marketing project on 4P's of Maggi Tomato Ketchup - May 10th, 2009 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 1991 we opened our country to foreign

brands. As per this liberalization policy many a foreign players ventured into our country finding it a lucrative large mass market. India’s market potential lures foreign companies. Many international companies that ventured in after 1991 are tallying their profits and losses and wondering what the future holds for this market of 950 million people. But India is a diverse country where different states have different consumption patterns and customs. Thus competition has become the key word in today’s scenario. Till 1970’s and 80’s Maggie and Kissan were the major ketchup brands but after liberalization Heinz entered Indian market which offered tough competition. These major giants are also facing competition from many local players like Tops, Cremica and other local brands. Through this project we have studied 4 P’s of marketing mix which includes PRODUCT, PRICE, PLACE and PROMOTION for Maggi Tomato Ketchup. Product highlights various attributes of the product. Price helps us in analyzing whether it is competitively priced or not. Promotions showcases which mode of promotion is most effective and how do consumers respond to various celebrity endorsements. Place focuses on efficiency of distribution network of Maggi Tomato Ketchup. We have also drawn out some inferences by applying various statistical tools like ‘SIGN TEST’. Towards the end we have suggested some recommendations as a group on how can we improve the marketing mix of the product.

Nestlé, which world knows as cautious and conservatory company is a Swiss originated 140 years old Multinational. The man at the helm is Swiss national Carlo Donati, an all inspiration and image of the company. His philosophy is ‘bottom line dictating top line’ based on delegation and decentralization. It resulted from a merger in 1905 between the AngloSwiss Milk Company for milk products established in 1866 by the Page Brothers in Cham, Switzerland and the Farine Lactée Henri Nestlé Company set up in 1867 by Henri Nestlé to provide an infant food product. The first Nestlé factory to begin production in the United States was opened in Fulton, Oswego County, New York. Nestlé India Ltd. (NIL), the Indian subsidiary of the global FMCG major, Nestlé SA, introduced the Maggi brand in India in 1982, with its launch of Maggi 2 Minute Noodles, an instant noodles product. Nestlé India’s business objective and that of its management and employees is to manufacture and market the Company’s products in such a way as to create value that can be sustained over the long term for consumers, shareholders, employees, business partners and the national economy.

The product mix of Nestle India consists of milk products and baby products (42.5%), beverages (29.3 %), processed foods (14.4 %), chocolate and confectionary (13.8 %). Nestle India plans to expand business into similar and diversified product categories. The management wants to leverage all the hard work done to establish a particular brand by extending the brand in some other areas, where it sees an opportunity to make further money. In other words to derive the maximum benefit from having established the brand Nestle did exactly, what it wanted with one of their brands- Maggi. Objective of the study In this project, our main focus was to analyze Tomato Ketchup taking into consideration the 4 P’s of the marketing mix. • To analyze various product attributes of Ketchups & Sauces and its management in the current scenario. • To study the entire distribution mix of the product line. • To critically comment on the pricing strategy adopted by the company. • Lastly our study will also focus on the various promotional aspect of the brand in lieu of ketchup and also promotional mix of the product line. All these objective were to analyze the performance of a particular product line of a brand followed by the suggestions which we as a group have given in order to improve their performance in the future and also learned various useful aspects which they have devised and implemented that has bettered their performance. Scope of the Study The brand value of Nestle is $9.11bn which is approximately 5% of the enterprise value as in August 2008(Source: The daily newspaper journal “The Mint” dated 17 September, 2008). According to this report, Nestle is reported to be among top 100 brands globally positioned at 77th place with a brand rating of “AAA”. Last year, it was positioned at 87th spot. The ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%. Globally, it's only a blip- but India consumes about 13,800 tons of ketchup a year. The Company launched a new variant of Maggi Tomato Ketchup called “Pichkoo”. A higher-than-expected increase in raw material prices is posing a bigger threat for the company as of now but past have proved that their innovative market strategies has contributed a lot to their overall growth. Through our study we have determined the positive and negative product attributes and thus determined the expectations of the product. This information can be used by the company for further product modification. We also determined the acceptability and adaptability towards introduction of new variants. MAGGI Maggi is an over 100-year-old Nestlé brand of instant soups, stocks, bouillons, ketchups, sauces, seasonings and instant noodles. The original company came into existence in 1872 in Switzerland, when Julius Maggi took over his father's mill. It quickly became a pioneer of industrial food production, aiming at the improvement of the nutrition of worker families. Over time the scope of MAGGI has been extended from a predominantly dehydrated cooking aid brand towards a general savory food brand including many types of ready meals and also frozen food. This is in line with the fact that people all over the world are cooking less and less from scratch. There is a wide range of MAGGI products marketed worldwide in several countries. These include dehydrated bouillon, granulated seasoning, soups, recipe mixes, snacks, frozen foods, etc.

In 1863 Julius Maggi developed a formula for bring added taste to meals, which later became lead to the beginning of Maggi and convenience food products. MAGGI, known worldwide for innovation and quality worldwide, understands that consumers are usually under great pressure in terms of time, budget, cooking skills etc and therefore tries to establish a bond through giving ideas and advice that make providing food easier. This results in the food provider being appreciated by family and friends. Maggi as a brand is globally known in the product category of bouillon or soup cubes. Nestle decided to introduce Maggi brand in India in the same product category. This soup was initially test marketed in 1974 in Kerala. The response was not encouraging. Having then realized that the dietary habits of Keralites are not conductive to the idea of drinking soup, test marketing of the brand extended to Goa with the idea that Goan food habits have some similarity with western habits. Fortunately for the company, the test turned out to be positive and Maggi became an accepted brand in India. Maggi has faced lot of hurdles in its journey in India. The basic problem the brand faced is the Indian Psyche. Indian Palate is not too adventurous in terms of trying new tastes. That may be the reason why we are still stuck with Idli and Sambhar. So a new product with a new taste that too from a different culture will have difficulty in appealing to Indian market. As of now, Maggi is the brand for 2-minute noodles, Chinese noodles, ketchups and sauces for Nestle. As per the latest available data, sales of Maggi 2-minute noodle in India are highest among all other Nestle products worldwide. Analysts say Nestle, which faced one of the most challenging years in the FMCG industry in 2003, has realised that unless it continuously innovates in an endeavour to provide value-for-money to consumers, the company's bottomline may be impacted in the long run. TOMATO KETCHUP The ketchup market in India is estimated to be around Rs 220 crore, largely dominated by Nestlé’s Maggi that owns 47% of the market and the Kissan that owns 26%. Upto mid eighties Kissan was the number one brand in Tomato Ketchup and around that time the competition came from Maggi -- a Nestlé’s brand. With Maggi launching several varieties of Tomato Ketchup there was a growth in the market. With Kissan and Maggie fighting neck to neck other smaller but established brands like Dipy's from Herbertsons, Volfruit from Voltas, Noga of Nagpur Orange Federation and SunSip of Wimco gradually disappeared from the market. Delmonte now has joined hands with Paoma Industries, the manufacturers of Rasna Brands of soft drink concentrate and is expected to launch Tomato Ketchup shortly. The biggest global player in Tomato Ketchup Heinz is still waiting and watching. It was expected that they will launch Tomato Ketchup in Indian market soon. Some of the unknown local brands of course still existing only on price competition. The price competition has also kept some of the other categories of food products still alive. At a time when Kissan had become generic to tomato sauce, Maggi came in with its sauces range. Maggi was the upstad newcorner who came in with a loud aggressive national burst. It did not come in with one, but with a range of sauces in order to increase market share and expand the market by offering more usage occasions, bring consumers with different needs into the Maggi Sauces fold and weaning away users of different brands to Maggi. From a market share of 14% in 1985, Maggi Sauces now enjoys a share of about 50% of the market. MAGGI TOMATO KETCHUP Maggi Tomato Ketchup is primarily a taste enhancer, giving the food provider taste, aroma and also contains iodised salt. Nestle was seriously working on brand extension to leverage brand success in some potential product categories. The company finally decided to enter ketchup market with the brand

Maggi. Finally in 1985 when Maggi noodles had reached 4000 tonnes business, they ensured the establishment of the brand Maggi and launched their Maggi ketchup. Market leader Kissan was selling its ketchup in 500 gm. Nestle decided upon 400 gm bottle to give the consumer a ‘price- point’ advantage. The main launched its product all over India. The main focusing aspect of their advertisement was ‘what ketchup does to your food- tasty and more palatable. It was a very clever move, which paved way for subsequent variants such as 1. Tomato Chilli 2. Masala Chilli 3. Chilli Garlic PRODUCT LINE • Tomato Ketchup • Hot & Sweet • Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic) • Teekha Masala • Tomato Chatpat • Tomato Pudina MARKETING MIX Marketing decisions generally fall into the following four controllable categories: • Product • Price • Place (distribution) • Promotion The term "marketing mix" became popularized after Neil H. Borden published his 1964 article, The Concept of the Marketing Mix. Borden began using the term in his teaching in the late 1940's after James Culliton had described the marketing manager as a "mixer of ingredients". The ingredients in Borden's marketing mix included product planning, pricing, branding, distribution channels, personal selling, advertising, promotions, packaging, display, servicing, physical handling, and fact finding and analysis. E. Jerome McCarthy later grouped these ingredients into the four categories. These are the 4 P’s of Marketing Mix. These four P's are the parameters that the marketing manager can control, subject to the internal and external constraints of the marketing environment. The goal is to make decisions that center the four P's on the customers in the target market in order to create perceived value and generate a positive response. 4 P’s of MARKETING MIX Marketing decision variables are those variables under the firm's control that can affect the level of demand for the firm's products. They are distinguished from environmental and competitive action variables that are not totally and directly under the firm's control. It is a great way to help us focus on the elements of a good marketing plan that we can't control but must be aware of and anticipate such as: - new competitors, - new legislation, - change in consumer confidence, - change in consumer tastes; and The four marketing decision variables are: Price variables • Allowances and deals

• Distribution and retailer mark-ups • Discount structure Product variables • Quality • Models and sizes • Packaging • Brands • Service Promotion variables • Advertising • Sales promotion • Personal selling • Publicity Place variables • Channels of distribution • Outlet location • Sales territories • Warehousing system The 4 Ps of marketing classify the controllable elements of your marketing plan. Product, place [distribution] and promotion are all expenses; price brings in revenue. MAGGI KISSAN PRODUCT • Available in different variants: Maggi Ketchup Maggi Hot & Sweet Sauce, Maggi Masala Chilli Sauce, Maggi Chilli Garlic Sauce, Maggi Tamarind Sauce, Maggi Tomato Sauce (Without onion & garlic), Maggi Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic), tomato chatpat, Teekha masala, Tomato pudina. • The product is bright red in color. • The thickness is less as compared to Kissan. PRODUCT • It is available in different variants: Kissan Ketchup and Kissan Sauce (no onion no garlic), Kissan Tomchi. • The colour is dark red. • The thickness is more as compared to Maggi Ketchup. PROMOTION • They promote their product very effectively through television, • They have applied the strategy of brand extension. • They also sponsor various cookery shows to promote alternate usage of products. • They also use strategy of free product samples to promote it. • Celebrity endorsements. Eg. Javed Jafferi PROMOTION • Less promoted as compared to maggi. • No particular celebrity endorsement. • The utter confusion regarding the long-term strategy for Kissan brand was visible through the experiments that were conducted on this brand by Hll. • But with a brand which had a tremendous equity during the late nineties and early 2000, HUL had weird plans. One of the major casualties of MS Banga's Power brand strategy was Kissan. During the early 2000, the brand Kissan was rebranded as Kissan Annapurna. Kissan Annapurna was marketing not jams and squashes by Atta, salt and other staple foods. Later Annapurna and Kissan was splited into two separate brands , one concentrating on staple foods and other on processed foods. This migration strategy proved to be very costly for both Kissan and Annapurna brand. Kissan was synonymous with Jams and Squashes during its initial years. Kissan Ketchup was

a market leader in ketchup segment but these experiments and myopic strategies pushed the brand behind the focused and aggressive Maggi. • So all through the period 2001-2005, Kissan was in a sticky wicket. But now according to reports, the brand mandarins of HUL is now clear about Kissan as a brand for processed food like Jams , ketchups and like. That change is visible in the recent campaign of Kissan which takes a unique view of Ketchup. Taking the tagline " Aao banaye pakode behtar" translated to " Making Pakode taste better". In these series of ads, the brand plays a second fiddle to the main snack. The brand takes the positioning of a "Great Accompaniment " PLACE • The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all kirana stores, retail store etc. PLACE • The distribution network is well spread as it is easily available in all kirana stores, retail store etc. PRICE • Its Maggi Rich Tomatoes is priced at Rs 90 (1 kg bottle with 20% free offer) and Rs 26 (200 gm bottle). PRICE • Its Kissan Ketchup and Kissan Sauce (no onion no garlic) are priced at Rs 91 (1 kg bottle), Rs 49 (500 gm bottle) and Rs 60 (600 gm squeezy pack), while Kissan Tomchi is priced at Rs 53 (500 gm).

PRODUCT LEVELS: CUSTOMER VALUE HIERARCHY There are five segments in customer value hierarchy that is: 1. Core benefit 2. Basic product benefit 3. Expected product benefit 4. Augmented product benefit 5. Potential product benefit. Now if we classify these heads according to our Brand “Maggi” The “Core benefit” which Maggie provides is its instant recipe and a tag line which assures that it is “FAST TO COOK & GOOD TO EAT”. The “Basic product benefit” which our product provides to our target market is a good taste with proper nutrition levels and good health, as one of its punch line says “Taste Bhi Health Bhi”. The “Expected product benefit” which Maggi provides is a proper and a good package which is vacuum zed which ensures customers a good quality, fully packed seasoning tastemaker & affordable prices. In most of the underdeveloped and developing countries like India competition takes place in the “expected product benefit” as Augmented product benefit stage is still to come. PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION Product differentiation strategy means how a particular product is different from others on the basis of: 1. Form 2. Features

3. Performance quality 4. Convenience 5. Durability 6. Reliability 7. Style According to our product, the form shape, size, physical structure of Maggi is very attractive as it is easy to carry, comes in various packs and sizes according to customers convenience. For example “Maggi Pichkoo ketchup” packs which is a smaller quantity consumption variant. The various features of Maggi Tomato Ketchup are first of all its perfect taste according to the Indian touch & spices, its pocketabililty factor, packaging, easily transformation of recipe according to the different tastes of consumers, an ideal preparation recipe at the back of its pack & above all its competitive prices. As according to our survey report we found out the performance level of Maggi Tomato Ketchup was excellent there were various other brands offered to our target market, but Maggi prevailed as the winner out of them because of its various factors (taste, less consumption of time in preparation, prices, pack etc.) Quality is the main factor on which Maggi Tomato Ketchup emphasizes as it is Maggi’s main strength which provides Maggi an edge over its competitors. As all the products of Maggi are produced identical which fulfills its promise to its target market. Maggi products are durable as due to its preparation these products are easy to store, have a long shelf life and can be stored at any given temperatures which is tested and approved. Reliability is also one of Maggi’s strength, as one can always rely on a Maggie product for a particular taste which it guaranties that is no matter which pack you are buying you would be provided with the same taste, aroma & seasoning. It is an Indian customer’s psyche that “whatever looks good and feels good would be of good quality” so Maggi packs had been designed keeping in mind the same concept, its promotional schemes, color of the packages and the pictures depicted on the pack appeals to the customers. Maggi leveraged the brand equity very effectively. The product quality was good and the communication was excellent. The brand was positioned as a "Different" sauce with the baseline "It’s different". Brand Image: Young - Teenager, Ever changing, humorous, unpredictable and "whacky" Customers were intrigued as to what is different about the brand and was curious to try the sauce. The ads featuring Javed and Pankaj kapoor was superb and funny. It was created by JWT. The new campaigns are handled by Publicis and the baseline has been changed to "Enjoy the Difference". In this case even though the new baseline "Enjoy the Difference" was not very different from the old one. We strongly feel that the brand managers should take the ownership of the brand and the way it is communicated. If it is left to agency alone, every time the agency changes, the communication changes. These additions made a point of difference against competitor’s Tomato Ketchup. Their main positioning message is ‘Enjoy the difference’. With the successful extension of brand and right positioning, Nestle emerged as market leader in ketchup segment by 1999. The Consumer Magazine has published its in-house laboratory test findings on 15 brands of

tomato sauce and ketchup from across the country and 2 unbranded samples from Ahmedabad. Overall, Maggi Ketchup (79) scored the highest among the national brands followed by Kissan Sauce (78) and Heinz Ketchup (78). INNOVATION PROCESS ADOPTED BY MAGGI TO COMPETE THE “PRICE WAR”….. – the innovation process of maggi……. OUTCOME CONSTRAINTS Ingredients Cost Formulations Manufacturer conservatism Processes Quality Additives Safety Packaging Consumer expectations Marketing Consumer conservatism Distribution Sociological, Political Patent Legal …… MEANS Innovation DRIVING FORCES Recruiting Strategy Training Quality R&D Know-how Technology watch SOURCES Profit Technology transfer Market environment Information Know-how Fashions, trends … Knowledge … Creativity Competition Academic Inventors Suppliers RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The present study constitutes the comparison of the 4 Ps of the Maggi of Nestle India Ltd. and Kissan of Hindustan Unilever Ltd. This will be done from the secondary data collected from the websites and the food consultants. We have established some hypothesis and some inferences on the basis of the primary data collected. The steps involved in the research are: 1. SURVEY METHODS Customer survey for primary data: We asked the customers to rank the various attributes on a scale of very important, important and not very important. To find-out the brand perception of various brands, paired comparison between them is used.

2. QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN In designing the questionnaire we paid particular attention to the content and wording of the questions. There were some questions which could be easily framed. The questionnaire was meticulously prepared by identifying the various variables i.e product, price, place, promotion. The same scale of yes/no and very important, moderately important and least important was used to make the respondents comfortable.

SAMPLE COPY OF THE QUESTONNAIRE OBJECTIVE:- To study the brand preference of Maggi Tomato Ketchup. 1. Name: ……………………………………………………………………………………… ….. 2. Occupation: …………………………………………………………………………………. 3. Family Monthly Income: Below 25000 25000-50000 50000-1 Lac 1 Lac and above 4. Location: …………………………………………………………………………………… …. 5. Age: 15-25 25-35 35-45 45 and above 6. Family type: Joint Nuclear 7. Do you consume tomato ketchup? Yes No 8. Which brand you prefer the most? Maggi Kissan Heinz Smith & Jones Tops Cremica Other ....…………………………………………………………………………………. 9. Have you ever used Maggi Tomato Ketchup? Yes No 10. If no , it is because : Lack of awareness Lack of availability You find it expensive You don’t like the product Others ……………………………………………………………………………………. 11. You came to know about Maggi Tomato Ketchup from : Newspaper advertisements Radio T.V. advertisements Word of mouth

Point of sale Other source…………………………………………………………………………….. 12. Do you remember any of the T.V. advertisements of Maggi Tomato Ketchup? Yes No 13. Does celebrity endorsement prompt you to purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup? Yes No 14. Have you tried new variants of Maggi Tomato Ketchup after viewing the advertisements? Yes No 15. What is the level of discounts /offers available with Maggi Tomato Ketchup? High Medium Low 16. Which of the offers available influence you the most to purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup? Discounts offer Buy one get one Combo packs Other ……………………………………………………………………………………… 17. Is Maggi Tomato Ketchup easily available to you? Yes No 18. From where do you usually purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup? Nearby store Retail store Whole seller 19. Which flavor of Maggi Sauces you like the most? Tomato Ketchup Hot & Sweet Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic) Teekha Masala Tomato Chatpat Tomato Pudina 20. What is the size of Tomato Ketchup you usually purchase? Pichkoo Pack 200 g 600 g 1kg 21. How frequently you purchase Maggi Tomato Ketchup? Every week Every forth night Every month Occasionally 22. Tick the level of importance according to your preference: Attribute Very important Moderately important Least important Taste



23. Any further suggestions: ……………………………………………..…………………… …………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3. SAMPLING DESIGN The sampling frame is defined in terms of who the respondents are can answer the questions that need to be addressed. First we defined our target population as the people who are involved in the purchase of house hold items. Then we used random sampling in conducting the survey. Our sample mainly had females from different age groups. 4. LOCATION FOR THE SURVEY Our survey is limited to the Delhi NCR region. Responses were collected form Noida, Greater Noida, South Delhi, Faridabad. 5. SAMPLE SIZE While planning the survey we estimated the sample size of 150 respondents. We have surveyed 130 people who lie within our target population. The survey consists of more number of females (more than 60% of the total sample size). Most of the respondents are from the middle and upper middle class. 6. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The data collected via survey was entered into the excel sheet. The results were tabulated and analyzed. According to the analysis relevant inferences has been made related to each question. Based on the question no. 22 of the questionnaire, a hypothesis was analyzed. The hypothesis is that the color and the thickness of tomato ketchup are equally important to the respondents of the survey conducted. Using sign test this null hypothesis has been rejected and the alternate hypothesis has been accepted.


INFERENCE: This graph reveals that T.V. Advertisements are the major source of information regarding Maggi Tomato Ketchup and so we can also infer that they have been successful in their promotion strategies involving electronic media.


INFERENCE: This graph facilitates us in realising that majority of the people are aware of the brand Maggi as they remember TV ads so it can be inferred that Maggi’s promotional team has far been successful in positioning its Tomato Ketchup in the mind of the people.



INFERENCE: This graph infers that Celebrity Endorsements does not influence the buying decision of majority consumers. It also infers that reference group does not make any impact on consumer mind when we talk about Maggi Tomato Ketchup.



INFERENCE: This pie-chart reveals that Maggi Tomato Ketchup is positioned in the mind of the consumer and also its various discount offers to major extent.



INFERENCE: This graph highlights the impact of organized retail on unorganized sector, unorganized still being the dominant, as around 38% of consumer make purchases of Tomato Ketchup from retail store.


SIZE NO OF RESPONDENTS PICHKOO 6 200g 39 600g 28 1Kg 59

INFERENCE: This graph figures out that the larger sized bottle of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is largely demanded even in the presence of smaller sized bottles and even the new Pichkoo.


INFERENCE: This graph depicts that the frequency of buying every month of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is maximum.

8. MOST LIKED FLAVOUR FLAVOURS NO OF RESPONDENTS Tomato Ketchup 67 Hot & Sweet 46 Tomato Ketchup (With onion & garlic) 9 THEEKHA MASALA 5 Tomato Chatpat 10 Tomato Pudina 7

INFERENCE: This graph shows that the original flavour of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is still the leader in terms of popularity and Hot & Sweet is slowly catching up with it. Its new variants and flavour have also been noticed and have started making in-roads for themselves.



INFERENCE: This graph infers that “Buy One Get One Free” offer of Maggi Tomato Ketchup is the first choice among the consumers. This shows that consumers are price sensitive too and they prefer buying when there are offers running around.



INFERENCE: This graph depicts our analysis of the importance of the various product attributes like taste, color and thickness in the eye of people. We can very well observe in the graph that Taste, undoubtedly, is the most important attribute that people prefer more over any other while selecting a brand. Moderate importance is given color attribute and thickness also derives its importance somewhere between moderate to very.

HYPOTHESIS TESTING OBJECTIVE: to find what is more important between color and thickness of tomato ketchup among the respondents. METHOD: 1. USING THE SIGN TEST FOR DATA ANLYSIS: Table for sign test S. NO. RESPONDENTS VIEW FOR COLOR RESPONDENTS VIEW FOR THICKNESS SIGN 1211 2211 3321 4312 5211 6211 7211 8211 9 1 3 -2 10 2 1 1 11 2 1 1 12 2 1 1 13 2 1 1 14 3 2 1 15 2 1 1 16 2 1 1 17 2 1 1 18 3 1 2 19 2 1 1 20 3 2 1 21 3 1 2 22 1 2 -1 23 1 2 -1 24 2 1 1 25 2 1 1 26 1 2 -1 27 3 1 2 28 1 2 -1 29 2 3 -1 30 3 1 2

31 2 1 1 32 2 1 1 33 2 1 1 34 2 1 1 35 2 1 1 36 2 1 1 37 3 2 1 38 1 2 -1 39 2 1 1 40 2 3 -1 41 3 2 1 42 2 1 1 43 3 2 1 44 3 2 1 45 3 2 1 46 3 2 1 47 2 3 -1 48 2 3 -1 49 2 1 1 50 3 1 2 51 1 2 -1 52 2 1 1 53 3 2 1 54 3 1 2 2. NO OF POSITIVE SIGN= 43 NO OF NEGATIVE SIGN=11 TOTAL SAMPLE SIZE=54 (In this sample size we have ignored the respondents who have given the equal importance to color and taste for tomato ketchup) 3. NULL HYPOTHESIS,H(0): P=0.5 (There is no difference between the importance level of color and thickness for tomato ketchup) 4. ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS,H(1): P<0.5 (The level of importance of color is less than thickness for tomato ketchup)

5. APPLYING SIGN TEST: So, pH(0)= 0.5

qH(0)= 0.5 n= 54 p= 0.79 q= 0.21 ��, Standard Error= 0.068 6. Z (test) = 4.264 7. Significance level, α = 0.05 Z (critical) = 1.96 INTERPRETING THE RESULTS: Since the Z (test) is greater than Z(critical), we reject the null hypothesis that the importance of color and taste for tomato ketchup is same. Therefore, we accept the alternate hypothesis that is the importance of color is less than thickness among the respondents for tomato ketchup. The data collected from the survey clearly shows that taste is the most important factor while purchasing the tomato ketchup. The above analysis tells that thickness of tomato ketchup is the second most important attribute for the respondents after taste. Maggi is the leader in the ketchup industry and known for its better taste and varieties. Maggi should work towards the thickness of its tomato ketchup.

RECOMMENDATIONS PRODUCT • The ketchup is thinner as compared to Kissan. According to our inference thickness is one important criteria which affects buying behaviour. Hence company should work on the thickness of the ketchup. • Company should work on taste also. According to the data collected people prefer the taste of Kissan. • They should maintain quality of the product. PLACE • Most of the people buy Maggi Ketchup from local kirana stores. But organized sector is booming and according to our survey 38% people buy Maggi Ketchup from Retail Stores. Hence they should increase the visibility of the product in Retail Stores and hence effective distribution network. PROMOTION

• According to the data collected it is recorded that the level of discounts offered is low. Hence company should try to provide more discounts on the product. ‘Buy One Get One Free’ is the most preferred promotional offer. • The frequency of TV advertisements has decreased. They should try to come out with more innovative advertisement to catch the attention of the customers. • They should promote there new product ‘PICHKOO’ as people are less aware of this new size. It could increase the market share tremendously as it is very convenient to carry. PRICE • It should be more competitively priced. Customers perceive it to be highly priced.

LIMITATIONS 1. SAMPLING ERROR: The sample of our survey is confined to the respondents from the middle class and the upper middle class. The sample size of 130 is not the true representative of our sampling frame and result in skewed responses. The locations under taken for the survey is also a constrain because the result of the survey is limited to some regions and cannot be used for further analysis and implementation. 2. RESPONSE ERRORS: These errors arise when the respondents give inaccurate or incomplete answers. A major problem is faced in the survey involved the comparative ratings of various attributes for tomato ketchup. Many of the respondents were not very willing to mark their income group. 3. CLOSED ENDED QUESTIONS: All the questions in the questionnaire were closed-ended to avoid any confusion from the respondents end. But a drawback of this approach is that there was some biasness in capturing the responses of the respondents. The reasons for such inaccuracy could be because of unfamiliarity, boredom, faulty recall and the question format. 4. RECORDING ERROR: This type of error arise dues to errors in hearing, interpreting, and recording the answers given by the respondents. For example, a respondent indicates a moderate response for the attributes of the tomato ketchup, but the interviewer misinterprets that to a positive response. 5. DATA ANALYSIS ERROR: These errors occur while raw data from questionnaire are transformed into research findings.

For example, if the outliers are not filtered from the data during the statistical procedure, result in incorrect interpretation and findings.

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