HAZ in- creases. a limitation due to the solubility of these precipitations.0 © ISF 2004 time. as shown in Figure 5. The higher the energy-peruntil length. Favourable are nitride and carbide forming alloys.8 mm 1.11 shows the dependence between grain size of the austenite which develops during the welding cycle. starting with a certain temperature.12. Steel 2 contains AIN precipitations which are stable up to a temperature of approx.cdr 0.4 0.6 Distance of the fusion line 0. Influence of the energy-per-unit length on the austenite grain size Figure 5. . They develop precipitations which suppress undesired grain growth.5.11 With fine-grained structural steels it is tried to suppress the grain growth with alloying elements.2 0. Steel 1 does not contain any precipitations and shows therefore a continuous grain growth related to temperature. 1100° C. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 55 The influence of the austenite grain size on the transformation behaviour has been explained in Chapter 2. the distance from the fusion line and the energy-per-unit length from the welding method. thus preventing a growth of the austenite grain. thus increasing the tendency of the steel to harden. Such 7 coarsened austenite grain decreases the critical cooling 5 3 0 br-er-05-11. however. There is.

12 According to the 900 N/mm² 800 Temperature in °C: Rel = σ i + K ⋅ 1 d above-mentioned law. Provided the temperature keeps constant. Apart from this increase of the yield point. As far as .004 0.cdr %C 0.018 % Ti / / 0. the yield strength of a steel increases with decreasing grain size. Steel 1 Steel 2 Steel 3 Steel 4 1000 1100 1200 Austenitization temperature 1300 °C 1400 -2 4 Grain size index according to DIN 50601 0 Medium fibre length 2 2 10 8 6 4 -1 4 6 2 8 10 8 -2 10 The importance of grain refinement for the mechanical properties of a steel is shown in Figure 5. σi Yield point or 0.004 0.19 % Mn 1.21 0. Steel 4 is a combination of the most effective properties of steels nos. Steel 3 contains mainly titanium carbonitrides of a much lower grainrefining effect than that of AIN.17 0.35 1.017 0.34 % Al 0. these precipitations dissolve and cannot suppress a grain growth any more.2 boundary 700 600 500 400 300 200 0 1 -193 -185 -170 -155 -180 -100 -40 +20 2 3 4 5 6 -1/2 Grain size d 7 8 mm -1/2 stands for the internal friction stress of the grain measure material. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 56 With mm 1 8 6 -4 higher temperatures. This influence on the yield point Rel is specified in the Hall-Petch-law: © ISF 2004 6 10-3 12 900 Steel 1 2 3 4 br-er05-12.cdr © ISF 2004 boundary Figure 5.43 1.140 Austenite grain size as a function of the austenitization temperature Figure 5.010 0.5.060 %N 0.13. The is a the 10 br-er-05-13.16 1. grain refinement also results in improved toughness values.067 0.024 0.047 0. the increase of the yield point is inversely proportional to the root of the medium grain diameter d.18 0.13 for Connection between yield point and grain size resistance K influence of the grain size on the forming mechanisms. 2 and 3.

5 br-er-05-14.8 S890Q (StE890) 890 11 60 X 90 3.9 100 NiMoCr 2. This leads also to reduced joint cross-sections and.1 S690Q (StE690) 690 14. ferritic grain increase in the weld interfaces pearlitic-martensitic hardening embrittlement formation of chromium carbide austenitic grain desintegration stress corrosion cracking hot cracks (sigma phase embrittlement) cold brittleness (coarse-grained recrystallization after critical treatment) stress corrosion cracking safety from brittle fracture Post-weld treatment for highest corrosion resistance © ISF 2004 steels.3 1.15 divides the steels with regard to their problematic processes during welding.60° Abschmelzleistung =welding 3 kg Schweißdraht h.5 Calculation base = szul = Re/1.2 Welding wire costs Schweißdrahtkosten Steel costs Stahlkosten Weld metal costs Schweißgutkosten Special weld costs Spez.3 : 1 12 : 1 5:1 Ratio Verhältnis Ratio Verhältnis Ratio Verhältnis Boundary condition: Randbedingungen: welding process = MAG Schweißverfahren = MAG Deposition rate = 3 kg wire/h.14 with unalloyed structural steel.4 1 1 Ratio Verhältnis S235JR . weld Schweißnahtkosten = Schweißzusatzwerkstoffe + Schweißen 5. toughness at low temperatures. the unalloyed steels alloyed low-alloyed high-alloyed classification of Figmild steel higher-carbon steel Hardening Underbead cracking ure 5. Due to the considerably better © ISF 2004 Berechnungsgrundlage =szul = Re / 1. substantial savings of material are possible. for example: Hardening. only ingot Classification of steels with respect to problems during welding Figure 5.5 1.2 2. As a consequence of this chemical composition the carbon equivalent decreases. Modern fine-grained structural steels show improved mechanical properties with. high-pressure hydrogen resistance. surface treeatment condition.2. Schweißnahtkosten Costs ratio inclusive base Kostenverhältnis inklusive materials Grundwerkstoffe S235JR (St37-2) N/mm2 mm mm2 mm Ratio Verhältnis S355J2G3 (St52-3) 345 31 370 SG3 1 1.3 2. are achieved tempering resistant.S960Q tages of microalloyed fine-grained with are structural steels in comparison tural shown steels in conventional strucFigure 215 50 870 SG2 1 1 5.2 1.18 S960Q (StE960) 960 10 50 X 96 3.cdr rimmed steel cutting of segregation zones killed steel duplex killed steel hardening corrosion tool steels special properties are resistant steels achieved. weld /shape X -60° X .15 .4 1.3 12 1:5 5:1 17 : 1 1 : 3. this means the improvement of the mechanical properties without any further alloying. etc. Based Figure on 5. to lower costs when making welded steel constructions.16 1.cdr Influence of the steel selection on the producing costs of welded structures mechanical properties of the finegrained structural steel in comparison Figure 5.4 5.2 2. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 57 structural steels are concerned. decreased content of alloying elements. at the same time. The major advanSteel type Stahlsorte Yield point Streckgrenze Plate thickness Blechdicke Weld cross-section Nahtquerschnitt Welding wire Ø Schweißdraht ø1. Nahtform Costs ofund labour and equipment = = 60 30€/h LohnMaschinenkosten DM / h Special costs = weld filler materials + welding Spez. the weldability is improved and processing of the steel is easier.3 1 : 2. When it comes to unalloyed br-er-05-15. special properties heat resistance.3 5. in total.

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels


casts, rimmed and semi-killed steels are causing problems. “Killing” means the removal of oxygen from the steel bath. Figure 5.16 shows cross-sections of ingot blocks with different oxygen contents. Rimming steels with increased oxygen content show, from the outside to the inside, three different zones after solidification: 1.: a pronounced, very pure outer envelope, 2.: a typical blowhole formation (not critical, blowholes are forged together during rolling), 3.: in the centre a clearly zone segregated

where unfavourable elements like sulphur and phospho0,025 0,012 0,003

rus are enriched. During rolling, such zones are stretched
© ISF 2004

fully killed steel
Figures: mass content of oxygen in %

semi-killed steel

rimmed steel

along the complete length of the rolling profile.

Ingot cross-sections after different casting methods

Figure 5.16

Figure 5.17 shows important points to be observed during welding such steels. Due to their enrichment with alloy elements, the segregation zones are more transformation-inert than the outer envelope In to as, hotin



and are inclined to hardening. sensitive cracking, addition, they are



these zones, the elements phosphorus are and sulphur


© ISF 2004

enriched. Figure 5.17

Example of unfavourable (a) and favourable (b) welds

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels


Therefore, “ touching” such segregation zones during welding must be avoided by all means. In the case of lowalloy
Microstructures Ferrite Austenite Perlite (granular) Perlite (lamellar) Sorbite Troostite Cementite Martensite Average Brinell Hardness (Approximately) 80 250 200 300 350 400 600 - 650 400 - 900

steels, of must

the HAZ

problem hardening welding observed. ure 5.18

during be Figshows

hardness values of various microstruc© ISF 2004


tures. The highest hardness martensite values and can be found with

Hardness of Several Microstructures

Figure 5.18

cementite. Hardness values of cementite are of minor importance for unalloyed and low-alloy steels because its proportion in these steels remains low due to the low Ccontent. However, hardening because of martensite formation is of greatest importance as the martensite proportion in the microstructure depends mainly on the cooling time. Figure 5.19 shows the essential influence of the martensite content in the HAZ on the crack formation of welded martensite joints. formaHardening through tion is not to be
Br-er-05-19.cdr © ISF 2004

maximum hardness HV root cracking presumable root cracking possible no root cracking sufficient operational safety without heat treatment 400 HRC 41

strength, calculated at max. hardness N/mm2 1290

with maximum martensite content % 70

400 - 350 350 280

41 - 36 36 28

1290 - 1125 1125 900

70 - 60 60 30

If too much martensite develops in the heat affected zone during welding (below or next to the weld), a very hard zone will be formed which shows often cracks.

expected with pure carbon steels up to about 0,22%, Figure 5.19

Influence of Martensite Content

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels


because the critical cooling rate with these low C-contents is so high that it normally won’t be reached within the welding cycle. In general, such steels can be welded without special problems (e.g., S. 235). In addition to carIIW
C - Äqu. = C + Mn Cr + Mo + V Cu + Ni + + 6 5 15
Mo Ni Cu Mn Cr + Mn + + + 6 10 20 40

bon, all other alloy elements are important site when it in comes to martenformation the welding cycle, as they have substantial influence on the transformation behaviour of steels (see


C - Äqu. = C +

Ito and Bessyo

PCM = C +

Si Mn + Cu + Cr Ni Mo V + + + + + 5B 30 20 60 15 10
Si Mn + Cu Cr Ni Mo V + + + + + 25 16 20 60 40 15


C - Äqu.PLS = C +


C - Äqu. = C +

Si + Mn + Cu + Cr + Ni + Mo + V 20



Mn + Mo Cr + Cu Ni = C+ + + 10 20 40
PLS = pipeline steels PCM = cracking parameters (%)
© ISF 2002

C-Äqu.= carbon equivalent (%)

Definition of C - Equivalent

Figure 5.20

Fig. 2.12 ). It is not appropriate just

to take the carbon content as a measure for the hardening tendency of such steels. To estimate the weldability, several authors developed formulas for calculating the so-called carbon equivalent, which include the contribution of the other alloy elements to hardening tendency, (Fig. 5.20). As these approximation formulas are empirically determined and as for the
Tp [° C]
250 100

Tp == 750 CET - 150 Tp 750 CET - 150
200 80

delta Tp = 62 HD HD0,35 - 100 delta Tp = 62 - 100


delta Tp [°C]



hardening tendency the general conditions like plate heat thickness,





0 0,2 0,3 0,4

d = 30 mm d = 30 mm HD HD =4 =4 1 kJ/mm Q =Q 1=kJ/mm

0 0 5 10 15 20

CET == 0,33 % CET 0,33 % = 30 mm d =d30 mm Q1 =1 kJ/mm Q= kJ/mm

Kohlenstoffäquivalent CET [%] Carbon aquivalent

Wasserstoffgehalt HD Hydrogen content of des theSchweißgutes weld metal [%]


delta Tp = 160 tanhtanh (d/35)(d/35) - 110 - 110 delta Tp = 160


delta Tp = (53 CET - 32)-Q - 53Q CET + 32 delta Tp = (53 CET 32) - 53 CET + 32

CET = 0,4 %

CET = 0,4 %

CET = 0,2 %

CET = 0,2 %

CET = 0,2 %

CET = 0,2 %


delta Tp [°C]

delta Tp [°C]

input, etc., are also of importance, the carbon equivalent cannot be a common limit value for the weldability.






0 0 20 40 60 80

CET =0,4 0,4 CET = %% HD = 2 2 HD Q= =1 Q 1kJ/mm kJ/mm


-100 0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4

d =d50 mm = 50 mm HDHD == 88
4,5 5

Plate thickness Blechdicke d [mm]

Wärmeeinbringen Heat input Q [kJ/mm]

Tp =697 CET + 160 tanh (d/35) + 62 HD


+ (53 CET - 32) Q - 328
© ISF 2005

Source: Quelle: DIN EN 1011-2

Calculation of the preheating temperatures

For the determina- Figure 5.21

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels


tion of the preheating temperature Tp, the formula as shown in Fig. 5.21 is used. The effects of the chemical composition which is marked by the carbon equivalent CET, the plate thickness d, the hydrogen content of the weld metal HD and the heat input Q are considered. The essential factor to martensite formaTmax

tion in the welding cycle is the cooling time. As a measure of cooling time, the

Temperature T



time of cooling from


800 to 500° C (t8/5) is defined (Fig. 5.22).
t500 s
© ISF 2004


Time t



Definition of t8/5

range was selected in such a way that it covered the most

Figure 5.22 TTT diagrams. Figure 5.23 measured temperature shows

important structural transformations and that the time can be easily transferred to the


distriTemperature T



butions in the vicinity of a weld. Peak values and dwell times depend obviously on the location of the and






0 0 50 100 150 Time t
br-er-05-23.cdr © ISF 2004






are clearly strongly determined by the heat conduction Figure 5.23 conditions.

Temperature-time curves in the adjacence of a weld

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels


With the use of thinner plates with complete heating of the cross-section during welding, the heat conductivity is only carried out in parallel to the plate surface, this is the two-dimensional heat dissipation. With thicker plates, e.g. during welding of a blind bead, heat dissipation can also be carried out in direction of plate thickness, heat dissipation is three-dimensional. These two cases are covered by the formulas given in Figure 5.24, which
2 - dimensional:
universal formula:

3 - dimensional:
universal formula:

t8 / 5 = ö h U ×I æ 1 1 ÷ × ×ç ÷ 2 ×p × l v ç è 500 - T0 800 - T0 ø

extended formula For low-alloyed steel:

t8 / 5 = 0,67 - 5 ×10 - 4 T0 ×


1 ç ) Uv× I × æ ç 500 - T è



ö 1 ÷ ÷ ×h ¢ × N 3 800 - T0 ø

t8 / 5 =
2 2 2 ö ù ö æ h2 1 1 æ U × I ö 1 éæ ÷ ×ç ÷ × × êç ç 800 - T ÷ ÷ ú ÷ -ç 4 × p × l × r × c è v ø d 2 êç 500 T 0 ø 0 ø ú è û ëè

provide a method of calculating the cooling time t8/5 of low-alloyed steels. In the case of a
© ISF 2004

extended formula For low-alloyed steel:

2 2 2 ö æ ö ù 2 1 1 æ U × I ö 1 éæ ÷ ÷ t8 / 5 = 0,043 - 4,3 ×10 -5 T0 × ç ÷ × 2 × êç ç ÷ -ç ç ÷ ú ×h ¢ × N 2 è v ø d ë êè 500 - T0 ø è 800 - T0 ø û ú



formula for the transition thickness of low-alloyed steel:

dü =

0,043 - 4,3 ×10 -5 T0 U ×I ×h ¢ × 0,67 - 5 ×10 - 4 T0 v

æ ö 1 1 ×ç ç 500 - T + 800 - T ÷ ÷ 0 0 ø è


three-dimensional heat dissipation, t8/5 it independent of plate thickness.

Calculation equation for two- and three-dimensional heat dissipation

Figure 5.24

In the case of two-dimensional heat dissipation it is clear that t8/5 becomes the shorter the thicker the plate thickness d is. Provided, the cooling times are equal, the plate thickness can be calculated from these relations where a two-dimensional heat dissipation changes to a three-dimensional heat dissipation. Figure 5.25 shows
welding methods

the influence of the welding method on the heat dissipation. With the same heat energy base depends input, which the is

TIG-(He)-welding TIG-(Ar)-welding MIG-(Ar)-welding MAG-(CO2)- welding Manual arc welding SA welding 0 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1

transferred to the material

Relative thermal efficiency degree h‘
© ISF 2004


the Figure 5.25

Relative thermal efficiency degree of different welding methods

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels


welding method. This dependence is described by the relative thermal efficiency ŋ’. The influence of the groove geType of weld 2-dimensional heat dissipation 1

weld factor 3-dimensional heat dissipation 1

ometry is covered by seam factors according to

0,45 - 0,67


Fig. 5.26. Empirically determined, these factors were introduced for an easier calculation. For other groove geometries, tests to measure the Figure 5.26





© ISF 2004

Weld factors for different weld geometries

cooling time are recommended. Fig. 5.27 shows the transition of the two-dimensional to the three-dimensional heat dissipation for two different preheating temperatures in form of a curve according to the equation of Fig. 5.24. Above the curve, t8/5 depends only on the energy input, but not on the plate thickness, heat dissipation is carried out three-dimensionally.



cooling time t8/5 [s] 10 15 20


cooling time t8/5 [s] 10 20 30



Plate thickness

30 40 60 100



60 80 100 150


0 0 10 20 30 40 50

0 10 20 30 40 50

Heat input E.h.Nn [kJ/cm]
Br-er-05-27.cdr © ISF 2004

Transition From Two to Three Dimensional Heat Flow

Figure 5.27

5. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels

64 Fig. 5.28 shows the possible range of heat input depending on the electrode diameter. It is clear that a relatively large working range is available for arc welding A the

procedures. variation of

energy-per-unit Figure 5.28 length can be

carried out by alteration of the welding current, the welding voltage and the welding speed.

Fig. 5.29 depicts variations of the heat input during manual metal arc welding. The shorter the fused electrode distance, i.e., the shorter the extracted length, the higher the energyper-unit length.

Figure 5.29

the steel manufacturer presets a certain interval of cooling times.cdr T0 200°C 150°C 100°C 20°C d = 7. .30 If a fine-grained structural steel is to be welded.Welding Figure 5. where a dependence between energy-per-unit length.5 mm Cooling time t8/5 in s T0 200°C 150°C 100°C 20°C d = 10 mm T0 200°C 150°C 100°C 20°C d = 15 mm T0 200°C 150°C 100°C transition to 3-dimensional heat flow 20°C d = 20 mm 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 kJ/cm 50 © ISF 2004 Heat input E Dependence of E. t8/5 and d During SA . 5.5. 50 40 30 20 10 7 50 40 30 20 10 7 50 40 30 20 10 7 50 40 30 20 10 7 5 br-er05-30. Fig. provided some additional data are available. through the selection of a welding method. cooling time and preheating temperature is given.30 shows diagrams for twodimensional heat dissipation. depending on the plate thickness. Based on the data E and t8/5 the diagram provides the required preheating temperature for welding the respective plate thickness. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 65 In order to minimize calculation efforts in practice. a specified range of heat input E. . the specified relations were transferred into nomograms from which permissible welding parameters can be read out. The user lays down the plate thickness and. where the steel characteristics are not too negatively affected.

as with Fig.30.5. t8/5 And dÜ Figure 5.cdr 200 4. 5. Welding voltage and welding current. aera of 3-dimensional heat flow T0 the diagrams in Fig. independent of plate thickness.31 apply. For the three-dimensional heat dissipation. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 66 50 mm 40 With the transition to thicker plates.5 250 Welding current 7. The 0 °C °C 20 °C 250 00 1 °C 150 C ° 20 Transition thickness dÜ 30 upper part of the figure determines whether a two-dimensional or a threedimensional heat dissipation is present.32 and the used shielding gas is one of the parameters. T0.2 mm .32 Dependence of Current And Voltage During MAG-Welding. Cooling time t8/5 20 15 25 T 0 0 20 10 9 8 7 br-er05-31.5 br-er-05-32.0 Wire feed 8. 5. the lower diagram applies kJ/cm 50 20 15 10 9 8 7 area of 2-dimensional heat flow 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 Heat input E 50 s 40 30 °C 0 °C 0 °C 10 0 °C 20 °C 15 where the same information can be determined.5 m/min © ISF 2004 wire feed speed. Solid Wire. 5.5 5.cdr 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 30 kJ/cm 50 © ISF 2004 Heat input E Dependence of E. determine the type of arc.0 300 10. Figure 5.31 The relation be35 V 30 gas composition: C1 100% CO2 M21 82% Ar + 18% CO2 M23 92% Ar + 8% O2 tween current and voltage for MAG Welding voltage C1 M21 M23 welding is shown in Fig. Æ1. or 25 20 15 short arc mixed arc spray arc contact tube distance ~15mm contact tube distance ~19mm 150 3.0 A 9.

67 F2 = 0.85 dU max = 32 mm dU min = 15 mm F3 = 0. If d and temperature of T0 = 150° t8/5 are given.34 Heat input E MAG . heat input E and cooling time t8/5 for fillet welds at a preheating 60 kJ/cm 50 toughness affection 25s 70 fillet welds T0= 150 °C 30s kJ/cm 59 53 47 C.welding 40 20s 35 30 25 20 15 6s 10s 15s 41 35 29 23 18 12 cracking tendency 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 6 mm 0 40 © ISF 2004 20 25 30 Plate thickness br-er05-33. 45 Heat input E SA .85 dU max = 34 mm dU min = 15 mm F3 = 0.67 t8/5 max = 30 s t8/5 min = 6 s Emax = 66 kJ/cm Emin = 14 kJ/cm strates the dependence of plate thickness..weldind 60 kJ/cm 50 toughness affection 70 butt welds T0= 150 °C kJ/cm 59 53 30s 45 Heat input E SA . Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 67 The diagram in Fig.welding 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 cracking tendency 15s 25s 47 41 35 29 23 18 12 6 0 40 20s 10s 6s 20 25 30 Plate thickness mm br-er05-34.cdr © ISF 2004 Permissible E-Range During SA .33 Fig.9 F2 = 0.And MAG . 5.33 demonh'UP = 1 h'MAG = 0.5.welding . The kinks of the curves mark the transition between two-dimensional and threedimensional heat dissipation. the acceptable range of heat input can be determined with the help of this diagram.cdr Permissible E-Range During SA .9 t8/5 max = 30 s t8/5 min = 6 s Emax = 49 kJ/cm Emin = 10 kJ/cm Heat input E MAG .Welding Figure 5. 5.And MAG .Welding Figure 5.34 shows the same dependence for butt welds with V groove preparation. h'UP = 1 h'MAG = 0.

0 3 Heat input E 15 5 4 wor king ra nge 6 10 5 0 10 7 8 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Welding speed vS 50 cm/min 60 voltage.36 shows 60 kJ/cm 50 SA .cdr E as a Function of Welding Speed.0 45 40 35 25s vZ(m/min) 10.0 8.5 3. A solid wire with a diameter of 1. 0916).5 3.0 47 41 35 29 15s Heat input E Heat input E 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 5 10 15 cracking tendency 20s 25 kJ/cm 20 2 1 23 18 heat input E 10s 16 15 13 6 3 work ing 4 rang e 5 6s 16 12 13 6 0 40 10 5 0 10 7 8 33 15 20 25 41 50 cm/min 60 20 25 30 Plate thickness mm 30 35 40 45 Welding speed vS br-er-05-36.35 Figure 5. 18% CO) br-er-05-35. the maximum and 300A is used.35 shows the dependence of the heat input from the welding speed as well as the acceptable working range. Using these values.0 7. a plate thickness of 15 mm and a cooling time t8/5 between 10 and 20 s are given.5 3.5 9. . Æ1.5 4.Welding Figure 5. etc.5 9.5. In this example.2 mm at 29V The left diagram provides heat input values between 13 and 16 kJ/cm. The parameters of the curves 1 to 8 in the table curve V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 have been taken from Figures 5. feed.2mm Figure 5.5 3. based on the given data.0 7. the acceptable range of welding speeds can be taken from the diagram on the right. Sheet 70 butt welds T0= 150 °C curve V A MAG . 29 27 24 22 20 19 18 17 25 kJ/cm 20 2 1 A 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 5. In this case.welding toughness affection a reading example for such diagrams (according to DVSReference Nr. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 68 The curve family in Fig.34 and apply only for related wire welding conditions like wire diameter.32 and 5.5 4. 5.0 8.0 vZ(m/min) 10.cdr © ISF 2004 Determination of Welding Speed for MAG . Solid Wire.welding 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 kJ/cm 59 53 30s 29 27 24 22 20 19 18 17 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 5. © ISF 2004 MAG/ M21 (82% Ar.36 cooling time for MAG welding is 15 s.

one can read from the middle diagram in which transition field the final microstructures are formed. Welding Plain and Low Alloy Steels 69 Fig. 5.5. the point of the plate Peak temperature Temperature 800 °C 700 F 600 B P 500 400 300 200 M Peak temperature 1000°C 1400°C HV30=400 1400 °C 1200 M 300 200 thickness at the top line is linked with the point of heat input at the lower line. If the peak temperature of the welding cycle is known. due to the measurement efforts a systematic application of this concept to all common steel types is subject to failure.37 a TTT diagram applies only for exactly one peak temperature.37 presents a simplification of the determination of the microstructural composition and cooling time subject to peak temperatures which occur in the welding cycle.cdr 8 10 20 30 40 50 kJ/cm 70 © ISF 2004 Peak temperature/cooling time – diagram for the determination of t8/5 and the structure with the upper TTT diagram is that Figure 5. . In the lower diagram. therefore. other peak temperatures are disregarded. The advantage of the determination of microstructures compared B+M F+B F+P 1000 Arc3 800 Arc1 600 1 10 100 s 7 6 1000 t8/5 plate thickness 40 30 25 20 15 10 9 8 5 mm 4 three-dimensional 300 200 100 two-dimensional 1 2 3 5 10 20 50 100 200 400 s 1000 0 100 °C 200 t8/5 preheating temperature energy-per-unit length 6 bie5-37. The point of intersection of the linking line with the middle scale represents the cooling time t8/5 . The disadvantage of the PTCT diagram (peak temperature cooling time diagram) is the very expensive determination.

6. Welding High Alloy Steels .

The most important group are austenitic steels. and austenitic steels. Depending on their microstructure. They have a very high low temperature impact resistance. the alloys can be divided into perlitic-martensitic.2 shows the effects of two different groups of alloying elements on the equilibrium diagram. Based on the simple Fe-C T d A4 g A3 a a A4 g a(d) A3 g T T A4 d Classification of Corrosion-Resistant Steels Figure 6. whilst heatand scale-resistant steels are applied in elevated temperatures and gaseous media. They can be singled out as heat.1 phase diagram (left figure). which can be used for very many applications and which are corrosion resistant against most media. Stainless steels are used at room temperature conditions and for water- scale. depending on service temperature.2 . ferritic.cdr stabilized (austenite without delta-ferrite) X8CrNiNb16-13 © ISF 2002 based media.g. Figure 6.1 shows a classification of corrosion resistant stainless steels corrosion-resistant steels steels. they are used e. Figure 6. Alloy elements in % Nickel Manganese Cobalt A3 Alloy elements in % Alloy elements in % Chromium Vanadium Molybdenum Aluminium Silicon Ferrite developers with chromium as the most important element cause a © ISF 2002 br-er-06-02e.and heat-resistant steels perlitic martensitic semi-ferritic ferritic ferritic-austenitic austenitic X40Cr13 X10Cr13 X8Cr13 X20CrNiSi25-4 non-stabilized (austenite with delta-ferrite) X12CrNi18-8 br-er-06-01e. Perlitic-martensitic steels have a high strength and a high wear resistance.and scale-resistant and stainless steels. as knife steels. Welding High Alloy Steels 71 Basically stainless steels are characterised by a chromium content of at least 12%.cdr Modifications to the Fe-C Diagram by Alloy Elements strong reduction of the aus- Figure 6.6. Ferritic and corrosion resistant steels are mainly used as plates for household appliances and other decorative purposes.

Starting with about 12% Cr. or l reduce slightly corrosion resistance l sulphur l All types Improves scale resistance.4541. Both.4005. grain-refining Austenite developers cause an extension of the austenite area to Figure 6. there is a transformation-free. acts as ferrite l developer l l 1.4 shows the influence of chromium on the iron lattice. supports development of precipitants which reduce corrosion resistance. Element Carbon l l l Chromium l Nickel l l Oxygen l Steel type. Welding High Alloy Steels 72 tenite area.3 600 a The binary system Fe-Cr in Figure 6. increases oxidation.4510. the steel solidifies purely as ferritic.6.4580 u. increases toughness at low temperature. An opposite effect provide austenite developers. partly with downward equilibrium line according to Figure 6.2 (central figure). 1.Cr Figure 6. Binds carbon. all types are alloyed with small l l contents for desoxidation l 1.and corrosion-resistance Molybdenum 1.4571 and others intergranular corrosion. All types l l l All types l All types Special types l Effect Increases the strength.a. mainly Aluminium l l used as heat ageing additive Type 17-7 PH. Binds carbon and decreases tendency to Niobium 1. 1. In the temperature range between 800 and 500° C this system contains the intermetallic σ-phase. 1. decreases tendency to Titanium l 1. With a certain content of the related element. there is no more transformation into the cubic face-centred lattice. Works as strong austenite developer (20 to 30 times stronger than Nickel) 1.1. 1. Copper Improves corrosion resistance against certain l 1.and corrosion-resistance Works as austenite developer. improves ageing l l br-er06-03e. which decomposes in the lower 400 200 0 Fe 10 20 30 40 50 Chromium 60 70 80 90 % Cr br-er06-04e.2 (left figure) and form a purely austenitic and transformation-free steel.4401.4 temperature range into a low-chromium α-solid solution and a chromium-rich α’-solid solution. 1. increasing C content reduces critical cooling rate Works as ferrite developer. acts as a grain refiner l l and as ferrite developer Type 17-7 PH Works as strong ferrite developer.cdr © ISF 2002 Binary System Fe . Phosphorus. acts as ferrite l Silicon developer. lower weldability.4305 selenium. the development of the σ-phase and of the unary α-α’-decomposition cause a strong .4506 media.4505.1. against reducing media.4104. In addition to carbon. purely ferritic steel.cdr 1800 °C 1600 1400 S S+a © ISF 2002 Temperature Effects of Some Elements in Cr-Ni Steel 1200 g g+a a 1000 800 d+a d d+a' a' Figure 6.4511. reduces hot Manganese l l crack tendency by formation of manganese l l sulphide Improves creep.3 summarises the effects of some selected elements on high alloy steels. intergranular corrosion l All types Increases austenite stabilization. The table in Figure 6. the most typical member of this group is nickel. Improve machinability. no. decreases tendency to stress l l corrosion cracking.4435 and others.4550.4404.

With higher alloy steels. Figure 6. analogous to the Figure 6. the diffusion speed is greatly reduced. but d+g+s is of the same structure from the crystallographic 10 30 15 25 20 20 25 15 % Ni % Cr 700 700 0 30 br-er-06-06e. processes d 1200 d+g in the lower temperature g Temperature 1000 800 Along two cuts through the ternary system Fe-Cr-Ni. Nickel is a strong austenite developer. δferrite is.6 . 10 20 30 40 50 Nickel 60 70 80 Binary System Fe . such embrittlement processes are suppressed by an increased cooling speed. © ISF 2002 Sections of the Ternary System Fe-Cr-Ni Figure 6. therefore both processes require a relatively long dwell time.6. the primary S+g 1500 1400 1300 Temperature S+d 1400 1300 1200 S+d from the melt solidifying body-centred cubic solid solution. However α-ferrite 1200 d d+g g d d+g g 1100 1000 900 800 s g+ 1100 1000 900 800 g+s d+s g+s d+s d+ is developed by transformation of the austenite.cdr a+g important 90 % Ni © ISF 2002 phases which develop in high alloy steels.cdr 5 25 10 20 15 15 20 % Ni 10 % Cr 0 40 5 35 point of view. see Figure 6.5 Nickel and iron develop in this system under elevated temperature a complete series of face-centred cubic solid solutions.Ni A solidifying alloy with 20% Cr and 10% Ni (left figure) forms at first δ-ferrite. see Figure 6.6 shows the most Fe Ni3 600 a 400 200 0 Fe br-er-06-05e. Welding High Alloy Steels 73 embrittlement. Also in the binary system Fe-Ni 1600 °C 1400 S+d S+g Fe Ni3 decomposition range take place.4.5 70 % Fe 60 % Fe 1600 °C S S+d+g 1600 °C 1500 S+g S S+d+g Fe-C diagram. In case of technical cooling.

a partial transls s formation of austenite into the brittle α-phase takes place in the temperature range below 800° C.0 4 7.5 £ 0. the austenite lowest austenite corner will be at 18% Cr and 6% Ni. 1.cdr ite / ferrite 24 % 26 martensite / ferrite 6 8 10 12 14 Chromium 16 18 22 © ISF 2002 0 4 Maurer .1 max.7 The diagram of Strauß and Maurer in Figure 6. starting at a certain alloy content.Diagram scribed by the so-called chromium Figure 6. If the cooling is close to the equilibrium. a transformation into the σ-phase normally does not take place with these alloys.0 7 26 up to 2. 1.0 max. Primary ferritic solidifying alloys show a reduced tendency to hot cracking. 1. The classification of high-alloy steels in Figure 28 % 24 20 16 12 8 4 6.cdr £ 0.0 max. £ 0.8 .5 + + + + + + + 4.8 shows the influence on the microstructure formation of steels with a C-content of 0.2%. because δ-ferrite can absorb hot-crack promoting elements like S and P.2 max. Figure 6. these The influence is of denickel elements and martensite / troostite / sorbite ferrite / perlite 0 2 br-er-06-08e.6.0 17 26 up to 5. Cr and Ni.0 15 18 up to 2. 2. If a steel only contains C.2 3. the binary area ferrite + austenite passes through and a transformation into austenite takes place.1 max. Primary austenitic solidifying alloys are much more susceptible to hot cracking than primary ferritic solidifying alloys. 1.0 24 28 up to 2. 2.0 max. Au s ar + + + te n + indicates that the alloy elements can be added in a defined content to achieve various characteristics iti c- c fe rri tic st ee l s ls st ee © ISF 2002 Typical Alloy Content of High-Alloy Steels Figure 6.0 max. left figure).7 shows some typical compositions of certain groups of high alloy steels. And also other elements austen it e / mart ensite Nickel austenite / ferrite austenite / martens 20 than Ni and Cr work as an austenite or ferrite developer. st ee l si tic st ee te ni ti Fe rri tic te n M Au s C Si Mn Cr Mo Ni Cu Nb Ti Al V N S br-er06-07e.1 is based on this diagram. no transformations during cooling (14% Ni. Welding High Alloy Steels 74 During an ongoing cooling. 2. 16% Cr.5 12 18 up to 1.0 1. 0. 1. However primary austenitic solidifying alloys show.2 £ 2. 1.0 £ 1.1 1.1 max.

6.5x%Si + 0. Welding High Alloy Steels 75 equivalents. have a 0% r Fe rit austenite 5% 10 % % 0 A+F 2 40% A +M 80% martensite F + M 2 4 6 8 10 A+M+F M+F ferrite 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 Chromium-equivalent = %Cr + %Mo + 1. After reaching a diffusion-start Figure 6. the influence of different cooling speeds is here disregarded.cdr 200 400 600 temperature 800 1000 °C 1200 © ISF 2002 Grain Size as a Function of Temperature Figure 6. conchromium 3000 2000 austenitic steel 1000 ferritic steel tents. purely ferritic chromium steels have a tendency to embrittlement by martensite and therefore to hot cracking (area 2) or to embrittlement due to strong grain growth (area 1).9 5000 grain size due to the development of σ-phase. Therefore high alloyed ferritic steels are to be considered as of limited weldability. As explained in 6.5x%Nb shows that ferritic steels considerably br-er-06-09e.5x%Mn 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 00 100% A cause for this strong grain growth during welding is the greatly increased diffusion speed in the ferrite compared with austenite. and sufficiently slow cooling speed.cdr hardening crack susceptibility (preheating to 400°C!) hot cracking susceptibility above 1250°C sigma embrittlement between 500-900°C grain growth above 1150°C © ISF 2002 stronger grain growth than austenites. Depending on the composition. The Schaeffler diagram reflects additional alloy elements. Figure 6. 0 br-er-06-10e.6.10 . It represents molten weld metal of high alloy steels and determines the developed microstructures after cooling down from very high temperatures. The area 3 marks a possible embrittlement of the material 4000 6000 m² Schaeffler Diagram With Border Lines of Weld Metal Properties to Bystram Figure 6.9. Nickel-equivalent = %Ni + 30x%C + 0. where specific defects may occur during welding. The diagram was always prepared considering identical cooling conditions. The areas 1 to 4 in this diagram limit the chemical compositions of steels. this risk occurs with increased increased ferrite contents.10 temperature.

because it has a much greater solubility of S and P. Especially when welding austenitic steels one tries to aim at a low content of δ-ferrite.4541) 21% Cr.-Nr. they enrich the melt residue.Diagram Figure 6.Diagram Figure 6. This area of chemical composition represents the minimum risk of welding defects. The Schaeffler diagram is not only used for determining the microstructure with known chemical composition.-No. It is also possible to estimate the developing microstructures when welding different materials with or without filler metal.4510) 21% Cr. sulphur and phosphorous have only very limited solubility in the austenite.12 123 · 9 A+F 100 % F ² : ·=1:1 4 0 0 36 A+M+F M+F ² F 4 100 % F + · 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 Chromium-equivalent ² S235JR (St 37) Welding consumable · X8Cr17 (W.6.cdr Application Example of Schaeffler . 14% Ni.11 and 6. area 4 marks the strongly increased tendency to hot cracking in the austenite. 3% Mo · Weld metal under 30 % dilution (= base metal amount) © ISF 2002 br-er06-11e. Welding High Alloy Steels 76 Finally.12 show two examples for a determination of the weld metal microstructures of so-called 'black and white' joints. Figures 6. therefore such a composition should be adjusted in the weld metal. 1. 28 28 24 24 A A 10 10 20 Nickel-equivalent 20 Nickel-equivalent A+M 20 A+M 16 12 8 20 16 12 8 4 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 Chromium-equivalent 28 32 ² M · M 40 40 3 2 1 30% 9 A+F 80 · 20% ² : ·=1:1 80 + A+M+F F M+F ² S235JR (St 37) Welding consumable · X10CrNiTi18-9 (W. 14% Ni.11 .Welding Defects). Reason is.cdr © ISF 2002 Application Example of Schaeffler .g. that critical elements responsible for hot cracking like e. thus minimising the risk of hot cracking. There is a Z-shaped area in the centre of the diagram which does not belong to any other endangered area. 3% Mo 9 Weld metal under 30 % dilution (= base metal amount) 9 · br-er06-12e. During welding. 1. promoting hot crack formation (see also chapter 9 .

21 Nickel-equivalent = %Ni + 30 x %C + 30 x %N + 0. Later on. Based on these measurement values. DeLong proposed a reworked Schaeffler diagram where the ferrite number can be determined by the chemical composition. Such a system makes it possible to measure comparable values which don't have to match the real ferrite content.-% tic vol e n in ag s m nt 0% ly te er con 2% rm fo rrite 4% Sc e f ha effl 6%% er6 au 7.13.6. To develop H2O cathode 4e- Fe(OH)3 2Fe++ anode 2Fe ® 2Fe+++4e- iron O2+2H2O+4e ® 4OH - - br-er-06-14e.3% en site 12 . Moreover. DeLong has considered the influence of nitrogen as a strong austenite developer (effects are comparable with influence of carbon). 7% .14 . -m art 10 .5 x %Si + 0. Welding High Alloy Steels 77 The ferrite content can only be measured with a relatively large dispersal. 2% ste nite 9.5 x %Mn 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 16 r fe austenite e rit nu r be m 0 2 The most important feature of high alloy steels is their 4 d re su ea ym all . nitrogen was included into the nickel-equivalent of the Schaeffler diagram.13 welding process.8% -lin 13 e 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 corrosion resistance starting with a Cr content of 12%. In addition to the problems during welding described by the Schaeffler diagram. Figure air O 2Fe+++O+H2O ® 2Fe++++2OHOH - 6. the ferrite content is no longer given in percentage.cdr 18 25 19 20 21 22 23 24 Chromium-equivalent = %Cr + %Mo + 1.5 x %Nb 27 be negatively affected with view to their corrosion resistance caused by the De Long Diagram Figure 6. In addition to ferrite numbers.cdr © ISF 2002 Corrosion Under a Drop of Water Figure 6.14 shows schematically the processes of electrolytic corrosion under a O2 OH Fe+++ water drop of water on a piece of iron. therefore DeLong proposed to base a measurement procedure on standardized specimens. Figure 6. In such a system a potential difference is a precondition for the development of a local element consisting of an anode and a cathode. but steels are grouped by ferrite numbers. these steels can 26 © ISF 2002 austenite + ferrite 17 br-er-06-13e.

Mechanical surface damages of this layer are completely cured in a very short time. The cathodic. i. .cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 6.e. absorbing oxygen and the electrons. a different orientation of grains in the steel is sufficient.ions. passive layer passive layer active dissolution gap tensile stress active dissolution of the crack base pitting corrosion passive layer stress corrosion cracking passive layer activly dissolved grain boundary chromium depleted zones active dissolution of the gap grain boundary carbides crevice corrosion intergranular corrosion incorrect correct br-er06-15e. since a complete recovery of the passive layer is not possible from various reasons.16 The examples in Figure 6. Fe3+and OH--ions compose into the water-insoluble Fe(OH)3 which deposits as rust on the surface (note: the processes here described should serve as a principal explanation of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms.6. the corrosion protection is provided by the development of a very thin chromium oxide layer which separates the material from the corrosive medium. iron is oxidised here and is dissolved as Fe2+-ion together with an electron emission. the chemically less noble part reacts as an anode. Caused by oxygen access through the air.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er06-16e. If the steel is passivated by chromium.15 are more critical.15 Figure 6. If a potential difference under a drop of water is present. a further oxidation to Fe3+ takes place. Welding High Alloy Steels 78 such a local element. they are. at best. a fraction of all possible reactions). chemically nobler area develops OH.

Figure 6. and repassivation corrosion mainly causes a crack propagaStress takes cracking 7 8 9 10 11 12 offset. metal is dissolved and the passive layer redevelops (figures 13).17. Figure 6.cdr Model of Crack Propagation Through Stress Corrosion Cracking not follow the grain boundaries.16. Thus narrow gaps where the corrosive medium can accumulate are to be avoided by introducing a suitable debr-er-06-17e. show this behaviour. Figure 6. and the access of oxygen to the bottom of the hole is obstructed. Figure 6. Stress-corrosion cracking occurs when the material displaces under stress and the passive layer tears. Now the unprotected area is subjected to corrosion. preferably Cl—ions. dislocation place in chloride solutions.18. oxygen is required to develop the passive layer. Pitting Corrosion of a Steel Storage Container With pitting corrosion.18 .e. The crack propagation is transglobular.6. metal surface. Welding High Alloy Steels 79 If crevice corrosion is present. it does br-er-06-18e. passive layer. i. Corrosion products accumulate in this depression. Especially salts.17 local break-up of the passive layer. corrosion products built up in the root of the gap and oxygen has no access to restore the passive layer. The repeated displace1 2 3 4 5 6 ment tion. therefore this layer cannot be completely cured and pitting occurs. the chemical composition of the attacking medium causes a Figure 6. However. This local attack causes a dissolution of the material on the damaged points.cdr sign. a depression develops.

6.05 to 1 mm/h for steels with 18 . With very high expansion-rates.19 shows the expansion-rate dependence of stress corrosion cracking.20 shows an example of crack propagation at transglobular stress corrosion cracking. It is caused by precipitation of chromium carbides on grain boundaries. . With very low expansion-rates. Sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking complete cover layer tough fracture T=RT SpRK · e 2 · e 1 Elongation speed e · br-er06-19E.02% at room temperature. a curing of the passive layer is fast enough to arrest the crack.19 Figure 6. the carbon content in high alloyed Cr-Ni steels is limited to approximately 0. With view to welding it is important to know that already residual welding stresses may release stress corrosion cracking. Figure 6. Although a high solubility of carbon in the austenite can be expected.21. the material damage is due to stress corrosion cracking.20 The most important problem in the field of welding is intergranular corrosion (IC). see Fe-C diagram. A crack propagation speed is between 0. the failure of the specimen originates from a ductile fracture. Welding High Alloy Steels 80 Figure 6.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Elongation Speed on Sensitivity to Stress Corrosion Cracking Transgranular Stress Corrosion Cracking Figure 6. Figure 6.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er06-20e. In the intermediate range.20% Cr and 8 20% Ni.

Due to these precipitations.22. the complete corrosion resisChromium content of austenite 1 .6. complete grains break-out of the steel.15 0.start of carbide formation 3 .05 0.25 % 0.23 explains why the IC is also described as intergranular disintegration. br-er06-21e. br-er-06-22e.homogenuous starting condition 2 . In this way.2 Carbon content 0.22 .regeneration of resistance limit 1 2 4 resistance limit 3 tance can be restored (line 4 in Figure 6. therefore the chromium reduction cannot be compensated by late diffusion.22) the steel has become susceptible to corrosion.Steel Figure 6. The diffusion speed of chromium in austenite is considerably lower than that of carbon. Figure 6.22). Welding High Alloy Steels 81 The reason is the very high affinity of chroto Bain and Aborn 1200 °C 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 0 0.22).cdr © ISF 2002 Carbon Solubility of Austenitic Cr . Figure 6.3 mium to carbon.21 C concentration along the grain boundary (line 3 in Figure 6.start of concentration balance 4 . chromium will diffuse to the grain boundary and increase the Figure 6. which causes the precipitation of chromium carbides Cr23C6 on grain boundaries.Ni Steels Only after the steel has been subjected to sufficiently long heat treatment.1 0. In the depleted areas along the grain boundaries (line 2 in Figure 6. Due to dissolution of depleted areas along the grain boundary. the austenite grid is depleted of chromium content along the grain boundaries Heat treatment temperature A and the Cr content drops below the parting limit.cdr Distance from grain boundary © ISF 2002 Sensibility of a Cr .

21). Welding High Alloy Steels 82 The precipitation and repassivation mechanisms described in Figure 6. Due to the highly increased diffusion speed of carbon in ferrite.6.cdr © ISF 2002 Grain Disintegration Figure 6.Steels Figure 6.cdr 1 incubation time 2 regeneration of resistance limit 3 saturation limit for chromium carbide © ISF 2002 Area of Intergranular Disintegration of Unstabilized Cr . Below this temperature. Consequently the danger of intergranular corrosion is significantly higher with ferritic steel than with austenite. the time 3 ¬ Reciprocal of heat treatment temperature 1/T br-er-06-23e. During stoppage at a constant temperature.22 are covered by intergranular corrosion diagrams according to Figure 6. precipitation characteristic curve).23 precipitation occurs after a incubation unsaturated austenite austenite chromium carbide (M23C6) no intergranular disintegration which depends on temperature (line 1.24. . a carbon precipitation takes place. br-er-06-24e. As it is a diffusion controlled certain process. the parting limit of the steel is 2 austenite + chromium caride (M23C6) sensitive to intergranular disintegration oversaturated austenite 1 Heat treatment time (lgt) regained by diffusion of chromium. shifts the curve of carbon precipitation of this steel markedly towards shorter time.24 Figure 6. Above a certain temperature carbon remains dissolved in the austenite (see also Figure 6.25 depicts characteristic precipitation curves of a ferritic and of an austenitic steel.

the br-er06-25e.cdr 10 2 103 Time 104 105 s 10 6 © ISF 2002 carbon is compounded into Nb.27. Figure 6. By decreasing the carbon content of steel. therefore 500 400 1 10 br-er-06-26e. Welding High Alloy Steels 83 As carbon is the element that triggers the intergranular corrosion.26 .26. the considerable influence of cooling curve lower temperatures ELC-steels and longer quench temperature precipitation curves for 17% Cr steel 18-8-Cr-Ni steel times.28.and Ti-carbides. Figure 6. the start of carbide precipitation and/or the start of intergranular corrosion are shifted towards so-called than 0. The Ccontent of the weld metal increases and the steel becomes more susceptible to intergranular corrosion. This fact initiated the development of where the C content is decreased to less Tempering temperature (Extra-Low-Carbon) carbon is also important for the selection of the shielding gas.25 Precipitation Curves of Various Alloyed Cr Steels 1000 °C 900 800 An often used method to avoid intergranular corrosion is a stabilisation of the 0. The affinity of these elements to carbon is significantly higher than that of chromium.05%C 0.cdr Tempering time © ISF 2002 stronger is its carburising effect.03%C Temperature niobium and titanium.6.07%C 700 steel by alloy elements like 0. Figure 6.025%C 600 ure 6.03% During welding. The higher the CO2-content of the shielding gas. The Influence of C-Content on Intergranular Disintegration Figure 6. the intergranular corrosion diagram is relevantly influenced by the c content. Fig0. Now carbon cannot cause any chromium depletion.

The cause is the dissolution of titanium carbides at sufficiently high temperature.2 0.28 shows the effects of a stabilisation in the intergranular corrosion diagram.3 unstabilized 1300°C C o m p o sitio n S hie ld ing g a s S 1 M 1 M 2 A r [% ] 99 90 82 C O2 / 5 18 O2 1 5 / /W 1050°C /W 1 3 W. 700 Heat treatment temperature 600 550 M2 M1 0. Only with a much higher heat treatment temperature the intergranular corrosion accelerates again. a partial chromium carbide precipitation takes place. Due to the large surplus of chromium compared with niobium or titanium.06%) 300 1000 h 10000 Heat treatment time X5CrNi18-10 Heat treatment temperature 800 °C 700 650 600 550 500 450 0.:4301 (0. carbides are dissolved.28 If a subsequent stress relief treatment around 600°C is carried out. Welding High Alloy Steels 84 proportion of these alloy elements depend on the carbon content and is at least 5 times higher with titanium and 10 times higher with niobium than that of carbon.51 % Nb Nb/C = 17 800 °C 700 650 600 550 500 450 0.6.57 % Nb Nb/C = 32 Heat treatment temperature °C 0.53 % Nb Nb/C = 9 0.:4541 10 30 100 Time 300 1000 h 10000 X5CrNiTi18-10 stabilized br-er06-27e. a narrow area of the HAZ is heated above 1300° C. During welding.5 1 2.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er06-28e. the carbon remains dissolved. causing again inter- . This carbide dissolution causes problems when welding stabilised steels. During the subsequent cooling and the high cooling rate.018 % C 0.5 5 10 25 50 100 250 h S1 1000 1 3 10 30 100 Time W.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Shielding Gas on Intergranular Disintegration Influence of Stabilization on Intergranular Disintegration Figure 6.030 % C 0.-No.3 1050°C /W 500 450 400 0. If both steels are subjected to the same heat treatment (1050° C/W means heating to 1050° C and subsequent water quenching).27 Figure 6.058 % C 0. then the area of intergranular corrosion will shift due to stabilisation to significantly longer times.-No. carbide precipitations on grain boundaries take place again. Figure 6.

Fe 1.0.6 Incoloy 925 Ni 42.5.4. Cu 2. Welding High Alloy Steels 85 granular susceptibility. low temperature. corrosive attack. Al Nimonic 90 Ni 77. Cr 15.0.0. W 0.7. the lower is the tendency to knife-line corrosion.4 br-er-06-30e.5.5.03 Ni 32. Al 0.7. W 1. They are ideal materials when it comes to components which are exposed to special conditions: high temperature.0.5.0. Composition characterized by moderate mechanical strength and high degree of toughness. Cr 19.5.0. Figure 6.6. Mg 0.0. Mn 2. Cr 25. The stronger the steel is over-stabilised. S 0. Fe 30. W 2.0.15 Ni 38. Mo They can be hardened only by cold working. Cu Fe 44.cdr © ISF 2002 Typical Classification of Ni-Base Alloys for best machinability and smoothest finish.0 Ni 35. Si 1.5 Ni 64.0.5. Fe 1.7. Co 12. Si 0.4 Ni 39. Fe 49.0.1 Ni 99. Al 0. Fe 1. it was called knife-line attack because of its appearance. Mn 0.2. W 0. Cr 21. Mo 10. Cr 18.4. Cu 31. Nowadays the importance of Nickel-Base-Alloys increases constantly.0. In stabilised steels.0 Ni 99. Al 0.0. Nb 3. or combinations hereof. Al 2.0. Fe Mo 9. Co 13. Cr 21. As this susceptibility is limited to very narrow areas along the welded joint.03.0.5. W 2. Fe 1.0.075 Chem. Nb 4.0. Mo Ni 38. The alloys are quite gummy in the annealed or hot-worked condition.5. Cr 22.0. Figure 6. Mo 9.5.5. Fe 42. wear rebr-er-06-29e.5 Ni 30. C 0. Ti 1.0. Cu 68.05 Ni 42.8 Ni 58. W 0.0 Ni 80.1. Al 0. Si 0. Cr Group D2 Monel K-500 Inconel 718 Ni 65. Mo 3.04 Ni Chem.0. Fe 2.cdr sistance.5. W 3.30 . Fe 8.2.1. and with a sufficiently long heat treatment to transform to NbC. W 2. Nb 4. Cr 18. Ce 0.6 Nimonic 105 Incoloy 903 Incoloy 909 Inco G-3 Inco C-276 Group E Monel R-405 Ni 66. Figure 6. and cold-drawn material is recommended Inconel X-750 Ni 61. Cu 29.03.0. Fe 42. W 1.0. the total number of available materials is many times higher. C 0. Y2O3 0. composition Alloy Group D1 Duranickel 301 Ni 94.29 Materials listed there are selected examples. Al 0.6 Ni 52.0 Ni 76. Fe 46.5.3 Ni-Span-C 902 Y2O3 0.0. Al shows one of the possible grouping of nickel-base-alloys.0. Mo 3.0.0. Group A consists of nickel alloys. Cu 31. the steel becomes stable again. the chromium carbide represents an unstable phase.08 Ni 97. Cr 19.5. Al 1. Ni 42. These alloys are Alloy Group A Nickel 200 Nickel 212 Nickel 222 Group B Monel 400 Monel 450 Ferry Group C Inconel 600 Nimonic 75 Nimonic 86 Incoloy 800 Incoloy 825 Inco 330 Ni 66.29. Mn 1. Cr 5. Fe 32.0.3. Cu 13.4.7 Ni 45.0. Cr 19. Cu 55. Al 4. Al Fe Fe 34.0. Cr 20.0. C 0.0.5. Cr 21. Cu 13. Knife-Line Corrosion Figure 6.5.

The aluminium and titanium containing 2.g. It was designed for mass production of automatically machined screws. Hot worked and quenched or rapidly air cooled Group E contains only one material: MONEL R-405. The alloys in Group D are characterized by high strength and hardness. It is divided into two subgroups: D 1 – Alloys in the non-aged condition. Due to the high number of possible alloys with different properties. Group D consists primary of age-hardening alloys. Ti). the material . These alloys are quite similar to the austenitic stainless steels. Inconel X-750. Material which has been solution annealed and quenched or rapidly air cooled is in the softest condition and does machine easily. Solution annealed 2.4669. Cold-drawn or cold-drawn and stress-relieved material is recommended for best machinability and smoothest finish. tapping and all threading operations. also known as e. Welding High Alloy Steels 86 Group B consists mainly of those nickel-copper alloys that can be hardened only by cold working.6. the number of flaws and dislocations in the crystal is reduced and soluble carbides dissolve. Heavy machining of the age-hardening alloys is best accomplished when they are in one of the following conditions: 1. To achieve best results. only one typical material of group D2 is discussed here: Material No. particularly when aged. Because of softness. 2. Group C consists largely of nickel-chromium and nickel-iron-chromium alloys. During solution heat treatment of X-750 at 1150° C.4669 is age-hardening through the combination of these elements with nickel during heat treatment: gamma-primary-phase (γ') develops which is the intermetallic compound Ni3(Al. They can be hardened only by cold working and are machined most readily in the cold-drawn or cold-drawn and stress-relieved condition. the non-aged condition is necessary for trouble free drilling. D 2 – Aged Group D-1 alloys plus several other alloys in all conditions. The alloys in this group have higher strength and slightly lower toughness than those in Group A.

During the M23C6 transformation. the material should not be cold worked. This stabilisation improves the resistance of this alloy against the attack of several corrosive media. In any case it must be noted that heat stresses are minimised during assembly or welding. During an 840° C stabilising heat treatment as part of the triple-heat treatment. However. γ' particles arrest the movement of dislocations. After solution heat treatment.31 shows typical strength properties of a welded plate at a temperature range between -423° and 1500° F (-248 – 820° C). Welding High Alloy Steels 87 should be in intensely worked condition before heat treatment to permit a fast and complete recrystallisation. the fine γ' phase develops inside the grains and M23C6 precipitates onto the grain boundaries. Before welding. resistance. Adjacent to the grain boundary. X-750 should be in normalised or solution heat treated condition. can be taken from literature. During precipitation hardening (700° C/20 h) γ' phase develops in these depleted zones. The recommended processes for welding of X-750 are tungsten inert gas. However. because the base material may crack. This enhances the hardening effect and improves strength characteristics. carbon is stabilised to a high degree without leaving chromium depleted areas along the grain boundaries. If X-750 was precipitation hardened and then welded. especially with view to the influence of heat treatment on fracture properties and corrosion behaviour. . Joint properties are almost 100% of base material at room temperature and about 80% at 700° 820° C. there is a γ' depleted zone. The creep rupture resistance of X-750 is due to an even distribution of the intercrystalline γ' phase. During TIG welding of INCONEL X-750. the weld should be normalised or once again precipitation hardened. and pressure oxy arc welding.6. With a reduction of the precipitation temperature from 730 to 620° C – as required for some special heat treatments – additional γ' phase is precipitated in smaller particles. electron beam. plasma arc. since this would generate new dislocations and affect negatively the fracture properties. but after that neither the seam nor the heat affected zone should be precipitation hardened or used in the temperature range of precipitation hardening. it is possible to weld it in a precipitation hardened condition. Further metallurgical discussions about X-750. fracture properties depend more on the microstructure of the grain boundaries. INCONEL 718 is used as welding consumable. this leads to improved strength and creep resistance properties. Figure 6. and if it is likely that the workpiece is used in the temperature range of precipitation hardening.

and flash butt welding. air A repair welding of already fitted parts should be followed by a solution heat treatment (with a fast heating-up through the temperature range of precipitation hardening) and a repeated precipitation hardening. Heating-up speed during welding must be from the start fast and even touching the temperature range of precipitation hardening only as briefly as possible. Sometimes a preheating before welding is advantageous – if the component to be welded has a poor accessibility. 1550° F/16 h.cdr © ISF 2002 Mechanical Properties of a Typical Ni-Base Alloy Figure 6. Welding High Alloy Steels 88 X-750 welds should be solution heat treated before a precipitation hardening. X-750 is generally resistance welded in normalized or solution heat treated condition. F° br-er06-31e. If such films are not removed on a regular basis. and especially if the assembly proves to be too complicated for a post heat treatment. 30 20 10 0 20 10 0 -423 0 elongation in 2” 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 elongation in 1/2” Temperature. A cleaning of intermediate layers must be carried out to remove the oxide layers which are formed during welding. they can become thick enough to cause material separations together with a reduced strength. Two effective welding preparations are: 1. furnace cooling with 25° -100° F/h up to 1200° F. The best way for fast heating-up is to insert the welded workpiece into a preheated furnace. The welding equipment must be of adequate performance.31 . air cooling 2. seam-. Any sand must be removed before the next layer is welded. or the welding is complex.2% yield stress 80 60 tion of the weld metal using gas shielded surface. % Stress. (A complete isolaprocesses is hardly possible). projection.6. The frequency of cleaning depends on the mass of the developed oxides. 1950° F/1 h. 1000 psi 220 200 180 160 tensile strength 140 120 100 0. the layer surface must be sandblasted or ground with abrasive material. X-750 can be joined also by spot-. Brushing with wire brushes only polishes the Elongation.

7. Welding of Cast Materials .

In Figure 7. decarburized annealed malleable cast iron steel.2 . and cast to cast steel cast ferritic cast steel metallic cast materials non-metallic cast materials plastics.g.cdr perlitic ferritic perlitic austenitic © ISF 2002 Table of the cast Iron Materials Figure shows the designation of Designation according to the material code (DIN EN 1560) e.J L 1271 1 23 Position 1: Position 2: Position 3: Position 4: Position 5: Position 6: EN J L 1 27 1 - 4.: EN-GJ L F – 150 1 Position 1: Position 2: Position 3: Position 4: Position 5: Position 6: EN GJ L F 150 - the cast material in accordance with DIN EN 1560.5.1 provides a summary of the different cast iron materials. ferritic br-er-07-01e. as special due to their poor weldability... examples of two materials are gypsum and s. In this connection it is only referred iron. 2 34 5 standardised material cast material graphite structure (lamellar graphite) microstructure (ferritic) 2 mechanical properties (Rm= 150 N/mm ) chemical composition (high alloyed) optionally Designation according to the material number e.cdr © ISF 2004 Designation of Materials Figure 7. Welding of Cast Materials 90 cast materials Figure 7.6 standardised material cast material graphite structure (lamellar graphite) number for the main characteristic material identification number special requirement br-er07-02e.) unalloyed perlitic alloyed low alloyed nodular graphite cast iron lemellar graphite cast iron high alloyed hard cast clear chill low C iron casting content ledeburitic Cr-cast iron other elements high Ccontent graphite Si-cast iron Al-cast iron ferritic perlitic austenitic decarburized ferritic not decarburized not decarburized annealed malleable cast iron perlitic austenitic malleable materials. A distinction is made between the designation “according to the material code” and the designation “according to the material number”.1 Figure 7.similar iron-carboncast materials non-iron-metal cast materials malleable iron cast iron special cast iron (G. are of no importance in welding.: EN.g.

The differences between the cast material are best explained this way. In Figure 7.e. the from metal.. As to its analysis and mechanical properties which are very different from other cast materials. Figure 7. the me- system.4 the stable and the metastable iron-carbon diagram are shown. follows tastable solidification the molten however.8 beand contents tween 4. Through the addition of alloying elements.3 depicts a survey of the mechanical properties and the chemical compositions of several customary cast materials. on the Figure 7.4 . i. The C-contents of cast steel.7. Cast iron with lamellar and spheroidal ite has graphcarbon of 2. these materials solidify fo llowing the stable system.3 above all Si.5%. cast steel constitutes an exception to the rule. Welding of Cast Materials 91 Figure 7. the carbon is precipitated in the form of graphite. Malleable cast iron shows similar C-contents.

e. the residual stresses inside the workpiece are. on the one hand the transformation of the cast structure is obtained.6 . these materials are characterised by increased contents of S and P which Figure 7. on the other hand. reduced. it is recommended to carry out preheating during welding. below 0. comply with those of common structural steels.5.7. Since the properties are similar to those of structural steels these materials are weldable.6 shows the structure of cast iron with lamellar graphite (grey cast iron). After welding the cast workpieces are subject to stress-relief annealing. as a rule. Apart from their carbon content. they are. the preheating temperature should follow the analysis of the material. i. Figure 7.8% C. constructional welding is also possible. Through this type of heat treatment.15% up. the workpiece geometry and the welding method.5 From a C-content in the steel cast of 0. Welding of Cast Materials other hand. Figure 7. 92 The structure of a normalised cast iron which is composed of ferrite (bright) and pearlite (dark) is shown in Figure 7.. It is recommended to normalise the cast steel parts before welding.

the risk of material failure caused by weld residual stresses or thermal stresses is considerably reduced for spheroidal graphite . carried out more frequently as damaged cast parts are not easily replaceable. During this type of welding. For the minimisation of these structural changes.7 considerably lesser than this is the case with grey cast iron. a highly ductile filler material is applied. and thus the molten pool must be supported by a carbon pile. the filler material must. the cast parts must be preheated (entirely or partly) to te mperatures of approx. there are always strong structural changes in the region of the weld which lead to high hardening and high residual stresses. For this reason. with this type of graphite. Figure 7. Heating and cooling must be done very slowly as the cast piece may be destroyed already by the thermal stresses. It is not possible to carry out constructional welding with grey cast iron.7 depicts the structural constitution of sphe roidal graphite cast iron. these chemical properties also impede welding with ordinary means. As. The heat input into the base material should be as low as possible. Repair welds of grey cast iron are. as a rule.7. 1%). be dissimilar (of different composition to the base metal). this type of cast iron is characterised by substa ntially better mechanical parameters with a considerably higher elongation after fracture and improved ductility. The graphite spheroidization achieved by is the addition of magnesium and cerium. 650°C. Welding of Cast Materials 93 improves castability. the notch actions are Figure 7. For those repair welds. Welding may be carried out with similar filler material (materials of the same composition as the base). The highly liquid weld metal also constitutes a problem. If grey cast iron is to be welded without any preheating. in contrast. Besides the poor mechanical properties (elongation after fracture of approx.

Problems occur in the HAZ where. The composition of the malleable cast iron is thus that during solidification. Both structures lead to extreme hardening in the HAZ which can be removed only by time- consuming heat treatment. Welding of Cast Materials 94 cast iron. Frequently.8 Figures 7.9 show the structures of Carburized Annealed Malleable Cast Iron (7. During a subsequent annealing process. the total of carbon is bound in cementite and precipitated. Figure 7. the iron carbide disintegrates into graphite and iron. Figure 7.7) and of Decarburized Annealed Malleable Cast Iron (7.9). also Ni-Fe-martensite is frequently formed.7.8 and 7. besides the ledeburite eutectic alloy system. nickel-based alloys are used as filler material.9 .

10.10 You can see in Figure 7. is characterised by considerably less hardening.11 . Figure 7. Annealing in oxidising atmosphere leads to the decarburisation of the workpiece surfaces and Decarburized Annealed Malleable Cast Iron is developed. EN-GJMW-400-12. This material is weldable without any problems up to a wall thickness of 8 mm. also with malleable cast iron. Figure 7. is weldable. hardening in the region of the HAZ occurs. in contrast. a special material quality has been developed. For carrying out constructional welds made of malleable cast iron parts. the structure of Carburized Annealed Malleable Cast Iron develops.11 that. Welding of Cast Materials 95 If annealing is carried out in neutral atmosphere. Carburized Annealed Malleable Cast Iron is not weldable. Figure 7. Figure 7.7. Decarburized Annealed Malleable Cast Iron.11 shows that this m aterial.

Welding of Aluminium .8.

200 0. then the aluminium supporting beam has a 1. the following differences are important for aluminium welding: . This is why there is no distinct yield point as being the case in a bcc (body centred cubic)lattice.75 97 12*10 -6 FeO of steel and aluminium.2 compares some mechanical properties of steel with properties of some light metals.87 bcc 210*10³ ca.88 660 2. If a comparison should be based on an identical stiffness.2 R mm spec.considerably lower electrical resistance . Side by side with different mechanical behaviour. The important advantages of light metals compared with steel are especially Oxydes Al2O 3 Fe 3O 4 Fe 2O 3 1400 Melting point of oxydes [°C] 2050 1600 (1455) br-er08-01.3 28-29 24*10 -6 Fe 55.double expansion coefficient .three times higher heat conductivity . In contrast to steel.cdr © ISF 2002 Basic Properties of Al and Fe Figure 8.84 7.1 shown in the right part of the figure.cdr Deflexions and Weights of Cantilever Beams Under Load Figure 8.7 fcc 71*10³ ca. Heat capacity Melting point Heat conductivity Spec. however only about 50% of its weight. Figure 8.44 times larger cross-section than the steel beam.8.melting point of Al203 considerably higher than that of Al. 100 ca.53 1539 0. [N/mm²] [N/mm²] [N/mm²] [J/(g*°C)] [°C] [W/(cm*K)] [nW m] [1/°C] [g/Mol] [g/cm³] Al 26.2 . Figure 8. 10 ca. el. Welding of Aluminium 97 Figure 8. metal and iron oxide melt approximately at the same temperature. aluminium has a fcc (face centred cubic)-lattice at room temperature.2 PO.considerably lower melting point compared with steel . 50 0. Resistance Expansion coeff.3 compares qualitatively the stress-strain diagram of Aluminium and steel.9 2. Aluminium is not subject to a lattice transbr-er-08-02.1 compares basic physical properties Property Atomic weight Specific weight Lattice E-module R pO.

This special characteristic of Al requires a input heat volume during welding equivalent to steel. This is due to the considerably higher heat conductivity of aluminium compared with steel. With aluminium. Figure 8.3 Figure 8. the isothermal curves around the welding point have a clearly larger extension.4 illustrates the effect of the considerably higher heat conductivity on the welding process compared with steel.cdr -8 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 cm 6 © ISF 2002 br-er08-04. .8. 4 cm 2 low carbon steel 600 400 200°C 1000 1200 800 -2 1500 Steel -4 8 cm aluminium 6 100°C 200 Stress 4 Al-alloy 2 300 400 500 600 -2 -4 -6 Elongation br-er08-03.cdr © ISF 2002 Comparison of Stress-Elongation Diagrams of Al and Steel Isothermal Curves of Steel and Al Figure 8. the temperature gradient around the welding point is considerably smaller than with steel.5 lists the most important alloy elements and their combinations for industrial use. Welding of Aluminium 98 formation during cooling. Due to their behaviour during heat treatment can Al-alloys be divided into the groups hardenable and non-hardenable (naturally hard) alloys. Although the peak temperature during Al welding is about 900° C below steel. thus there is no structure transformation and consequently no danger of hardening in the heat affected zone as with steel.4 Figure 8.

in contrast to hardenable alloys which have such a potential. Example: If an alloy containing about 4. is heat treated at 500° C. apparatus-.5 AlCuMg1 AlMgSi0. SG-AlMg4. the crystal is out of equilibrium. anodizing quality architecture. anodizing quality architecture. SG-AlMg4. quite often over-alloyed consumables are used to compensate burn-off losses (especially with Mg and Zn because of their low boiling point) and to improve the mechanical properties of Al Si 678 Al Cu Mg Cu Al Mg Si Al Zn Mg Mg Al Zn Mg Cu Al Zn Al Si Cu the seam. there will be only a single phase structure present.8 AlMn1 base material .7 und 8.cdr Si Al Mg Mn Al Mg Mn Al Mn © ISF 2002 Classification of Aluminium Alloys second group is explained by the figures 8.2% Cu. The important hardening mechanism for this Figure 8.5Mn. no precipitation will take place. When quenched to room Al . If such a structure is subjected to an age hardening at room or elevated temperature. food industry W elding consumable SG-Al 99. furniture industry apparatus-. which is stable at room temperature.8. SG-AlSi5 SG-AlSi5 SG-AlMg3. SG-AlMg3. shipbuilding engineering apparatus-.5Ti. All alloy elements were dissolved. Figure 8. Welding of Aluminium 99 Figure 8. after a sufficiently long time.5 SG-AlMg4. Aluminium alloys are often welded with consumable of the same type. then. SG-Al 99. The classification of Al alloys into two groups is based on the characteristic that the group of the non-hardenable alloys cannot increase the strength through heat treatment. vehicle-. SG-AlMg4. electrical engineering.alloys Al99. however.5Mn SG-AlMg5. a AlMg2Mn0.8.5Mn SG-AlMn1.5 AlSi5 AlMg3 Typical use electrical engineering mechanical engineering.5T temperature in this condition.6 non-hardenable alloys hardenable alloys 678 .8 between point P and Q. shipbuilding engineering. The alloy elements are forced to remain dissolved. food industries architecture.SG-Al99.5 br-er08-05.aluminium percentage of alloy elements without factor br-er-08-06.6 shows typical applications of some Al alloys together with preferably used welding consumables. vehicle-engineering.5Mn SG-AlMg5. vehicle-.cdr © ISF 2002 Use and Welding Consumables of Aluminium Alloys precipitation of a second phase takes place in ac- Figure 8.

thus 600 700 liquid liquid and solid Q copper containing aluminium solid solution 500 P leading to an increase in strength. Consequently a prolonged stop at this temperature does not lead to an increased strength. warm aged condition ageing at slightly increased temperature coherent precipitations. Welding of Aluminium 100 cordance with the binary system.7. the crystal tries to get back into thermodynamical equilibrium.8 . Figure 8.cdr Temperature 400 300 aluminium solid solution and copper aluminide (Al2Cu) 200 100 copper content of AlCuMg 0 1 2 3 4 5 mass-% 7 Copper © ISF 2002 Phase Diagram Al-Cu Figure 8. and incoherent Figure 8. particles deviating from the matrix in their chemical composition but having the same partly lattice coherent structure). the lattice structure of the matrix is partly retained). Depending on the level of hardening temperature. transition conditions cold ageing -. softening longer warm ageing stable incoherent equilibrium phase stable condition br-er-08-07.cdr © ISF 2002 Ageing Mechanism (i. but to coarsening of particles due to diffusion processes and to a decrease in strength (less bigger particles in an extended space). Coherent particles formed at room temperature can be transformed into incoherent particles by increase of temperature (i. particles longer warm ageing partly coherent and incoherent precipitations. enabling diffusion).7 particles (lattice structure completely different from the matrix). the warm ageing stable condition solution heat treatment solidification of alloy elements in solid solution repeated hardening regeneration cold ageing (RT ageing) quenching oversaturated solid solution.7) a maximum of second phase has precipitated after elapse of a certain time. Figure 8.e.warm ageing temperature rise herent particles (i.e. the stronger the effect.8. cold aged condition temperature rise coherent and partly coherent precipitations. br-er08-08. The precipitations cause a restriction to the dislocation movement in the matrix lattice. metastable condition precipitation takes place in three possible forms: copartly coherent precipitations.e. The finer the precipitations. At an increased temperature (heat ageing.

quenching Temperature 300 200 heat ageing 100 The complete process of hardening at room temperature is metallographic also called age hardening.cdr Temperature . The curve of hot ageing shows clearly the begin of strength loss when held at a too long stoppage time. a . A decrease in strength at too long ageing time is called over-ageing. A deterioration of mechanical properties only happens during hot ageing. at elevated temperature heat age- age hardening 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 h 14 Time ing.8.Time Distribution During Ageing Figure 8.10 lier. In Figure 8. © ISF 2002 br-er08-09. The strength maximum is also reached considerably earbr-er-08-10. 320 260 120°C 200 RT 140 80 10-1 quenched 100 Ageing time in h 101 10² 10³ © ISF 2002 Increase of Yield Stress During Ageing of AlZnMg1 Figure 8.7 is this stable final condition iden- Q 500 P °C 400 solution heat treatment tical with the starting condition. During ageing. if the ageing time is excessively long. This figure shows another specialty of the process of ageing.2 in N/mm² 1 in dependence of time.9 shows a schematic representation of time-temperature curves during hardening with age hardening and heat ageing.2% yield stress s0. Due to improved diffusion conditions is the strength increase in the case of heat ageing much faster than in the case of age hardening.9 Figure 8.cdr 0. Figure 8. Welding of Aluminium 101 After a very long heat ageing a stable condition is reached again with relatively large precipitations of the second phase in the matrix.10 shows the 380 water quenching (~900°C/min) air cooling (~30°C/min) strength increase of AlZnMg The difference between age hardening and heat ageing is here very clear.

the strength increase caused by ageing is accompanied by an embrittlement of the material. the fracture elongation is counter-proportional to the strength values. The period up to this point is called incubation time.8. AlMg5 AlMg3 200 100 Al99. such an acceleration of ageing 400 N/mm² 300 Tensile strength Rm 20 110°C 10 260 230 30 min 1 day 0 1 week 1 1 month year 0 10 -2 10 -1 10 10 Ageing time 1 10 2 10 3 h 10 4 br-er08-11.11 leads to a lowering of the maximum strength. 500 Tensile strength sB Figure 8. On the other hand. However. i. the ageing time as well as the incubation time become extremely long. To initiate this process.11 shows the effect of the height of ageing temperature level on both.2 110 300 135 150 200 180 190 205°C 230 260 Fracture elongation d2 30 % 190 205 180 150 135 Figure 8. The lower the ageing temperastress and tensile strength.2% yield stress s0. An increase of the ageing temperature shortens the duration of the complete precipitation process by a certain value raised by 1 to a power.12 .e.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Ageing Temperature and -Time on Ageing Figure 8. If a low ageing temperature is selected. a certain time is required to develop such nuclei.5 0 0 br-er-08-12. ture.cdr 30 % 70 Strain © ISF 2002 Age Hardening of Al Alloys Figure 8. mechanical properties of a hardenable Al-alloy and on incubation time. Only after formation of nuclei can the increase in strength start. the structure must contain nuclei of the second phase. As the lower part of the figure shows. Welding of Aluminium 102 second phase is precipitated from a single-phase structure. the higher the resulting values of yield N/mm² 400 110 135 150 180 300 230 190 205 260°C 200 N/mm² 400 0.11 shows that a the maximum yield stress is reached after a period of about one year under a temperature of 110° C.

Figure 8.cdr © ISF 2002 Non-Hardenable Al Alloy Figure 8. both sides. 250 Rp0.2=263N/mm² Rm=363 N/mm² welding method: WIG. Welding of Aluminium 103 Figure 8.2 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 Distance from Seam Centre 60 mm 100 0 br-er08-13. This is followed by a strong drop in yield point and tensile strength. the blocked dislocations are released (recovery).7 0.13 shows the effect of the welding 0.2 150 process on mechanical properties of a coldworked alloy.12 illustrates two essential mechanisms of strength increase of such alloys. such alloys can only be strengthened by cold working. in addition.6 Rp0. a restrengthening of the alloys takes place with increasing time. Figure 8.14 .13 400 Figure 8. As no precipitations are present to reduce the movement of dislocations.8. This strength loss cannot be overcome in the case of a welding process.5 50 HV30 0.cdr 60 40 80 100 mm 140 © ISF 2002 Hardenable Al Alloy Figure 8. this increase is caused by a stronger deformation of the lattice. the precipitations are solution heat treated and the strength values decrease in the weld area.2/Rm 200 Rm or Rp0. a grain coarsening will start in the HAZ. simultaneously welding consumable: S-AlMg5 specimens with machined weld bead 20 20 60 0 40 Distance from seam centre 50 80 br-er-08-14. Due to the heat input during welding.4 0. tensile strength increases with increasing content of alloy elements (solid solution strengthening).14 illustrates the N/mm² 350 90 days RT Rm mechanisms in the case of a hardenable aluminium alloy. Stress 21 days RT 300 1 day RT As a consequence of the welding heat. On 300 N/mm² 250 one hand. on the other hand.2 90 days RT 21 days RT 200 150 1 day RT 100 4 mm plates of: AlZnMg1F32 start values: Rp0.3 0. Due to the age hardening.12 shows a method of how to increase the strength of non-hardenable alloys. 100 0.

8. One can see that the manganese Weld cracking tendency 100 % 80 Cracking susceptibility content influences signifi- 2 60 1 40 X X Mg cantly the hot crack susceptibility. Si 3 X X 20 0 100 200 300 400 °C 500 Preheat temperature 0 1 2 Alloy content 3 % 4 1: AlMgMn 2: AlMg 2. The formula is shown in Figure . Zschötge proposed a calculation method which compares the heat conductivity conditions of the Al alloy with those of a carbon steel with 0.5 3: AlMg 3. Figure 8. The different behaviour of the three displayed alloys can be explained using the right part of the figure. high tensions develop during solidification of the weld pool in the course of the welding cycle.5 br-er-08-16. left part). Welding of Aluminium 104 Figure 8. partly very different preheat temperatures are recommended for the alloys. Figure 8. cracks may easily develop in the weld. hot crack susceptibility decreases strongly (see also alloy 2 and 3. the amount of fractured welds decreases. With increasing MG content. The maximum of this hot crack susceptibility is likely with about 1% Mg content (corresponds with alloy 1).cdr © ISF 2002 Hot Cracks in a Al Weld interval. If the welded alloy indicates a high melting br-er-08-15.15 shows another problematic nature of Alwelding. With an increasing preheat temperature.15 A relief can be afforded by preheating of the material. Due to the high thermal expansion of aluminium.2% C.16 To avoid hot cracking.cdr © ISF 2002 Influence of Preheat Temperature and Magnesium Content Figure 8.16.

AlMg4.98R Al99. i. AlZnMg1 Recommended preheat temperature 400 300 200 100 0 Increasing better weldability br-er-08-17.8 Al 99. Solubility of hydrogen in aluminium on the changes phase 745 l Al-Leg.18 br-er-08-18.7 Al 99.17.5 Al 99 Al R Mg0.8 Al Mg Si 1 E Al Mg Si 1 Al Mg 1 during Al welding is the welded joint. temperature of melt start (solidus temperature) preheat temperature heat conductivity melting point pure aluminium Welding possible without preheating: AlMg5.cdr © ISF 2002 Excessive Porosity in a Al Weld mild steel (0. AlZnMg3.5Mn. Pores in Al are mostly formed by hydrogen.8. This surplus precipitates in form of a gas bubble at the solidifying front. Figure 8.cdr © ISF 2002 Recommendations for Preheating Figure 8. in the melt ousted gas bubbles have often no chance to rise all the way to the surface.. This leads to a surplus of hydrogen in the melt due to the crystallisation during solidification. 660 TVorw.18. These results are only to be regarded as approximate.5 Al Mn Al Mg 2 Al Cu Mg 2 Al Mg 3 Al Mg 3 Si Al Mg Mn 600 . which is driven out of the weld pool during solidification. together with the related calculation result.5 Al Mg Si 0.5 °C Al Si 5 Al Cu Mg 1 Al R Mg 2 Al Cu Mg 0. = TS in °C in °C in J/cm*s*K Al 99. they are passed by the solidifying front and remain in the weld metal as pores.5 Al Mg Si 0. Instead. the individual application is subject to the information of the manufacturer. Welding of Aluminium 105 8.9 Al99. lAl-Leg.2%C) without preheating 500 Al Zn Mg Cu 0. the solidification speed of Al is relatively high. the melt dissolves many times more of the hydrogen than the just forming crystal at the same temperature.17 abruptly transition melt-crystal.5 Al Zn Mg Cu 1. AlMg7. Another strong major porosity problem of the TS Tvorw. It is based on the interplay of several characteristics and hard to suppress.e. As the melting point of Al is very low and Al has a very high heat conductivity. As a result. Figure 8.

20 br-er-08-20. grease) pores feuchte Luft Poren solid weld metal festes Schweißgut H2 H2 base material br-er-08-19.cdr Grundwerkstoff © ISF 2002 Ingress of Hydrogen Into the Weld Figure 8.20 and 8.19 Figure 8. humid air (nitrogen. oxygen. water) nozzle deposits and too steep inclination of the torch cause turbulences poor current transition humid air VS too thick oxyde layer (condensed water) dirt film (oil.21.cdr parallel gap weld pool overlap opening gap weld pool © ISF 2002 Weld Gap Adjustment . The large thermal expansion of the aluminium along with the relatively large heat affected zones cause in combination with a parallel gap adjustment a strong distortion of the welded parts. Figure 8. To minimise this distortion. Figure 8. the workpieces must be set at a suitable angle before welding.19 shows possible sources of hydrogen during MIG welding of Al. Welding of Aluminium 106 To suppress such pore irregular wire electrode feed too thick and water containing oxyde layer by too long or open storage in non air-conditioned rooms formation it is therefore necessary to minimise the hydrogen content in the melt.8.21 show the effect of pure thermal expansion during Al welding. Figure 8.

8.cdr © ISF 2002 Examples to Minimise Distortion Figure 8. Welding of Aluminium 107 wedge flame br-er08-21.21 .

Welding Defects .9.

4 give a rough survey about the classification of welding defects to DIN 8524.3 . Welding Defects 109 Figures 9.1 Figure 9.1 to 9.2 Figure 9. This standard does not classify existing welding defects according to their origin but only to their appearance. Figure 9.9.

the welding current is fixed by the wire feed speed (thus also melting rate) as shown in the middle part of the figFigure 9. melting rate and welding speed do not limit each other. too high welding speed. If the heat input is too low. The development of the most important welding defects is explained in the following paragraphs.6 explains the influence of welding parameters on the development of lack of fusion. As it can be changed within certain limits.4 the upper part. Figure 9. In Figure 9. but a working range is created (lower part of the figure). Lack of fusion is defined as unfused area between weld metal and base material or previously welded layer.9. Due to the . The welding voltage depends on welding current and is selected according to the joint type.5 ure.e. With present tension. Melting rate (resulting from selected welding parameters) and welding speed define the heat input. This happens when the base metal or the previous layer are not completely or insufficiently molten. a definite melting of flanks cannot be ensured. Welding Defects 110 A distinction of arising defects by their origin is shown in Figure 9. i. arc characteristic lines of MAG welding are shown using CO2 and mixed gas.5.

but onto the weld pool. The upper part of the figure explains the terms neutral. positive and negative torch angle. the seam gets wider with a positive inclination together with a slight reduction of penetration depth. Welding Defects 111 poor power. it must be ensured that the plate is com- . A negative inclination leads to narrower beads. The third figure illustrates the influence of torch orientation during welding of a fillet weld. lack of fusion is the result. To avoid weak fusion between layers. the perpendicular flank is insufficiently molten. Compared with a neutral position. With a false torch orientation. i. and flanks are not entirely molten.e.9. This effect prevents a melting of the base metal. With too high heat input. as it provides a reliable melting and a proper fusion of the layers. Thus lack of fusion may occur in such areas.6 Figure 9. too low welding speed. the weld pool gets too large and starts to flow away in the area in front of the arc. The arc is not directed into the base metal. The second part of the figure shows the torch orientation transverse to welding direction with multi-pass welding.7 shows the influence of torch position on the development of weak fusion. Figure 9. When welding an I-groove in two layers. a lack of fusion occurs. the torch orientation is of great importance.7 Figure 9.

As an example. Both may cause lack of fusion. Figure 9.9. Figure 9.9 metal: the mechanical and the metallurgical pore formation.8 shows the influence of the torch orientation during MSG welding of a rotating workpiece. The lower figure illustrates variations of torch orientation on seam formation. To over-weld a cavity (lack of . Welding Defects 112 pletely fused. i. as shown in the lower figure.e. provided that their size does not exceed a certain value. the weld pool does not flow in front or behind of the arc. melting rate. A torch orientation should be chosen in such a way that a solidification of the melt pool takes place in 12 o'clock position. the upper figure shows the desired torch orientation for usual welding speeds. Secondly. A false torch orientation may lead to lack of fusion between the layers. pores in the weld metal due to their globular shape are less critical. This orientation depends on parameters diameter groove Figure 9. There are two possible mechanisms to develop cavities in the weld Figure 9.9 lists causes of a mechanical pore formation as well as possibilities to avoid them.8 like and shape. and welding speed. In contrast to faulty fusion. workpiece thickness. they must occur isolated and keep a minimum distance from each other.

This pore formation shows its typical pore position at the edge of the joint and at the fusion li ne of the top layer. overlaps etc.9. Welding Defects 113 fusion. the pore will be caught in the weld metal. as well as a surface and a transverse section. The welding heat during welding causes a strong expansion of the gasses contained in the cavity and consequently a development of a gas bubble in the liquid weld metal. a) X-ray photograph b) Surface cross-section c) Transverse section br-er09-10.10 shows a X-ray photograph of a pore which developed in this way.12 .) of a previous layer can be regarded as a typical case of a mechanical pore formation.cdr © ISF 2002 Mechanical Pore Formation Figure 9. Figure 9. gaps.11 Figure 9. If the solidification is carried out so fast that this gas bubble cannot raise to the surface of the weld pool.10 Figure 9.

Reason of this pore formation is the considerably increased solubility of the molten metal compared with the solid state.11 summarises causes of and measures to avoid a metallurgical pore formation. c) transverse section br-er09-13. As a result. During solidification. solved gasses are driven out of the crystal and are ena) X-rax photograph riched as a gas bubble ahead of the solidification front. However.13 metallurgical pores. With a slow growth of the crystallisation front. a higher solidification speed may lead to a case where gas bubbles are passed by the crystallisation front and are trapped as pores in the weld metal. A pore formation Figure 9. the bubbles have enough time to raise to the surface of the weld pool. Figure 9.14 .13 shows a X-ray photograph.12 upper part. The evenly distributed pores across the seam and the accumulation of pores in the upper part of the seam (transverse typical.9.cdr © ISF 2002 Metallurgical Pore Formation Figure 9. a surface and a transverse section of a seam with Figure 9.14 shows the ways of ingress of gasses into the weld pool as an example during MAG welding. the transition of liquid to solid condition causes a leapwise reduction of gas solubility of the steel. Pores will not be develb) surface section oped. section) are Figure 9. lower part of the figure. Welding Defects 114 Figure 9.

Oxygen is bonded in a harmless way when using universal electrodes which are alloyed with Si and Mn. br-er09-15.cdr © ISF 2002 Classification of Cracks to DIN 8524 Part 3 Figure 9.9.15 . Welding Defects 115 is mainly caused by hydrogen and nitrogen.

Principally there is a distinction between the group 0010 (hot cracks) and 0020 (cold cracks). When a melt of a composition C0 cools down.16 A model of remelting development and solidification cracks is shown in Figure 9. but no diffusion takes place in the crystalline solid.17 . no diffusion of alloy elements in the already solidified crystal takes place. Welding Defects 116 Figure 9. a crystalline solid is formed when the liquidus line is reached. thus the crystals are enriched with alloy elements much slower Figure 9. under the provision that a complete concentration balance takes place in the melt ahead of the solidification front. The upper part illustrates solidification conditions in a simple case of a binary system. Figure 9. Its concentration can be taken from the solidus line.9. the rest of molten metal is enriched with alloy elements in accordance with the liquidus line. In contrast to part 1 and 2 of this sta ndard.17.16 allocates cracks according to their appearance during the welding heat cycle. are cracks not only classified by their appearance. As defined in the beginning. part 3.15 classifies cracks to DIN 8524. Figure 9. but also by their development. In the course of the ongoing solidification.

A hot cracking tendency of a steel is above all promoted by sulphur and phosphorus. Due to the segregation effects described above. Such concentration differences between first and last solidified crystals are called segregations. If the base material to be welded contains already some segregations whose melting point is lower than that of the rest of the base metal. entrapping the remaining melt in the bead centre. If the joint is exposed to te nsile stress during solidification. forming at the end of solidification a very much enriched crystalline solid. The lower part of the figure shows the development of remelting cracks. and the rest of the material remains solid (black areas). This model of segregation development is very much simplified. As indicated by the black areas. but it is sufficient to understand the mechanism of hot crack formation.18. With narrow. If tensile stresses exist (shrinking stress of the welded joint). 117 As a result. hot crack te ndency increases with increasing melt interval. The middle part of the figure shows the formation of solidification cracks. In the case of flat beads as shown in the . then these zones will melt during welding. the concentration of the melt exceeds the maximum equilibrium concentration (C 5).18 develop. because these elements form with iron very low melting phases (eutectic point Fe-S at 988°C) and these elements segregate i ntensely.9. the liquid areas are not yet able to transfer forces and open up. With the occurrence of shrinking stresses. hot cracks may Figure 9. whose melting point is considerably lower when compared with the firstly developed crystalline solid. In addition. Welding Defects than in a case of the binary system (lower line). As shown in Figure 9. the melt between the crystalline solids at the end of solidification has a considerably decreased solidus temperature. also the geometry of the groove is important for hot crack tendency. then these areas open up (see above) and cracks occur. deep grooves a crystallisation takes place of all sides of the bead. rests of liquid may be trapped by dendrites.

Such a classification does not provide an explanation for the origin of the cracks. The section shown in Figure 9. . This crack developed due to the unsuitable groove geometry. Figure 9.20 shows an example of a remelting crack which started to develop in a segregation zone of the base metal and spread up to the bead centre.21 is similar to case c in Figure 9. One can Figure 9. The case in figure c shows no adva ntage. hot cracking is not possible.22 classifies cold cracks depending on their position in the weld metal area.20 clearly see that an existing crack develops through the follo wing layers during over-welding.19 The example of a hot crack in the middle of a SA weld is shown in Figure 9. because a remelting crack may occur in the centre (segregation zone) of the first layer during welding the second layer. Figure 9. The melt cannot be trapped. the remaining melt 118 solidifies at the surface of the bead. Welding Defects middle part of the figure.9.19. Figure 9.18.

the resulting welding microstructure depends on both.23 shows a summary of the three main causes of cold crack formation and their main influences. The hydrogen content is very much influenced by the condition of the welding filler material (humidity of electrodes or flux.21 Figure 9.) and by humidity on the groove edges. the composition of base and filler materials and of the cooling speed of the joint. A measure is t8/1 because only below 100°C a hydrogen e ffusion stops. The cooling speed is also important because it determines the remaining time for hydrogen effusion out of the bead. Welding Defects 119 Figure 9. Another cause for increased cold crack susceptibility is a higher hydrogen content. respectively how much hydrogen remains in the weld.9.22 Figure 9. . An unsatisfactory structure composition promotes very much the formation of cold cracks (hardening by martensite). lubricating grease on welding wire etc. As explained in previous chapters.

9. Such cracks do not appear directly after welding but hours or even days after cooling. However. even residual stresses in the workpiece may actuate a crack. Mechanisms of hydrogen cracking were not completely understood until today. .24 A crack initiation is effected by stresses. Depending on material condition and the two already mentioned influencing factors. a spontaneous occurrence is typical of hydrogen cracking. Figure 9. Welding Defects 120 Figure 9. The weld metal hydrogen content depends on humidity of the electrode coating (manual metal arc welding) and of flux (submerged arc welding). Or a crack occurs only when superimpose of residual stresses on outer stress. An increased hydrogen content in the weld metal leads to an increased cold crack tendency.24 shows typical cold cracks in a workpiece.23 Figure 9.

but basically a very different behaviour in connection with storage Figure 9. Welding Defects 121 Figure 9.25 can be noticed. Figure 9. It can clearly be seen that a behaviour as shown in the upper picture applies only to some electrode types. The upper picture shows that during storage of an electrode type the water content of the coating depends on air humidity.25 shows that the moisture pick-up of an electrode coating greatly depends on ambient conditions and on the type of electrode. Humidity values after rebaking are plotted in the lower curve. The characteristics of 25 welding electrodes stored under identical conditions are plotted here. It can be seen that even electrodes stored under Figure 9.9. such constant storage conditions are not to be found.26 shows the effects of this measure. The lower picture shows that this behaviour does not apply to all electrode types.26 . The water content of the coating of this electrode type advances to a maximum value with time. this is the reason why electrodes are backed before welding to limit the water content of the coating. The upper curve shows the water content of the coating of electrodes which were stored at constant air humidity before rebaking. In practice.

The values of a high hygroscopic cellulose-coated electrode are considerably worse than of a basiccoated one. Figure 9.27 shows the influence of cooling speed and also the preheat temperature on hydrogen content of the weld metal. Figure 9. The table in Figure 9.28 shows an assessment of the quantity of diffusible hydrogen in weld metal according to DIN 8529.28 . but diffusion speed increases sharply with temperature. Reason is that hydrogen can still effuse all the way down to room temperature.9. The longer the steel takes to cool.29. Figure 9. Welding Defects 122 very damp conditions can be rebaked to reach acceptable values of water content in the coating. the more time is available for hydrogen to effuse out of the weld metal even in higher quantities. Based on this assessment. a classification of weld metal to DIN 32522 into groups depending on hydrogen is carried out. however both show the same tendency: increased cooling speed Figure 9.27 leads to a raise of diffusible hydrogen content in weld metal.

31 shows a characteristic occurrence of lamellar cracks (also called lamellar tearing). This behaviour is typical for hydrogen induced crack fo rmation. i. It is remarkable that the intensity of late occurring pulses is especially high.30 .32 shows that most cracks occur relatively short after welding. Welding Defects 123 A cold crack development can be followed-up by means of sound emission measurement. The two lower pictures show the cause of that crack fo rmation.e. after completed cooling a multitude of deve loping sounds can be registered. A solid-borne sound microphone is fixed to a component which measures the sound pulses generated by Figure 9.9. Ho wever. At first this is due to the cooling process. The observation is carried out without applying an external tension.30 represents the result of such a measurement of a welded component. Figure 9. The intensity of the pulses pro- vides a qualitative assessment of the crack size. a formation of segregation cannot be avoided due to Figure 9.29 crack development. This crack type occurs typically during stressing a plate across its thickness (perpendicular to rolling direction). Figure 9. cracks develop only caused by the internal residual stress condition. Figure 9. During steel production. The upper picture shows joint types which are very much at risk to formation of such cracks.

When stressing lengthwise and transverse to rolling direction. Zones enriched and depleted of alloy elements are now close together. such segregations are stretched in the rolling direction.31 workpiece is that of the weaker microstructure areas. During cooling. In practice. Consequently. Figure 9.32 illustrates why such t-joints are particularly vulnerable. With follo wing production steps. thus the strength of the Figure 9. a lamellar crack propagates through weaker micro- structure areas. These concentration diffe rences influence the transformation behaviour of the individual zones. DependFigure 9.32 ing on joint shape. This effect which can be well recognised in Figure 9. is called structure banding. Welding Defects 124 the casting process. zones with enriched alloy elements develop a different microstructure than depleted zones.cdr © ISF 2002 bands may support each other and a mean strength is provided.31. these welds show to some extent . the individual structure br-er09-31. Such support cannot be obtained perpendicular to rolling direction. and partly a jump into the next band takes place.9. this formation can be hardly avoided. Banding in plates is the reason for worst mechanical properties perpendicular to rolling direction. This is caused by a different mechanical behaviour of different microstructures.

may generate stresses perpendicular to the plane of magnitude above the tensile strength. carbides are dissolved in an area close to the fusion line. With this re-precipitation.33 . causing the cracks shown in Figure 9. During the following cooling. If a component in such a condition is stress relief heat treated. which have a considerably lower deformation stress limit compared with strengthened areas. A welded construction which greatly impedes shrinking of this joint. Welding Defects 125 a considerable shrinking. This can cause lamellar tearing. a re-precipitation of carbides takes place (see hot ageing. the carbide developers are not completely re-precipitated. V). Precipitation cracks occur mainly during stress relief heat treatment of welded components. Figure 9. Figure 9.9. precipitation-free zones may develop along grain boundaries.33. Especially susceptible are steels which contain alloy elements with a precipitation hardening effect (carbide developer like Ti. During welding such steels. Nb. Plastic deformations during stress relieving are carried out almost only in these areas. They occur in the coarse grain zone close to fusion line. is it also called undercladding crack. As this type of cracks occurs often during post weld heat treatment of cladded materials.33. chapter 8).

10. Testing of Welded Joints .

If a surface crack develops.2 RP0. A specimen is ruptured by a test machine while the actual force and the elongation of the specimen is measured.cdr e Stress-Strain Diagram With and Without Distinct Yield Point test will be stopped and the angle to which the specimen could be bent is measured. the © ISF 2002 s Rm RP0. tensile strength Rm. and elongation A. The backside of the specimen (tension side) is observed. 2 ) for some other metallic materials (e. Figure 10. When determining the strength of a welded joint.65) Lt = total length S0 = initial cross-section within test length © ISF 2002 Flat and Round Tensile Test Specimen to EN 895. Steels with a fcc lattice structure show a curve without yield point.3 ³ L S + 60 ³ 25 LO LC Lt d = specimen diameter d1 = head diameter depending on clamping device LC = test length = L0 + d/2 r = 2 mm br-er10-01. In this test. Generally. a ALud Ag A e bending test to DIN EN 910 is used. The most important characteristic values which are determined by this test are: yield in test area S S S r L0 Lc Lt total length head width width of parallel length plates tubes 1 2 Lt b1 b b Lc parallel length ) ) radius of throat r ) for pressure welding and beam welding.aluminium.3.2. if a steel with a bcc lattice structure is tested. tension σ and strain ε are calculated.01 % Ag A br-er10-02. the drawn diagram is typical for this test. To determine the deformability of a weld. Normally. copper and their alloys) __ L c ³ L S +100 may be required 1 S S S depends on test unit b + 12 12 with a £ 2 25 with a > 2 6 with D £ 50 12 with 50 < D £ 168.g. If σ is plotted over ε.2 .10. EN 876. Figure 10. a curve with a clear yield point is obtained (upper picture). the specimen is put onto two supporting rollers and a former is pressed through between the rollers. Figure 10. Testing of Welded Joints 127 The basic test for determination of material S S Ls in test area a S S behaviour is the tensile test. it is carried out using a round specimen. L S = 0. The distance of the supporting rollers is Lf = d + 3a (former diameter + three times specimen thickness).2 % 0.cdr L0 = measurement length (L0 = k ÖS0 with k = 5.01 sf 0. With these measurement values. The Figure 10.1 shows both standard specimen shapes for that test. and EN 10 002 Figure 10.1 s d1 d b1 b r Rm ReH Rel sf stress ReL. also standardised flat specimens are used.

Specimen thickness of transverse and longitudinal specimens thickness.5 90° mm mm mm ± ± ± ± To leranc e 0. notch Figure 10. if the specimen is pressed through the supporting rollers without development of a crack. is Side the plate bending br-er10-03. the specimen will be bent and 40 45 J 40 Charpy impact energy 35 30 25 20 15 10 -80 -60 br-er10-04. here the specimen thickness is fixed at 10 mm. The used energy is measured. A cuboid specimen with a V-notch is placed on a support and then hit by a pendulum ram of the im55 10 r = 0. shape specimen).0 6 mm 2° mm mm mm drawn through the supports). In Figure 10.cdr 45° average values maximaum values minimum values D im e nsio ns leng th width hight notc h angle thic knes s in notch g roove notc h rad ius notc h d is tanc e from end of s p ecim en angle b etwee n no tch axis and long itudinal axis No m inal s ize 55 mm 10 mm 10 mm 45° 8 0 .4 (Iso-Vrepresents sample shape. and a schematic presentation of test results. and longitudinal bending specimen.2 5 2 7.0 2 5 ± 0.4 2 ± 2° -40 -20 0 Temperature 20 ° C 40 Charpy Impact Test Specimen and Schematic Representation of Test Results Figure 10.6 0 mm 0.4 b a r B Lt r r . ± 0. Depending on the direction the weld is bent.cdr section A-B tension side A b former supporting roller d bending specimen r a section A-B tension side A Lf l Lt l Lt d D a r b b D r a tension side B Lt distance of supporting rollers specimen length former diameter supporting roller diameter: 50 mm specimen thickness radius of specimen edge specimen width r specimens are normally only used with very thick plates. side. Testing of Welded Joints 128 test result is the bending angle and the diameter of the used former. A bending angle of 180° is reached. The tension side of all three specimen types is machined to eliminate any influences on the test through notch effects.10. a Lt Bending Specimens to EN 910 Figure 10.3 A determination of the toughness of a material or welded joint is carried out with the notched bar impact test.1 1 mm 0.0 6 ± 0.25 10 8 pact testing machine (with very tough materials. one distinguishes (from top to bottom) transverse.3 specimen shapes of this test are shown.

and base metal can be determined in a relatively accurate way. Following DIN 50 115. i. fusion line.5 1.10. As this steep drop mostly extends across a certain area.) a temperature with an impact energy value of 27 J. but increases the b . Increasing manganese contents increase the impact values in the area of the high level and move the transition temperature to lower values. and the average values as well as b RL VWS a/b Dicke RL a a the range of scatter are entered on the impact energy-temperature diagram (AV-T curve). Testing of Welded Joints 129 Three specimens are tested at each test tem- Designation Weld centre b Designation VWS a/b (fusion weld) Fusion line/bonding zone perature. a transition range. three definitions of the transition temperature are useful. Figure 10. b b VWT 0/b Dicke VHT 0/b a This graph is divided into an area of high impact energy values. a = 0 and should be marked) b = distance between top side of welded joint and nearest surface of the specimen (if b is on the weld surface.e. the impact energy of the individual areas like HAZ. 2. A transition temperature is b VWT 0/b RL b assigned to the transition range.5 illustrates a specimen position and notch position related to the weld according to DIN EN 875. and an b b VWT a/b VHT a/b a a area of low values. a transition of tough to brittle fracture behaviour takes place. then b = 0 and should be marked) br-er10-05. to fix TÜ to: VHT a/b a RL b VWT a/b a RL VHT a/b a RL V = Charpy-V notch W = notch in weld metal. the rapid drop of toughness values. When the temperature falls below this transition temperature. The values of the low levels remain unchanged. i. Three basically different influences can be seen. reference line is centre line of weld H = notch in heat affected zone. thus the steepness of the drop becomes clearer with increasing Mn-content.curve. weld metal.) a temperature where the level of impact values is half of the level of the high range.cdr © ISF 2002 Position of Charpy-V Impact Test Specimen in Welded Joints to EN 875 Figure 10.e. An increasing carbon content increases the transition temperature and lowers the values of the high level. By modifying the notch position. where the fracture area of the specimen shows still 50% of tough fracture behaviour 3. reference line is fusion line or bonding zone (notch should be in heat affected zone) S = notched area parallel to surface T = notch through thickness a = distance of notch centre from reference line (if a is on centre line of weld. Figure 10. Carbon acts exactly in the opposite way.6 presents the influence of various alloy elements on the AV-T . a precise assignment of transition temperature cannot be carried out. the steel becomes more brittle.) a temperature. Nickel decreases slightly the values of the high level.

5% In Figure 10. The application of this treatment resulted in an increase of strength and impact energy values together with a parallel saving of alloy elements. The development of finegrain structural steels resulted in a clear improvement of impact energy values and in 0. 0% Mn 200 100 Charpy impact energy AV 27 200 J 100 13% Ni 8. These curves are marked with points for impact en0.7 .1% C 27 200 J 100 ergy values of AV = 27 J as well as with points where the level of impact energy has fallen to half of the high level.cdr 0. To make a comparison.cdr specimen position: weld centre. Starting with a certain Nickel content (depends also from other alloy elements). the AV-T .7.curve of the cryogenic and high alloyed steel X8Ni9 was plotted onto the diabr-er10-07.10.5% 5% 3. notch parallel to surface specimen shape: standard specimen with V-notch J 300 Charpy impact energy AV X8Ni9 S460M S355N S690N 200 S235J2G3 100 S355J2G3 27 -150 -100 -50 Temperature 0 50 ° C 100 gram. the AV-T – curves of some 2% Ni 0% Ni commonly used steels are collected.8% C -100 -50 0 Temperature 50 °C 100 © ISF 2002 Influence of Mn. The material is tested AV-T Curves of Various Steel Alloys Figure 10. Ni. It can clearly be seen that mild steels have the lowest impact energy values together with the highest transition temperature. With the example of the steels St E 355 and St E 690 it is clearly visible that an increase of strength goes mostly hand in hand with a decrease of the impact energy level.4% C 27 -150 br-er10-06. even at lowest temperature the steel shows a tough fracture behaviour. the application of such steels could be extended to a considerably lower temperature range.6 addition. a steep drop does not happen.5% Mn tent. and C on the Av-T-Curve Figure 10. Testing of Welded Joints 130 values of the low level with increasing con- J 300 specimen position: core longitudinal specimen shape: ISO V 2% Mn 1% Mn 0. Another improvement showed the application of a thermomechanical treatment (controlled rolling during heat treatment).

U crack initiation br-er10-08. During the test. When testing to Brinell. The lower figure to the right shows a possibility how to observe a crack propagation in a compact tensile specimen.2h ± 0. and the tension drop above the notch is measured. a current I flows through the specimen. If the force F is plotted across the widening V.cdr pressed with a known load Figure 10.05)h test load P a h 2.8 of such a test is shown.1h b SENB -specimen 3PB bearing distance S = 4h total crack length a = (0. Another typical characteristic of material behaviour is the hardness of the work- h piece. Analogous to the stress-strain diagram.25h ± 0. As soon as a crack propagates through the material. a C C P Figure 10. and the crack propagation can F F be observed.aE U UO V sample height h = 2b ± 0. a steel ball is Hardness Testing to Brinell and Vickers br-er-10-09.9 . the drawn curve does not indicate precisely the crack initiation.13 specimen height h = 2b ± 0.1h S specimen width b 2.05)h U F UE.cdr V © ISF 2002 Fracture Mechanics Test Sample Shape and Evaluation Figure 10.25 131 ergy test.50 ± 0.25 specimen width b total crack length a = (0. then the start of crack initiation can be determined with suitable accuracy. thus there are no reliable findings about crack growth and fracture mechanisms. Below to the left a measurement graph b L CT .50 ± 0. a decrease of force is caused by a reduction of the stressed cross-section.specimen h 1.9 shows d hardness test methods to Brinell d1 d 2 (standardised to DIN 50 351) and Vickers (DIN 50 133).25 1. the current conveying cross section decreases. Testing of Welded Joints under very high test speed in the impact enP 0. Figure 10. If the voltage drop is plotted over the force.55h ± 0.8 shows two commonly used specimen shapes for a fracture mechanics test to determine crack initiation and crack growth.10. resulting in an increased voltage drop.05 F.

The impressions of the test body are always geometrically similar. so that the hardness value is normally independent from the size of the test load.200 mm 0. the penetration depth of a penetrator is measured.9 7 10 reference level for measurement 0 30 0 Abbreviation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 F0 F1 F t0 t1 tb e HRC HRA cone angle = 120° test preload test load total test load = F0 + F1 Terms ball diameter = 1.10 illustrates a hardness test to Rockwell. This information is not required for a ball diameter of 10 mm.002 Rockwell hardness = 100 . 4 5 3 8 3 10 130 30 0 1 6 3 7 4 5 3 8 3 10 specimen surface 100 specimen surface 130 hardness scale 6 hardness scale This method is standardised to DIN 50133.e HRB HRF e = 10 Rockwell hardness = 130 . In practice.200 mm penetration depth in mm under test preload F0. In DIN 50103 are various methods standardised which are based on the same principle.cdr © ISF 2002 Hardness Test to Rockwell Figure 10. and a time of influence of 10 to 15 s.5875 mm ( 1/16 inch) radius of curvature of cone tip = 0.9 10 reference level for measurement 6 8. a hardness test can be carried out in the micro-range or with thin layers.200 mm 3 6 7 2 100 0 0. This hardness test method may be used only on soft materials up to 450 BHN 1 0. Instead of a ball. a diamond pyramid is pressed into the workpiece. . expressed in units of 0. measured after release of F1 to F0 resulting penetration depth. In addition. total penetrationn depth in mm under test load F1 resulting penetration depth in mm. Testing of Welded Joints 132 to the surface of the tested workpiece.200 mm 7 8. With this method. there is a hardness increase under a lower test load because of an increase of the elastic part of the deformation.e br-er10-10. ball diameter. The lengths of the two diagonals of the impression are measured and the hardness value is calculated from their average and the test load. It covers the entire range of materials (from 3 VHN for lead up to 1500 VHN for hard metal).10 Hardness testing to Vickers is almost universally applicable. and diameter of rim of the impression (you find the formulas in the standards).002 mm: tb / 0. Hardness testing to Vickers is analogous.10. This defines the reference level for measurement of tb. 0. applied load in kp and time of influence of the test load in s. The hardness value is calculated from test load. Figure 10. The diameter of the resulting impression is measured and is a magnitude of hardness. a test load of 3000 kp (29420 N). The hardness information contains in addition to the hardness magnitude the ball diameter in mm.200 mm (Brinell Hardness Number).

the hardness value can be read-out directly.and test load. Afterwards it is released to reach minor load. so different test methods are scaled for different hardness ranges. All the hardness test methods described above require a coupon which must be taken from the workpiece and whose hardness is then determined in a test machine. The disadvantage is the reduced accuracy in contrast to the other methods.11 br-er10-11. Then the test load is applied in a shock-free way (at least four times the pre-force) and held for a certain time. The purpose is to get a firm contact between workpiece and penetrator and to compensate for possible play of the device. The most considerable advantage of these test methods compared with Vickers and Brinell are the low time duration and a possible fully-automatic measurement value recognition. a dynamical hardness test method will be applied. If a workpiece on-site is to be tested. A comparison of hardness values which were determined with different methods can only be carried out for similar materials. to 1/16 Inch) or a diamond sphero-conical penetrator (cone angle 120° ) as the penetrating body. The remaining penetration depth is characteristic for the hardness.11 illustrates a Figure 10. A conversion of hardness values of different methods can be carried out piston for steel and cast steel according to a table in DIN 50150.Hammer . equiv.5875 mm.10. The most commonly used scale methods are Rockwell B and C.cdr © ISF 2002 reference bar specimen Poldi . Figure 10. The advantage of these methods is that measurements can be taken on completed constructions with handheld units in any position. There are differences in size of pre. If the display instrument is suitably scaled. the penetrator is put on the workpiece by application of a pre-test load. All hardness test methods to Rockwell use a ball (diameter 1. A relation of hardness and tensile strength is also given in that table. Measured hardness numbers are only comparable under identical conditions and with the same test method. Testing of Welded Joints 133 At first.

With this (out of date) method.for hardness testing on site in confined locations cillation depends directly on penetration depth thus being a measure for material hardness.0 2.g. Testing of Welded Joints 134 hardness test using a Poldi-Hammer. the measurement is carried out by a comparison of the workpiece hardness with a calibration piece. The damping of the ultrasonic os. This change is measured by the device.0 Federweg caused by the spring force. The major source of errors is the measurement of the ball impression on the workpiece. The size of both impressions is measured and with the known hardness of the calibration bar the hardness of the workpiece can be determined. on the other hand the measurement of the impression using magnifying glasses is subjected to serious errors. a spring mechanism inside the test tip is triggered and the measurement starts. Here a test tip is pressed manually against a workpiece.0 the steel. On one hand.Data Logger for storage of several thousands of measurement points .little work on surface preparation of specimens (test force 5 kp) . With increasing penetration depth the damping of the ultrasonic oscillation changes and consequently the frequency. br-er10-12. The measurement tip is excited to emit ultrasonic oscillations by a piezoelectric crystal. For this purpose a calibration bar of exactly determined hardness is inserted into the unit. an inclined resting of the unit on the surface or a hammerblow which is not in line with the device axis. However.cdr © ISF 2002 Figure 10. the penetrator penetrates the workpiece and the calibration pin simultaneously.12 shows a modern measurement method which works with ultrasound and combines a high flexibility with easy handling and high accuracy. the edge of the impression is often unsharp because of the great ball diameter. there are many sources of errors with this method which may influence the test result. a measurement is carried out quickly and easily.interfaces for connection of computers or printers . The unit is put on the workpiece to be tested. By a hammerblow to the piston. If a defined test load is passed. Figure 10. 10 mm diameter).0 kp 4. e. Test force The measurement principle is based on a measurement of damping characteristics in 5 kp 5. which is held by a spring force play-free between a piston and a penetrator (steel ball. The display can be calibrated for all commonly used measurement methods.12 . The test tip (diamond pyramid) penetrates the workpiece under the test pressure 3.10.

13. Testing of Welded Joints 135 Measurements can also be carried out in confined spaces. Test results are presented in fatigue strength diagrams (see also DIN 50 100). alternating stresses. Depending on where the specimen is to be stressed in the range of pulsating tensile stresses. Iron particles are collected. Figure 10. Here some specimens (normally 6 to 10) are exposed to an oscillating stress and the number of endured oscillations until rupture is determined (endurance number. the mean stress (or sub stress) of a specimen group is kept constant and the stress amplitude (or upper stress) is varied from specimen to specimen. or pulsating compressive stresses.13.cdr © ISF 2002 © ISF 2002 Fatigue Strength Testing Figure 10. The . indicates after how many cycles the specimen ruptures under tension amplitude σa.10.cdr 107 Surface cracks and cracks up to 4 mm below surface. dye penetrant liquid in crack surface with developer shows the crack by coloring Magnetic particle testing pulsation range (compression) alternating range pulsation range (tension) Wöhler line II failure line Stress σ I A workpiece is placed between the poles of a magnet or solenoid. The upper line. number of cycles to failure). Defective parts disturb the power flux. + tension σ m > σa σ m < σa σm = σa Description σm = 0 Dye penetrant method crack is free. the fatigue test is standardised in DIN 50100. This measurement method is not yet standardised. σD III 0 1 10 102 103 104 105 106 Fatigue strength (endurance) number lg N I area of overload with material damage II area of overload without material damage III area of load below fatigue strength limit br-er10-14. Mostly a fatigue strength is determined by the Wöhler procedure. However: Only magnetizable materials and only for cracks perpendicular to power lines br-er10-13.14 To test a workpiece under oscillating stress.13 Figure 10. the Wöhler line. the stress amplitude can be determined with a given medium stress (prestress) which can persist for infinite time without damage (in the test: 107 times). surface is clean Application all materials with surface cracks compression - σm < σa σm = σa σm > σ a time crack and surface with penetrant liquid cleaned surface. As an example the extended Wöhler diagram is shown in Figure 10. In this way.

14 shows Â Ä À sound head Á oil coupling  workpiece à defect Ä ultrasonic test device Å radiation pulse Æ defect echo ³ backwall echo Å br-er10-17. This is the reason why various non-destructive test methods were developed. which are transferred via oil coupling to the workpiece.1 mm ± 0.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er10-16.25 1 0.125 0. damage to the material starts in form of cracks. which are not used to determine technological properties but test the workpiece for defects.cdr © ISF 2002 Non-Destructive Test Methods Radiographic Testing Determination of Picture Quality Number to DIN 54105 Figure 10.cdr Æ ³ © ISF 2002 Non-Destructive Test Methods Ultrasonic Testing II Figure 10. A testing of completed welded constructions is impossible. Testing of Welded Joints 136 Description X-ray or isotope radiation penetrate a workpiece.16 0.5 0. the weaker the radiation reaching the underside.16 damage line indicates analogously. difficult to identify (flank lack of fusion) ° defect in radiation direction.005 ° ® Abbreviation FE 1/7 FE 6/12 FE 10/16 CU 1/7 CU 6/12 W ire number to Table 1 1 to 7 6 to 12 10 to 16 1 to 7 6 to 12 10 to 16 1 to 7 6 to 12 10 to 16 W ire length mm 50 50 or 25 50 or 25 50 50 50 or 25 50 50 50 or 25 aluminium copper W ire material Material groups to be tested mild steel iron materials ¬ radiation source − workpiece ¯ CU 10/16 AL 1/7 AL 6/12 AL 10/16 copper. Below this line. a material damage does not occur.01 ± 0.5 2 1.6 1. Sound waves are reflected on interfaces (echo). because this would require a destruction of the workpiece.4 0.02 ± 0. zink.2 0.25 0.63 0.10. tin and its alloys aluminium and its alloys ® film (displayed in distance from workpiece) ¯ defect in radiation direction. easy to identify br-er10-15.15 Figure 10.03 ± 0. à À Test methods described above require Á specimens taken out of the workpiece and a partly very accurate sample preparation.8 0. The thicker the workpiece. W ire diameter Tolerated deviation W ire number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ¬ − mm 3. Application Mainly for defects with an orientation transverse to sound input direction.32 0. Figure 10. when a Description US-head generates high-frequency sound waves. Application Mainly for defects with orientation in radiation direction.2 2.17 .

a scale bar must be shown for estimation of the defect size.17 and 10.18 (principle of a sonar). A clear advantage is the good documentation ability of defects. The size of the thinnest recognisable wire indicates the Figure 10. The size of the minimum detectable defects depends greatly on the intensity of radiation. The br-er10-19.15 illustrates the principle of radiographic testing which allows to identify also defects in the middle of a weld.19 .cdr display of original pulse.18 size of the smallest visible defect. As the film with documented defects does not permit an estimation of the plate thickness.16. but not about the position within the thickness depth.10. which must be adapted to the thickness of the workpiece to be radiated. Testing of Welded Joints two methods to test a workpiece for surface defects. a plastic template is put on the workpiece before radiation which contains metal wires with different thickness and incorporated metallic marks. The principle is shown in Figures 10. Radiation testing provides information about the defect position in the plate plane. backwall and defect Ultrasonic Testing of Fillet Welds echo is carried out with an oscilloscope. Figure 10. For that purpose. 137 Figure 10. Figure 10. An information about the depth of the defect is provided by testing the workpiece with ultrasound.

10.22 .21 show macro section schematically the display of various defects on an oscilloscope.20 and 10. Figure 10. The roughness provides smaller and wider echos. Wall thickness is below 40 mm.19. The backwall is completely screened.21 Figures 10. A cor50 µ base material ferrite + perlite coarse grain zone bainite rect interpretation of all the signals requires great experience. Echo sequence of 10 mm depth. Echo sequence of 20 mm depth. Starting with SKW 4.22 illustrates the potential of metallographic examination. but also inaccessible regions can be tested with the use of so called angle testing heads. The inclination of the reflector is recornised by a change of the 1st echo when shifting the test head. because the 2. 30 Pores between 10 and 20 mm depth provide an unbroken echo sequence across the entire display starting from 10mm.cdr © ISF 2002 br-er10-21.20 Figure 10.cdr Metallographic Examination of a Weld Figure 10. The backwall echo sequence of 30 mm is not yet visible. The oblique backwall reflects the soundwaves against the crack. Grinding and br-er10-22.5 mm fine grain zone ferrite + perlite fusion line Steel: S355N (T StE 355) weld metal cast structure bainite shape of the displayed signals is often not so clear. Figure 10. br-er10-20. The reflector in 30 mm depth is completely screened. an unbroken echo sequence follows. this is the reason why an ‘impossible’ depth of 65 mm is displayed.10. 40 The oblique and rough defect from 20 to 30 mm provides a wide echo of 20 to 30 mm. Testing of Welded Joints 138 This method provides not only a perpendicular sound test.cdr © ISF 2002 Defect Identification with Ultrasound Defect Identification With Ultrasound Figure . The perpendicular crack penetrating the material does not provide a display because the reflecting surface (tip of crack) is too small.

cdr © ISF 2002 Micro-Analysis of the Transition Zone Base Material . There is a simple relation between the wave length of this radiation and the atomic number of the chemical elements. The macrosection. Under adequate magnification.23 focused electron beam of high energy.Strip Cladding Figure 10. gives a complete survey about the weld and fusion line. If a solid body is exposed to a Distance from fusion line br-er10-23. br-er-10-24. The reason is that depending on structure and orientation. an assessment of the developed Cr 20 60 40 15 20 0 10 % Ni 8 10 Ni 6 4 2 0 0 200 mm 100 0 100 5 microstructure is possible.electrolytic copper in the form of chips (min. A detection limit is about 0. Then the specimens are bent across a former up to an angle of 90° and finally examined for grain failure under a 6 to 10 times magnification.e. weld 0 10 50 20 20 weld axis of bending former weld axis of bending former Agents: .23.24 Strauß . Microstructure areas of a minimum diameter of about 5 µm can be analysed. these areas can still not be distinguished precisely. the chemical composition of the solid body can be concluded from a survey of the emitted X-ray and spectrum quantita50 20 20 50 50 qualitatively tively. its atoms are excited to radiate X-rays.100 ml H2SO4 diluted with 1 l water and then . If the electron beam is moved across the specimen (or the specimen under the 1. size of the HAZ.01 mass % with this method. and sequence of solidification. without magnification. weld 2. however.Test . An assessment of the distribution of alloy elements across the welded joint can be carried out by the electron beam micro-analysis. Testing of Welded Joints 139 etching with an acid makes the microstructure visible. 110 g CuSO 5 H2O are added Test: The specimens remain for 15 h in the boiling test solution.10. 50 g/l test solution) . An example of such an analysis is shown in Figure 10. i. the individual grains react very differently to the acid attack thus 25 100 Fe % Cr % Fe 80 reflecting the light in a different way.cdr beam). the element distribution along a line across the Figure 10. As the intensity of the radiation depends on the concentration of the elements.

Figure 10. Figure 10.24 shows the specimen shape which is normally used for that test. For this test. The 2. weld is welded not later than 20 s in reversed direction after completion of the first weld.26 a a a a a Test of Crack Susceptibility of Welding Filler Materials to DIN 50129 cracks are found in weld 1.cdr Figure 10. The impressions are also used as a mark to identify precisely the area to be analysed. it serves to determine tack welds measurement points web 80 the resistance of a weld against intergranular corro40 20 base plate weld2 weld1 20 40 sion. If tensioning bolt hexagon nut min. Testing of Welded Joints 140 solid body can be determined. If weld 1 is free from cracks.10. M12 DIN 934 a tensioning plate specimen base body guidance plates br-er-10-26. Cr. weld number 1 is welded first.cdr Figure 10. some details of the test method are explained. The so called Strauß test is 12 standardised in DIN 50 914. In addition. the test is void. 12 a a a a 80 120 br-er-10-25.25 presents a specimen shape for testing the crack susceptibility of welding consumables. and Fe in the transition zone of an austenitic plating in a ferritic base metal. weld 2 is examined for crack with magnifying glasses. This microanalysis was carried out along a straight line between two impressions of a Vickers hardness test. After cooling down.25 Figure 10.23 presents the distribution of Ni. Test results record any Tensioning Specimen for Crack Susceptibility Test . Throat thickness of weld 2 must be 20% below of weld 1. The upper part shows the related microsection which belongs to the analysed part. Then weld 1 is machined off and weld 2 is cracked by bending the weld from the root. the beads are examined for cracks.

Such tests are not yet standardised to DIN. The value to be determined is the minimum working temperature at which cracks no longer occur.27 Figure 10. thermo couple groove shape 60° cross-section 60° weld metal support plate Wd. Figure 10. For a more precise examination.10.27. two plates are coupled with anchor joints at the ends as a step in joint preparation see Figure 10. Then a test bead is welded along the centre line. and length. In the Tekken test which is standardised in Japan.26 presents two proposals for self-stressing specimens for plate tests regarding their hot crack tendency. it is examined for surface cracks.cdr © ISF 2002 Tekken Test Implant Test Figure 10. .cdr © ISF 2002 br-er10-28. After storing the specimen for 48 hours.28 There are various tests to examine a cold crack tendency of welded joints. various transverse sections are planned. The specimen shape simulates the conditions during welding of a root pass. number. The welding consumable is regarded as 'non-crack-susceptible' if the welds of this test are free from cracks. orientation. Testing of Welded Joints 141 surface and root cracks together with information about position./2 Wd. The most important ones are the self-stressing Tekken test and the Implant test where the stress comes from an external source./2 H Hc implant electrode welding direction 2 2 load temperature in ° C Tmax load in N specimen shape start end crater crack coefficient c 150 C= x 100 (in %) 800 500 1 2 3 4 5 150 100 60 anchor weld t8/5 time in s rupture time sections 60 anchor weld 80 test weld br-er10-27. Wd.

below these curves cracks are present.29 represent the limit curves for the related test. Variables of these tests were hydrogen content of the weld metal and preheat temperature. Consequently. Based on the hydrogen content. the determined preheat temperatures required for the avoidance of cracking. Varying the load provides the possibility to determine the stress which can be born for 16 hours without appearance of a crack or rupture. a preheat temperature can be determined by varying the working temperature to the point at which cracks no longer appear. The time is measured until a rupture or a crack occurs (depending on test criterion 'rupture' or 'crack'). After the bead has cooled down to 150° C the implant is exposed to a constant load.10. As explained in chapter 'cold cracks' the hydrogen content plays an important role for cold crack development.cdr Test Result Comparison of Implant and Tekken Test Figure 10. Testing of Welded Joints 142 The most commonly used cold crack test is the Implant test.29 shows results of trials where the cold crack behaviour was examined using the Tekken and Implant test. . differ by about 20° C.28.29 pared it becomes obvious that the tests produce slightly different findings. The variation of the hydrogen content of the weld metal was carried out by different exposure to humidity (or rebaking) of the used stick electrodes.2 = 358 N/mm² Preheat temperature ° C Tekken-Test 150 100 100 temperature 50 starting cracks crack-free ml/ 40 100 g considerably 50 fractured starting cracks crack-free 0 10 20 30 ml/ 40 100 g higher hydrogen contents are tolerated without any crack development because of the much better hydrogen effusion. A cylindrical body (Implant) is inserted into the bore hole of a support plate and fixed by a surface bead. with identical hydrogen content. Figure 10. Figure 10. i.e. If a stress is specified to be of the size of the yield point as a requirement. Evident for both graphs is that with increased preheat ° C Implant-Test 150 Preheat temperature Rcr = Rp0. the curves of Figure 10. Specimens above these heat input: 12 kJ/cm basic coated stick electrode plate and support plate thickness: 38 mm curves remain free from cracks. If both graphs are com- 20 20 0 10 20 30 Diffusible hydrogen content br-er-10-29. the preheat temperature was increased test by test.

The hydrogen. the hydrogen volume in ml/100 g weld metal. This is the most commonly used method to determine the hydrogen Figure 10. coupons surface).30 illustrates a method to measure the diffusible hydrogen content in welds which is standardised in DIN 8572. The samples remain in the evacuated burette 72 hours for degassing. Testing of Welded Joints 143 Figure 10. Figure a) shows the burette filled with mercury before a specimen is inserted. collects in the capillary. which effuses of the coupons but does not diffuse through the mercury. Then the burette is closed and evacuated.cdr to pump hydrogen under reduced pressure evacuated VT air pressure B standard volume and the coupons weight are used to calculate. To determine the hydrogen volume the burette is ventilated and the coupons are removed from the capillary side.30 content in welded joints. The volume of the effused hydrogen can be read out from the capillary. as measured value. the height difference of the two mercury menisci. under This capillary side meniskus1 M meniskus2 mercury coupons a) starting condition br-er-10-30. the air pressure. and the temperature provide the data to calculate the norm volume conditions.10. The coupons are inserted into the opened burette and drawn with a magnet through the mercury to the capillary side (density of steel is lower than that of mercury. b) during degassing c) ventilated after degassing Burettes for Determination of Diffusible Hydrogen Content .

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